Concentration and Rate of Reaction

Reaction: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Data
Qualitative Data: In the 1st and 2nd runs, there is a fizzing sound when the 0.02g Mg strip is put into the solution. Clear bubbles also form rapidly. However, this is less apparent in the 3rd run, less noticeable in 4th and 5th run, and very slow in the 6th run. Quantitative Data: 2nd Volume of H2 (cm3 ) ±0.025 0.0 5.0 10.5 15.0 17.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0

Time (seconds) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115

1st Volume of H2 (cm3 ) ±0.025 0.0 5.5 12.0 17.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0

3rd Volume of H2 (cm3 ) ±0.025 0.0 3.5 4.5 6.0 8.0 9.5 11.0 13.0 14.0 19.0 20.0 20.0 20.0. 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0

4th Volume of H2 (cm3 ) ±0.025 0.0 3.5 4.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.0 11.5 12.5 14.0 15.0 16.5 18.0 20.5 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0

5th Volume of H2 (cm3 ) ±0.025 0.0 3.5 7.0 10.0 13.5 16.0 18.5 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0

6th Volume of H2 (cm3 ) ±0.025 0.0 1.5 3.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.5

0 1. By looking at the slope of the tangent of the curves when time =1 second.8M HCl 0.4M HCl Volume of H2 (cm3) Based on the above graph. I worked out the lines of best fit for each concentration (see attached) and using that graph.4M HCl 0. The results are shown below: Volume of HCl (cm3) ±1 Volume of H2O (cm3) ±1 Concentration of HCl (M) ±1 Rate of reaction at 1 second (cm3/sec) # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Volume of H2 at 1 second 50 40 30 20 10 10 0 10 20 30 40 40 2.6M HCl 1.4 0.4 6 4 2 1 1 0.6 1.2M HCl 0.8 0. I found rate of reactions for each concentration of HCl. I created this graph to show the relationship between the concentration of HCl and the rate of reaction: .Graph showing concentration of HCl and Volume of H2 given out 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (seconds) 2M HCl 1.2 0.5 6 4 2 1 1 0.5 Based on the data from the above table.

Theoretically. Therefore a higher concentration will lead to a faster rate. the rate of reaction measured is higher than that of the run with 0. Errors Systematic Errors:  Time of reading of gas 2/5 = 40%  Weight of magnesium 0. the rate of reaction will increase. Overall.0005/0.02 = 2. Although in my fifth experiment (concentration of HCl is 0.5% .4M).Graph showing the relationship between the concentration of HCl and the rate of reaction 7 Volum of H2 (cm3) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. the chances of collision are greater. If the concentration is higher. We can see a strong positive correlation between the two – as the concentration of HCl increases. Conclusion The objective of this experiment was to determine if there is a relationship between the concentration for HCl and the rate of reaction when Mg is added to HCl. which states that particles must collide with each other in order for a reaction to occur. however.8M HCl.5 *I am assuming that my 5th run is an anomaly because it differs from the trend the rest of my data are showing. The data generally supports this hypothesis: the lines of best fit for the ultraviolet radiation data and the control data clearly indicate that the irradiated samples reacted faster than the control samples.5 1 1. it can be treated as an anomaly since all the other runs support my hypothesis. this can be explained by the collision theory.5 Concentration of HCl (M) 2 2. the data I collected strongly suggest that the rate of reaction increases as the concentration of HCl increases.

The measurement will be I can use a syringe less accurate. The heat generated from the reaction will speed up the rate of reaction even more.08/0. to make the reaction less exothermic. . I can use pipette to measure out the acid to improve the accuracy. copper. I will not be able to accurately find the disparities between the rate of reactions with respect to only the concentration of HCl This will decrease the concentration of HCl and hence decrease the rate of reaction. e. where the rate of reaction is the fastest. as mentioned in my evaluation (see below).  The reaction is exothermic: therefore temperature is changing  The Mg strip might be oxidised: The amount of gas will be less than the theoretical amount since some of the Mg is already reacted through oxidation with air.025/1. This will affect the concentration for the HCl. instead of a measuring cylinder next time. Wet conical flask Using a cylinder to measure out the HCl and distilled water Gas collection with a measuring cylinder. Another error might be the concentration of HCl. This will decrease the value when I calculate my rate of reaction because of the smaller amount of H2 measured. Random Errors:  Gas lost: This is especially apparent in the first run. but this can be effectively solved.5 = 16% Gas collected 0. Concentration of HCl 2(2/50) = 0. unwanted particles involved. I can use a less reactive metal.08 0. The other errors are insignificant. Improvements I can use emery paper to clean the Mg strip first. I can use different conical flasks next time to ensure that there are no impurities from previous experiments. and hence the comparison of the rates of reactions.6%  Hence the biggest percentage error comes from the time lags.g. hence decreasing the effect of the heat given out.5 = 1. Evaluation Weakness Impurities in Mg Effect on Results This will change the rate of reaction because there are additional.