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5.1

The metric

The Minkowski metric in polar coordinates: ds2 = c2 dt2 + dr 2 + r 2 (d 2 + sin2 d2 ) Introduce a pointmass ds2 = B(r)c2 dt2 + A(r)dr 2 + r 2 (d 2 + sin2 d2 ) At large distances B(r) = A(r) 1. In a weak static eld produced by a nonrelativistic mass density, the time-time component of the metric at the Newtonian limit can be expressed as a function of the potential : B(r) (1 + 2/c2 ) = 1 2GM c2 r (63) (62) (61)

A(r) can be obtained from the eld equations: A(r) = B(r)1 ds2 = c2 (1 2GM 2 dr 2 )dt + + r 2 (d 2 + sin2 d2 ) 2r c 1 2GM c2 r (64)

This is the Schwarzschild metric (Schwarzschild 1916). Remember that the solution is valid only under the assumption of central symmetry (which is not in general the condition in nature). The metric breaks down at 2GM (65) c2 (gtt =0 but grr ). rS is the Schwarzschild radius. This is not a true singularity but an artifact of the coordinate system and can be removed in a coordinate transformation. However, the Schwarzschild limit, dened by this radius, certainly has a very unusual property, as is described below. rS = The Schwarzschild radius of the Sun is rS = 3 km and of the Earth rE = 9 mm.

5.2

Black holes.

The Schwarzschild metric is valid for the objects we call Black holes (Wheeler 1971). Black holes may form in the early phases of the evolution of the universe as a consequence of strong uctuations in the dense primordial medium. These are expected to have small masses and are called mini-BHs. More massive BHs may form later on during phase transitions. They may also form when massive bodies that are no longer pressure supported by radiation, collapse under the gravitational force. Quantum mechanics predict that because of electron degeneracy, electron pressure should stop the contraction if the mass is below 1.4 M , the Chandrasekhar mass. The resulting object becomes a white dwarf star. If the mass is larger, the contraction continues until we reach neutron degeneracy and a neutron star is formed. If the mass is larger than M 2.5-3 17

M , the Landau-Oppenheimer-Volko limit, the object collapses with no halt. If the collapse is symmetric, the star ends up in a singularity. For a stationary observer dr=d=d=0. Outside rS , d 0. I.e. this observer follows a timelike world line. But inside rS the world line is space-like! So the observer is forced to move towards r=0 which means that r and t swap character! Generally we may write d 2 = (1 rS 2 )dt r (66)

S The gravitational eld causes a redshift d = (1 rr )1/2 dt, where as usual d is invariant. If we compare ticks at two dierent places we obtain

t1 = t2

2 1 1 rS /r2 = = 1 rS /r1 1 2

(67)

where and is the frequency and wavelength of e.g. electromagnetic radiation emitted at the two locations. We notice some dramatic consequences close to rS . A person in free fall will apparently cross the Schwarzschild limit and be forced right into the centre (while being stretched out into an innitely thin string). The time it takes to do this may be obtained from equation 56 with d=d=0: is

0

d 2 =

0

(68)

After crossing the horizon the time it takes to reach the centre is = 2rs /c. The characteristic timescale thus is 105 M/M seconds for infall from close to a near-solar-mass hole. We, who watch this astonishing event happen will experience that the adventurer actually never crosses the Schwarzschild border but approaches it asymtotically while his or her clock seems to go at an increasingly slower speed. The light is thus increasingly redshifted and weakened and eectively disappears from our view within a fraction of a second. The Schwarzschild limit apparently represents an event horizon. The only information that can reach us about the properties of the hole inside rS is the mass, the electric charge and the angular momentum (but see below about the Hawking radiation). This is the reason why these objects are called black holes. Sometimes you will hear that black holes are called objects with no hair because so much of the objects identity is lost when crossing rS . Charged BHs are sometimes called Reissner-Nordstrm holes and rotating holes o are called Kerr holes. A rotating black hole has interesting properties. It has two limits - the static limit, having a spheroidal shape, and the Schwarzshild limit with the same properties as discussed before. The region between these two borders is called the ergosphere. In the ergoshpere it is impossible to remain at rest, you are forced to move around the centre of the black hole. But you are not

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forced to move towards the centre, it is actually possible to cross the static limit and travel back once you are inside. The massive black holes observed in the centres of galaxies are likely to be Kerr holes. Those are surrounded by a disk of matter that has been accreted from the gas and stars hosted in the central region of the galaxy. From the inner part of the accretion disk, matter is pumped into the ergosphere of the BH. Part of the matter will continue its journey across the Schwarzschild limit. During this process energy can be extracted from the hole and transferred to the remaining infalling matter which then will leave the hole with boosted energy. This is the suspected mechanism behind the jets from radio galaxies. One famous case is the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, sitting in the centre of the large nearby cluster of galaxies in Virgo. In this case there is evidence of a compact object in the centre of the galaxy, having a mass of a few times 109 M . Also in the nearby Andromeda galaxy there is strong support of a central BH with a mass of a few times 107 M . The evidence of their presence mainly comes from the kinematics of the stars and gas in the region surrounding the hole and the rapid light variations, limiting the size of the massive object. The Hubble telescope has been an important instrument in these studies. BHs with masses of a few M are thought to be observed in binary stellar systems, where they are disguised by the hard radiation emitted from the accretion disk. The time reversal of a black hole is called a white hole. These objects, actually producing matter of unpredictable properties, are allowed in GR because of the time reversibility of the Einstein equations but require very special conditions near the singularity, whereas black holes are easier to form. Thus, it is likely that in practice only black holes can form (cmp. irreversibility in thermodynamics). From time to time it is speculated whether it would be possible to make a journey entering a Kerr hole and pop up in a white hole either in our universe or a a new baby universe. Although this issue has not been settled there are no observational support of white holes in our part of the universe.

5.3

At present times gravitation is the dominating force on large scales in the universe and we can use GRT to derive equations describing the evolution. At very early times quantum eects start to dominate and we need a quantum theory of gravitation to describe the state. Since such a theory does not yet exist we are limited to how far backwards in time we can go to trace the history of the universe, based on modern physics. This temporal limit is called the Planck time and can be derived with the help of the theory of black holes. The Compton wavelength is C = h/Mc. From the Schwarzschild radius rS = 2GM/c2 we can derive the Planck mass, MP , by equating C and rS MP hc/G 2.2 108 kg and the Planck length P = G /c3 1.6 1035 m. h The corresponding Planck energy is EP = MP c2 2.0 MJ. Likewise we can dene the Planck time tP = P /c = 5.31 1044 s. At even earlier times the temporal order of events is unspecied and time looses its meaning. Thus, Big Bang did not occur at a well dened event in the past, we can only talk about its existence with some statistical probability at times before tP . This also brings up the dicult question about the origin of time and the direction of times arrow. Even if we accept that time is well dened in

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macroscopic systems, the equations that describe the evolution of macroscopic systems, like Newtons and Keplers laws, are time symmetric. Bolzmann thought for a while that the 2:d law of thermodynamics explained the direction of time. Thus times arrow would point in the direction of increasing entropy. The origin of the direction of time and whether or not it is possible to travel backwards in time is still widely debated.

5.4

Hawking radiation

Because of the uncertain causal order between events at the quantum level, there is a demand for the existence of antiparticles alongside with normal particles. There is also a necessity for virtual particle-antiparticle pairs to be created and destroyed in vacuum. The lifetime of these particles according to Heisenbergs uncertainty principle is approximately h h = (69) E 2mc2 If a pair is created outside and close to the event horizon there is a nite probability thet one of the particles could cross the horizon and get lost forever. Then we are left with a real particle that seems to have been created close to the horizon. Since the momentum is conserved, this particle leaves the hole, taking some energy from the gravitational eld of the hole, which thus shrinks. Alternatively we may think of the eect as a particle (the antiparticle of the infalling particle moving backwards in time) tunneling through the horizon. The eect is named Hawking radiation (Hawking 1974). From estimates of the ux of particles created by such events we can calculate the evaporation time t tevap 1065 M(M ) yr

12 3

(70)

Thus we would expect that holes of the mass M 10 kg and the size of an atom are active today and emit most of their energy in the nal stage as gamma rays. We can also express the energy distribution of the emitted particles as a temperature and estimates show that T 5 107 /M(M ) K (71)

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