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Alex Nelson∗ May 31, 2009

Contents

1 Introduction 2

I

Act I: Topological Spaces

2

2 3 5 7 8 8 8 10

2 Properties of Sets 3 Topological Spaces 4 Basis For Topological Spaces 4.1 Given a Topological Space, Finding a Basis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Example of Usefulness of Bases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 A “Sub-Basis”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Continuous Functions 6 Closed Sets

II

Act II: Construction of Topological Spaces

11

11 12

7 The Order Topology 8 The Product Topology

III

Act III: Properties of Topological Spaces

14

14

9 Connectedness

Abstract Topology is the study of boundaries. We usually think of an “open set” as not containing its boundary, and a “closed set” as one that contains its boundary. We generalize these notions in topology suitably.

∗ Email:

pqnelson@gmail.com

1

Part I Act I: Topological Spaces 2 Properties of Sets Just a review of a few properties of sets. The third will deal with a variety of properties a topological space can have (e. The only subset of the empty set is itself A ⊆ ∅ ⇒ A = ∅. The empty set has cardinality zero (it has zero elements). various operations on sets. countability and seperation axioms. The intersection of A with the empty set is the empty et A ∩ ∅ = ∅.). Proposition 1.§2 Properties of Sets 2 1 Introduction Loosely speaking. basic deﬁnitions. The union of A with the empty set is A A ∪ ∅ = A. ∀A. 6. basic topology is concerned with boundaries. and bases for topologies.g. What is an open set? When is a set “in one piece”? When can we “put” a set “inside a box”? What is a “boundary”? What is a “neighborhood”? And so on. neighborhoods. 2. ∀A. The empty set is a subset of A: ∅ ⊆ A. The ﬁrst act will introduce what is a topology. ∀A. For any set A 1. The second act will deal with the construction of topological spaces. 4. speciﬁcally subspaces and product spaces. . Moreover. connectedness. the empty set is ﬁnite |∅| = 0. and some basic approaches to proofs. 3. etc. The Cartesian product of A and the empty set is empty A × ∅ = ∅. compactness. ∀A ∀A. The power set of the empty set is a set containing only the empty set 2∅ = {∅} 7. 5. The basic approach to introducing topology will be done in three acts.

{a.§3 Topological Spaces 3 Given some statement If P. Consider the set X = {a. b are arbitrary objects. To show that two sets A. Deﬁnition 3. This is dubbed the “trivial topology”.3) Sometimes it’s easier to prove the converse than to prove a given proposition.1) is an open interval since it doesn’t include -1 or 1. The possible topologies on this are 1. We begin by generalising the notion of what an “open set” is. Their union X ∪ ∅ = X. its contrapositive is If Q is not true.2) (2. Example 5. their intersection X ∩ ∅ = ∅ are both in the topology. (2. b}} This is trivially a topology. since it includes X. b} where a. We call elements of X “points” of the space. Then the members of T are deﬁned as open sets. . We generalize the notion of an open set to be any subset U ⊂ X such that U ∈ T . The union of the elements of any subcollection of T is in T 3. so lets begin by introducing a collection of open subsets of a given set X called a “topology on X”. Its converse is If P . previously we thought of an open set as a set that doesn’t include its boundary. we need to show A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A. In fact. A set X for white a topology has T been speciﬁed is called a topological space. then P is not true. i.1) 3 Topological Spaces Problem 2. Let (X. Now this deﬁnition of a topological space is rather abstract. ∅ and X are in T 2. The fundamental aim of topology. we will deﬁne open sets as elements of T : Deﬁnition 4. That is. Lets consider a few examples using ﬁnite sets. T ) be a topological space. {∅. this topological deﬁnition includes our previous intuition about open sets and extends beyond it. then Q. (2. A Topology on a set X is a collection T of subsets of X having the following properties: 1. is to generalize real analysis to sets other than R. then Q.e. We wish to generalize this notion. B are equal. This “weakens” our previous notion of an open set. ∅. The intersection of the elements of any ﬁnite subcollection of T is in T . for example S = {x ∈ R : −1 < x < 1} (3. The only open sets are empty and X. for all practical purposes.

{a}. or gravel. Thus T is the discrete topology. every subset is open. {a} ∩ ∅ = ∅. If we break it up into ﬁner gravel. The typical explanation is to think of sand paper. b} = {a}. {∅. {b}. and by hypothesis all singletons are elements of T .§3 Topological Spaces 4 a b a b a b a b Figure 1: An example of all the possible topologies on the set X = {a. {a. so T isn’t a topology. {a} ∪ ∅ = {a}. We know that arbitrary unions of subsets of X in T is also in T . Deﬁnition 8. left to right) the discrete topology. and the trivial topology. 2. This notion of “ﬁner” and “coarser” topologies are worthy of explanation. All of these are in the topology. {a. 4. it follows that every subset of X is in T . . Example 6. This is given a special name known as the “power set” or “discrete topology”. X} . This is a nonexample. (3. X}. b}} This is just switching a with b.2) (3.3) Since this is any arbitrary subset of X. T ). and for each x ∈ X we have {x} ∈ T . Proposition 7. (3. b. It follows that any arbitrary subset of U ⊂ X can be written as an arbitrary union of singletons U= {x}. Here. c}.4) x∈U (3. Intuitively. The collection T = {∅. We can see a diagrammatic scheme of these topologies in ﬁg (1). b} corresponding to (from top to bottom. this is a “ﬁner” conﬁguration of pebbles. We want to show that T is the power set of X. {b}. Observe that {a. {∅. c}. {∅. Proof. it’s all possible subsets of X. Munkres [3] gives the example of having a topology be visualized by a collection of large rocks. {∅. b} ∩ {b. {∅. then T is the discrete topology. We say that T ⊃T ⇐⇒ T is ﬁner than T T is coarser than T . b}. {a} ∪ X = X. If we have some topological space (X. X}. 3. we can “union” them together to get back the “coarser topology” and it takes up less volume. Consider the set X = {a. c} = {b} ∈ T / So it’s not closed under ﬁnite intersections.5) Remark 9. {b. b}} This is also a topology. Let T . which is also a topology. since {a} ∩ {a. {b}. b}} This is also a topology. T be two topologies on the same set X. {a}. {a. {a}. {a.

Bα ∈ B are basis elements. Note that the deﬁnition of the “topology generated” is not yet shown to be a topology. We work with basis elements when discussing topological properties. so intuitively if all the “building blocks” share a property. 2. Deﬁnition 11.1) If B satisﬁes these two conditions. We can alternatively say that if an open set U in the “topology generated” by B. a basis for a topology on X is a collection B of subsets of X (or “basis elements”) such that 1. We need to prove that the “topology generated” by a given basis satisﬁes the properties of a topology. it simpliﬁes life a bit. Let B be a basis for a topology on X. then U= Bα (4. B2 . Theorem 15. Remark 12. 1. we don’t work with vectors aribtrarily. which implies that basis elements are not open sets. T by the “topology generated” by B. (4. the topology should have it too. we work with linear combinations of basis vectors. A few notes on the properties of the basis for a topology. We want intersections to be covered by some number of basis elements. Remark 13. they are a selected collection of open subsets of a given topological space X with some extra properties. If X is a set. Then T .2) α∈J where J is some indexing set. . however. If x belongs to the intersection of two basis elements B1 . They are the “basic building blocks” for a topology. There are no “holes” in our topology. a topology is cumbersome to work with. X) (a) We see that ∅ ∈ T is vacuously true. so we want to make life easier. We will do this property by property. Oftentimes. then there is a basis element B3 such that x ∈ B3 ⊂ B1 ∩ B2 . the intersection of two basis elements wouldn’t be an open set. Proof. (Contains ∅. For each x ∈ X. we need to prove that it is a topology. The second property is a bit more abstract. Let B be the basis for a topology on X. 1. is a topology. For us. We use an analogous concept for topological spaces. the “topology generated” by B. then we deﬁne the topology generated by the basis B by ﬁrst saying an open set U ⊆ X is in the “topology generated” by B iﬀ ∀x ∈ U . our basis elements are not vectors! Instead. This is bad. there is at least one basis element B containing x. In linear algebra.§4 Basis For Topological Spaces 5 4 Basis For Topological Spaces Problem 10. there is a B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊆ U . it would imply that the “topology generated” by a basis isn’t really a topology! Problem 14. 2. The ﬁrst property is basically saying the union of all our basis elements covers X. If we didn’t have this property.

If I= Iα (4. (Closure under arbitrary unions) We see that if {Uα }α∈J is a collection of open sets in T and J is some index set.6) α∈J then Bβ = β∈I α∈J β∈Iα Bβ = α∈J Uα (4. (4. We see that by deﬁnition of an open set in the “topology generated” by B Uα = Bβ (4.8) β∈Iα for some index set Iα . So both ∅ ∈ T and X ∈ T . a set in T . Thus the “topology generated” T by B satisﬁes all the properties of a topology. (Closure under ﬁnite intersections) Let {Uα }n be some ﬁnite collection of α=1 open sets in T . by deﬁnition. .11) But this is by deﬁnition an open set in the “topology generated” by B.7) is also. it follows that Bx ⊆ X x∈X (4. and basis elements Bα ∈ B.4) Thus the union of all basis elements is X.5) by virtue of the deﬁnition of an open set in the “topology generated” by B. We see then that the ﬁnite intersection is then n n Uα = α=1 α=1 β∈Iα Bβ . 3. It follows that X= {x} ⊆ Bx (4.9) Let I= n Iα α=1 (4. (4.§4 Basis For Topological Spaces 6 (b) We see that for each x ∈ X there is a Bx ∈ B such that x ∈ Bx .10) then n Uα = α=1 β∈I Bβ . then we can write Bβ = Uα β∈Iα (4.3) x∈X x∈X Since each Bx ⊆ X. 2.

We need to show that T = T . and we know it is contained in U by property 2 of a basis element. let B be a basis for a topology T on X. is really just T . This is. Let X be a set. Then T equals the collection of all unions of elements of B. . We see that given each x ∈ X. This means that C is a basis. Suppose that C is a collection of open sets of X such that for each open set U of X and each x ∈ U . This implies that T = T . Note that it does not specify this union is necessarily unique. T ) be a topological space. there is a C ∈ C such that x ∈ C ⊂ U so U ∈ T by deﬁnition. First we need to show that C is a basis.§4 Basis For Topological Spaces 7 Lemma 16. if we have a basis B for the topological space (X. Proof. (b) We also see that any element V ∈ T is such that it is the union of basis elements in C . every basis element is open. So. We know such an element exists by property 1 of a basis element. and if for each x ∈ U there is a Bx ∈ B such that x ∈ Bx ⊂ U . which implies the arbitrary union of basis elements is in the given topology. if U ⊂ X. By deﬁnition. Given any arbitrary U ∈ T . We need to show that if x ∈ C1 ∩ C2 . This lemma basically says that any open set U can be written as a union of basis elements. Proof.1 Given a Topological Space.12) where x ∈ Bx ⊆ U is a basis element. just to review. This stands in stark contrast to linear algebra. T ). we need to show that it contains every union of basis elements. so by hypothesis there is a C3 ⊆ C1 ∩ C2 such that x ∈ C3 . true. Thus C is a basis for the topology T on X. by lemma (16). we can write it as U= x∈U Bx (4. Remark 18. It is an unfortunate fact of life that topologists choose poor deﬁnitions. This means that V (as a union of elements of T ) is also in T . So every union of basis elements is in the topology T. Problem 19. Then C is a basis of X. the question is “How can we ﬁnd a basis for a given topology?” Lemma 20. But each C ∈ C is such that C ∈ T . (a) We see that any element U ∈ T is such that for some x ∈ U . We need to do two things. Bases are deﬁned for a given topology. We have that any element of T can be written as an arbitrary union of basis elements. Second. we need to show that the topology generated by C . as desired. But now that we have some notion of a “basis” for a topology. there is at least one C ∈ C containing it. then there is a C3 ∈ C such that x ∈ C3 ⊆ C1 ∩ C2 . call it T . there is an element C ∈ C such that x ∈ C ⊂ U . Let (X. 1. by hypothesis. We know by deﬁnition. then U is a union of basis elements. Finding a Basis. We also know that arbitrary union of open sets is open. 4. 2. Remark 17. where a vector is a unique linear combination of basis elements. We see that C1 ∩ C2 is open. open sets are elements of a speciﬁed topology.

A Subbasis for the topology on X is the collection of subsets of X whose union equals X. if we can prove some topological property holds on each basis element (or equivalently. Remark 25. X and Y be sets. Let B. B be bases for the topologies T . and a B ∈ B that contains x. Then Bα ⊂ U . Then by deﬁnition of B as a basis. (Real Analysis Deﬁnition of Continuous) Let f : X → Y be a function. Instead. Proof. which implies U ∈ T . But it is not as though anyone can change this deﬁnition now! 5 Continuous Functions Problem 26.§5 Continuous Functions 8 4. We will illustrate the use of bases in making such a claim.3 A “Sub-Basis”. Remark 23. Given x ∈ X. But by (1). for each ε neighborhood of f (x0 ). It appeals too much to linear algebraic intuition of a subbasis as a basis of a subspace. That is. T ⊂ T so B ∈ T . So consider B as an open set that coincidentally contains a point x. The gist of this lemma boils down to this: given two bases on a given set. Then the following are equivalent: 1. T is ﬁner than T . The Topology Generated by a Subbasis is deﬁned as the collection T of all unions of ﬁnite intersections of subbasis elements. In the beginning of this section. T (respectively) on X. Problem 21. there is a basis element B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊂ B. In the author’s opinion. . We say that f is “Continuous” if for each ε > 0 there is a corresponding δ > 0 such that |x − x0 | < δ ⇒ |f (x) − f (x0 )| < ε (5. One of the interesting properties we had with functions in real analysis was the notion of continuity. Lemma 22. the previous deﬁnition is a bad one. an arbitrary basis element). then it holds for the topology. (2) ⇒ (1). (1) ⇒ (2). Let (X. there is a δ neighborhood of x0 . 2. That is. there is a basis element B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊂ B. we mentioned that it is useful to use bases instead of topologies since they allow us to prove properties faster. for each x ∈ U . there is a Bα ∈ B such that x ∈ Bα ⊂ Bα . We see that an element U ∈ T can be written as the union of basis elements {Bα }α∈J . We see that B ∈ T . the topology generated by the “ﬁner” basis is ﬁner than the topology generated by the “coarser” basis. it should really have the intuition of a prebasis. For each x ∈ X and each basis element B ∈ B containing x. Deﬁnition 24.1) Or in other words.2 Example of Usefulness of Bases. T ) be a topological space. 4. But since. after a bit of manipulation we can get a basis. and that is not the case here. and one is “ﬁner” than the other. Is there a way to generalize this notion to a topological setting? Deﬁnition 27.

3) (5. We can do this in real analysis since the reals are suﬃciently nice (they are a metric space which is a really really strong condition for a topological space). Z be topological spaces. Similarly. We use the inclusion map and the retraction to extend and restrict functions (respectively) by composing them with the functions of interest. Let X. Deﬁnition 29. Let X. Then f −1 (Z) = {x ∈ X : f (x) ∈ Z} which does not say anything about the existence of an inverse for f . Let X. composing it with a retraction) is the composition of two continuous functions and thus continuous. Consider f : X → Y . a continuous map r: X x → Y → r(x) = x if x ∈ Y (5. Observe that what we are doing is specifying a neighborhood in the range of a certain size. we speciﬁed an ε neighborhood. there is a neighborhood U of x such that f (U ) ⊂ V . We want to generalize this for topological spaces so when we work with metric spaces we recover our previous notion of continuity. A map i: Y x → → X i(x) = x (5. Z be topological spaces. then f is continuous.§5 Continuous Functions 9 Remark 28. Deﬁnition 35. Proof. This notion of continuity is nearly identical to the notion we previously introduced from real analysis. (Inverse Functions) Note that contrary to appearances continuity does not demand the function be invertible! The preimage of a set is not the same as the function’s inverse. But observe we demand each open neighborhood V of f (x) has a corresponding neighborhood U in the domain such that the image of U is contained in V .5) . Remark 30. Deﬁnition 33.2) is deﬁned as the “Inclusion Map”. Remark 34. and demanded that for each ε neighborhood there is a corrsponding δ neighborhood in the domain such that the image of the δ neighborhood is contained in the ε neighborhood. This is precisely what we did in the real analysis case. If f : X → Z is a function. We say that “f is continuous at x0 ” if for every neighborhood V of f (x).4) is deﬁned as the “Retraction” if the retraction of i to Y is the identity on A. Y be topological spaces. and Y ⊂ X be a subspace. Trivial.e. The diﬀerence is that we are not using a metric to keep track of every open neighborhood in the domain and the range. Theorem 31. we can deﬁne the “Restriction of f to Y ” as f ◦r :X →Z the composition of the retraction map (which is just idY on Y ) with f . Let X and Y be topological spaces. and Z ⊂ Y is some open set. then demanding there is a corresponding neighborhood in the domain of a certain size. (5. if f : X → Y is such that for each open set V ⊂ Y its preimage f −1 (V ) ⊂ X is open. Remark 32. Y ⊂ X be a subspace. Note that the restriction of a continuous function (i. f : X → Y be a function.

We deﬁned what it means for a set to be “open” by just demanding it be in a topology on a space. We say that A is “Closed” if X − A is open. just deﬁne a set to be closed if its compliment is open. The closure of a set is the “smallest” closed set containing it. 2. V be open sets in X such that X = U ∪ V . Remark 43. Similarly. We deﬁne the “Boundary” of A (denoted ∂A) to be A ∩ (X − A) the intersection of the closure of A with the closure of the compliment of A. (Pasting Lemma) Let X and Y be topological spaces. but we will see why later on. Observe that the closure of a set is closed.§6 Closed Sets 10 Remark 36. f (x). if x ∈ V (5. The Closure of Y (denoted Y or closure(Y )) is the intersection of all closed sets containing Y . Let X be a topological space. A ⊂ X be some subset. but we conveniently avoided the problem of “What do we mean by ‘smallest’ ?” by using intersections of closed sets. Observe that the restriction of a function is just composition of functions. So how do we deﬁne a set to be “closed”? Intuitively. Deﬁnition 45. Remark 44. Deﬁnition 41. Let X be a topological space. A ⊂ X be some subset. Let X be a topological space. This doesn’t seem intuitive or immediately clear why one would want to deﬁne it this way.1) . it’s an “open set that contains its boundary”. the interior of a set is the “largest” open set contained in it. if x ∈ U g(x). and U. 1. (6. A set Y is closed iﬀ Y = Y and it is open iﬀ Y = Y 0 . Lemma 37. Remark 40. the interior of a set is open. but what is a “boundary” topologically? Deﬁnition 39. Y ⊂ X. The Interior of Y (denoted Y 0 or int(Y )) is the union of all open sets contained in Y . This is kind of weaseling out of the problem. Remark 42.7) 6 Closed Sets Problem 38.6) Then the function h : X → Y deﬁned by h(x) = is continuous. Suppose f : U → Y and g : V → Y are continuous and f (x) = g(x) for all x ∈ U ∩ V (5.

b. Observe the closure of {a} is given by the intersection of all closed sets containing a: {a. b. A ⊂ X be a subset. c} is a closed set so its closure is itself. {b}. Y ⊂ X. A point x ∈ X is a Limit Point of Y if every neighborhood of x intersects Y − {x}.6) This is by virtue of the property of compliments (A − B)C = A ∩ B C where A and B are subsets of some set U . C A ∩ (X − A) = A ∩ A0 = A − A0 . c} is closed since its compliment {b} is open. since its compliment is open and the intersection of closed sets is closed. Consider the set X = {a. since we deﬁned continuity in the real analysis situation as the limit as f (x) approaches f (x0 ).5) How can we see this? Well. c} ∩ {a. and we also see that {b.3) and the closure of {b. This deﬁnition makes more sense given the notion of what a “continuous function” is. c} (6.7) Part II Act II: Construction of Topological Spaces 7 The Order Topology Problem 50. The boundary of {a} is then the intersection of these two sets ∂{a} = {b. Its compliment would be the closure of X − A. Let X be a topological space. (6. i. Remark 49. c}. i. Topologies seem more or less abstract. The intersection of these two closed sets {c} is closed. We take this notion. (6. The deﬁnition of the boundary of A is the same as the closure of A minus its interior ∂A = A − A0 . the interior of A is the union of all open sets contained in A. c} ∩ {a. {a.e. c} is closed since its compliment {a} is open. Consider the topology T = {∅.4) which we could not have found if we didn’t deﬁne the boundary in a topological way! Remark 47. We see that the intersection of (X − A) with A is just the closure of A intersected with the compliment of its interior. c} = {a.e. Deﬁnition 48. c} = {c} (6. {b. Let X be a topological space.2) We see that {a. c} (that is.§7 The Order Topology 11 Example 46. (6. {a}. the compliment of {a}) is itself. and use the topological notion of continuity to concoct a topological notion of a limit. X} (6. b}. Isn’t there some way to simplify specifying open sets? We are going to introduce the notion of specifying .

§8 The Product Topology 12 open sets using open intervals.2c) (7. +∞) = {x|x > a} (−∞. (7.1d) We call the eq (7. How do we specify open intervals? By using an order relation a < b. The Product Topology on X × Y is the topology having as basis the collection B of all sets of the form U × V .1d) a “closed interval”. and lastly eq (7. So suppose we have a. Deﬁnition 55. All open intervals (a. b). there are four subsets of X that are called the rays determined by a. there is a (simple) order relation <. and a is an element of X. Suppose X has more than one element.1a) (7.1c) (7. there are no sets of type (2). All intervals of the form (a. there is a standard topology for it deﬁned using the order relation. b ∈ X such that a < b. a] = {x|x ≤ a} The ﬁrst two are open rays. we wish to construct a new one using only what we know of X and Y . 2. where a0 is the smallest element (if any) of X.1a) an “open interval”. Deﬁnition 53. Deﬁnition 51. which is called the order topology. b] = {x|a ≤ x ≤ b}.2a) (7. We should probably ﬁrst generalize the notion of intervals familiar from real analysis. +∞) = {x|x ≥ a} (−∞. where b0 is the largest element (if any) of X. If X is a simply ordered set.1b) (7. 3. b0 ]. where U is an open subset of X and V is an open subset of Y .2d) 8 The Product Topology Problem 54. If we have two topological spaces X and Y . If X is an ordered set. Remark 52. b) = {x|a ≤ x < b} [a. and if X has no largest element there are no sets of type (3). Y be topological spaces. Let X be a set with a simple order relation. a) = {x|x < a} [a. b) in X. Since X is a simply ordered set. They are the following (a. If X has no smallest element. .1c) “clopen intervals”. the last two are closed rays. All intervals of the form [a0 . given two topological spaces. b) = {x|a < x < b} (a. The collection B is a basis for a topology on X. eqs (7. It’s called the order topology. can we “glue” them together? That is. Let X. (7. then we have 4 possible subsets of X: (a. Let B be the collection of all sets of the following types: 1. we can specify open intervals. b] = {x|a < x ≤ b} [a.2b) (7.1b) (7.

then the collection D = {B × C|B ∈ B. Being rigorous. −1 Remark 60. Theorem 57. That is. Thus the second property of a basis is satisﬁed. Their intersection is U × V .6) We need to show that T ⊂ T . This implies that T ⊂ T as desired.e. T ⊂T. which allows us to see that (U1 × V1 ) ∩ (U2 × V2 ) = (U1 ∩ U2 ) × (V1 ∩ V2 ) (8. so it’s a basis element. We see that each element W ∈ S is an open subset of the product topology. For any x × y ∈ X × Y . C ∈ C } is a basis for the topology of X × Y . Proof. Thus D is a basis.4) (8. T be the topology generated by our subbasis. We will use lemma 20 to prove this. We see given a basis element U × V for T that −1 −1 U × V = π1 (U ) ∩ π2 (V ) (8. Deﬁnition 58. . let π2 : X × Y → Y be deﬁned by the equation π2 (x. The second condition. for some open set W ⊂ X × Y and each x × y ∈ W there is a basis element U ∈ B such that x ∈ U and a basis element V ∈ C such that y ∈ V . We see that B is the collection of the product of all open subsets. Let T be the topology on X × Y .§8 The Product Topology 13 Remark 56. X × Y is empty too. so x × y ∈ U × V ⊂ W and U × V ∈ D.1) is also the product of open sets. Observe that projections are surjective provided that both X and Y are nonempty. Remark 59. π2 (V ) = X × V . we see that X × Y ∈ B so the ﬁrst condition is trivially satisﬁed. (8. which means that the topology generated by S is contained in T . y) = y. y) = x. If one is empty.3) (8. Proof. If B is a basis for the topology of X and C is a basis for the topology of Y . Theorem 61.2) The maps π1 and π2 are called the projections of X × Y onto its ﬁrst and second factors.7) which is nothing more than a ﬁnite intersection of subbasis elements. Similarly. if V ⊂ Y −1 is open. respectively. Let π1 : X × Y → X be deﬁned by the equation π1 (x. we should probably verify that this B beast really is a basis. Note that if U ⊂ X is open. (8. let (x × y) ∈ U1 × V1 and (x × y) ∈ U2 × V2 . i. π1 (U ) = U × Y . The collection −1 −1 S = {π1 (U )|U is open in X} ∪ {π2 (V )|V is open in Y } (8. and everything becomes trivial.5) is a subbasis for the product topology on X × Y .

If T ⊂ T . then Y is necessarily connected. we will use proof by contradiction a lot when dealing with connectedness. then 1. But U and X − U are disjoint. Proof. then we should be able to “break it up” into independent pieces.3) (9. If Y is a subspace of X. This couldn’t happen if X were connected. A Seperation of X is a pair U. So the seperation is in the T topology too. a seperation of Y is a pair of disjoint nonempty sets A and B whose union is Y . Consequently. B ∈ T ⊂ T . Observe that we didn’t really deﬁne connectedness. neither of which contains a limit point of the other.1) . Observe that if A. V of disjoint.§9 Connectedness 14 Part III Act III: Properties of Topological Spaces 9 Connectedness Problem 62. Let A. How can we tell if a space is “connected” or not? That is. Remark 66. Proof. nonempty. 1. connectedness in T implies connectedness in T . the existence of a seperation in T implies existence of a seperation in T . The space X is said to be “Connected” if there is no seperation in it. So. 2. if it’s “disconnected”. B form a seperation of Y . to prove a topological space is connected is equivalent to disproving the existence of a seperation. nonempty. (9. and then proceeded to deﬁne “connected” as “not seperated”. A space X is connected if and only if the only closed subsets of X that are both open and closed are X and ∅. Instead we deﬁned what it means for it to have a seperation. open subsets of X whose union is X. We can argue similarly for (B ∩ Y ) ∩ A = ∅. so U needs to be empty or equal to all of X. Remark 64. How do we make this notion of “disconnectedness” rigorous? Deﬁnition 63. T be two topologies on X. Let X be a topological space. Remark 65. We see that A=A∩Y ⊂Y and AC = (A ∩ Y )C = B. open sets whose union is X. B forms a seperation in the T topology. Lemma 67. then A. Observe that if X is connected and Y is homeomorphic to X. The space Y is connected if there exists no seperation of Y . then X − U is also closed and open. which implies (A ∩ Y ) ∩ B = ∅. Proposition 68. Let T .2) (9. Otherwise if we had some additional set U that is closed and open.

Problem 69. then there is no seperation (no pair A. Assume for contradiction that Y can lie in both C and D. (9. then Y lies entirely in C or entirely in D. it implies that all Aα lie entirely in C or they all lie entirely in D. D of disjoint. Since Aα is connected. Proof.§9 Connectedness 15 2. Proof. Since all Aα share a common point.7) be the point common to all connected subspaces.6) be the subspace we are trying to show is connected. or C = Y and D = ∅. Then there exists a pair C. Observe that if X is connected in the T topology. . Theorem 72. So X is connected in the T topology. Theorem 71. then B is connected. Y = α Aα (9. So it follows that their union lies entirely in one. Theorem 70. If A ⊂ B ⊂ A. and if Y is a connected subspace of X. Let {Aα } be our collection of connected subspaces. This means that no such A.4) We have our contradiction. which is a contradiction of our assumption that C = ∅ and D = ∅. by our previous theorem.5) (9. which implies there is no seperation of X in the T topology. open subsets of Y whose union is Y . Then we can observe that C ∩ Y and D ∩ Y are subsets of Y that are both open and closed. it implies Y has a seperation. Assume for contradiction Y is disconnected. The union of connected subspaces of X with a common shared point is connected. {y0 } = α Aα (9. But this means that either C = ∅ and D = Y . B that form a seperation of X that live in T ). it must lie entirely in C or D. there would be no shared point y0 since C and D are disjoint. B exist in T . nonempty. Let A be a connected subspace of X. If some lived entirely in C while the rest entirely in D. How can we see this last point? Well. If the sets C and D form a seperation of X. as well as disjoint and their union would be Y . How can we construct connected topological spaces? This seems especially daunting since we only can really know if a topological space is disconnected. we know since C and D form a seperation of X that C ∪D =X so it follows that (C ∩ Y ) ∪ (D ∩ Y ) = (C ∪ D) ∩ Y = X ∩ Y = Y. We reject our assumption and say that Y has to lie entirely in C or entirely in D.

2) was connected. X be connected. Xn+1 connected spaces. We will do a sort of inductive proof by contradiction.15) (9. Theorem 74. Deﬁnition 75.§9 Connectedness 16 Proof.13) . B of disjoint. which is a contradiction. Proof. D whose union is B. So we have a contradiction. D = ∅ since we previously proven D ∩ C = ∅. More precisely. and A is connected. Proof.10) (9. assume Y is disconnected.e. Since A ⊂ B.9) (9. Theorem 73.11) or equivalently. Inductive Hypothesis (arbitrary n): Suppose this works for Y = X1 × · · · × Xn . and conclude Y is connected. But observe that x ∈ A − {x} ⊂ C − {x} ⊂ C but this implies that A ⊂C ⇒ B⊂A⊂C (9. π2 (B) forms a seperation of X2 . (9. a pair A.14) (9.. A space is “Totally Disconnected” if its only connected subspaces are one-point sets. Assume for contradiction there is a seperation (i. B of nonempty. Then this is just the base case. let X = X1 × · · · × Xn and Y = X × Xn+1 . then C ∪D ⊂A ⇒ D ⊂A where A is the set of limit points of A. Let Y = X1 × X2 . We reject our assumption that Y has a seperation and conclude it is connected. Inductive Cast (n + 1): Lets consider X1 . Base Case (n = 2): Lets consider two connected spaces X1 and X2 . which contradicts our hypothesis that X is connected. Suppose it is contained entirely in C. disjoint subsets whose union is Y ) in Y . reject our assumption that Y is disconnected. A ﬁnite Cartesian product of connected spaces is connected. But we assumed that Xi (i = 1. Assume for contradiction that B has a seperation. (9. and Y was shown to be connected. Recall a limit point x is such that x ∈ A − {x}.8) For contradiction. The image of a connected space under a continuous mapping is connected. Their preimage would be a seperation in X.12) (9. there is a pair of nonempty disjoint open sets C. Let f : X → Y be continuous. then A is contained entirely in C or it is contained entirely in D. Then there is a pair A. . . open. This means that either π1 (A). . nonempty subsets of Y whose union is Y . π1 (B) forms a seperation of X1 or π2 (A).

The only subspaces of X which has the only subsets be both open and closed would necessarily be the one-point sets. We see that Y is closed since X − Y = A ∪ B is the union of open sets (thus open). (Observe that an arbitrary set Y ⊂ X with more than one element could be partitioned into two subsets. edu. We see that B ∩ A = B ∩ A = ∅ since A.htm. 7.) It then follows by deﬁnition that X is totally disconnected. We will prove that if A∪Y has a seperation. which are both open and closed. E-Book.ballarat. Topology course lecture notes.§References 17 Theorem 76. implying X is disconnected. We see that Y ∩ B = Y ∩ B = ∅. This implies that Y is not connected. . assume for contradiction that Z := A∪Y has a seperation C ∪ D = Z. we see that every subset of X is open and consequently its compliment (being a subset of X) is open. [3] James R.17) 8. Proposition 77. We will show that B. 1997. Let A∪B = X −Y .htm. Topology without tears. B form a seperation of X − Y . 5. 2001. Observe ﬁrst that C ∪D =A∪Y. Proof. 2000. http://uob-community. Proof. http: //at. so every subset is also closed.yorku. 2. Observe that Z ∩ B = (A ∪ Y ) ∩ B = (A ∪ Y ) ∩ B = ∅ and similarly Z ∩ B = (A ∪ Y ) ∩ B = ∅. (9.au/~smorris/topology. let X and Y be connected. We see that B ⊂ X − Y so B ∩ Y = ∅. This is a contradiction. Topology. second edition. Munkres. C ∪ D form a seperation of X. 4. Lecture Notes.ca/i/a/a/b/23. Since X has the discrete topology. We see that B and Z = A ∪ Y form a seperation of X.16) References [1] Aisling McCluskey and Brian McMaster. then it is totally disconnected. 6. it’s still a kosher seperation). 3. If X is a topological space equipped with the discrete topology. A similar argument holds for B ∪ Y being connected. 1. it means that X has a seperation in the sense of a seperation in a subspace (it is more general this way – if X isn’t a subspace. We have to reject the assumption that Z has a seperation. then A ∪ Y and B ∪ Y are connected. (9. Morris. Prentice Hall. If A and B form a seperation of X − Y . Let Y ⊂ X. [2] Sidney A.

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