Pigment dyeing is a process for coloring textiles which uses ground pigments, rather than a true dye.

Strictly speaking, pigment dyeing is not actually dyeing at all, since it only coats the outside of the material, rather than fully penetrating it like a dye would. There are both advantages and disadvantages to pigment dyeing, as is the case with any type of coloring technique.

One of the primary advantages of pigment dyeing is its ability to adhere to a wide range of textiles, not just natural fabrics. This is especially important with synthetics or blends, which often cannot be dyed with conventional dyes. In some cases, the fabric may require special treatment for the pigment dye to take, such as an outer layer of resin coating. Some companies make resin dyes specifically for this purpose, with the adhering resin blended with the pigment dye.

Emphasis is placed on the properties of the colouring matters themselves rather than on their applications or the system in which they may be applied. . In some cases. pigments and their intermediates. the use of toxic pretreatment chemicals can be avoided. Dyes and Pigments covers the scientific and technical aspects of the chemistry and physics of dyes. which makes pigment dyeing cheaper and more environmentally sound. since companies may need to invest some time in developing gentle ingredients. depending on what type of dye is used and how it is applied.The process of pigment dyeing can also be relatively cheap. Environmentally friendly pigment dyes can sometimes be more expensive.

e. the opacity remains. Added to a clear medium. even though some color additives are clear and others have opacifying agents in them. because a dye can only absorb light. could only make the gray into dark or perhaps medium colors. causing the color you added to change. some color is added. . i. Transparent. Textiles already have plenty of scattering for their uses. it gives clear colors. In the field of resins for fiberglass lamination or casting. the words are used interchangeably. such as white oxide powders which scatter light or dark colored powders which both absorb and scatter. A pure dye could never do that. so to color them all you need is dye. this is about the minimum thickness which would fuzz-up your view and stop you from reading a newspaper through it. Virtually every opaque material becomes transparent or translucent if sliced thin enough. if held a certain distance above the paper. So the colors they add are opaque.Definitions are not well established. not even milky or translucent. Added to an opaque medium such as concrete. For lightscattering materials. and the net gray-equivalent brightness is always reduced. it would soon wash out. This enables light-colored pigments to seize control of the color of medium-gray concrete and make it white or light colors. A pigment is a mixture of dye and an opacifying agent. Adding enough white or silver or black powder to a medium shortens the scattering length. but mine is: A dye is a molecule or chemical which absorbs light more at some visible wavelengths than at others. regardless of whether the original medium was clear or opaque. provided the original medium was more translucent than the pigment. This translucency can be quantified. I find this unfortunate. Adding powder would not endure anyway. A white or light-colored pigment can sometimes make a dark medium lighter. In effect. it looks more like paint. the thickness which deflects 63% of the light can be called the "scattering length".

Food coloring is a water-soluble example of what I would call dye. Wood stains intensify the visibility of the wood's grain. as delivered. Hope that adds something relevant to your field. would be a pink or red pigment. with a red dye added. are so concentrated and absorbing that they have a color-tinged black appearance. Many dye additives. . "Stain" tends to mean a dye with selective uptake: some parts of the stained object get darker than others by retaining more of the colorant. or with black powder added. Silver or metallic colorants can only be pigment. The same toothpaste. but if you spread one drop thinly over a surface you could read fine print through it. I find learning to use POV-Ray "visually educating". and results in some opacity.The freeware 3-D photo-realistic rendering software "POV-Ray" uses the word "pigment" to label a collection of color properties which can be applied to a surface. it could be a black pigment. I don't yet understand exactly which properties they allow their term to include. With an overwhelming concentration of dyes. biological stains selectively color certain substances for viewing in the microscope. but it's probably more complex than just colored absorption. A tube of white toothpaste would be a white pigment for some imaginary use.

like transition metal compounds. never add new ones. assume that the measurement was taken under a D65 light source. with broad absorption bandsthat subtract most of the colors of the incident white light. The new reflected light spectrum creates the appearance of a color. and a fairly uniform spectrum. So a BLUE PIGMENT is BLUE because it doesn't reflect RED and GREEN light. Some other wavelengths or parts of the spectrum are reflected or scattered. and absorbs other colors. and deep valleys in others. or "Daylight 6500 K". Lab color measurements. can only subtract wavelengths from the source light. Color spaces used to represent colors numerically must specify their light source. Viewed under these conditions. Pigments. unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances. White light is a roughly equal mixture of the entire spectrum of visible light with a wavelength in a range from about 380 or 400 nanometres to about 760 or 780 nm.Pigments appear the colors they are because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light. Ultramarine reflects blue light. parts of the spectrum are absorbed by the chemical bonds of conjugated systems and other components of the pigment. Artificial light sources tend to have great peaks in some parts of their spectrum. . pigments will appear different colors. or because it reflects all colors but the complementary of theBLUE one. and is considered a standard for white light. Sunlight has a high color temperature. When this light encounters a pigment. Most pigments are charge-transfer complexes. The appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. unless otherwise noted. which is roughly the color temperature of sunlight. which is ORANGE A PURPLE PIGMENT is PURPLE because it absorbs all GREEN light.

insects. Likewise. The product of the source spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the pigment results in the final spectrum. and the appearance of blue. individual rays of light may not encounter pigment molecules. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350. producing a highly saturated color. may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. Binders and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals also have their own reflection and absorption patterns. Before the Industrial Revolution. animal waste. in pigment/binder mixtures. due to the high quantity of escaping white light. These stray rays of source light contribute to the saturation of the color. near Lusaka. and may be reflected as is. A small quantity of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder. Other properties of a color.Sunlight encounters Rosco R80 "Primary Blue" pigment. Some colors were costly or impossible to mix with the range . however. Zambia.000 years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers. which can affect the final spectrum. History Naturally occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Pure pigment allows very little white light to escape. the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technically limited. and mollusks were harvested and traded over long distances. Most of the pigments in use were earth and mineral pigments. such as its saturation or lightness. Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials. will appear desaturated and pale. or pigments of biological origin.000 and 400.

and was continued by the Greeks and Romans until 1453 CE. writing in the 4th century BCE. lapis lazuli. Miracle of the Slave by Tintoretto (c. did not ordinarily include blue in his paintings. The son of a master dyer.of pigments that were available. and items colored with it became associated with power and wealth. Biological pigments were often difficult to acquire. both mineral (azurite. Tyrian Purple is a pigment made from the mucus of one of several species ofMurex snail. If a patron wanted blue. To have one's portrait commissioned and painted with ultramarine blue was considered a great luxury. derived from the cochineal insect. When Van Eyck used lapis. working in the 15th century. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their expense."[4] Mineral pigments were also traded over long distances. Greek historian Theopompus. The only way to achieve a deep rich blue was by using a semi-precious stone. Instead he applied it in pure form. reported that "purple for dyes fetched its weight in silver at Colophon [in Asia Minor]. with the fall of Constantinople. . almost as a decorative glaze.[5] The prohibitive price of lapis lazuli forced artists to seek less expensive replacement pigments. Production of Tyrian Purple for use as a fabric dye began as early as 1200 BCE by the Phoenicians. and the details of their production were kept secret by the manufacturers. smalt) and biological (indigo). 1548). they were forced to pay extra. to achieve dramatic color effects.[3] The pigment was expensive and complex to produce. to produce a pigment known as ultramarine. Tintoretto used Carmine Red Lake pigment. he never blended it with other colors. Flemish painter Jan Van Eyck. and the best sources of lapis were remote.

they were quick to exploit the color for new trade opportunities. food dye. Pigments produced from the cochineal insect gave the Catholic cardinals their vibrant robes and the English "Redcoats" their distinctive uniforms. Produced from harvested. Carmine became the region's second most valuable export next to silver. along with Carmine and Indian yellow. almost any kind of paint orcosmetic. attained great status and value in Europe. and still is. The 17th century Dutch master Johannes Vermeer often made lavish use of lapis lazuli. Development of synthetic pigments . carmine could be. When the Spanish invaded the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico. or in its solid lake form. 1665). While Carmine was popular in Europe. Natives of Peru had been producing cochineal dyes for textiles since at least 700 CE.[7] Girl with a Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer (c.[6] but Europeans had never seen the color before. and crushed cochineal insects. was kept secret until the 18th century.Spain's conquest of a New World empire in the 16th century introduced new pigments and colors to peoples on both sides of the Atlantic. Carmine. body paint. when biologists discovered the source. The true source of the pigment. used in fabric dye. associated with wealth and status. a dye and pigment derived from a parasitic insect found in Central and South America. blue remained an exclusive color. in his vibrant paintings. dried. an insect.

[8] Charcoal. pigments that are manufactured or refined from naturally occurring materials. Because of the expense of Lapis Lazuli. and the hydrated Yellow Ochre (Fe2O3. available both for manufacturing and artistic expression. much effort went into finding a less costly blue pigment. CH3COOH) in the presence of CO2. White lead is made by combining lead with vinegar (acetic acid.The earliest known pigments were natural minerals. has also been used as a black pigment since prehistoric times.H2O).[8] Two of the first synthetic pigments were white lead (basic lead carbonate. Blue frit is calcium copper silicate and was made from glass colored with a copper ore. (PbCO3)2Pb(OH)2) and blue frit (Egyptian Blue). anhydrous Fe2O3. . Two examples include Red Ochre. or carbon black. such as malachite. Natural iron oxides give a range of colors and are found in many Paleolithic and Neolithic cave paintings. These pigments were used as early as the second millennium BCE[9] The Industrial and Scientific Revolutions brought a huge expansion in the range of synthetic pigments.