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Surface Hydrologic Modeling of Suleja Local Government; A G.I.S Approach.


ODUBORE OLUWASEUN ADETOLA 09492171 A Research Proposal


Supervisor: Dr Ejaro

October 4th, 2010.



1.1 Background of the study Water is one of our most needed natural resources, without water there would be no life on earth. Water at the land surface is a vital resource, both for human needs and for natural ecosystems. Need for water are multi purpose, hence adequate information for water resources available for any given area is of great importance. Societys growing water resource needs include hazard mitigation (floods, droughts, and landslides), agriculture and food production, human health, municipal and industrial supply, among others in our changing global environment. The supply of water available for our use is limited by nature. Although there is plenty of water on earth, having the right quality at needed places has been a challenge that has confronted mankind time immemorial. Desertification and drought are problems of global dimension that affect more than 900million people in 100 countries. Irrigation already accounts for more than 70% of freshwater withdrawn from lakes, rivers, and groundwater aquifers, and perhaps 80% of the additional food supplies required to feed the worlds population in the next 30 years will depend on irrigation. Today, about one-third of worlds population live in countries that are experiencing moderate to high water stress, that is, renewable freshwater availability is below 1700 cubic meters per person. By 2005, projections suggest that one-fifth of the global population will not have access to safe drinking water, and more than one-half will lack adequate sanitation (UN-SWI 1997). Despite the emergence of advanced technology both developed and developing countries will probably feel the effects of limited freshwater resources in the near future (NRC 1996). Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. This cycle is the hydrologic cycle. Hydrological models are used as a management tool to provide a direction to utilize natural water resources effectively and beneficially (Grace et al 2005). Hydrological tools available to address water resource problems are largely a reflection of technological advances in environmental monitoring and computation. Satellite remote sensing provides, for the first time, the potential for global coverage of critical hydrological data (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, and snow water content). Such global data are logistically and economically impossible to obtain through traditional in situ measurement (Alan et al 1999). GIS provides numerous tools to support hydrologic modeling. Hydrological modeling and analysis aids the delineation of drainage basins and stream networks. The ability to model environmental scenarios provides a means to optimize the use of the environment by sustaining 2

its utility without detrimental consequences while preserving its aesthetic qualities. Some of the greatest interest in the use of GIS for environmental problem solving is to apply the technology to translate the results of models into environmental policy. Specifically, GIS-based models provide diagnostic and predictive outputs that can be combined with socioeconomic data for assessing local, regional, and global environmental risk; or natural resource management issues (Steyaert, 1993). Alan et al (1999) posited that land surface hydrology is a discipline through which many of the emerging advances in GIS, monitoring, computation, and telecommunications may be brought to bear on food supply, health, security, and development issues facing Earths growing population. Nigeria stretches from the tropical humid climate to the Sahel savannah. It is blessed with numerous rivers as well as coastal and inland sedimentary structures that store copious groundwater resources. According to the recent document on the State of the Environment Report, the total surface water resources potential for Nigeria is estimated to be 267.3 billion cubic metres while the groundwater potential is put at 51.9 billion cubic metres, giving a total of 319.2 billion cubic metres. In addition, the number of relatively large dams completed or under construction in Nigeria is put at about 160 with a total active storage of 30.7 billion cubic metres 1.1 Statement of the problem

Hydrological modeling and analysis aids the delineation of drainage basins and stream networks. The need to have a surface hydrologic model of Suleja local government area to support diverse applications both hydro (e.g. dam design and construction, floods management, erosion etc) and non hydro related becomes imperative due to the strategic position of the Local Government among existing local government councils in Niger state; the council sharing proximity with the Federal Capital Territory (Figure 3) and also being one of the largest urban centre within the state. (Fact Sheet 2007). This research work has identified the following issues: Monitoring and managing natural disaster such as flooding and erosion has been made impossible as there is no model to predict water direction, water flow, flow accumulation and other forecasting tools and or characteristics. Irrigation and agricultural planning and practices is impaired as there is no model to show leaching prone areas within the area council Today, environmental hazards and disasters are becoming more prevalent, rapid increase in population, rapid urbanization and other human related activities has put greater stress on the 3

environment. While other methods have been used to study surface hydrological modeling, the use of GIS is very uncommon especially in developing countries like Nigeria hence this study. To this end, the study is intended to contribute to the advancement of agricultural practices, 1.2 Aim & Objectives

The set aim is to use Geo-spatial Information System to create the hydrologic model of the terrain and surface waters of Suleja Local Government Area to aid in the planning of the entire Local Government in terms of agricultural, physical, socioeconomic and urban developments in general. The specific objectives of this study are: To model the terrain of Suleja Local Government Area To model the surface water within Suleja Local Government Area Produce an emergency response / early warning model for hydro related eventualities in Suleja Local Government Area council. 1.3 Scope of the study

This work is intended to demonstrate the enormous benefit offered by the Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and the use of GIS in modeling the natural environment of Suleja Local Government Area council. 1.4 Limitations

This work is limited to the use of the deterministic model to represent the physical processes involved in the hydrological cycle of surface water within the study area. The surface water is limited to rivers, water bodies and other recognized stream identified by tracing their network distribution within the study area. 1.6 Significance of the study

1.6 1.6.1

Study Area Location 701030E, 901615N 701330E ,

The proposed area of study is the area defined as Suleja Local Government Area council bounded by the geographical coordinates 901815N 9080N 701415E and 90645N 701330E (Figure 1). It shares boundary with, Gurara and Tafa Local Government Area Councils on the north west and north east respectively (figure 2) with Gwagwalada and Abuja Municipal Area Councils sharing boundaries in the south west and south east respectively from neighbouring Federal Capital Territory (figure 3). 1.6.2 Climate

The climate of the study area just like most climate in the tropics have a numbers of climatic elements in common, most especially the wet and dry seasons characteristics. It experiences two seasons, the wet and dry seasons. The average annual rainfall is about 1,400mm. The duration of the rainy season is approximately 180 days. Mean average temperature hovers around 32F, particularly in March and June. December and January have the mean lowest temperatures due to the influence of the tropical continental air mass which blows from the north. Dry season commences in October (Fact Sheet 2007). 1.6.3 Population

The local government has a population of 216,578 in the year 2006 (NPC 2007). 1.6.4 Relief

The study area is characterized by gently undulating plain backed by higher and more dissected plains averaging between 100 and 500 metres high and frequently interrupted by steep-sided rocky domes or inselbergs by some prominent ridges and especially just to the east of the Niger River by scrap lands (Agboola et al 1983). Prominent among these undulating plains is the zuma rock with its characteristic attraction to tourists from all walks of life even gaining prominence with its picture adorning the one hundred naira note, a legal tender in the country. 1.6.5 Hydrology



The two main factors affecting the soils of Nigeria are geology and climate. Geology is important because the basement complex rocks carry better soils than do the sandstone sedimentaries. Climate is also important because of the leaching effect of the heavy rain in the south (Agboola et al 1983). The study area lies within the mid belt region of the country with its soil characterized by the lateritic soil of the savannah areas where there is a marked dry season. Soils of this region are rich in iron compounds.



Water is one of our most needed natural resources, without water there would be no life on earth. The supply of water available for our use is limited by nature. Although there is plenty of water on earth, having the right quality at needed places has been a challenge that has confronted mankind time immemorial. Need for water are multi purpose, hence adequate information for water resources available for any given area is of great importance. Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea this cycle is the hydrologic cycle. Hydrological models are used as a management tool to provide a direction to utilize natural water resources effectively and beneficially (Grace et al 2005). Many hydrological models have been developed to simulate and help us to understand hydrologic processes. According to Moor et al. (1991), the period from about 1960 to 1975 was the era of hydrologic modelling, in which mathematical descriptions of fluvial processes were developed and incorporated into hydrological models. Most of these models were concerned with predicting water quantities (e.g., runoff volumes and discharge) at a catchment or subcatchment outlet. These models were described as lumped parameter models, in which little or no consideration for spatially variable processes and catchments characteristics was involved. The emphasis of hydrologic modeling changed during 1975-1985. The growing concern with the environment, including management of pollution, resulted in the development of what have been commonly known as transport models. These models, using the hydrological models developed in the 1960s as the flow component, were perceived as the best way to predict water pollution. Just like their counterparts, transport models also poorly account for the effects of space and topography on catchment hydrology. Since mid-1980s, however, there has been an increasing recognition of the need to predict spatially variable hydrological processes at a fine resolution. This has led to the era of spatial modeling in hydrology in which Digital Elevation and Terrain models (DEMs & DTMs) are used to provide the spatial component of the analysis with remote sensing data being used to characterize catchment (e.g., vegetation cover) and are now considered as crucial data input to the new generation of hydrological and water quality models. 2.1 Background and related work

Hydrological modeling and analysis aids the delineation of drainage basins and stream networks. The resulting stream networks can then be used in various applications, such as studies of stream flow, prediction of flooding, and modeling of chemical transportation and deposition of 7

pollutants in surface waterways. Traditionally, watershed delineation was mainly conducted by the manual delineation method. With the advent of geographic information systems (GIS), DEMs have been used to delineate drainage networks and watershed boundaries, to calculate slope characteristics, to enhance distributed hydrologic models and to produce flow paths of surface runoff (Saraf et al., 2004). Recent studies have demonstrated that the accuracy of parameters extracted from DEMs is comparable to those obtained by manual methods while the processing time is much less. These parameters include the basin size, basin slope, main channel length, and stream length (Islam, 2004). The current trends in using DEMs and GIS to perform hydrological analyses goes beyond preparing of hydrological inputs and focus on the development of GIS based distributed rainfallrunoff modeling, in which one attempts to establish a linkage between GIS and hydrological models. Jain et al. (2004 and 2005) developed and tested a DEM-based overland flow routing model for computation of surface runoff from isolated rainstorm events using the diffusion wave approximation. Spatially distributed information for model inputs, such as topography, soil, land use, etc. for each of the discretized cells of the catchment was provided through a GIS. The catchment DEM was utilized to derive the flow direction and the computational sequencing for flow routing for each of the discretized cells of the catchment represented as a proper hydrologic cascading system. The model produced in spatial and temporal domain; the flow discharge, depth, and velocity due to isolated rainfall events on a catchment. The results of model application indicated that the model satisfactorily predicted the runoff hydrograph. Ifatimehin et al (2008) applied techniques of remote sensing and GIS to map out Fadama favourable areas in Gwagwalada town. The study unravelled the potential of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques in the struggle towards achieving sustainable environmental development and food security. The extent of the area useful for Fadama farming and the various land uses within the study area were also identified. Various crops that be grown were also stated to include Rice, Maize, Okra, Pepper, Water Leaf, Pumpkin, Sugar Cane, Greens, Spinach, Vegetables such Tomatoes and Ayoyo (Ewedu). This research is a step further to create a geo-spatial based model of the entire Local Government aimed at supporting diverse applications not limited to Fadama farming in particular but hydro (e.g. dam design and construction, floods management, erosion etc) and non hydro related issues in general. 8


Hydrologic modelling

Hydrologic models are simplified, conceptual representations of a part of the hydrologic cycle. They are primarily used for hydrologic prediction and for understanding hydrologic processes. Figure 1 below shows a sample catchment hydrology and river flow model.

Figure 1 Catchment hydrology and river flow model (Bonan 2002)

Two major types of hydrologic models can be distinguished:

Stochastic Models (based on data). These models use mathematical and statistical concepts to link a certain input (for instance rainfall) to the model output (for instance runoff). Commonly used techniques are regression, transfer functions, and system identification. The simplest of these models may be linear models, but it is common to deploy non-linear components to represent some general aspects of a catchment's response without going deeply into the real physical processes involved. An example of such an aspect is the well-known behaviour that a catchment will respond much more quickly and strongly when it is already wet than when it is dry.

Deterministic Models (based on process descriptions). These models try to represent the physical processes observed in the real world. Typically, such models contain representations of surface runoff, subsurface flow, evapotranspiration, and channel flow. Deterministic hydrology models can be subdivided into single-event models and continuous simulation models.

Recent research in hydrologic modeling tries to have a more global approach to the understanding of the behaviour of hydrologic systems to make better predictions and to face the major challenges in water resources management. 2.3 Hydrologic modeling and GIS

Large area water resources development and management require an understanding of basic hydrologic processes and simulation capabilities at the river basin scale. Current concerns that are motivating the development of large area hydrologic modeling include climate change, management of water supplies in arid regions, large scale flooding, and off site impacts of land management. Recent advances in computer hardware and software including increased speed and storage, advanced software debugging tools, and GIS/spatial analysis software have allowed large area simulation to become feasible (Arnold et al 1998). GIS provides numerous tools to support hydrologic modeling. They can be broadly classified as data management (manipulation, preparation, extraction, etc.), visualization, and interface development tools. These tools can be used in two-ways, that is, GIS can provide its services to hydrologic models, but also, hydrologic models can provide their services to GIS. 10

Hydrologic models try to simulate the watershed behaviour by solving the equations that govern the physical processes occurring within the watershed. Therefore hydrologic models are usually used to simulate the watershed response for a given input. The hydrologic models take time series data and produce another time series as output. For example, time series of rainfall data is used in rainfall runoff models to predict the discharge at the watershed outlet. Many GIS capabilities can be used at different stages of development of a hydrologic application. These capabilities can be broadly classified as: Data management - In this role, GIS is used for basic spatial data management tasks (data storage, manipulation, preparation, extraction, etc.) and spatial data processing (overlays, buffering, etc.). Parameter Extraction - Obtaining characteristic properties of catchments and river reaches for hydrologic modeling. Visualization - GIS graphical capabilities are used to display the data either before the hydrologic analysis is performed to verify the basic information, or after the analysis to evaluate the results(Dean et al, 1995). For example, flood plain mapping shows the extent of area damaged by floods and is very easy with GIS to visualize. Surface Modeling - This involves delineation of watersheds and channel shape representation. Interface Development - Hydrologic models often have antiquated user interfaces that can be replaced by user friendly interfaces developed using GIS tools. The ability to model environmental scenarios provides a means to optimize the use of the environment by sustaining its utility without detrimental consequences while preserving its aesthetic qualities. Some of the greatest interest in the use of GIS for environmental problem solving is to apply the technology to translate the results of models into environmental policy. Specifically, GIS-based models provide diagnostic and predictive outputs that can be combined with socioeconomic data for assessing local, regional, and global environmental risk; or natural resource management issues (Steyaert, 1993). 2.4 Hydrologic Measurement

Measurement is fundamental for assessing water resources and understanding the processes involved in the hydrologic cycle. Hydrological measurements are essential for the interpretation of water quality data and for water resource management. Variations in hydrological conditions 11

have important effects on water quality. In rivers, such factors as the discharge (volume of water passing through a cross-section of the river in a unit of time), the velocity of flow, turbulence and depth will influence water quality. For example, the water in a stream that is in flood and experiencing extreme turbulence is likely to be of poorer quality than when the stream is flowing under quiescent conditions. This is clearly illustrated by the hysteresis effect in river suspended sediments during storm events. Discharge estimates are also essential when calculating pollutant fluxes, such as where rivers cross international boundaries or enter the sea. In lakes, the residence time, depth and stratification are the main factors influencing water quality (Kuusisto 1996). 2.5 Measuring River Flow

The flow rate or discharge of a river is the volume of water flowing through a cross-section in a unit of time and is usually expressed as M3S-1. It is calculated as the product of average velocity and cross-sectional area but is affected by water depth, alignment of the channel, gradient and roughness of the river bed. Discharge may be estimated by the slope-area method, using these factors the Manning equation which, although developed for conditions of uniform flow in open channels, may give an adequate estimate of the non-uniform flow which is usual in natural channels. The Manning equation states that: Q = 1/n {AR2/3S1/2} Where Q = discharge (M3 S-1) A = cross-sectional area (M2) P = wetted perimeter (M) R = hydraulic radius (M) and = A/P S = slope of gradient of the stream bed n = roughness coefficient More accurate values for discharge can be obtained when a permanent gauging station has been established on a stretch of a river where there is a stable relationship between stage (water level) and discharge, and this has been measured and recorded. Water quality samples do not have to be taken exactly at a gauging station. They may be taken a short distance upstream or downstream, 12

provided that no significant inflow or outflow occurs between the sampling and gauging stations (Kuusisto 1996). 2.6 Measuring Stream Flow

Stream flow, or discharge, is the volume of water moving past a cross-section of a stream over a set period of time. It is usually measured in cubic feet per second (cfs). Stream flow is affected by the amount of water within a watershed, increasing with rainstorms or snowmelt, and decreasing during dry periods. Flow is also important because it defines the shape, size and course of the stream. It is integral not only to water quality, but also to habitat. Food sources, spawning areas and migration paths of fish and other wildlife are all affected and defined by stream flow and velocity. Velocity and flow together determine the kinds of organisms that can live in the stream (some need fast-flowing areas; others need quiet, low-velocity pools). Different kinds of vegetation require different flows and velocities, too (Fact sheets 2006). If samples are to be taken at a point where the stage-discharge relationship is either unknown or unstable, discharge should be measured at the time of sampling. The most accurate method is to measure the cross-sectional area of the stream and then, using a current meter, determine the average velocity in the cross-section. If a current meter is not available, a rough estimate of velocity can be made by measuring the time required for a weighted float to travel a fixed distance along the stream. For best results, the cross-section of the stream at the point of measurement should have the following ideal characteristics (Kuusisto 1996): The velocities at all points are parallel to one another and at right angles to the cross-section of the stream. The curves of distribution of velocity in the section are regular in the horizontal and vertical planes. The cross-section should be located at a point where the stream is nominally straight for at least 50 m above and below the measuring station. The velocities are greater than 10-15 cm s-1. The bed of the channel is regular and stable. The depth of flow is greater than 30 cm. The stream does not overflow its banks. There is no aquatic growth in the channel.


It is rare for all these characteristics to be present at any one measuring site and compromises usually have to be made. Velocity also varies across a channel, and measurements must, therefore, be made at several points across the channel (Kuusisto 1996). 2.7 Measuring Groundwater flow

Information on the direction of groundwater flow can be obtained by mapping out water levels in boreholes within the same aquifer. This gives an indication of the hydraulic gradient (or piezometric surface) and, thus, an idea of groundwater movement (Kuusisto 1996). Groundwater flow information will assist in the prediction of contaminant movement in groundwater, in particular the spread and speed of movement of contaminants after a polluting event. However, this prediction is a complex procedure which is often inaccurate and is complicated further by the lack of knowledge of contaminant behaviour in groundwater. Flows within aquifers on the medium scale may be assessed through tracer studies, which will indicate direction and rate of flow. The rate of movement of water into particular wells can be quite easily evaluated by pump tests. These tests will also provide information on the depression of groundwater level around a well during pumping (Kuusisto 1996). 2.8 2.9 Application of Hydrologic Models Estimate and predict water quantities, and flow rates for a given scenario Aid in the development of a local and regional storm water management plans Determine increase in stream flow due to new development Assess the effectiveness of Best Management Practices The Nigerian Hydrological Situation Analysis.

The hydrological situation in Nigeria can be described as evolving in the sense that information and geo-databases are not available or in the process of being collected by government and agencies saddled with such responsibilities (Federal Tender Journal 2010). At best, information conveyed through hydrological maps is at present in large scale such as 1:10,000,000 (i.e. 1cm representing 10 million Kilometers) which do not give details but rather generalized view of the hydrological situation. Efforts at creating a national hydrological benchmark at the present are uncoordinated and piecemeal and stems from lack of a firm national water policy and an adequate institutional framework for managing these resources. 14

Nigeria has always thought of itself as a country with a plentiful water supply. As a result of this, past efforts have concentrated on the development of the resource rather than the management of it. More recently two institutions have been mandated to manage water resources: the Federal Ministry of Water Resources (FMWR) and the River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs), a parastatal of FMWR; however, neither of these institutions has been given the resources to carry out this mandate. Neither FMWR nor RBDA have been in a position to develop management plans, generate sufficient data for planning, nor do they have departments with the capacity for such management. The consequence is that no effective water resource management is practiced in Nigeria at present (COWI/Atkins 2006). 2.10 SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF WATER IN NIGERIA

A broad overview of Nigeria in terms of rainfall and water availability is that of a wet tropical South merging, as we move North, into dryer Savannah in the centre of the country and then, as the far North of the country, is reached the climate is semi-arid to arid. The National Water Resource Master Plan (NWRMP) classified six regions, based upon principal geographic features and agro-climatic zones. These are: Northwest (NW) Northeast (NE) Central West (CW) Central East (CE) Southwest (SW) Southeast (SE) Niger-North Lake Chad Niger-Central Upper Benue & Lower Benue Western Littoral Niger South and Eastern Littoral

The potential water availability for each of the regions was then calculated and is shown in table 1 in units of 109cubic metres. Table 1 Agro-Climatic Zonez Surface Water (cm3) Groundwater (cm3) Source (COWI/ATKINS, 2006)

NW (109) 22.40 4.34

NE (109) 8.20 5.58

CW (109) 2.60 8.18

CE (109) 83.00 11.38

SW (109) 35.40 9.02

SE (109) 85.79 13.43

Total (109) 267.30 51.53


The hydrological modelling of surface water and water resources in general requires data. The managers need to know what extraction and water storage is taking place; how much water is being utilized and for what uses; what levels of pollution are being released into water courses; who is receiving water and how it is being used for irrigation, drinking, sanitation, industry or commerce; neither the Federal Ministry of Water Resources nor River Basin Development Authorities, have any effective data collection or monitoring system in place to collect such data. In the absence of data collection, there is no evaluation or analysis and hence no opportunity to practice management of the water resources available in the country (COWI/Atkins 2006) 2.11 HYDROLOGICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL DATA COLLECTION

The most basic data need for the purposes of hydrological modelling and integrated water resource management is the measurement of river flows for surface water, and the monitoring of aquifers for groundwater. The FMWR stopped collecting such data on surface water in 1996. Without such data rivers and other surface water resources cannot be modelled. It would appear that there has never been any attempt to monitor groundwater. Without a data collection system it is close to impossible to determine anything as basic as a water balance for a river basin. Without a system of hydrological and hydro-geological data collection there is no possibility of modelling and without this modelling, we can have no understanding of the impact of extraction, storage and usage of water on the quantities and flows available (COWI/Atkins 2006). 2.12 SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER MODELLING IN NIGERIA

Management requires planning. If the planning role is to be fulfilled there is a requirement for modelling of surface waters and aquifers. If surface waters are to be managed then there needs to be a method for determining the consequences of any action. If water storage is to be built there is a need to know what impact there will be on downstream flows and how the storage is to be managed to mitigate any adverse consequences on the environment or on downstream users. The method of determining the answer to this type of problem is to mathematically model the surface waters. This similarly applies to aquifers: there needs to be a means to determine. At present in Nigeria there is no institution is undertaking this task. At this time it would make more sense for a single surface and groundwater modelling unit be set up for Nigeria (COWI/Atkins 2006). 16



This section deals with the working principles to be used in executing this research work. It describes the various steps and operations to be carried out in the course of data collection, data conversion, data integration etc. Required data and tools, data source and its acquisition also are treated in this section. Various spatial analyses to be employed are also discussed. 3.1 Required data for the study

The data needed for the research work can be grouped into primary and secondary data. Primary data are collected directly from the field by the researcher using instruments like questionnaire, field observations, randomized among other instruments. This information can be analyzed by other experts who may decide to test the validity of the data by repeating the same experiments. Secondary data are data collected by someone other than the user. Common sources of secondary data include censuses, surveys, and organizational records among others. 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 Proposed data sources Primary data Field surveys and observation using ArcPad 8.0 Secondary data SPOT 5m Resolution Satellite Imageries of study area Digital Elevation Model of study area 1:50,000 Topographic map of study area Administrative Map of study area Road Map of study area Proposed Hardware and software Tools to be used GIS software (ArcGIS, surfer, Erdas Imagine) ArcPad 8.0 Relational Data Base Management software



Method of data collection

Spot 5m (5m resolution) acquired in 2006 by SPOT imaging corporation of France is proposed to be used in extracting features for this research work. This is intended as it gives a clear geographical representation and arrangement of features. SPOT imagery captures its scene in the multi-spectral band at five metres (5M) resolution. With the nature and characteristics of this raster data, vector data can easily be extracted. 3.4 Spatial Analysis

The spatial operations to be carried out in this work are basin delineation, flow accumulation, flow direction, flow length, sink and watershed analyses. 3.4.1 Satellite imagery excerption

This is done to subset or extract the imagery covering Suleja Local Government Area from the Spot 5m satellite imagery using the administrative boundary of the local government area. 3.4.2 Basin delineation

This is to create a raster delineating all the drainage basin within the study area. 3.5.2 Flow Accumulation

This is to show where water flow will be impeded within the study area, where obstacles exist to the natural flow of water will be identified and determined with possible causative factors also identified. 3.5.3 Flow length

The flow length is to show the length of flow for each identified rivers, water bodies and stream contributing to the surface hydrologic processes in the study area. 5.5.4 area. 3.5.5 Watershed 18 Sink

This operation is to show where there are possible sinks to water and water flow in the study

This is one of the most important tools to identify watersheds in the study area. Areas that drain water and other substances to a common outlet will be determined.


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COWI AS/Atkins International 2006, Nigeria, Support to the Federal Ministry of Water Resources: Water Resources Management and Policy. A report is financed by the European Commission and is presented by COWI/Atkins International June 2006.