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at Panipat and Gorga did not result in the complete annihilation of the Afghan chiefs. They were seething with discontent against the newly founded alien rule, and only needed the guidance of one strong personality to coalesce their isolated efforts in to an organized national resistance against it. This they got in Sher Khan Sur, who effected the revival of the Afghan power and established a glorious, though short lived, regime in India by ousting the newly established Mughul authority. The career of Sher Khan Sur, the hero of Indo-Muslim revival, is as fascinating as that of Babur and not less instructive than that of the great Mughul, Akbar. Originally bearing the name of Farid, he began his life in a humble way, and, like many other great men in history, had to pass through various trials and vicissitudes of fortune before he rose to prominence by dint of his personal merit. His grandfather, Ibrahim, an Afghan of the Sur tribe, lived near Peshawar and his father's name Hasan. Ibrahim migrated with his son to the east in quest of military service in the early part of Buhlul Lodi's reign and both first entered the service of Mahabat Khan Sur, jagirdar of the paraganas of Hariana and Bakhala in the Punjab, and settled in the paragana of Bajwara or Bejoura. After some time Ibrahim got employment under Jamal Khan Sarang Khani of Hissar Firuza in the Delhi district, who conferred upon Ibrahim some villages in the paragana of Narnaul for the maintenance of forty horsemen in his service. Farid was born probably near Narnaul. Farid was soon taken to Sasaram by his father, Hasan, who had been granted a jagir there by his master, Umar Khan Sarwahi, entitled Khan-I-Azam, when the latter got the governorship of Jaunpur. Hasan, like the other nobles of his time, was a polygamist, and Farid's step-mother had predominant influence over him. This made him indifferent to Farid whereupon the latter left home at the age of twenty-two and went to Jaunpur. Thus the Afghan youth was forced into a life of adventure and struggle, which cast his mind and character in a heroic mould. For some time he devoted himself to study. By indefatigable industry and steady application, Farid early attracted the attention of his teachers at Jaunpur and quickly gained an uncommon acquaintance with the Persian language and literature. He was capable of reproducing from memory the Gulistan, Bustan and Sikandar-namah. Being pleased with this promising youth, Jamal Khan, his father's patron, effected a reconciliation between him and his father, who allowed him to return to Sasaram and to administer the paraganas of Sasaram and Khawaspur, both then within the jurisdiction of Sarkar. The successful administration of those two places by Farid served to increase his step-mother's jealousy, and so leaving Sasaram once again he went to Agra. On the death of his father, Farid took possession of his paternal jagir on the strength of a royal foreman, which he had been able to procure at Agra. In 1522 he got into the service of Bahar Khan Lohani, the independent ruler of Bihar, whose favour he soon secured by discharging his duties honestly and assiduously. His master conferred on him the title of Sher Khan for his having shown gallantry by killing a tiger single-handed, and also soon rewarded his ability and faithfulness by appointing him his deputy (Vakil) and tutor (Ataliq) of his minor son, Jalal Khan. But perverse destiny again went against Sher. His enemies poisoned his master's mind against him, and he was once more deprived of his father's jagir. "Impressed by the complete success of Mughul arms" and with the prospect of future gain, he now joined Babur's camp, where he remained from April, 1527, to June, 1528. In return for the valuable services he rendered to Babur in his eastern campaigns, the latter restored Sasaram to him. Sher soon left the Mughul service and came back to Bihar to become again its deputy governor and guardian of his former pupil, Jalal Khan. While the minor king remained as the nominal ruler of Bihar, Sher became the virtual head of its government. In the course of four years he won over the greater part of the army to his cause and "elevated himself to a state of complete independence". Meanwhile, the fortress of Chunar, luckily came into his possession. Taj Khan, the Lord of Chunar, was killed by his eldest son, who had risen against his father for his infatuation with a younger wife, Lad Malika. This widow, however, married Sher Khan and gave him the fortress of Chunar. Humayun besieged Chunar in 1531, but Sher Khan had taken no part
a race for the Empire with hereditary crowned heads like Bahadur Shah and Humayun Padshah. Sher again invaded Bengal about the middle of October. Thus the work of Babur in India was undone. after the expulsion of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat to Diu. went to occupy the Mughul territories in Bihar and Jaunpur and plunder the tract as far west as kanauj. but by another unfrequented and less circuitous one. hopelessly demoralized. it was greater in its far-reaching political result. into which he had recklessly jumped. and by ceding to him a territory extending from Kiul to Sakrigali. They then entered into an alliance (Sept. The rapid and unexpected rise of Sher at the expense of the Lohani Afghans made the latter. Baffled in Bihar. cleverly avoiding any open contest with him in Bengal.I. "Great as it was as a military achievement. 1539. in spite of himself. was disconcerted on hearing of Sher's activities in the west and left Bengalfor Agra before his return should be cut off. realized the gravity of the Afghan menace in the east rather too late and marched to oppose Sher Khan in the second week of December. He suddenly invaded Bengal and appeared before its capital. the Mughuls and the Afghans met again opposite kanauj. east of the town of Bihar (1534). But instead of proceeding straight to Gaur. he now assumed the royal title of Sher Shah and ordered the Khutba to be read and the coins to be struck in his name. Sher had an opportunity to increase his power when Humayun marched against Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. at Chaunsa near Buxar. and. and then sovereignty of Hindustan once more passed to the Afghans. 1537. But for the victory at Surajgarh. These fresh acquisitions considerably enhanced Sher's power and prestige. the jagirdar of Sasaram would never have emerged from his obscurity into the arena of politics to run. not by the usual route through the Taliagarhi passes (near modern Sahebganj on the E. by which he could have frustrated the designs of Sher Khan in alliance with the Sultan of Bengal. They tried to get rid of this dictator.in the Afghan rising of that year and saved his position by a timely submission to the Mughul invader. who was naturally eager to check the rise of Sher. however. on the banks of the Kiul river... To legalize what he had gained by the strength of arms and strategy. On the 17th May. Thus strengthened. in his usual fashion. while Sher Khan was left free to utilize that time for the reduction of Gaur by April. amounting to thirteen lacs of gold pieces. The victory at Surajgarh was indeed a turning-point in the career of Sher. Humayun. 1533) with Mahmud Shah. ninety miles in length with a breadth of thirty miles. concluded peace with him by paying him a large sum. the King of Bengal. and Humayun just managed to escape. The attempt. Ry. 1540. 1537. and closely besieged the city of Gaur. Humayun. with a view to conquering it permanently. Loop line).. Humayun turned towards Bengal and entered Gaur in July. Next year Humayun made another attempt to recover his fortune. The victory over the sovereign of Delhi widened the limit of Sher Khan's ambition and made him the de facto ruler of the territories extending from Kanauj in the west to the hills of Assam and Chittagong in the east and from the Himalayas in the north to the hills of Jharkhand (from Rohtas to Birbhum) and the Bay of Bengal in the south. The sons of Babur failed to combine even at such a critical . commonly known as the battle of Kanauj. Most of the Mughul soldiers were drowned or captured. and the life of their unlucky ruler was saved by a water-carrier. Gaur. who carried him on his water-skin across the Ganges. by Sher Khan and his Afghan followers and suffered a heavy defeat in June. But he was opposed on the way. Mahmud Shah. The army of Humayun." It made him the undisputed ruler of Bihar in fact as well as in name. Sher Khan had also captured the fortress of Rohtas by questionable means and had sent his family and wealth there. the weak ruler of Bengal. was severely defeated by the Afghans at the battle of the Ganges or Bilgram. 1538. half-hearted and badly officered. he besieged Chunar. though he could not secure the co-operation of his brothers in spite of his best attempts. But Sher Khan. 1538. But the brave Afghan deputy inflicted a defeat on the allied troops of the Bengal Sultan and the Lohanis at Surajgarh. many of the distinguished Afghan nobles joined their rising leader in the east. who was then whiling away his time in idleness and festivities at Gaur. without making any serious attempt to oppose the Afghan invader. and even Jalal Khan. impatient of his control. The brave garrison of Sher Khan at Chunar baffled all the attempts of the assailants for six months. failed owing to his "unusual circumspection". From this time Humayun had to lead the life of a wandered for about fifteen years. who on his way back from Gujarat and Malwa had been wasting his time at Agra. which prejudiced his own prestige and power.
who had not yet recovered fully from the blow of Khanau. the Rajputs took their lives. He was Maldev. . to subdue the warlike hill tribes of the Gakkar country. A brave warrior and a successful conqueror. "changed the military character of the provincial administration and substituted a completely new mechanism. There remained only one more formidable enemy of Sher Shah to be subdued. The province was divided into several districts. said to have been written to him by the Rajput generals. situated between the upper courses of the Indus and the Jhelum. Their selfishness triumphed over common interests and Sher Shah was able to extend his authority to the Punjab also. were placed a Shiqdar-I-Shiqdaran and a Munsif-I-Munsifan to supervise the work of the paragana officers. while others were entirely original in character. the whole Empire was divided into forty-seven units (sarkars). his qualities as a ruler were more remarkable than his victories on the field of battle. Instigated by some disaffected Rajput chiefs whose territories had been conquered by Maldev." Though Sher Shah's government was a highly centralized system. Considering it inadvisable to risk an open battle with the Rathors in their own country. with their followers opposed Sher Shah's army and fought with desperate valour. he marched against Puran Mal of Raisin in Central India. Keene. indeed. and thus succeeded in frightening the Rathor ruler. Maldev. Sind and Multan were annexed to the Afghan Empire by the governor of Punjab. The paragana had one Ami . Sher Shah won a victory. which elicited admiration even from eulogists of his enemies. After this success. 1541. was not unprepared. crowned by a bureaucracy. He ravaged this territory but could not thoroughly reduce the Gakkars. with real power concentrated in the hands of the King. Having subjugated Malwa in A. The Afghan ruler marched. and themselves died to a man. Some of these were by way of revival and reformation of the traditional features of the old administrative systems of India." affirms Mr. But the Afghans fell furiously on the people of the fort as soon as the latter had come outside the walls. who retreated from the field and took refuge in the fortress of Sivan. but only to meet a warrior's death.D. at once original in principle and efficient in working". one treasurer. Sher Shah was the architect of a brilliant administrative system. though at great cost. He succeeded in capturing the fort. Sher Shah had recourse to a stratagem. one Hindu writer and one Persian writer to keep accounts. Hindu as well as Muslim. where his deputy had imprudently rebelled against his authority. His brief reign of five years was marked by the introduction of wise and salutary changes in every conceivable branch of administration. the sarkar. the Rajput ruler of Marwar. but died from an accidental explosion of gunpowder on the 22nd may. though Humayun went to Lahore and did his best to win them over. the generals of the Rajput army. The Rajputs lost a chance of revival and the path was left open for undisputed Afghan supremacy over Northern India. miles. To save their wives and children from disgrace. each of which was to be governed by an officer appointed directly by him and responsible to him alone. whose territories extended over about 10. one Shiqdar. each of which was again divided into several paraganas. in 1543. he "attempted to found an empire broadly based upon the people's will". promising him their help. 1542. a consummate general and energetic ruler. 1545. with his usual promptitude and vigour. The Raisin incident has been condemned by several writers as a great blot on the character of Sher Shah. the Mughuls. After some resistance the garrison of the fort of Raisin capitulated. He dismissed the rebel. a link between ancient and modern India. For convenience of administration. "has shown so much wisdom as this Pathan. Over the next higher administrative unit. In fact. "No government-not even the British. He sent to Maldev a few forged letters. regardless of the rights and interests of the people. Sher Shah reduced to submission the whole region from Ajmer to Abu and marched to besiege the for of Kalinjar. on his part. In the spirit of an enlightened despot. fighting bravely against their formidable foe. he was not an unbridled autocrat. with the loss of several thousand Afghans on the battlefield and coming near to losing his empire. the King devised the plan of transferring them every two or three years. In spite of this. like Jeta and Kama. and form. as he had to proceed hurriedly to Bengal in March. To check undue influence of the officers in their respective jurisdictions.moment. Sher Khan led an expedition against the Rathor chief in AD 1544. the Rajputs agreeing to evacuate the fort on condition that they were allowed to pass "unmolested" beyond the frontier of Malwa. Sher Shah next turned his attention against the Rajputs of the west.000 sq.
" observes Dr. the Shiqdars. and the patta (title-deed). Like Asoka and Harsha." Sher Shah had a strong sense of justice. the police system was reorganized. it received due recognition in the State. One road ran from Agra to Burhanpur. which facilitated quick exchange of news and supplied the Government with information from different parts of the Empire.which. mostly criminal." observes Nizam-ud-din. civil suits were disposed of by the Amin. He employed Hindus in important offices of the State. there was no need for keeping watch. "Such was the state of safety of the highway. Several paraganas had over them a Munsif-I-Munsifan to try civil cases. and not even the near relatives of the King being spared from its decrees. one of his best generals being Brahamjit Gaur. which still survives. These sarais also served the purpose of post-houses. and sarais or rest-houses at different stages. He reformed the tariff by removing vexatious customs and permitting the imposition of customs on articles of trade only at the frontiers and in the places of sale. and above all." Sher Shah realized the importance of maintaining a strong and efficient army. could not be long-enduring owing to the brief span of his rule. he took . Sher Shah's land revenue reforms. Sher Shah planted shad-giving trees on both sides of the established roads. The longest of these. "was not of contemptuous sufferance but of respectful deference. Punctual and full paying of the assessed amount was insisted on and enforced. Following the traditions of some rulers of the past. and other cases. the imperial Sadr. His treatment of the Hindus in general was tolerant and just. The rights of the tenants were duly recognized and the liabilities of each were clearly defined in the kabuliyat (deed of agreement). separate arrangements being provided for the Muslims and the Hindus. This was further helped by the improvement of communications. have unique importance in the administrative history of India. Thus the village headmen were made responsible for the detection of criminals. and a fourth from Lahore to Multan. Sher Shah connected the important places of his kingdom by a chain of excellent roads. At the capital city there were the Chief Qazi. no distinction being made between the high and the low. if necessary. payable either in kind or in cash. For the purpose of imperial defense. the Maqadams. Sher Shah was not a fierce bigot.500 kilos from Sonargaon in Eastern Bengal to the Indus. for they served as the model for future agrarian systems. Though a pious Muslim. Remissions of rents were made. the Emperor as the highest authority in judicial as in other matters. the services of a body of armed retainers. another from Agra to Jodhpur and the fort of Chitor. or the insufficiency of rain. he acted up to the maxim that "it behooves the great to be always active". he settled the land revenue direct with the cultivators.To secure peace and order. In the paragana. and probably loans were advanced to the tenants in case of damage to crops caused by the encampment of soldiers. He not only introduced some specific changes in the mint but also tried to rectify "the progressive deterioration of the previous Kings". borrowing largely the main principles of 'Ala-ud-din Khalji's military system. and so reorganized it. This considerably helped the cause of commerce by facilitating easy and cheap transport of merchandise. The currency and tariff reforms of Sher Shah were also calculated to improve the general economic condition of his Empire. For actual collection of revenue the Government utilized the services of officers like the Amins. and maintenance of peace. He instructed the revenue officials to show leniency at the time of assessment and to be strict at the time of collection of revenues. Every branch of the administration was subject to Sher Shah's personal supervision. however. These revenue reforms increased the resources of the State and at the same time conduced to the interest of the people. by the Qazi and the Mir-I-Adal. or of a feudal levy. as well as for the convenience of the people. the Grand Trunk Road. in the rural areas. "that if any one carried a purse full of gold (pieces) and slept in the desert (deserted places) for nights. which the State took from him. the latter method being preferred. the State demand being fixed at one-fourth or one-third of the average produce. which it gave him in return. extends for 1. and its administration under him was even-handed. The efficiency of the system has been testified to by all the Muslim writers. Qanungo. based on wise and humane principles. After a careful and proper survey of the lands. The maintenance of an efficient system of espionage also enabled the ruler to know what happened in his kingdom. who had no reason to be partial towards Sher Shah. the Qanungos and the Patwaris. and the principle of local responsibility for local crimes was enforced. "His attitude towards Hinduism. by Sher Shah. were not considered sufficient for his needs.
Garrisons were maintained at different strategic points of the kingdom. the latter's equipment for kingship was exceptionally high. As Smith observes: "If Sher Shah had been spared. His administrative machinery with slight modifications was adopted by Akbar and his successors as the basis of their government. His "military character" was marked by "a rare combination of caution and enterprise". In fact. But the importance of Surs lies principally in having produced SherShah who by virtue of his conquests and administrative reforms earned for himself a place of honor among the rulers and empire-builders of India. even today. Shershah was the first Muslim sovereign who placed before himself the ideal of promoting public welfare without distinction of caste or creed. Besides duly supervising the recruitment of soldiers. and had achieved a good deal more than the mere conquest of territories. 300 elephants and artillery. Sher Shah enforced strict discipline in the army and took ample precautions to prevent corruption among the soldiers. each of these. the restoration of the Mughuls would not have been accomplished so soon. He had. by the strong tie of personal devotion and discipline. took their descriptive rolls and revived the practice of branding horses. He wanted to strengthen the defence of the frontiers so effectively that the restoration of the Mughals by invasion from without or by rebellion within should become possible. just and humane. hailing from the frontier. was under the command of a faujdar. An Advanced History of India. He had under his direct command a large force consisting of 150. But he could not make much headway in provincial or central . for the rule of his dynasty in India. They introduced a new concept of sovereignty and effected a reorientation of a political institution. the 'Great Moghuls' would not have appeared on the stage of history. While Humayun had inherited the conquests of a Central Asian adventurer. "more of the spirit of a legislator and a guardian of his people than any prince before Akbar".000 cavalry. by his noble mausoleum at Sasaram. Secondly he sought to organize the Afghans in such a manner that their defects might gradually wear off and their sovereignty might acquire permanence. Thus his despotism rested on a democratic foundation. Sher Shah’s government was as autocratic as that of Balban or Alauddin but he got it approved by the Afghan assembly itself. his religious attitude was free from medieval bigotry." His right to the throne of India was better than that of Humayun.care to maintain a regular army. But for his accidental death after only five years' rule. except that of force. he personally fixed their salaries. remarks Erskine. his political conduct was. and his reforms were well calculated to secure the interests of the people. Human Biology (specialist) student at the University of Toronto. and he prepared the ground for the glorious Akbaride regime in more ways than one. He seems to have begun with the last rung of the administrative ladder the village and had worked up to the pargana and the sarkar level but failed to find time for touching up the provincial and central government. Besides his versatile genius and indefatigable industry enabled him not only to lay down the general policy of all departments but also to superintend and control its execution in detail in day to day administration. and his excellent taste in building is well attested. 25. Canada. the real significance of his reign lies in the fact that he embodied in himself those very qualities which are needed for the building of a national State in India. Sher Shah is indeed a striking personality in the history of Medieval India. the soldiers being bound to him. through their immediate commanding officer. He applied his indefatigable industry to the service of the State. had lived within India for three generations. Raychaudhuri. By virtue of sheer merit and ability he rose from a very humble position to be the leader of Afghan revival. on the whole. who had not been able to create any strong claim. (Delhi: Macmillan India Limited. Compiled by: Haroon Mohsini. called a fauj.000 infantry. Further. fourth edition reprinted 1998) Importance of Sher Shah Suri and Sur Dynasty Surs had founded the Second Afghan Empire in India. Datta. and one of the greatest rulers that India has produced. Sher Shah's family. Main Source: Majumdar.
It was here that Sher Khan got to know the inherent weaknesses of the Mughal-Turk structure of . The sarais was used as dak-chaukis where harkaras and mounted news carriers were posted for carrying news to the next sarais both up and down the road. The Lodhi Sultanate was in its twilight when Sher Khan joined the service of Ibrahim Lodhi in Agra. At intervals of four miles sarais were built which soon became the nuclei of new market towns. Later the relations between the two became estranged and Sher Khan left to join the Mughal service under Babur. He is also by all means the first true social reformer in the history of Indo-Pakistan. Sher Shah’s land revenue policy protected the interests both of the peasant and the landlord. he had risen to become the most powerful ruler of the Subcontinent since Asoka. Merits of Sher Shah lies in introducing a permanent schedule of rates defining the mutual rights and obligations of the peasant and the state through patta and qabuliyat adopting measurement as the normal method of assessment and in harmonious adjustment of the interests of all parties concerned. Farid Khan saved Bahar Khan's life when a tiger attacked him. In establishing internal peace and security they made the people shoulder a part of the responsibility which made them self-reliant and imparted stability to the government. To improve means of communication in the Empire. He left home early on with a desire to make something of himself.government. He devoted himself to education and became a master at Persian language. They made administration of justice more efficient and improved the lot of the peasantry. They put an end to the anarchy which had come in the wake of the weak rule of the later Tughlaqs and the Sayyads and strove to build up a strong centralised government. His achievements are phenomenal. Independent kingdoms of Malwa. Sher Shah made separate provision for supplying food and water to Hindu and Muslim wayfarers. They were patrons of men of learning and piety. whose real name was Farid Khan. Sher Shah planned these roads to connect the capital with the various provinces of the empire so that in case of necessity troops might be rapidly rushed to the affected region. A self made man. was born to an Afghan-Muslim jagirdar of the Sur Tribe of the Afghans. he left Ibrahim's service for Bahar Khan's service closer to home. It was here that he earned the title of "Sher Khan" for his courage. It is said that on a hunting trip with Bahar Khan. However in 1522. He tried to prevent exploitation of the peasant but at the same time he did not completely abolish the traditional rights of the muqaddams and the assignees. Sher Shah Suri. Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri has always occupied a special place in the History of the Subcontinent and that of Islam.old roads were repaired and new ones laid out.He seems to have been conscious of the evils of the jagirdari system and yet he could not dispense with it everywhere lest it might cause discontent among the Afghan leaders. Jaunpur and Bengal had ended and nobles of the central region were made amenable to discipline and obedience. and in many ways its first "socialist" King. The Afghans dominated politics from 1451 to 1555 and during this period they did a number of remarkable things. He is also revered as the first true Indian Muslim King to rule Indo-Pakistan. The Afghans introduced a new ideal of government and instead of autocratic domination of the nobles they tried to govern in collaboration with them. The sarais served as convenient camping grounds for the military forces especially when a market town grew up around it. In cooperation with the Hindus they tried to found a government based on national solidarity. Apparently Farid Khan was not a favorite of his father. Surs had migrated from Ghaur in Modern Day Afghanistan to Bihar during Bahlol Lodhi'sreign.
10 years after his Death Humayun returned at the head of a safvid Army and retook Dehli and Agra. Sher Shah Suri was a brilliant Military strategician. could not be longenduring owing to the brief span of his rule. the Sher Shah devised the plan of transferring them every two or three years. which. the whole Empire was divided into forty-seven units each of which was again divided into several sununits. Meanwhile in the North West India. the hero of the second battle of Panipat. Humayun met his tragic end falling off the stairs. Rohtas Fort ( – قلعہ روہتاسQila Rohtas) While this siege progressed. Humayun barely made it back to Dehli. To check undue influence of the officers in their respective jurisdictions. based on wise and humane principles. In early 1538 Humayun marched against Sher Khan and laid siege to Chunar which was fatal mistake on his part. He was succeeded by the 13 year old Akbar and his "Ataleeq" Bairam Khan. Sher Khan consolidated his power further by taking over Rohtas Fort. however. the minor Jalal Khan was ruling. Babur has said to have already spotted Sher Khan as a potential trouble maker for the future. He made his first move against Bahadur Shah. On the way Sher Khan struck Humayun's forces at Chaunsa in June 1539 inflicting upon them a severe defeat.Historians have often accused Sher Shah of treachery in this respect. Sher Shah Suri also introduced the idea of a unified currency and tariffs to . After this Sher Shah campaigned extensively against the Rajputs. He carried out extensive agrarian and administrative restructuring laying the foundation for the administration which helped Akbar and the rest of the Mughals to rule for the next 300 years. For months Sher Khan retreated. one Hindi writer and one Persian writer to keep accounts. Sher Shah's soldier entered the Rohtas fort under the guise of women in "shahi dolis". Sher Khan further consolidated his power by invading and finally annexing Bengal from the Lodhis. Soon mistrust and suspicion forced Sher Khan to flee from the Mughal camp to join once again his old master Bahar Khan's service where now Bahar's son. one treasurer. For convenience of administration. He met his end at Kalinja where he was died in a freak accident with one of the cannons. Now it was Sher Shah's turn to pursue Humayun. These revenue reformsincreased the resources of the State and at the same time conduced to the interest of the people. Sher khan asked the Hindu ruler of Rohtas to give his family shelter. Remissions of rents were made.The subunit had one Ami . and decribed by many as extremely Machiavellian in nature. and probably loans were advanced to the tenants in case of damage to crops caused by the encampment of soldiers. Sher Khan's opponents rallied under the lodhi Afghan ruler Sultan Mahmud Lodhi and the minor Jalal Khan. He defeated formidable foes like Puran Mill and Maldev. giving rise to another famous folklore of "Nizam Saqqa" the water carrier. Every branch of the administration was subject to Sher Shah's personal supervision. and Humayun pursued him into Bengal.Then finally at Gaur Humayun turned back. Sher Khan overcame this opposition at the famous battle of surajgarh which broke the back of the Lodhis. one Shiqdar. Sher Khan and Bahadur Shah as a threat to his rule. while he goes to battle against the Mughals. His conquest of Rohtas Fort and the massacre of Puran Mill's family are two blots on Sher Shah Suri's character. Sher Shah's land revenue reforms. Humayun considered both Sultan Mahmud Lodhi.Government. and finally Humayun fled to Iran only to return 15 years later with the help of the Safavids. It was a matter of hours before Rohtas fort fell to Sher Shah. Next year Humayun returned. but his forces were uprooted again at Kanauj. While the Mughal forces were away. Humayun was forced to flee from Agra. or the insufficiency of rain. Nevertheless Sher Shah's most brilliant achievements were in administrative reforms. the widowed Lad Malika of Chunar fort married Sher Khan to give him that strategic fort. His brother Kamran refused to give him shelter. Soon afterwards. Sher Khan soon became the virtual ruler of Bihar. have unique importance in the administrative history of Indo-Pakistan. Babur was succeeded by his son Humayun.
today is threatened by extremists.improve the General Economic Condition of the poor. Mausoleum of Sher Shah Suri. His mausoleum. What's next? Taj Mahal? At this rate slowly but surely all monuments of Muslim origin will one day vanish from India. The most vocal supporter of this is local BJP leader Jawahir Prasad of the ruling party in the center. One wonders if there is no end to this. however some claim it ran right up to Kabul." By far Sher Shah's greatest legacy is the modern Grand Trunk road which ran from Bengal to Attock. Bihar from where this ambitious and Brilliant Afghan had started out to create his destiny. It is said about his rule that "a woman could travel with all her jewelry in his empire without being afraid of getting looted. . Along the way "Baulis" and "Sarais" were constructed which are the equivalent of Modern day Service stations. who want to perform "Karseva" by encroaching on to the premises of this great Emperor's last resting place by completing the "Sarveshar Mahadev" temple.Sher Shah also instituted the Subcontinent's first effective law and order force. Some 450 years later. The result. an incompetent ruler of Modern Pakistan also fancied going down in History as Sher Shah Suri. in Sassaram. a part of India's historical heritage. which has the second largest dome in that country. Sher Shah Suri lies today in an impressive octagonal Mausoleum. a road though one of the best in the world but a white elephant for the Pakistani Nation.
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