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HANDBOOK OF HYDRAULICS
the position of the jump. Trial values of D2 should be computed for three sections a, b, and c, which will locate three points a', b', and c' to which the water must jump at the respective sections. One of the points should be on the opposite side of the jump from the other two, and, preferably, the middle point should be near the jump. The intersection of the line a'b'c' with the higher water-surface profile gives the position of the jump. See Fig. 8.23d for another example of nonuniform flow occurring both before and after the jump. When several determinations of depth after jump in a channel are required for the same discharge, as in the preceding case, it may be less laborious to obtain the values from a graph of the momentumpressure diagram in Fig. 8.12 than from a solution of Eq. (8.85). For rectangular channels, or for channels that are wide in comparison with the depth, Table 8.12 gives depths after the jump, and for trapezoidal channels approximate values can be taken from Table 8.11.
Minor Losses The losses caused by rapid local changes in magnitude or direction of velocity are called minor losses. (For minor losses in pipes, see Sec. 6.) Such losses would occur at bends, contractions, enlargements, or obstructions in channels. Channel Bends. When a fluid flows around a bend, the centrifugal force tends to develop a water surface which is higher at the outside of the channel. If the velocity in the channel were everywhere equal to the average velocity V, the amount that the water surface would rise at the outside wall and the amount that it would fall at the inner wall would be given approximately for subcritical flow by V2b D = -T— 2grc (8.107)
where V is the average velocity, b the width of the channel, and rc the radius of curvature of the centerline. This equation is derived by noting that the water surface will be perpendicular to the resultant of the radial and gravitational forces on a particle of fluid. However, because the radial force is proportional to the square of the velocity, this force will be greatest on the high-velocity water near the center of the channel, thus developing crosscurrents, eddies, and spiral motion. Also, there may be a tendency toward separation along the inner wall. Furthermore, for supercritical flow, a standing-wave pattern
hb = Kb ^ (8. and the Reynolds number. with rjb = 1. The loss increases as 6 is increased from 45 to 90°.5 m and a width of 28 cm.0. the ratio of radius of curvature to width rjb. Also shown are experimental values of Kb for various values of R.0 1.02 0.5 1.108) Shukry6 reported test results in which the variables were the angle 6 through which the water was turned.500 rjb 2.0 Kb 0.0 R 104 104 104 Kb 0. When 0 <t 45°. (It should be noted that this does not agree with the results of Yen and Howe reported previously.109) where r is the hydraulic radius.500.25 •From Shukry. the ratio of depth to width D/b. losses were found to be negligible.47 complicates the flow pattern.12 0. Information on losses at bends in rectangular channels has been presented by various investigators. Bend Loss Coefficients* R = 31. When rjb 5 3. 9.OPEN CHANNELS WITH NONUNIFORM FLOW 8. He used the Reynolds number in the following form: R = — V rV (8.35 X 104 X Tests on large canals7 showed that losses due to bends could be estimated from the following equation in which (2A°) is the summation of deflection angles in the reach. .0.38 for a 90° bend having a radius of curvature of 1. and for values of 6 ranging from 90 to 180° the loss is about constant.25 0. Yen and Howe5 reported that Kb in the following expression was 0.27 0. values of Kb are given in the following tabulation for R = 31.07 0.6 3 5 7 1 X X rjb = 1. Supercritical flow in bends is discussed in Sec. the loss is negligible.) For values of rjb < 3.5 2. These tests indicate that Kb is affected very little by D/b except when rjb is very small.59 0.
Contractions and Enlargements. Bureau of Reclamation as follows (transitions with supercritical flow are discussed in Sec.05 0. hc = KA-1 (VI .2g 2g Values of Kc and Ke are given in the following table: Form of transition Sudden change in area. The energy losses for contractions have been expressed by Hinds8 in terms of the difference in kinetic energy at the two ends.110) and for enlargements.S.10 .00K2A0) Yl — 2g In sinuous natural rivers. Contracting and enlarging sections are used at channel entrances or to form transitions between channels of different size.5 0.111) Ke 1. (8. Hinds has summarized the art of designing transitions for subcritical flow as practiced by the U. 2.10 0.20 Additional information on entrance losses is given in Sec. A "well-designed" transition is one in which all plane surfaces are connected by tangent curves and a straight line connecting flow lines at the two ends does not make an angle greater than 121/2° with the axis of the channel.8. 4. The theoretical recovery at an outlet structure is reduced by frictional and outlet losses. .- V*\ 2g 1 ) (8.48 HANDBOOK OF HYDRAULICS hb = 0. 9): 1. Vi Vï\ he = KA-1 .-1) . sharp corners "Well designed": Best Design value Kc 0. the bend losses are included in the friction losses.0 0. Sufficient fall must be allowed at all inlet structures to accelerate the flow and to overcome frictional and entrance losses.
8. The disturbances often observed in long. at part capacity. A value of 0. (8. must be carefully designed to conform to a smooth theoretical water surface. but erosion below the structure may be slightly increased. 12. Ke [Eq. Water passing through a constriction in an open channel at subcritical velocity decreases in depth.49 3.1 is safe for use in design. 7. where velocities are high. unless the conduit before the structure is curved. Simple designs may be prepared by adapting the details of previous designs known to be satisfactory. Losses at Obstructions. Kc [Eq. are not caused by entrained air but by the hydraulic jump in the pipe. 4. if proper allowance is made for loss of head.3.2. The Bernoulli equation. The depth downstream from the constriction must be the uniform flow depth or normal depth for this discharge because no other water-surface profile can exist (see Equations of Gradually Varied Flow). 6. is z« + Du + au P = zd + Dd + ad + ht (8. No definite data as to the best form of water-surface profile. uncontrolled siphons.110)] for a well-designed inlet is likely to be less than 0. At siphon outlets a small factor of safety may be obtained and erosion avoided by setting the transition for more than its assumed recovering capacity.05. best form of structure. At open-channel outlets a small factor of safety may be obtained by setting the transition for less than its maximum recovering capacity.111)] for a well-designed outlet is likely to be less than 0. Special care is required where critical depth is approached or where hydraulic jump is involved.112) . written from a point just upstream from the obstruction to a point just downstream. or most efficient length of transition are available. Sharp angles must be avoided. Horizontal curvature in the conduit before an outlet appears to reduce its efficiency and to produce objectionable cutting velocities in the canal beyond.OPEN CHANNELS WITH NONUNIFORM FLOW 8. 9. 8. 11. Important structures.2 is safe for use in design. A value of 0. (8. as shown in Fig. 10. 5.
of a friction loss. or "streamlining. This is illustrated by the coefficients for losses in the previous subsection. AD = (zu+ Du) .9 The results are presented in a series of curves which are useful in designing bridge openings. using Fig. The procedure for expressing the losses is based on the equation (8.(zd + Dd) = ad + h.114) where h¡ is the total loss. 8.112) are defined in Fig. 8.8. Flow through bridge openings has been investigated by means of model studies." the downstream end. Energy losses at piers can be reduced to a minimum by rounding the upstream corners and tapering.113) The losses at obstructions in open channels consist of the loss due to a constriction and an enlargement and.16 as a reference.112). if the obstruction has considerable length in the direction of flow. Usually the principal loss is that due to the enlargement at the downstream end of the obstruction because losses are invariably larger when velocities are decreased than when flow is speeded up. (8.16.50 HANDBOOK OF HYDRAULICS Datum FIGURE 8. The amount of backwater caused by the obstruction D can then be obtained from Eq. and Vn the average . The losses could be estimated by treating them as combinations of constriction and enlargements and using the coefficients given in the previous subsection. the coefficients for enlargements being twice those for contractions under similar conditions. (8. (8. The symbols used in Eq. Kb the loss coefficient.16 Flow past obstructions.
For wing walls having angles other than 90°. The curve shown is for an embankment slope of 1. Another includes the additional losses caused by obstruc- FIGURE 8. 8. A U. horizontal to vertical. 8. The value of M is obtained by dividing the portion of discharge that would normally flow through the bridge opening if no piers were present by the total discharge. One curve applies to abutments with vertical walls and 90° corners.17c.5:1. Figure 8. as well as to abutments with sloped embankments on the upstream and downstream sides held in place at the ends by wing walls making an angle of 90° with the piers. as illustrated in Fig. Values of Kb are related to the bridge-opening ratio M. 8. about 12 percent for a wing-wall angle of 30° and approximately 30 percent for angles of 45 and 60°.17 shows two curves relating K b to M. the values are 4 to 9 percent lower than those shown by the curve. Values of Kb for an embankment slope of 2:1 are 5 to 10 percent larger than those shown. the reduction being.17d. The second curve applies to piers. . referred to as spill-through abutments. One such coefficient takes care of the increase in loss which occurs when the bridge opening is not in the center of the river.OPEN CHANNELS WITH NONUNIFORM FLOW 8. the values of Kb are smaller than those shown in the graph.S.17 Losses at bridge piers. Bureau of Public Roads publication9 also provided coefficients AK to be added to Kb to take care of minor effects on the losses at the bridge opening.176. on the average. and for a 1:1 slope. as shown in Fig. as illustrated in Fig.51 velocity that would occur in the bridge opening if the entire discharge were to pass through the bridge opening at the normal depth in the river for this discharge. which have the sloped embankment extending around the ends of the piers.
—r. 8. The force curves (QV/g + ay) [see Eq. the elevation at the crest C being such that the minimum energy gradient is tangent to the energy gradient of the stream.par sac FIGURE 8. For this condition a jump is impossible. Transition through Critical Depth without Jump If water flowing at less than critical depth enters a channel having less than critical slope.18. In Fig. (8. is illustrated in Fig. for the specific data indicated. If the crest C is lower than that indicated in the figure.86a)] for the two stages of flow are tangent to each other.'û I - •Water surface R e a t a n g u l a r c r o s s » a c t i o n 4m wlda D l s c h s r g a 4.18 lower-stage flow is indicated up to section C.18 Transition through critical depth to higher stage without jump.8. 8. change to a higher stage will normally occur in a jump (see Hydraulic Jump) unless special means are provided for making velocity changes gradually A transition designed to prevent a jump. The raised bottom has a smooth surface. energy gradient \ 1 —] ^[Energy gradient I | r»i«Vr-l--. the curves will intersect to the right of C at the section Min. where critical depth occurs and then follows higher-stage flow. On both sides of C the other stages which could be computed are not shown. A similar design could be prepared for channels having other sectional forms.52 HANDBOOK OF HYDRAULICS tions in the opening.6m. A third one introduces the effect of having the bridge cross the river at an angle differing from 90°. .
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