Seagate

presents

TRIVIA THAT GIVES YOU THE EDGE

Seagate
presents

TRIVIA THAT GIVES YOU THE EDGE

3 •

The f o l l o w i n g w r i t e r s at Digit compiled t h e 1001 t e c h facts: Aparna K r i s h n a k u m a r Garfield D'Souza Meera V a n k i p u r a m Ram Mohan Rao Robert S o v e r e i g n - S m i t h Srinivasan R a m a k r i s h n a n Suprotip Ghosh Upendra Singhai Copy Editors Ram Mohan Rao Syed Nadim Siraj Design and Layout Ashwin Boricha Shivshankar Pillai Sivalal S Photographs Mexy Xavier

© 2 0 0 4 Jasubhai Digital Media, Mumbai

4

1 0 0 1

T E C H F A C T S

CONTENTS
Topic Page No.

The History of Computing The Internet Networking Various Timelines Processors and Components Storage Operating Systems Companies and Personalities Supercomputer Displays Imaging Telephony Cellphones Entertainment Games Human Interface Devices Miscellaneous Tech Facts

9 19 32 35 42 52 55 60 66 70 72 77 82 85 91 95 98

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INTRODUCTION
In 1981, in an apparent m o m e n t of epiphany, William Henry Gates III told a gathering that in t h e future 6 4 0 KB of RAM ought to be e n o u g h for anybody. Today, Gates, o n e of t h e richest m e n in t h e universe, makes most of his m o n e y selling software so heavy even a Sumo wrestler would blush. Ergo, even t h e m o s t successful, or foresighted, people in t h e world are n o t infallible. Twenty-three years later, we don't really k n o w whether Gates is still h a u n t e d by that statement. W h a t we know for sure is that statements like these b e c o m e more t h a n just that, and people e x c h a n g e notes with malicious glee: "Did you know that Bill Gates was stupid enough to say this. I mean, how did he b e c o m e t h e richest m a n on earth?" This special compilation of 1 0 0 1 amazing t e c h n o l o g y facts is n o t filled with malice, but with stuff that would make you smile, raise your eyebrows, or, god forbid, make y o u exchange notes with malicious glee at that next Saturday night party. Technology, like most aspects of our life that pass us by and we take for granted, has history. Since t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress has b e e n fast e n o u g h to send every o n e of us into a tizzy, we tend to lose sight of t h e pioneers, of t h e technologies that changed our lives. This b o o k is m e a n t to bring us closer to reality, closer to our t e c h n o l o g y history, closer to t h e people w h o made it happen. We learn from history, and from those lessons alone alone can we shape our future. So sit back, put your feet o n t h e table, let your hair down, and let time pass you by. And yes, tell us if you didn't get t h a t smile o n your face.

H H B

70

Seagate

1 0 0 1 . Alan T u r i n g is considered the f a t h e r of C o m p u t e r Science, in 1937, he published t h e paper "On C o m p u t a b l e Numbers, w i t h an Appli cation t o t h e E n t s h e i d u n g s p r o b l e m " . 9 9 9 . Beginning in 1934, Konrad Zuse, a G e r m a n engineer, built a series of c o m p u t e r s , t h e Z1 t h r o u g h Z4, utilising binary a r i t h m e t i c . Claude Shannon is usually called the f a t h e r of I n f o r m a t i o n Tech nology. In 1948, he published "A M a t h e m a t i c a l T h e o r y of C o m m u n i c a t i o n " in t h e Bell System Technical J o u r n a l . The f i r s t high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was Fortran. It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. Fortran became c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. The first o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d language was Simula. It was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in t h e mid 1960s. 3 9 5 . 1981 was t h e year t h a t PCs began, when IBM d e b u t e d the IBM PC. Microsoft shipped it w i t h BASIC. The o p e r a t i n g system, too, was developed by M i c r o s o f t .

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9 9 4 .

The f i r s t ' c o m p u t e r ' , t h e s t e a m - d r i v e n calculating machine, was built in 1823 by Charles Babbage. C h r i s t o p h e r Pile was sentenced t o 18 m o n t h s f o r releasing a t o o l k i t t h a t w o u l d boost t h e impact of existing viruses by r a n d o m i sing t h e i r codes. In 1951, J a y F o r r e s t e r and Robert Everett, g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s at MIT, c o n s t r u c t e d t h e ' Whirlwind,' a 'real-time c o m p u t e r , ' w o r k i n g at twice t h e speed of t h e ENIAC. In 1969, c o m p u t e r f i r m Honey well released t h e H316 " K i t c h e n C o m p u t e r " , t h e f i r s t home c o m p u t e r , priced at

9 9 3 .

992.

991.
It is much debated whether any single person can be said to have invented the first computer. Examples of candidates are Charles Babbage and Konrad Zuse.

990.

$10,600.

9 8 9 .

In 1976, the t e r m "personal c o m p u t e r " first appeared in print, in t h e May issue of Byte Magazine. In 1981, while w o r k i n g on t h e original version of M i c r o s o f t ' s Disk O p e r a t i n g System (DOS), Bill Gates made a r e m a r k a b l e prediction: " 6 4 0 K (of RAM) should be e n o u g h f o r anyone." The t e r m 'bug' was p r o b a b l y coined a f t e r A d m i r a l Grace Hopper

9 8 8 .

9 8 7 .

The Incredible Feat of a Seagate Read/Write Head it's like a 7 4 7 going 6 0 0 Mph 3 Feet off the ground count ing blades of grass as it flies by

Seagate
f o u n d a m o t h in t h e Mark II c o m p u t e r at t h e US Naval Surface W a r f a r e Center, causing t h e machine t o m a l f u n c t i o n . o o •o c 1* >o
•o

9 8 5 .

In 1970, Steve Wozniak played a huge prank by d i s t r i b u t i n g 2 5 , 0 0 0 leaflets for a non-exis t e n t c o m p u t e r , w h i c h was later r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Zaltair Hoax.

986.
J i m Knopf is known as t h e ' f a t h e r of shareware'. His f i r s t shareware p r o g r a m was PC-Fiie, in 1 9 8 2 , which Knopf published under t h e

5'
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9 8 4 .

pseudonym J i m Button. The ENIAC had 2 0 , 0 0 0 v a c u u m tubes and 4 0 racks of equipment, and ran up a daily electric bill of $ 6 0 , a large a m o u n t at the time, t h e mid 1940s. The first c o m p u t e r t o p e r f o r m a t r i l l i o n opera tions per second was called t h e G r a v i t y Pipeline. Les Solomon, publisher of t h e magazine Popular The first silicon Electronics, and Ed Roberts

l/l 0 -1 < -h 01 o

9 8 3 .

9 8 2 .

transistor

were looking for a name t o release their new c o m p u t e r under. They finally called it t h e Altair.

981.

Mitch Kapor f o u n d e d Lotus Development Corp. in 1982 with J o n a t h a n Sachs, w h o was i n s t r u m e n t a l in launching Lotus 1-2-3. Founder Paul Gavin came up w i t h t h e n a m e M o t o r o l a when his c o m p a n y s t a r t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g radios for m o t o r c a r s . Bulletin-Board System Q u a n t u m C o m p u t e r Services, r e n a m e d it A m e r i c a Online.

980.

9797 In 1989, Steve Chase, Founder of t h e I n t e r n e t

1
a

V i n t o n C e r f Is h a i l e d as t h e F a t h e r of t h e I n t e r n e t , a n d e a r n e d his n i c k n a m e w h e n he c o - a u t h o r e d , w i t h Dr R o b e r t K a h n i n 1 9 7 3 , a p a p e r t h a t g a v e t h e w o r l d T C P a n d IP. w n

I d

9 7 7 .

On 4 t h J u l y , 1996, Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith launched Hotmail. In 1997, t h e y sold it t o Microsoft f o r an e s t i m a t e d price of $ 3 8 5 million. AT&T Bell Labs was the first company to transmit human voice across the Atlantic, on January 25, 1915. The exercise was conducted to celebrate the open ing of the Panama Canal to Alexander Graham Bell.

9 7 6 .

975.
In 1991, 4 5 0 complete works of literature were published on one CD-ROM.

9 7 4 .

Paul Allen, w h o c o - f o u n d e d M i c r o s o f t w i t h Bill Gates, is now t h e c h a i r m a n of Vulcan N o r t h w e s t , an i n v e s t m e n t f i r m . M a t h e m a t i c i a n Blaise Pascal a t t e m p t e d a u t o m a t e d c o m p u t i n g as early as 1642.

9 7 3 .

9 7 2 .

In 1993, t h e US D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e c r e a t e d InterNIC t o m a i n t a i n a c e n t r a l database t o c o n t a i n all registered d o m a i n names and IP addresses. In 1998, online p o r n o g r a p h y a c c o u n t e d f o r 8 0 percent of all ec o m m e r c e . However, the f i g u r e has t o d a y fallen t o 2 0 per cent. Online p o r n o g r a p h y was a $1 billion i n d u s t r y in 1998. In 1949, J Woodland and B Silver i n v e n t e d t h e bar code. It was p a t e n t e d in 1952 and was used c o m m e r d a i l y f o r t h e first t i m e in 1974.

971.

9 7 0 .

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968.

In 1971, Intel launched the w o r l d ' s f i r s t single-chip m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , t h e Intel 4 0 0 4 . The Pioneer 10 spacecraft used t h e 4 0 0 4 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .

Vinton Cerf, co-creator of TCP/IP and the Internet

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12

Seagate
9 6 6 . On 9 t h March, 2 0 0 4 , t h e US g o v e r n m e n t b o u g h t t h e world's biggest ever solid state disk (SSD) f r o m Texas M e m o r y Systems. In A u g u s t 1944, J o h n Mauchly and Presper Eckert proposed t h e building of a new machine called t h e e l e c t r o n i c discrete variable a u t o m a t i c c o m p u t e r (the EDVAC). It was t o b e c o m e the first s t o r e d - p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r . 9 6 4 . Niklaus W i r t h developed t h e Pascal p r o g r a m m i n g language in 1971. 1975 saw t h e e m e r g e n c e of t h e first w o r d processing s o f t w a r e , t h e Electric Pencil. WordStar, a n o t h e r w o r d processing s o f t w a r e , was released in 1975. In 1975, M i c r o s o f t , t h e unofficial partnership of Bill Gates and Paul Allen, a t t a i n e d sales of $16,000.
Chester Carlson invented the photocopier machine at Xerox

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9 6 2 .

9 6 1 .

9 6 0 .

In 1958, Chester Carlson invented t h e Xerox machine. The i n t e g r a t e d circuit was invented at the same t i m e , enabling t h e 959. m i n i a t u r i s a t i o n of electronic devices. V i s i C a l c w a s d e v e l o p e d by Edmund Gunter of England invented t h e slide rule as early as 1692. Dan B r i c k l i n and Bob F r a n k s t o n in 1 9 7 9 . R e t a i l i n g f o r $ 9 9 apiece, V i s i C a l c sold o v e r

9 5 8 .

9 5 7 .

7 0 0 , 0 0 0 copies. The EDSAC ran its first p r o g r a m on May 6 , 1 9 4 9 . It wasn't t h e first s t o r e d - p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r , but r a t h e r , t h e f i r s t practical one.

In December 1 9 7 0 , Gilbert H y a t t filed a p a t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d " S i n g l e Chip I n t e g r a t e d C i r c u i t C o m p u t e r A r c h i t e c t u r e " , t h e f i r s t basic p a t e n t on t h e m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .
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9 5 5 .

In t h e 1940s, H u n g a r i a n - A m e r i c a n J o h n v o n Neumann devised t h e von N e u m a n n a r c h i t e c t u r e for c o m p u t e r s , w h i c h is the basic archi t e c t u r e t h a t y o u see t o d a y in v i r t u a l l y e v e r y non-parallel-processing c o m p u t e r around, and ever t o have been built. The f i r s t v o n N e u m a n n - a r c h i t e c t u r e c o m p u t e r t o be actually c o n s t r u c t e d and o p e r a t e d was the Manchester Markl,designed and built at Manches-ter University in England. In t h e s u m m e r of 1969, UNIX was developed. Linus Torvalds, t h e c r e a t o r of Linux, was born t h e same year. The first edition of the Unix Programmer's Manual, by K Thompson and D Ritchie, was released in 1971.

9 5 4 .

9 5 3 .

9 5 2 .

The Intel

Pentium in 1993

processor

was relased

9 5 1 .

In 1993, Intel released t h e P e n t i u m processor. It was a 6 0 MHz processor, i n c o r p o r a t i n g 3.2 million t r a n s i s t o r s . It sold for $ 8 7 8 apiece. In 1991, Linus Torvalds, t h e n a s t u d e n t in Finland, i n t r o d u c e d In 1991, Sun unveiled the Linux. He posted the f o l l o w i n g Solaris 2 operating w o r d s t o t h e comp.os.minix environment, fined-tuned n e w s g r o u p : "Hello e v e r y b o d y for symmetric out t h e r e using minix - I'm multiprocessing. doing a (free) o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m (just a hobby, w o n ' t be big and professional like gnu) f o r 3 8 6 ( 4 8 6 ) AT clones. In 1995, SCO acquired the UNIX Systems source t e c h n o l o g y busi-

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ness f r o m Novell Corporation. In August, 1995, Microsoft Windows 9 5 was released. It sold m o r e t h a n a million copies w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f o u r days of its launch.

946.

2 0 0 4 saw Lindows changing its name to Linspire on April 14, after it lost a legal battle against Microsoft.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

14

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9 4 5 . In 2001, M i c r o s o f t filed a t r a d e m a r k suit against Lindows.com in December. It w o n t h e case in early 2 0 0 4 .

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THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATION
9 4 4 . C o m p u t e r s w e r e sold c o m m e r cially f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e in 1951.

ARPANET, the first 'Internet', was launched in
1969.

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9 4 3 .

AT&T m a n u f a c t u r e d t h e first c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m , t h e Bell 103, in 1962. The w o r l d ' s first m i n i c o m p u t e r , Digital E q u i p m e n t ' s PDP-8, was i n t r o d u c e d in 1965, and cost a p h e n o m e n a l $18,000. In 1966, Xerox i n v e n t e d t h e T e l e c o p i e r - t h e first successful fax machine. The floppy disk was invented in 1971.

9 4 2 .

o

9 4 1 .

9 4 0 .

9 3 9 .

The m i c r o p r o c e s s o r was invented in 1971. The c r e a t i o n was considered a c o m p u t e r on a chip.

9 3 8 .

Cray Research Incorporated i n t r o d u c e d t h e first s u p e r c o m p u t e r in 1 9 7 6 - t h e Cray 1. It could p e r f o r m 2 4 0 million calculations per second. The Apple I h o m e c o m p u t e r was released in 1976.

937. 935.

The world

wasn't

always

a wired

place

During t h e same year, Ted T u r n e r launched and i m p l e m e n t e d t h e first n a t i o n w i d e p r o g r a m m i n g - v i a satellite.

1981: The f i r s t IBM PC is sold. Laptop computers sold t o public for the first time.

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9 3 4 .

The first cellular phone c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k was launched in J a p a n , in 1979. Pacman, one of t h e most popular arcade games of all times, was released in 1980.

9 3 3 .

931.

Time magazine named t h e c o m p u t e r t h e Man of t h e Year in 1983. The f i r s t cellular phone n e t w o r k was launched t h e same year in the US.

932.
BASIC was written in 1964 by Tom Kurtz and John Kemeny of Dartmouth.

9 3 0 .

The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984, along w i t h IBM PC AT. The US g o v e r n m e n t released c o n t r o l of t h e Internet in 1994, and t h e WWW was born.

9 2 9 .

928.
9 2 7 .

Dr Brent T o w n s h e n d invented t h e 5 6 K m o d e m in 1996. The first business application t o go live on a s t o r e d - p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r was in N o v e m b e r 1951 w h e n t h e J Lyons c o m p a n y began weekly o p e r a t i o n of a bakery valuations job. The Z1, a pre-war electro mechanical binary c o m p u t e r designed by German i n v e n t o r K o n r a d Zuse, and its blue prints, w e r e d e s t r o y e d w i t h o u t t r a c e by w a r t i m e b o m b i n g d u r i n g WW II. K o n r a d Zuse, a c o n s t r u c t i o n of the World Wide Web engineer at t h e Henschel A i r c r a f t C o m p a n y in Berlin, developed t h e world's first p r o g r a m m a b l e c o m p u t e r in 1941.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the father

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9 2 3 . In 1843, m a t h e m a t i c i a n Ada Lovelace, d a u g h t e r of t h e poet L o r d Byron, published t h e first computer programs. 8

921.
920.

922.

In 1972, Bob M e t c a l f e c r e a t e d Ethernet, a t r a d e m a r k of t h e Xerox C o m p a n y .

In 1 9 6 4 , t h e A m e r i c a n Standards Association adopted ASCII (American

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S t a n d a r d Code f o r In December, 1968, Douglas C. Information Interchange) Engelbart, of t h e S t a n f o r d as a s t a n d a r d code f o r Research Institute, d e m o n s t r a t e d his s y s t e m of data transfer. keyboard, mouse and w i n d o w s at t h e Fall J o i n t C o m p u t e r Conference in San Francisco's Civic Center. The f i r s t t r a n s i s t o r i s e d c o m p u t e r was c o m p l e t e d , t h e TX-O, at MIT in early 1956. The f i r s t mechanical calculator capa ble of m u l t i p l i c a t i o n was invented by G o t t f r i e d Wilhelm Leibniz, w h o also c o - i n v e n t e d t h e calculus, in 1673. In 1801, J o s e p h - M a r i e J a c q u a r d invents a machine to a u t o m a t i cally c o n t r o l t h e p a t t e r n s in fabrics using punch cards. They were called J a c q u a r d Looms.
The QWERTY keyboard was actually designed with the intention of slowing down typists

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919.

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Gay Lussac and T h e n a r d e x t r a c t e d i m p u r e a m o r p h o u s silicon in 1811. George Boole published his M a t h e m a t i c a l Analysis of Logic, invent ing Boolean algebra in 1854. This became t h e basis f o r c o m p u t e r design. In 1890, H e r m a n Hollerith c o n s t r u c t s a p u n c h - c a r d t a b u l a t i n g machine f o r use in t h e US Census. Radio Shack i n t r o d u c e d , in 1971, t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r w i t h a k e y b o a r d and CRT display.

15.

17D

912. 911. 9 1 0 . 9 0 8 .

J o h n Backus of IBM created FORTRAN in 1954. Digital Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n was f o u n d e d by Ken Olsen in 1957. In 1973, PROLOG was developed The C o m p u S e r v e online service was launched in 1979. by Alain Comerauer.

909.
In 1989, Microsoft's sales reached $1 billion, the first year to do so.

9 0 7 .

S o f t w a r e A p p l i c a t i o n giants, Aldus and Adobe, m e r g e d in 1994F.

9 0 6 .

Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments p a t e n t e d t h e first i n t e g r a t e d circuit in 1959. 1951 saw t h e first c o m m e r c i a l use of t h e t r a n s i s t o r , invented by William Shockley, J o h n Bardeen, and Walter Brattain. In 1903, Nikola Tesla, an A m e r i c a n engineer, p a t e n t e d an electrical logic circuit called a gate or switch. Charles Babbage invented his Analytical Engine in 1833, t h e f i r s t punch-card programmable general-purpose computer. The first known English-language use of t h e w o r d ' c o m p u t e r ' , was f o u n d in t h e w r i t i n g s of Sir T h o m a s Browne, in 1846. The o p t i c a l laserdisc was d e v e l o p e d by b o t h Philips and MCA in 1972.

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T E C H F A C T S

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Yahoo! derived its name f r o m t h e w o r d Yahoo coined by J o n a t h a n Swift in Gulliver's Travels. A Yahoo is a person w h o is repulsive in appearance and action and is barely h u m a n ! In t h e Deep Web, t h e part of t h e Web not c u r r e n t l y catalogued by search engines, public i n f o r m a t i o n said t o be 5 0 0 times larger t h a n on t h e WWW. Researchers consider t h a t t h e f i r s t search engine was Archie, c r e a t e d in 1990 by Alan Emtage, a s t u d e n t at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. The f i r s t search engine for Gopher files was called Veronica, c r e a t e d by t h e University of Nevada System C o m p u t i n g Services group. J i m Berners-Lee predicted in 2 0 0 2 t h a t t h e Semantic Web w o u l d " f o s t e r global c o l l a b o r a t i o n s a m o n g people w i t h diverse c u l t u r a l perspectives", but the project never seems t o have really taken off. The t o p visited websites in February 2 0 0 4 , including a f f i l i a t e d sites, were Yahoo!, MSN, t h e Time Warner N e t w o r k , EBay, Google, Lycos, and A b o u t . c o m . In February 2 0 0 4 , Sweden led t h e w o r l d in I n t e r n e t p e n e t r a t i o n , w i t h 7 6 . 9 percent of people c o n n e c t e d t o t h e Internet. The w o r l d average is 11.1 per cent.

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8 9 3 .

Marc A n d r e e s s e n f o u n d e d Netscape. In 1993, he had already devel o p e d Mosaic, t h e first Web b r o w s e r w i t h a GUI. The search engine " L y c o s " is n a m e d f o r Lycosidae, the Latin name f o r t h e wolf spider family. The US I n t e r n a t i o n a l Broadcasting Bureau (Voice of America, basi cally), c r e a t e d a p r o x y service t o allow Chinese, Iranians and o t h e r 'oppressed' people t o circumv e n t t h e i r national firewalls, 890. relaying f o r b i d d e n pages behind silicon c u r t a i n s . Developed at the U n i v e r s i t y of N e v a d a , It was once considered a letter V e r o n i c a is a c o n s t a n t l y in t h e English language. The u p d a t e d d a t a b a s e of t h e Chinese call it a little mouse, n a m e s of a l m o s t e v e r y Danes and Swedes call it m e n u i t e m on t h o u s a n d s ' e l e p h a n t ' s t r u n k ' , Germans a of g o p h e r s e r v e r s . spider m o n k e y , and Italians a snail. Israelis p r o n o u n c e it ' s t r u d e l s ' and t h e Czechs say 'rollmops'... What is it? The 1 sign. Lurking is t o read t h r o u g h mailing lists or news g r o u p s and get a feel of t h e t o p i c b e f o r e posting one's o w n messages. SRS stands f o r Shared Registry Server. The c e n t r a l s y s t e m f o r all a c c r e d i t e d r e g i s t r a r s t o access, register and c o n t r o l d o m a i n names.
The world average for internet

8 9 2 .

8 9 1 .

889.

8 8 8 .

8 8 7 .

8 8 6 .

WAIS stands f o r 'Wide Area

penetration

is 11.1 percent.

I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v e r s ' - a c o m m e r c i a l s o f t w a r e package t h a t allows t h e indexing of huge quantities of i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e n makes those indices searchable across t h e I n t e r n e t .

885.
• 20

A n a n o n y m i s e r is a p r i v a c y s e r v i c e t h a t a l l o w s a u s e r t o v i s i t Web sites w i t h o u t allowing anyone t o gather information about which sites they visit.

1 0 0 1

T E C H F A C T S

Seagate

884. 883.

Archie is an i n f o r m a t i o n system o f f e r i n g an electronic d i r e c t o r y 8 service for locating information residing on anonymous FTP sites. | On the Internet, a 'bastion host' is the only host computer t h a t a company allows to be addressed directly f r o m the public network.

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882.

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3

8 8 1 .

'Carnivore' is the Internet original URL of Yahoo! surveillance system developed was http://akebono. by the US Federal Bureau of stanford.edu/ ? Investigation (FBI), who devel oped it to monitor the electronic transmissions of criminal suspects. The Electrohippies Collective is an international group of 'hack tivists' based in Oxfordshire, England. UIML (User Interface Markup Language) is a descriptive language that lets you create a Web page that can be sent to any kind of interface device. In Internet t e r m i n o l o g y , a demo is a non-interactive multimedia presentation,the computer world's equivalent of a music video. Did you know that the name of the famous search engine AltaVista came into existence when some one accidentally read and suggested the w o r d 'Alto' w r i t t e n near the w o r d 'Vista' on an unclean whiteboard as 'AltaVista'? n T^ 'Jbi'ST*

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3

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8 8 0 .

8 7 9 .

8 7 8 .

877.

Boeing was the first arliner to discover the Y2K problem.

876.

Cyber Patrol, Surf Watch, Net Nanny and Big Brother are all access filters used to block access to objectionable Web sites.

8757 Boeing was the first airline to discover the Y2K problem, way
back in 1993.

Did you know t h a t Domain Registration was free until an announcement by the National Science Foundation on 14 t h September, 1995, changed i t ?

21 •

8 7 3 .

The I n t e r n e t was initially called t h e 'Galactic n e t w o r k ' in m e m o s w r i t t e n by MIT's J C R Licklider in 1962. Shokyu Ishiko, a d o c t o r a t e in a g r i c u l t u r e and chief priest of Daioh T e m p l e in K y o t o has created an online v i r t u a l t e m p l e which will p e r f o r m m e m o r i a l services f o r lost i n f o r m a t i o n . A 5 5 kg laddu was made f o r L o r d V e n k a t e s w a r a at Tirumala as a Y2K p r a y e r o f f e r i n g . m o r n i n g a f t e r Internet Explorer 4 was released, certain

8 7 2 .

871.

870.
On an average, each person receives 2 6 . 4 emails a day.

8 6 9 7The

mischievous Microsoft w o r k e r s left a 10-by-12-foot letter 'e' and a balloon w i t h the message, "We love y o u " , on Netscape's f r o n t lawn. 8 6 8 . If y o u were a resident of Tonga, a m o n a r c h y in the s o u t h w e s t Pacific, y o u could o w n d o m a i n s as cool as 'mail.to' and 'head.to'. The A m e r i c a n Registry f o r I n t e r n e t N u m b e r s (ARIN) began t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e g i s t r a t i o n of I n t e r n e t IP addresses in N o r t h and South A m e r i c a in March 1998. The t e s t b e d for t h e Internet's new addressing system, IPv6, is called t h e 6bone. The f i r s t Internet w o r m was created by Robert T. Morris, J r , and attacked more than 6 , 0 0 0 Internet hosts. A c c o r d i n g t o The Economist magazine, t h e f i r s t t r u l y e l e c t r o n i c bank on t h e Internet, called First V i r t u a l Holdings, was opened by Lee Stein in 1994.

8 6 7 .

8 6 6 .

8 6 5 .

8 6 4 .

The Internet was initially called Galactic Network.

8 6 3 .

The French Culture Ministry has banned t h e w o r d 'e-mail' in all g o v e r n m e n t ministries, d o c u m e n t s , publications and Web sites,

•22

Seagate
because 'e-mail' is an English w o r d . They p r e f e r t o use the t e r m 'courriel'. 8 6 1 . o

The German police sell used p a t r o l cars o v e r the Internet, 2. because earlier auctions f e t c h e d low prices and only a few people tu ever s h o w e d up. o" 3 Rob Glaser's c o m p a n y , P r o g r e s s i v e RealAudio s y s t e m on April 10,1995. ' B r o w s e r safe colours' refer t o t h e 216 colours t h a t are r e n d e r e d t h e same way in b o t h t h e PC and Mac o p e r a t i n g systems. The 'Dilbert Z o n e ' Web site was t h e f i r s t s y n d i c a t e d comic strip site available on t h e Internet. Networks, launched the a 2> ID

8 6 0 .

859.

858.
T h o u g h t h e W o r l d Wide Web w a s b o r n in 1 9 8 9 a t C E R N in S w i t z e r l a n d , C E R N is m a i n l y i n v o l v e d in research for particle physics.

8 5 7 .

QP/" O J D .

Butler J e e v e s of the Internet site AskJeeves.com made its d e b u t as a large helium balloon in t h e Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade in 2 0 0 0 . Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s sponsors NetDay, an e f f o r t t o wire A m e r i c a n public schools t o t h e Internet, w i t h help f r o m the US g o v e r n m e n t . In Beijing, the Internet c o m m u n i t y has coined t h e w o r d 'Chortal' as a s h o r t ened v e r s i o n of 'Chinese portal'. Google got its name f r o m t h e m a t h e matical f i g u r e googol, which d e n o t e s t h e n u m b e r 'one f o l l o w e d by a h u n d r e d zeroes.'
Dilbert Zone was the to go first comic strip Telnet is one of t h e oldest f o r m s of I n t e r n e t connections. Today, it is used p r i m a r i l y t o access online databases. online.

8 5 5 .

8 5 4 .

853.

852.

D o m a i n n a m e s c a n r e a l l y sell a t h i g h p r i c e s ! T h e m o s t expensive domain name was 'business.com', which was bought by eCompanies for $ 7 . 5 million in 1 9 9 9 .
d i g i t

23D

8 5 0 .

The f i r s t ever ISP was CompuServe. It still exists, under AOL T i m e Warner. In 1969, ARPA (Advanced Research Projects A g e n c y ) w e n t online, c o n n e c t i n g f o u r major US universities. The idea was t o have a back up in case a m i l i t a r y attack d e s t r o y e d c o n v e n t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s systems. Ray T o m l i n s o n , a scientist f r o m Cambridge, i n t r o d u c e d electronic mail in 1972. He used t h e @ t o distinguish between t h e sender's name and n e t w o r k name in t h e e-mail address.

8 4 9 .

8 4 7 .

848.
' C o n t e n t , c o m m e r c e and c o m m u n i t y " are referred t o as ' t h e t h r e e big Cs', the most important a s p e c t s of t h e I n t e r n e t .

8 4 6 .

T r a n s m i s s i o n C o n t r o l Proto c o l / I n t e r n e t Protocol (TCP/IP) was designed in 1973. The Apple iTunes music store was i n t r o d u c e d in the spring of 2 0 0 3 . It allows people t o d o w n l o a d songs f o r an a f f o r d a b l e 9 9 cents each. S a t y a m Online became the f i r s t p r i v a t e ISP in December 1998 to offer Internet c o n n e c t i o n s in India. 5 6 p e r c e n t of US companies sold t h e i r p r o d u c t s online by 2 0 0 0 , as c o m p a r e d t o 2 4 percent in 1998.

8 4 5 .

8 4 4 .

8 4 3 .

Satyam Online
Online was the first private connections in India ISP to

Satyam offer

Internet

8 4 2 .

More t h a n a million new jobs were c r e a t e d by t h e US high-tech i n d u s t r y since 1993.

E 841.
£ c 8 4 0 . 5:

The n u m b e r of UK Internet users increases by an e s t i m a t e d 7 5 percent each year. The I n t e r n e t is t h e t h i r d - m o s t used a d v e r t i s i n g m e d i u m in t h e w o r l d , closely catching up w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l local Ian Cobain, a j o u r n a l i s t f r o m t h e T i m e s , London, used I n t e r n e t search engines t o t r a c k down f o u r people on Interpol's 'most wanted' l i s t - i n just 8 2 minutes!
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

839.

24

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newspapers and Yellow Pages. 8 3 8 .

o o

It t o o k 13 years for television t o r e a c h 5 0 million u s e r s - i t t o o k t h e c 3 I n t e r n e t less t h a n 4 years.

3 3

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If

8 3 7 .

As of now, t h e r e are over 2 6 0 million people w i t h Internet access o" 3 worldwide.

3

8 3 6 .

P r e l i m i n a r y e m p l o y m e n t data show t h a t t h e US high-tech i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e d 4 . 8 million w o r k e r s in 1998, making it t h e n a t i o n ' s largest i n d u s t r y . 1 o u t of 6 people used t h e Internet in N o r t h A m e r i c a and Europe, as per a 1999 survey.

ft)

835.
Did you know that Digital Equipment Corporation was the first computer company to register a domain name?

8 3 4 .

8 3 3 .

I n t e r n e t A d v e r t i s i n g in t h e US g e n e r a t e d $1.92 billion in 1998, d o u b l e t h e 1997 figure. The a v e r a g e c o m p u t e r user blinks 7 t i m e s a m i n u t e . In 1946, t h e M e r r i a m Webster D i c t i o n a r y defined c o m p u t e r as 'a person w h o tabulates numbers; accountant; a c t u a r y ; bookkeeper.' An e s t i m a t e d 2.5 billion h o u r s w e r e w a s t e d online last year as people w a i t e d f o r pages t o download, according t o a s t u d y sponsored by N o r t e l Networks. AOL says spam is t h e n u m b e r one c o m p l a i n t of its c u s t o m e r s , and t h a t it has t o block over one billion unso licited e-mails e v e r y day.

832.
831.

830.

8 2 9 .

"A computer is a... ary ... bookkeeper"

actu-

8 2 8 .

In 2 0 0 2 , t h e a v e r a g e Internet user received 3.7 spam messages per day. The t o t a l rose t o 6.2 spam messages per day in 2 0 0 2 . By

25D

2 0 0 7 , it is e x p e c t e d to reach 8 3 0 messages per day. 8 2 6 . A t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r y research f i r m called Basex says t h a t unsolicited e-mail cost nearly $ 2 0 billion in lost t i m e and expenses w o r l d w i d e in 2 0 0 0 . In 2 0 0 3 , an A t l a n t a - b a s e d ISP called Earthlink w o n a lawsuit w o r t h $16.4 million (US) against a s p a m m e r in Buffalo NY, and a $ 2 5 million (US) lawsuit against a s p a m m e r in Tennessee. In Canada, five billion junk e-mails were sent last year. The cost t o t h e e c o n o m y reaches $1 billion annually. B r i g h t m a i l , t h e leading supplier of anti-spam s o f t w a r e , r e p o r t e d t h a t in 2 0 0 3 , spam actually exceeded l e g i t i m a t e e-mail, g r o w i n g f r o m 4 0 per cent to m o r e t h a n 5 6 percent of all internet e - m a i L . i n just one year!

8 2 5 .

8 2 4 .

8 2 3 .

822.
In 1993, there were 2 6 , 0 0 0 domain names in use. In 1999, there were 5 million web sites.

821.

A f t e r English, Japanese and t h e n German are t h e most used languages on t h e Net. It is e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 2 0 0 5 , 6 0 per cent of all Internet users will speak a language o t h e r t h a n English. An e s t i m a t e d 2.2 percent of t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n is c u r r e n t l y online. The latest s t a t s i n d i c a t e t h a t China a p p e a r s t o be t h e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g I n t e r n e t m a r k e t in t h e w o r l d . Recent studies indicate t h a t m o r e t h a n t w o o u t of every five people in N o r t h America are now I n t e r n e t users. •

8 2 0 .

8 1 9 .

8 1 8 .

8 1 7 .

I %

816.

A b o u t 6 0 percent of N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n t e r n e t users have used t h e Web t o shop.

Seagate
8 1 4 . Use of h o m e PCs t o surf t h e Net has d r o p p e d by a l m o s t 4 0 percent in t h e last f o u r years as I n t e r n e t use has p e n e t r a t e d t h e workplace. On a per capita basis, the US only ranks 5 t h in t e r m s of I n t e r n e t users. Iceland, N o r w a y , Sweden & Finland have a higher percapita use. o 3 | £ 5-

13.

to
. (1. Where do most news addicts go t o on t h e Web? The t o p t h r e e e destinations are msnbc.com, w e a t h e r . c o m and cnn.com. Which companies spend t h e m o s t on Web a d v e r t i sing? Microsoft tops the list, w i t h Amazon.com t a k i n g second spot and 3 IV

8 1 0 .

A f t e r t h e April 2 0 0 1 collision of TRUSTe the third. a US navy spy plane and a Chinese f i g h t e r jet, Chinese hackers launched Denial of Service (DoS) attacks against American web sites.

8 0 9 .

Subhash Ghai's film Taal was t h e first Bollywood m o v i e t o be widely p r o m o t e d on the Net. become t h e first animal in t h e w o r l d t o o w n shares of a d o t c o m , called intersaver.co.uk. J e f f Bezos, w h e n s t a r t i n g his business c o u l d not name his Web site Cadabra (as in 'abra cadabra') due to c o p y r i g h t issues. He later named it amazon.com.
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Taal was the first Bollywood flick to be promoted online.

8 0 6 .

1

China had 150 billion junk e-mails last year, m a k i n g it the second-biggest t a r g e t of spam.

The t o p e - t a i l sites on t h e Web are A m a z o n . c o m , T i c k e t m a s t e r . c o m , and B u y . c o m .

27

8 0 4 .

There are between 1.5 million t o 2 million closed circuit t e l e v i s i o n cameras in Britain, making Britons t h e most w a t c h e d people on earth. The M i c r o s o f t T e r r a s e r v e r is a f r e e Web site t h a t has m o r e t h a n 9 9 9 gigabytes of black-and-white photos f e a t u r i n g specific parts of t h e Earth's surface t a k e n by Russian and A m e r i c a n airplanes and satellites d u r i n g t h e Cold War.

8 0 3 .

802. In t h e 1 9 8 0 s - w e l l before t h e

I n t e r n e t became s o m e t h i n g t h e general public w a n t e d t o u s e - s c o r e s of free 'bulletin b o a r d services' (BBSs) s p r a n g up a r o u n d the United States. The first free public BBS was 'Cleveland Free-Net', and t h e y shut d o w n On 1 st O c t o b e r 1999, because t h e s o f t w a r e t h a t ran t h e service c o u l d n ' t recognise t h e year 2 0 0 0 .

801.
According to a study by Nielsen Media Research, households with Internet access watch 13 percent less TV than households that are not online.

8 0 0 .

The t h r e e legitimate names f o r c o p y c a t viruses inspired by t h e i n f a m o u s Melissa virus w e r e Ping, Madcow and Syndicate. Viral m a r k e t i n g is when y o u r app 'infects' o t h e r users via usage. The recipient finds out a b o u t t h e service by receiving a card f r o m his or her friend. J u s t like a s t r o n o m e r s w o u l d love t o f i n d t h e elusive 'Dark M a t t e r ' , Yahoo! is now w o r k i n g on its C o n t e n t Acguisition P r o g r a m t o map and explore the 'Deep Web', t h e p a r t of t h e Web t h a t search engines typically do not crawl. As a result of this, much, m u c h m o r e of t h e Web will be accessible via Yahool's search engines.

799.

798.

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•28

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9 6 . Y o u get spam because y o u r e-mail address makes its way t o s p a m m e r s t h r o u g h various channels. For example, if you sign up f o r a n e w s l e t t e r , t h e site may sell y o u r e-mail t o a s p a m m e r . 794. Sites m a i n t a i n e-mail lists t h a t t h e y send spam to. Prices can In 2 0 0 3 , t h e t o p 10 be as low as Rs 2 , 5 0 0 for one s e a r c h e d - f o r t e r m s on lakh e-mails. Y a h o o ! w e r e Kazaa, H a r r y Many researchers and surfers consider t h a t t h e first search engine was Archie, created in 1990 by Alan Emtage, a s t u d e n t at McGill University in Montreal. P o t t e r , A m e r i c a n Idol, B r i t n e y Spears, 5 0 Cent, E m i n e m , WWE, P a r i s H i s t o n , N a s c a r and Christina Aguilera. o o

3

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7 9 5 .

9 3 .

Niue is a small island in t h e Pacific t h a t makes m u c h of its r e v e n u e selling d o m a i n names. The c o u n t r y code is .nu, and t h e r e was a t i m e in t h e recent past w h e n one could easily get d o m a i n names like rajesh.nu.

7 9 2 .

In 1999, PhotoHighway.com introduced the first Internet P h o t o g raphy site to o f f e r s o f t w a r e t h a t allows people t o load photos directly f r o m a digital c a m e r a t o a website.

Yahoo!

is now

^pping

the •Deep Web'.

On 5 t h J u n e 2 0 0 1 , N e v a d a b e c a m e t h e f i r s t U S s t a t e t o v o t e t o l e g a l i s e o n l i n e g a m b l i n g - w h i c h is n o t s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e Las V e g a s is i n N e v a d a .

29D

timeline
790. 789. 788.
(VI C O 0\ US Presidential c a n d i d a t e J i m m y Carter uses e-mail t o plan campaign events. Queen Elizabeth sends her first e-mai She's t h e first state leader t o use this service. The w o r d " l n t e r n e t " i s used for t h e f i r s t time, s h o r t f o r "internetwork". Domain Name System (DNS) is established, w i t h network addresses identified by extensions such as .com, .org and .edu. Novelist William Gibson coins t h e tern "cyberspace".

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The White House launches its website, w w w . w h i t e house.gov. Initial commerce sites are established and mas m a r k e t i n g campaigns are launched via e-mail, i n t r o d u c i n g the term 'spamming'.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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u • 30

Seagate
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Marc Andreessen and J i m Clark i n t r o d u c e the Navigator browser. CompuServe, A m e r i c a Online, and Prodigy start p r o v i d i n g dial-up Internet access. Sun Microsys terns launches Java.
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79.

A r o u n d 4 5 million people are using t h e Internet, w i t h r o u g h l y 3 0 million of those in t h e US and Canada, 9 million in Europe, and 6 million in Asia Pacific. On J u l y 8, I n t e r n e t t r a f f i c records are b r o k e n as t h e NASA website broadcasts images t a k e n by Pathfinder on Mars.

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778.

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" e - c o m m e r c e " becomes t h e new b u z z w o r d as Internet shopping rapidly spreads. College s t u d e n t Shawn Fanning invents Napster, a c o m p u t e r application t h a t allows users t o swap music o v e r the Internet. Deviant c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s begin spreading viruses w i t h i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y . The I n t e r n e t b u b b l e bursts, as t h e f o u n t a i n of i n v e s t m e n t capital dries up and t h e Nasdaq plummets.

776.

774.

Napster is dealt a fatal blow w h e n t h e 9 t h US Circuit C o u r t of Appeals in San Francisco rules t h a t t h e c o m p a n y is v i o l a t i n g c o p y r i g h t laws." A s t a g g e r i n g 5 8 . 5 percent of t h e US p o p u l a t i o n uses the Internet.

7 7 2 .

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It's e s t i m a t e d t h a t I n t e r n e t users illegally d o w n l o a d a b o u t 2.6 billion music files each m o n t h .

maa

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771. 770.
'Finger' is an Internet t o o l f o r locating people on o t h e r sites. It gives access t o non-personal i n f o r m a t i o n . The t e r m ' p e t a b i t ' is used in discussing possible v o l u m e s of data t r a f f i c per second in a large n e t w o r k .

7697 RDF (Resource Definition F r a m e w o r k ) is a set of rules f o r c r e a t i n g
d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n available on t h e World Wide Web.

768.

SOAP (Simple Object Access P r o t o c o l ) is a p r o t o c o l for clientserver c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t sends and receives i n f o r m a t i o n 'on t o p o f HTTP. moth e r b o a r d t o s w i t c h itself on (and o f f ) based on signals a r r i v i n g at t h e c o m p u t e r ' s n e t w o r k card. A hacker w i t h benign i n t e n t i o n s is called a ' w h i t e hat'. A 'blue b o m b ' is a t e c h n i q u e f o r causing t h e Windows o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m of s o m e o n e you are c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t o crash. OCSP (Online Certificate Status P r o t o c o l ) is one of t w o c o m m o n schemes f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s e c u r i t y of a server. C e r t i f i c a t e Revocation List (CRL) is a m e t h o d of using a public key i n f r a s t r u c t u r e for m a i n t a i n i n g access t o servers.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

7677 Wake-on-LAN (WOL) is a t e c h n o l o g y t h a t enables a c o m p u t e r
D >
C

I
c o

766.
765. 764.
7 6 3 .

32

Seagate
7 6 2 . South Pacific Railroad laid d o w n t e l e g r a p h wires across t r a c k s t o help railway s t a t i o n s keep in t o u c h . The high-speed data highways of t h e Internet are called backbones. Sprint and AT&T o w n t h e major backbones in t h e US. Silver is t h e most c o n d u c t i v e material, but copper is widely used in c o m m u n i c a t i o n s because it costs m u c h less 754. and is b e t t e r in t e r m s of s t r e n g t h and flexibility. A t y p i c a l f i b r e - o p t i c cable fivet h o u s a n d t h s of an inch thick can c a r r y up t o 2.5 billion bits of data per second, or 3 2 , 0 0 0 s i m u l t a n e o u s t e l e p h o n e calls. The idea of B l u e t o o t h t e c h n o l ogy was b o r n in 1994. The name B l u e t o o t h is derived f r o m a Danish Viking King, Harald B l a t a n d - t r a n s l a t e d as B l u e t o o t h in E n g l i s h w h o lived in t h e l a t t e r part of t h e 10th c e n t u r y . Blatand united and c o n t r o l l e d D e n m a r k and Norway, hence t h e inspiration f o r t h e name, as in ' u n i t i n g devices t h r o u g h B l u e t o o t h ' .

761.

7 6 0 .

59.

Most intercontinental Internet traffic passes through underwater fibreoptic cables. The first such layout was across the Atlantic, in 1988.

58.

57.

Long b e f o r e t h e expression 'local area n e t w o r k ' (LAN) became part of t h e w o r l d ' s technical v o c a b u l a r y , IBM researchers were w o r k i n g on this t y p e of t e c h n o l o g y t h a t connects printers, w o r k s t a t i o n s and various servers in o f f i c e buildings, f a c t o r i e s and college campuses. IBM devised t o k e n - r i n g technology t o c o n t r o l LAN t r a f f i c m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y and reliably. A t o k e n ring controls access of individual c o m p u t e r s to the n e t w o r k , or ring. Since its i n t r o d u c t i o n in 1985, IBM's tokenring a r c h i t e c t u r e has become The construction an i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d f o r LANs. of a fibre-optic
cable

33 •

755.

V a n n e v a r Bush, later t h e vice-president and dean of t h e Electri cal Engineering d e p a r t m e n t , MIT, f i r s t proposed t h e basics of h y p e r t e x t in 1945. Tim Berners-Lee set d o w n t h e basics of t h e World Wide Web, HTML ( h y p e r t e x t m a r k u p language), HTTP(HyperText T r a n s f e r P r o t o c o l ) and URLs (Universal Resource L o c a t o r s ) in 1990. Chuq v o n Rospach of Apple C o m p u t e r , circa 1983, coined t h e wor 'netiquette'. NANA is t h e newsgroups news.admin.net-abuse.*, d e v o t e d to f i g h t i n g n e t w o r k abuse and spam. Each individual n e w s g r o u p is o f t e n r e f e r r e d to by adding a l e t t e r to NANA. For example, NANAU w o u l d refer t o news.admin.net-abuse.usenet. P r o g r a m s t h a t are small and un-useful, but d e m o n s t r a t e a point, are called 'Noddy' p r o g r a m s . Noddy p r o g r a m s are o f t e n w r i t t e n by people learning a new language or system. The a r c h e t y p a l noddy p r o g r a m is t h e " h e l l o w o r l d " p r o g r a m . In N o r t h A m e r i c a this m i g h t be called a 'Mickey Mouse' p r o g r a m . In the mid-1980s, engineers at Apple C o m p u t e r d e v e l o p e d a high-speed m e t h o d of t r a n s f e r r i n g data to and f r o m t h e h a r d drives in Macintosh desktops while s i m p l i f y i n g the i n t e r n a l cabling. They called it FireWire. A b o u t 6 0 million devices shipped w i t h FireWire ports in 2 0 0 2 , a c c o r d i n g t o research f i r m In-Stat/MDR. In 1994, Ericsson Mobile C o m m u n i c a t i o n s initiated a s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the feasibility of a low-power low-cost radio interface b e t w e e n mobile phones and t h e i r accessories. In 1998, a speciali n t e r e s t g r o u p was f o r m e d , c o d e n a m e d " B l u e t o o t h " by five companies: Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba.

754. 753.

752.

751.

750.
7 4 9 .

0
01

(0 o 'E 3 E E o o

748.

'Toothing' is random sending of sexually charged, flirtatious messages that users of Bluetooth enabled mobile devices broadcast to other Bluetooth enabled devices in the area.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

• 3 4

Seagate

COMPUTER VIRUS TIMELINE
1949
00

7 4 7 .

Theories f o r self-replicating p r o g r a m s are first developed. Apple Viruses 1, 2, and 3 are s o m e of t h e f i r s t viruses " i n t h e wild," or in t h e public d o m a i n . Found o n t h e Apple II oper a t i n g system, the viruses spread across Texas t h r o u g h p i r a t e d games.

7 4 6 .

I
745.

n Fred Cohen defines a c o m p u t e r virus as "a p r o g r a m t h a t 00 o> can affect other c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s by modifying t h e m in such a way as t o include a (possibly e v o l v e d ) copy of itself." T w o daredevil Pakistani p r o g r a m m e r s , Basit and Amjad, replace the executable code in t h e boot sector of a f l o p p y disk w i t h t h e i r o w n code designed t o infect each 3 6 0 K B floppy accessed on any drive. The Lehigh virus, one of t h e f i r s t file viruses, infects c o m m a n d . c o m files. One of t h e most c o m m o n viruses, J e r u s a l e m , is unleashed. The virus a f f e c t s b o t h .exe and .com files. MacMag and t h e Scores virus cause t h e first major Macintosh outbreaks.

I B B

1987

743.

1

1986

35Q

741.
740.

a>

o

S y m a n t e c launches N o r t o n A n t i v i r u s , one of t h e first a n t i - v i r u s p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d by a major c o m p a n y .

I

o> Tequila is t h e first widespread p o l y m o r p h i c virus f o u n d in t h e wild. P o l y m o r p h i c viruses were specially designed to make d e t e c t i o n d i f f i c u l t for virus scanners. As m a n y as 1,300 viruses are in existence. The Dark Avenger Mutation Engine (DAME) is created. It's a toolkit that turns ordinary viruses into polymorphic viruses. The Virus Creation Laboratory (VCL) is also made available. The Good Times e - m a i l hoax t e a r s t h r o u g h t h e I n t e r n e t c o m m u n i t y . The hoax w a r n s of a malicious virus t h a t will erase an e n t i r e hard drive. Word Concept becomes one of t h e most prevalent viruses in t h e mid-1990s. It is spread t h r o u g h M i c r o s o f t Word documents.

735.
734.

1998 1999 2000 2000

1995

736.

1994

737.

1990

738.

1992

739.

>o o* The Baza, Laroux and Staog viruses are the first to infect 0* W i n d o w s 9 5 files, Excel, and Linux respectively. S t r a n g e B r e w was t h e f i r s t v i r u s t o i n f e c t J a v a files. The C h e r n o b y l virus spreads quickly via .exe files. The Melissa virus executes a m a c r o in a d o c u m e n t a t t a c h e d to an e-mail, which , in t u r n , f o r w a r d s t h e d o c u m e n t to 5 0 people in the user's Outlook address book. Bubble Boy is t h e f i r s t w o r m t h a t does not depend on t h e recipient o p e n i n g an a t t a c h m e n t for infection to set in. As soon as t h e user opens t h e e-mail, Bubble Boy strikes. The Love Bug, also k n o w n as t h e ILOVEYOU virus, sends itself o u t via Outlook. It also sends usernames and pass w o r d s t o t h e virus' a u t h o r . W97M.Resume.A, a new v a r i a t i o n of t h e Melissa virus, is d e t e r m i n e d to be in t h e wild. The ' r e s u m e ' v i r u s uses a Word m a c r o t o infect Outlook and spread itself.

733.

732.

731.

36

1 0 0 1

T E C H F A C T S

Seagate
China t i g h t e n s regulations against viruses, m a n d a t i n g a fine and i m p r i s o n m e n t for people w h o spread t h e m .

729.

o o 3 •o c
•a

The 'Stages' virus, disguised as a joke e-mail about the stages of life, spreads across t h e Internet. 'Stages' is hidden in an a t t a c h m e n t w i t h a false " . t x t " extension, luring recipients i n t o opening it. Shortly a f t e r the S e p t e m b e r attacks, the Nimda virus infects c o m p u t e r s all over t h e w o r l d . The virus is one of t h e most sophisticated t o date. The 'Anna K o u r n i k o v a ' virus w o r r i e s analysts who believed it was w r i t t e n with a 'tool kit' t h a t would allow p r o g r a m mers to c r e a t e viruses. 11th

3' 3 m 5"
n>
</)

725.

A u t h o r of t h e Melissa virus, David L. Smith, is sentenced t o 2 0 m o n t h s in f e d e r a l prison in New Jersey. In J a n u a r y , t h e relatively benign ' S l a m m e r ' w o r m , also known as Sapphire, becomes t h e fastest spreading w o r m till date, i n f e c t i n g 7 5 , 0 0 0 c o m p u t e r s in j u s t 10 minutes.

723.

The Sobig w o r m becomes t h e one of t h e first to join the spam c o m m u n i t y . The M y D o o m or Novarg w o r m spreads t h r o u g h e-mails faster t h a n any previous virus or w o r m . The t a r g e t is 'denial of service a t t a c k ' on t h e SCO Group.

COMMUNICATIONS TIMELINE

U

M

U

37D

721.

o 3 5 0 0 BC t o 2 9 0 0 BC: The Phoenicians develop an alphabet. m o The Sumerians develop c u n e i f o r m w r i t i n g - p i c t o g r a p h s of o in accounts w r i t t e n on clay tablets. The Egyptians develop n
hieroglyphic w r i t i n g .

720. 719. 718. 717. 716. 715. 714. 713.

o m in The Greeks use a phonetic alphabet w r i t t e n f r o m left FO m o Oldest r e c o r d of w r i t i n g in China, o o m o r^ w (J C O o o 0* o m v O N 1o m o n in o C D o o in
on bones. The first encyclopedia is w r i t t e n in Syria. The very first postal service, f o r g o v e r n m e n t use, in China. First r e c o r d e d use of h o m i n g pigeons used to send a message t h e winners of t h e Olympic Games t o Athenians. The Greeks start t h e very first library. to 170 BC: Papyrus rolls and early p a r c h m e n t s made of dried r e e d s - f i r s t p o r t a b l e and light w r i t i n g surfaces. t o right.

U m t o 100 BC: Human messengers on f o o t or horseback o o c o m m o n in Egypt and China w i t h messenger relay stations built. (\l
S o m e t i m e s fire messages used instead of humans.

712. 711. 710. 709. 708.

Q
<

2 n

The Romans establish postal services. H e l i o g r a p h s - R o m a n E m p e r o r Tiberius uses m i r r o r s t o send messages.

in Tsai Lun of China invents paper as we know it. Many say t h a t o this, along w i t h the i n v e n t i o n of t h e wheel, w h e r e w h a t
c h a n g e d t h e w o r l d most.

II

in

First w o o d e n p r i n t i n g press invented in China, which used symbols carved on a w o o d e n block.

0* o First m o v a b l e type, clay, i n v e n t e d in China by
Pi Sheng.

Seagate 707.
The first newspapers appear in Europe.

r> o
"o c r+

3

J o h a n n e s Gutenberg invents a p r i n t i n g press with metal m o v a b l e t y p e . His first p r i n t e d book? The Holy Bible.

5' "SU » 5'

705.

Camera Obscura i n v e n t e d - p r i m i t i v e image making makes its e n t r y . First daily newspaper is published in Leipzig, Germany. It was called t h e Einkommende Zeitung. Englishman Henry Mill receives t h e f i r s t patent for a type-writer. Claude Chappe invents t h e f i r s t long-distance t e l e g r a p h line. J o s e p h Nicephore Ni6pce achieves t h e first p h o t o g r a p h i c image. Charles W h e a t s t o n e r e p r o d u c e s sound in a p r i m i t i v e sound box t h e first m i c r o p h o n e . J o s e p h Henry invents t h e first electric t e l e g r a p h . Samuel Morse invents t h e Morse code. Samuel Morse invents t h e f i r s t long distance electric t e l e g r a p h line. Alexander Bain p a t e n t s t h e f i r s t fax machine. The US s t a r t s t h e Pony Express f o r mail delivery. Coleman Sellers invents t h e K i n e m a t o s c o p e - a machine t h a t flashed a series of still p h o t o g r a p h s o n t o a screen. T h o m a s Edison patents t h e m i m e o g r a p h , an office c o p y i n g machine. Alexander Graham Bell patents t h e electric telephone. Melvyl Dewey invents t h e Dewey Decimal System f o r o r d e r i n g library books.

39D

1879 1887 6881 1894 1898 1904 1906

692. 691.

1877

693.

Thomas Edison patents t h e p h o n o g r a p h i t h a wax cylinder as recording m e d i u m . Eadweard Muybridge invents high-speed p h o t o g r a p h y c r e a t i n g t h e first pictures t h a t c a p t u r e d m o t i o n . Emile Berliner invents t h e g r a m o p h o n e . This is debatable, t h o u g h - s o m e say it was Edison, some say it was Charles Cros.

00 00 George Eastman patents t h e 00
Kodak roll f i l m camera.

689. 688. 687. 686. 685. 684. 683. 682. 681. 680.

A l m o n S t r o w g e r p a t e n t s t h e direct dial telephone or a u t o matic t e l e p h o n e exchange. Guglielmo Marconi i m p r o v e s wireless t e l e g r a p h y . First t e l e p h o n e a n s w e r i n g machines c o m e up. First regular comic books. Lee DeForest invents t h e e l e c t r o n i c a m p l i f y i n g t u b e or t r i o d e . It allowed e l e c t r o n i c signals to be amplified, i m p r o v i n g t e l e p h o n e s and radios. T h o m a s Edison d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e first talking m o t i o n picture.

o

J First c r o s s - c o n t i n e n t a l t e l e p h o n e 5j
call made.

v O O First radios w i t h t u n e r s giving access t o d i f f e r e n t v
stations. Iconoscope, the firstTV camera, is invented by Vladimir Kosma Z w o r y k i n . J o h n Logie Baird t r a n s m i t s t h e first e x p e r i m e n t a l television signal. 1923 1925

40

1 0 0 1

T E C H F A C T S

Seagate

679.

Warner Brothers Studios i n v e n t s a way to r e c o r d sound separately f r o m t h e film on large disks, and s y n c h r o n i s e d sound and m o t i o n p i c t u r e t r a c k s upon playback. NBC s t a r t s t w o radio n e t w o r k s . CBS is founded. First television broadcasts in England. Warner Brothers releases The Jazz Singer, the first successful talking m o t i o n picture.

<•>

o
C

TJ

3

i+ 5" >2 £
2L

3

677.
76. a

m Radio p o p u l a r i t y spreads w i t h t h e Golden Age of radio. First TV broadcasts in t h e US. M o v i e t o n e s y s t e m of r e c o r d i n g f i l m sound on an audio t r a c k r i g h t on t h e f i l m invented.
Scheduled TV broadcasts begin. C o m p u t e r s such as H a r v a r d ' s Mark I put into public service. The Long Playing r e c o r d is invented, playing at 33 rpm. The t r a n s i s t o r is invented.

5" ( D

675.

673.

N e t w o r k TV starts in t h e US. The 4 5 - r p m - r e c o r d is invented.

D I G I T

6 7 2 . 671.

Intel is s h o r t for I n t e g r a t e d Electronics. ULSI stands for Ultra Large Scale Integration, used in m i c r o c h i p s w i t h over one million t r a n s i s t o r s . A fat Mac application is an application p r o g r a m for the Macintosh c o m p u t e r that works on a Mac running on a Motorola 6 8 0 0 0 series chip. FC-PGA (Flip Chip-Pin Grid A r r a y ) is a m i c r o c h i p design developed by Intel f o r its faster m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s . Intel co-founder Gordon Moore said in 1965, "The a m o u n t of i n f o r m a t i o n storable in one square inch of silicon will double e v e r y 18 m o n t h s . " This came t o be k n o w n as Moore's Law. In 1963, Douglas Engelbart invented the mouse as a pointing device for c o m p u t e r s . It was p a t e n t e d as t h e X-Y indicator in 1968. VisiCalc, invented in 1979, was t h e first spreadsheet p r o g r a m available for o m p u t e r s .
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

6 7 0 .

6 6 9 .

2

6 6 8 .

^u w

e

1 6 6 7 o. ! 6 6 6 . UJ

u

a. • 42

Seagate
6 6 5 . IBM was i n c o r p o r a t e d in 1911 under the name ComputingTabulating-Recording Company. Intel's Flying Pentium Ads and t h e 'Intel Inside' logo w e r e made on an Apple Macintosh.

664.
1984 was the year of the GUI. Apple introduced the Macintosh, the first PC with a graphical user interface.

i

o <> •

6 6 3 .

o 3 o

6 6 2 .

In 1938, Claude Shannon f i r s t s h o w e d t h a t e l e c t r o n i c s w i t c h i n g c i r c u i t s could p e r f o r m logical operations. The c o m p u t i n g for t h e Pioneer 10 s p a c e c r a f t was done by t h e Intel 4 0 0 4 microprocessor. The CVAX chip used a DEC Micro VAX I microprocessor. A message was inscribed on t h e chip, in Russian, which said, "VAX, w h e n y o u care e n o u g h to steal the v e r y b e s t " ! A m o d e r n g u a r t e r - i n c h square sili con chip has t h e p o w e r of t h e 1949 ENIAC c o m p u t e r , which occupied a full city block. A n d r e w Grove, f o r m e r Chairman, Intel Corporation, was flooded w i t h over 120 names to choose f r o m f o r its latest p r o c e s s o r . He f i n a l l y s e t t l e d on ' P e n t i u m ' a f t e r spending $ 4 0 , 0 0 0 . Ted Hoff, Stan Mazor and Federico Faggin designed t h e P e n t i u m Chip t h a t was launched on March 2 2 , 1 9 9 3 . In J u l y 1968, Robert Noyce and G o r d o n Moore, s t a r t e d N M Electronics. Soon a f t e r , t h e y s t a r t e d calling it Intel. Intel's code name for its e f f o r t t o make t h e one GHz micro processor was Project Foster.

w o •a c

661.

b 6 0 .

6 5 9 .

This chip is more powerful a room-sized '40s

than

658.

computer

6 5 7 .

6 5 6 .

6 5 5 .

If you happened to open up the case of the original Macintosh, you would find 4 7 signatures, one for each member of Apple's Macintosh division as of 1982.

43 •

6 5 4 .

Intel's project on the first processor to use the new 6 4 - b i t a r c h i t e c t u r e was under t h e code name Merced.

651.
The C o m p t o m e t e r was i n v e n t e d by Dorr Felt. It was t h e f i r s t e n t i r e l y keyo p e r a t e d calculating m a c h i n e - a practical adding and listing machine.

6 5 2 .

Intel c r e a t e d t h e Timna processor in 2001, a low-end p r o d u c t , but it was given a hasty burial a f t e r problems c r o p p e d up w i t h t h e m e m o r y t r a n s l a t o r hub (MTH).

6 5 0 .

The f i r s t microprocessor to make it into a home c o m p u t e r was the Intel 8 0 8 0 , a c o m p l e t e 8 - b i t c o m p u t e r on one chip, i n t r o d u c e d in 1974. The f i r s t m i c r o p r o c e s s o r to make a real splash in t h e m a r k e t was t h e Intel 8 0 8 8 , i n t r o d u c e d in 1979 and i n c o r p o r a t e d into t h e IBM PC. The P e n t i u m 4 runs code about 5 , 0 0 0 t i m e s faster t h a n the 8 0 8 8 . Wintel c o m p u t e r s , PCs w i t h an Intel processor and running a Windows o p e r a t i n g system, account for 8 0 percent of PCs in use t o d a y . Windows Me s t a r t e d a new t e c h n o l ogy called System File P r o t e c t i o n t h a t p r e v e n t e d applications f r o m o v e r w r i t i n g key system files.

649.

6 4 8 .

6 4 7 .

6 4 6 .

The comptometer, calculating

an

early

machine

6 4 5 .

Hewlett Packard's first o r d e r , for eight oscillators, came f r o m Walt Disney, while he was making t h e film Fantasia in 1940. Hewlett Packard i n t r o d u c e d t h e mopier in 1996, a p r i n t e r t h a t o f f e r s a low-cost, high-quality a l t e r n a t i v e to p h o t o c o p y i n g .

6 4 4 .

642.

In 1 9 8 4 , Apple C o m p u t e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e Apple lie model l a p t o p , w h i c h had an i n t e r n a l 5 . 2 5 - i n c h f l o p p y d r i v e .

44

1 0 0 1

T E C H F A C T S

Seagate
6 4 3 . The Biztalk Server is a M i c r o s o f t p r o d u c t . It unites e n t e r p r i s e n application i n t e g r a t i o n (EAI) and business-to-business (B2B) inte- & o g r a t i o n in a single p r o d u c t . o ' S t i n g e r ' was t h e c o d e n a m e M i c r o s o f t used for its s m a r t phone p l a t f o r m t h a t was unveiled in 2001. A peer-to-peer N e t w o r k is a t y p e of n e t w o r k in which each w o r k s t a t i o n has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities, 637. without there being, for example, a central server. J a m e s Gosling c r e a t e d PROM ( P r o g r a m m a b l e Reado n l y M e m o r y ) is m e m o r y p r o g r a m m e d at t h e t i m e of manufacturing. J a v a at Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s . He c a m e up w i t h t h e n a m e ' J a v a ' while debating over it at a c o f f e e shop. •o o 3 n>

641.

3

6 4 0 .

,

o

c

639.

638.

The first ever ISP was CompuServe, established in 1969. It still exists, under AOL Time Warner. The TWAIN Working Group is a n o t - f o r - p r o f i t organisation. It r e p r e s e n t s t h e imaging i n d u s t r y . TWAIN is short for ' t e c h n o l o g y w i t h o u t an i n t e r e s t i n g name', and you'll most f e q u e n t l y see TWAIN d r i v e r s w i t h scanners. In a c o m p u t e r m o n i t o r , the v o l t a g e gets boosted to 3 0 , 0 0 0 volts in parts of t h e circuitry. When it opened way back in 1993, The Trojan Room became t h e world's first I n t e r n e t site t o use a webcam. It took little time for It t o develop a cult following.

6 3 6 .

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45 •

6 3 3 .

' B i o m e t r i c s ' is the t e r m for the technology that performs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by f i n g e r p r i n t , retinal, and voice scans.

6 5 1 .

6 3 2 .

The high-speed data high ways of the Internet are called backbones.

The CD-ROM made its debut in 1984 through the combined efforts of Phillips and Sony.

6 3 0 .

The C o m m o d o r e 6 4 was t h e best-selling PC of its time. It had a large m e m o r y capacity for t h e t i m e - 6 4 KB; low-cost f l o p p y disks; and colour graphics. The ENIAC was developed way back in 1946 at the University of Penn sylvania. It calculated at t h e t h e n - p h e n o m e n a l r a t e of 5 , 0 0 0 additions per second. In 1982, A n d r e w Fluegelman c r e a t e d t h e first ever s h a r e w a r e , k n o w n as PC-Talk. It was a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s o f t w a r e .

6 2 9 .

6 2 7 .

6 2 6 .

The popular CD recording s o f t w a r e Nero Burning ROM is n a m e d a f t e r t h e Roman Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar A u g u s t u s Germanicus, w h o is said to have ben playing music while Rome was burning. Did y o u know t h a t t h e University of Waterloo 'stole' Version 7 of Unix b e f o r e it was released? Alan Kay of the Xerox Palo A l t o Research Center envisioned t h e f i r s t notebook-sized, p o r t a b l e c o m p u t e r called t h e Dyna book in t h e 1970s. The first laptop c o m p u t e r was designed in 1979 by William Moggridge of Grid Systems Corp. It had 3 4 0 kilobytes of bubble m e m o r y .

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•o In early 2 0 0 2 , Microsoft a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e BMW 7- series luxury o sedans were now running t h e Windows CE embedded o p e r a t i n g f> s y s t e m . Passengers could o access and control in-car 3 •a navigation,telephone and o 3 e n t e r t a i n m e n t systems. < D 3 W i t h i n j u s t s i x y e a r s of

618.

In CD-ROM drives, 1X is equal t o 150 KBps. In DVDs, 1X equals 1.38 M B p s - a little over nine t i m e s faster t h a n CDs.

t h e r e l e a s e of t h e 8 0 2 8 6 p r o c e s s o r , a w h o p p i n g 15 million 286-based personal c o m p u t e r s were installed globally. TJ
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In old F o r t r a n compilers, if y o u said a=2, and t h e n said 3=a, t h e n 3 would 'become' 2, and 3+3 w o u l d add up t o 4!

Did you know t h a t Windows XP was code-named Whistler? The first digital c o m p u t e r w e i g h e d 3 0 tons. A 'dongle' is a security or copy p r o t e c t i o n device consisting of h a r d w a r e , s o f t w a r e or b o t h w o r k i n g in c o m b i n a t i o n , a n d / o r any h a r d w a r e device t h a t attaches t o a PC's I/O port to add h a r d w a r e capabilities. In 1980, Microsoft i n t r o d u c e d t h e Z8 0 SoftCard, a circuit board, m a r k i n g Microsoft's first f o r a y into t h e h a r d w a r e world. The card was designed f o r t h e Apple II computer. Handheld Device Markup Language (HDML) is a simple language used t o define hyper text-like c o n t e n t and applica tions for hand held devices. Many medical schools in t h e US provide financial aid t o s t u d e n t s t o purchase handhelds as they o f f e r
PDAs have come a long way since devices like the Newton

615.

614.

613.

The C e l e r o n p r o c e s s o r w a s l a u n c h e d in 1 9 9 9 , as p a r t of Intel's s t r a t e g y to develop processors for specific market segments.

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services like patient trackers, d r u g databases, etc. 612.

651.

The P e n t i u m III p r o c e s s o r One of the first PDAs to be w a s l a u n c h e d in 1 9 9 9 . I t c o m m e c i a l l y available was e n h a n c e d p e r f o r m a n c e of Apple's N e w t o n Message Pad. advanced applications. But t h e N e w t o n was t o o big, expensive and complicated, and its h a n d w r i t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n p r o g r a m was poor. It flopped, even t h o u g h it was ahead of its t i m e . The Palm OS f i t s in less t h a n 100K, w h i c h is less t h a n one percent the size of Windows 9 8 or t h e Mac OS. A PDA doesn't have a hard drive. It stores basic programs on a ROM c h i p - t h e y r e m a i n intact even w h e n t h e m a c h i n e shuts down. Data and p r o g r a m s added later are s t o r e d in RAM.

6 1 0 .

6 0 8 .

O U f .

Two popular h a n d w r i t i n g r e c o g n i t i o n s o f t w a r e for PDAs are G r a f f i t i and J o t . G r a f f i t i requires t h a t each l e t t e r be r e c o r d e d in one u n i n t e r r u p t e d m o t i o n , and has a specialised alphabet.
A cabinet should 'MIDI' stands for Musical I n s t r u m e n t always be properly Digital Interface. It's a s t a n d a r d for ventilated sending digitally encoded music i n f o r m a t i o n between e l e c t r o n i c devices, such as b e t w e e n s y n t h e sizers and c o m p u t e r s .

6 0 6 .

6 0 5 .

CPUs typically o p e r a t e at 4 0 t o 5 0 degrees Celsius. The 'danger zone' is typically when t h e t e m p e r a t u r e goes above 6 0 degrees.

Seagate Tech Factoid:
W h a t does 5 0 GB of s t o r a g e r e a l l y m e a n ? Y o u c a n s t a c k 3 piles of s i n g l e s p a c e d t y p e w r i t t e n pages t a l l e r t h a n t h e E i f f e l t o w e r a n d t h e d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n is about 5 0 gigabytes.

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6 0 4 . The d i f f e r e n c e between CDRs and music CDs (or o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l l y p r o d u c e d CDs) are t h a t t h e f o r m e r are b u r n t , while t h e latter are pressed. 'Pressing' is a m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e c h n i q u e very d i f f e r e n t f r o m burning. 6 0 3 . In 1953, Remington-Rand developed the first high-speed p r i n t e r for use on the Univac computer.

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'Colossus' was the first totally electronic computing device. It used only vacuum tubes, and had no relays.

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Ultra has 222 million t r a n s i s t o r s , which is the r e c o r d for t h e m a x i m u m number of transistors o n a chip.

601.

The original laser printer called EARS was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center beginning in 1969 and completed in November 1971. According to Xerox, "The Xerox 9 7 0 0 Electronic Printing System, the first xerographic laser printer product, was released in 1977." A c c o r d i n g t o IBM, " t h e v e r y f i r s t IBM 3 8 0 0 was installed in the c e n t r a l a c c o u n t i n g o f f i c e at F. W. W o o l w o r t h ' s N o r t h A m e r i c a n data center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in French keyboards are 'AZERTY' instead 1976." The IBM 3 8 0 0 of 'QWERTY' Printing System was the i n d u s t r y ' s first high-speed, laser p r i n t e r t h a t o p e r a t e d at speeds of m o r e t h a n 100 impressions per m i n u t e .

599.

5 9 8 • The inkjet p r i n t e r was i n v e n t e d in 1976 but it took t w o decades f o r it t o become a c o m m o n h o u s e h o l d item. The first H e w l e t t Packard DeskJet printer for household use cost $1000.

597.

Did you know t h a t t h e IBM PC once sold as 'Model 5150'?

In France, most Keyboards are 'AZERTY' instead of the regular QWERTY.

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INTEL PROCESSOR TIMELINE The 4 0 0 4 micro processor. This was Intel's first ever microprocessor. The 8 0 0 8 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . In 1974, Radio Electronics r e f e r r e d to a device called the Mark-8 t h a t used this processor. Interestingly, t h e Mark-8 was hailed as one of t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r s for t h e home. The 8 0 8 0 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r became the brains of t h e first P C - t h e Altair, named a f t e r a d e s t i n a t i o n of t h e Starship Enterprise f r o m t h e popular Star Trek series. Users could a f f o r d a kit for the Altair f o r just $ 3 9 5 . The 8 0 8 6 and 8 0 8 8 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s became t h e brains of IBM's new superhit p r o d u c t the IBM PC. Its success s k y r o c k e t e d Intel i n t o F o r t u n e 5 0 0 . C\l 00 The 8 0 2 8 6 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . Within just six years of its release, a w h o p p i n g 15 million 2 8 6 - b a s e d personal c o m p u t e r s were installed globally. in C The 8 0 3 8 6 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . This processor f e a t u r e d a O stagering 2 7 5 , 0 0 0 transistors. o> CO The 4 8 6 DX m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . With this, the user 0> g r a d u a t e d f r o m c o m m a n d - l i n e t o point-and-click c o m p u t i n g . m 0* o* The Pentium processor. This processor allowed c o m p u t e r s t o process real-world data, such as sound, h a n d - w r i t t e n and p h o t o images. The Pentium Pro processor. It was designed specifically to fuel 32-bit server and w o r k s t a t i o n applications. The processor e v e n t u a l l y propelled speedy c o m p u t e r - a i d e d design.
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The P e n t i u m II Processor. This chip enabled PC users t o capture, edit and share digital photos via t h e I n t e r n e t . The P e n t i u m II Xeon Processor. This processor f e a t u r e s innovations specially designed f o r w o r k s t a t i o n s t h r i v i n g on business applications.

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The P e n t i u m III Xeon processor. The processor enabled t h e speeding up of e - c o m m e r c e applications. The P e n t i u m 4 processor. While t h e 4 0 0 4 chipran at 108 kilohertz, this processor clocked a phenomenal 1.5 giga hertz. Users could now c r e a t e professional-quality movies and render 3D graphics in r e a l t i m e .

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The Xeon processor. This processor o f f e r s users a choice of o p e r a t i n g systems, along w i t h high p e r f o r m a n c e , all at a f f o r d a b l e prices. The Itanium processor. It delivered world-class p e r f o r m a n c e , apart f r o m enabling e - c o m m e r c e s e c u r i t y transactions.

581.

80. S The Itanium 2 processor. It p r o m i s e d
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outstanding p e r f o r m a n c e , s u p p o r t i n g business applications.

The Intel Centrino Mobile t e c h n o l o g y launched. The t e c h n o l o g y o f f e r s new capabilities specifically f o r t h e mobile world, such as increased b a t t e r y life.

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Intel releases t h e P e n t i u m 4 Processor Extreme Edition t h a t s u p p o r t s H y p e r T h r e a d i n g t e c h n o l o g y . The processor has 2 MB of L3 cache, and is designed for gamers and t h e like. The Centrino M (Mobile) Processor debuts. It is built on Intel's 9 0 nm f a b r i c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . It f e a t u r e s a 2MB L2 cache, and a 4 0 0 MHz p o w e r - o p t i m i z e d s y s t e m bus.

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Prior t o newer f o r m s of DRAM, FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM) was t h e most c o m m o n kind of d y n a m i c RAM in p e r s o n a l computers. The p r o d u c t i o n of a 32 MB DRAM chip t h a t weighs t w o g r a m s requires 32 Kg of w a t e r , 1.6 Kg of fossil fuel, 7 0 0 g m of e l e m e n t a l gases and 72 gm of hazardous chemicals. Robert Heath Dennard, of t h e IBM T J Watson Research Center, was t h e i n v e n t o r of RAM. In 1970, t h e newly f o r m e d Intel publicly released t h e 1103, t h e first DRAM chip. By 1972 it was t h e best selling s e m i c o n d u c t o r m e m o r y chip in t h e world. In 1970, Fairchild C o r p o r a t i o n invented t h e first 2 5 6 - K Static Random Access M e m o r y (SRAM) chip. Static Random Access M e m o r y (SRAM) is faster and b e t t e r t h a n Dynamic Random Access M e m o r y (DRAM).

575.

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In t h e 1950s, J a c o b Rabinow invented the first magnetic c o m p u t e r m e m o r y t o use a disk instead of a tape f o r data s t o r a g e . Reynold J o h n s o n , w h o headed t h e IBM t e a m t h a t was t o develop t h e first RAM, was a B.S. in Education A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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Super A u d i o CD players, c r e a t e d by Sony and Philips Electronics, 3 •a can a c c o m m o d a t e m o r e t h a n f o u r t i m e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n of t h e •o c u r r e n t CD f o r m a t . o

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566.
On April 2 2 n d 2 0 0 4 , scientists at S t a n f o r d announced t h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e upper speed limit at which data can be w r i t t e n to a hard drive. This limit is m u c h higher t h a n w h a t is achieved by c u r r e n t drives. The first hard drives c o m m e r c i a l l y available w e r e a b o u t 5 t o 10 MB, and sold f o r

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Contrary to what most people believe, a hard disk head does not touch the platter surface. It floats a few micrometres above the platter.

$100 per m e g a b y t e . At t h o s e prices, a 4 0 GB hard disk w o u l d cost $ 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , or Rs 18 c r o r e , in t o d a y ' s prices.

563.

M a g n e t o r e s i s t i v e (MR) head t e c h n o l o g y is used in disk drives t o allow higher storage densities t h a n t h e older inductive-head technology. Just a Bunch Of Disks (JBOD) is a t e r m for one or more disk drives t h a t f o r m a single volume. However, the information on these disks is not striped in any way or protected.

562.

561.

The f i r s t hard drive available f o r t h e Apple II had a capacity of 5 B.

Sony introduced the 3-1/2 floppy disk in 1981.

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Seagate introduced the first hard disk for PCs in 1979. It held 5 MB of data.

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Sony i n t r o d u c e d t h e 3 1/2-inch floppy in 1981.

558.

CD-ROM XA was developed j o i n t l y by Sony, Philips, and M i c r o s o f t , and its specifications were published in an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e Yellow Book. A hard disk is v e r y v u l n e r a b l e t o vibrations: a minor b u m p can make t h e head crash into t h e disk's surface. The d a m a g e usually cannot be repaired, causing data loss and h a r d disk damage. NRAM is a new kind of RAM

557.

556.
GDDR3 is a new standard for RAM in graphics, aimed at increasing speed and reducing power consumption.

5 5 5 .

being developed by N a n t e r o Corp. in Massachusetts. It will use nanotubes t o s t o r e 1s and Os. II will be faster and denser t h a n DRAM, and will be non-volatile. 5 5 4 . M R A M - m a g n e t i c R A M - w i l l p r o b a b l y be out this decade, and will replace DDR and flash. It promises faster data access, lower power c o n s u m p t i o n , and g r e a t e r data storage density. Regular RAM is electricity-based, and t h a t ' s w h y it's volatile. In c o n t r a s t , m e m o r y like flash is magenetism-based, w h i c h is w h y no power supply is r e q u i r e d t o keep data intact. The d i f f e r e n c e in CD and DVD t e c h n o l o g y lies m o s t l y in t h e laser DVDs pack the data elements closer t o g e t h e r on the disk, so a much m o r e precise laser is r e q u i r e d t o read and w r i t e data o f f DVDs. It is possible t o run a P-lll processor w i t h o u t a heatsink, because Intel bundles along p r o t e c t i o n devices t h a t clocks d o w n t h e CPU tc get it back t o a stable t e m p e r a t u r e .

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5 4 9 . When Windows 3.1 was launched, 3 million copies were sold in t h e first t w o months. ) 4 8 . Windows 9 5 can officially r u n on a 3 8 6 D X at 2 0 Megahertz, w i t h just 4 MB of RAM. . 4 7 . >46. The W i n 9 5 / 9 8 logos were c r e a t e d w i t h Freehand on a Macintosh. At t h e t u r n of the millennium, Bill Gates went head t o head w i t h t h e United States D e p a r t m e n t of J u s t i c e over the c o m p a n y ' s bundling of s o f t w a r e . At the trial, Gates claimed t h a t Internet Explorer could not be unbundled f r o m t h e rest of Windows. But an e x p e r t witness f o r t h e prosecution w e n t t o w o r k in t h e c o u r t r o o m and u n b u n d l e d Explorer in just 10 minutes! Did y o u know t h a t t h e 'Save' i c o n - t h e f l o p p y - i n M i c r o s o f t Office applications is w r o n g l y d e p i c t e d ? The small rectangle is on t h e right instead of on t h e left. T h o u g h t h e highest possible e n c r y p t i o n in Windows 2 0 0 0 was 128bit, Microsoft only sent t h e 4 0 - b i t version t o India, because India was under US sanctions a f t e r Pokhran. At Microsoft, 'Gone Gold' is w h e n a gold c o m p u t e r disk is created, 55D

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indicating t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s o f t w a r e product coding is f r o z e n and p r o d u c t i o n would now begin.

542. 541. 540. 539.

A t one time, MS-DOS was r e f e r r e d t o as 'Domestos', a f t e r a brand of local toilet cleaner, by people against this o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m . David Bradley w r o t e t h e code for t h e [Ctrl] + [ A l t ] + [Delete] key sequence. In 1994, Microsoft said t h a t A d a m B a r a t z - a 9 year o l d - w a s t h e y o u n g e s t beta t e s t e r f o r Windows 9 5 . In t h e movie True Lies, t h e businessman who finances t h e t e r r o r i s t s runs t h e Arabic edition of Windows 3.1. The book The Rules of the Net calls UNIX 'the Swiss a r m y knife of the Net'.

5 3 8 .

537.

In 1964, OS/2 was developed j o i n t l y by Microsoft and IBM. It is considered by many to be superior t o Windows, and it runs on PC-compatible machines.

IBM Research labs is w o r k i n g This logo was created on a on building a h i g h - p e r f o r m Macintosh! V! ance operating system E a t a r g e t e d at t h e next g e n e r a t i o n of servers under the code name K42. >
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Gene A m d a h l p r o g r a m m e d t h e f i r s t o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m , f o r t h e IBM 7 0 4 . The Japanese version of MS Office has a character y o u can't f i n d in any o t h e r version. The 'Office Lady' is a virtual assistant t h a t bows, serves tea.

Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, and David Robson, all of PARC, developed SmallTalk-72, the first truly objectoriented language and OS.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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£ 32. " W y v e r n " was t h e code name f o r t h e version of Windows CE t h a t 3 s u p p o r t s colour screens f o r t h e Palm-sized PC f o r m a t . A w y v e r n is g n a t w o - l e g g e d f l y i n g d r a g o n w i t h a poisonous spiked tail.
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'WinPad' was M i c r o s o f t ' s failed handheld PC o p e r a t i n g system, g w h i c h it developed and killed b e f o r e c o m i n g up w i t h Windows CE. M i c r o s o f t scrapped t h e WinPad p r o j e c t r e p o r t e d l y because t h e y £ c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e out how t o squeeze a v a r i a n t of Windows i n t o an « a f f o r d a b l e handheld size. tu MS-DOS was a r o u g h i m i t a t i o n of CP/M, one of the first p o r t a b l e o p e r a t i n g systems. ' P o r t a b l e ' means t h a t t h e OS could r u n on d i f f e r e n t hardware.

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Bell Labs f o u n d t h e y needed an o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m f o r t h e i r c o m p u t e r c e n t r e which at t h e t i m e was r u n n i n g various batch jobs. The BESYS o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m was c r e a t e d t o deal with these needs. Bell Labs was a d o p t i n g t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n c o m p u t e r equip ment, and decided t o join forces with General Electric and MIT t o c r e a t e Multics (Multiplexed I n f o r m a t i o n and C o m p u t i n g Service). AT&T made a decision t o w i t h d r a w Multics and go w i t h GECOS. When Multics was w i t h d r a w n , Ken T h o m p s o n and Dennis Ritchie needed t o r e w r i t e an o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m in o r d e t o play space t r a v e l on a n o t h e r , smaller machine. The result was a s y s t e m w h i c h a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed I n f o r m a t i o n and C o m p u t i n g S e r v i c e ) - a n 'emascu lated Multics'.

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UNIX had been installed on 16 sites, all w i t h i n A T & T / W e s t e r n Electric. It was publicly unveiled at a c o n f e r e n c e in October. The third, f o u r t h and f i f t h editions followed. 1BSD was released; 2BSD was released mid 1978. 3BSD was released late 1979.

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SCO was f o u n d e d by Doug and L a r r y Michels as a UNIX p o r t i n g and c o n s u l t i n g c o m p a n y . SCO delivers its f i r s t packaged UNIX system, called SCO XENIX System V for Intel 8 0 8 6 and 8 0 8 8 processor-based PCs.

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T E C H F A C T S

Seagate
1984

521.

Ultrix 1.0 was released.

ui o

1985

520.

aT The GNU m a n i f e s t o is published in the March 1985 issue 3 of Dr. Dobb's J o u r n a l . The GNU project s t a r t e d a year and a half ID O c later. < / >
1987: Sun and AT&T laid t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r business c o m p u t ing in the next decade w i t h an alliance t o develop UNIX System V Release 4. HP-UX 2.0 was released. Version 3.0 f o l l o w e d . Q J
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1989

517.

i/) SCO ships SCO UNIX S y s t e m V / 3 8 6 , t h e f i r s t v o l u m e c o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t licensed by AT&T t o use t h e UNIX System trademark.

3

|

O 0\ AIX, short for A d v a n c e d I n t e r a c t i v e e x e c u t i v e , was f i r s t O N e n t e r e d into t h e m a r k e t by IBM in February. FreeBSD 1.0 was released in December. Red Hat Linux is i n t r o d u c e d .

513.

1994

514.

Oi Caldera Inc. was f o u n d e d by Ransom Love and Bryan Sparks. SCO acquired UNIX Systems source t e c h n o l o g y business f r o m Novell C o r p o r a t i o n , w h i c h had acquired it f r o m AT&T's UNIX System L a b o r a t o r i e s . SCO also acquired t h e UnixWare 2 OS f r o m Novell. Caldera shipped OpenLinux S t a n d a r d 1.1 on May 5, t h e second o f f e r i n g in Caldera's OpenLinux p r o d u c t line. IRIX 6.5, the f i f t h g e n e r a t i o n of SGI UNIX, was released o n t h e 6 t h of J u l y . SCO delivered t h e UnixWare 7 o p e r a t i n g system. The Sun Solaris 7 o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m was released. FreeBSD 3.0 was released on t h e 16th of October.

m

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59D

5 0 6 . 5 0 5 .

Bill Gates' home was designed using a Mac! The most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g c o m p a n y name or t r a d e m a r k o n t h e World Wide Web is IBM. Apple p r o g r a m m e r s n a m e d a beta version of a novel s o f t w a r e application 'Sagan', in h o n o u r of t h e r e n o w n e d a s t r o n o m e r Carl Sagan. Sagan sued Apple, and w o n t h e case. On Bill Clinton's last day in t h e White House, his d e p a r t i n g aides played a curious practical joke on the incumbent president, George W Bush. When his s t a f f e r s a r r i v e d , t h e y were a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d t h a t none of t h e building's c o m p u t e r keyboards had Ws! Bill Gates' c o m p u t e r - g e e k image was established well b e f o r e his days at M i c r o s o f t . Steve Ballmer, a college buddy w h o later became t h e c o m p a n y ' s president, recalled t h a t Gates never put sheets on his bed, and once left f o r vacation in t h e middle of a t h u n d e r s t o r m - w i t h t h e w i n d o w s and door wide open. Bill Gates once said, " T h e r e are people w h o d o n ' t like capitalism, and people w h o d o n ' t like PCs. But t h e r e ' s no-one w h o likes t h e PC, w h o doesn't like M i c r o s o f t . "
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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498.

w o D Bill Gates visited Belgium in February 1998, and was hit in t h e face < 5T w i t h a cream pie. Y o u ' d expect him to have pressed charges, or 3 m t o have left t h e venue i m m e d i a t e l y . But Gates just r e m a r k e d o c t h a t t h e pie wasn't v e r y t a s t y . — n o A s t r o n a u t David Wolf was t h e 497. first A m e r i c a n t o exercise his 0) r i g h t t o vote f r o m space. He Steve Jobs announced to e-mailed his v o t e f o r t h e Housin Apple's partnership w i t h t o n Mayoral elections in N o v e m Q > Microsoft during the ber 1997, while a b o a r d t h e Russian space s t a t i o n Mir. August 1997 MacWorld I "g trade show. The audience Fifth grade student Laney Rupp booed f o r 4 2 s e c o n d s ! drew his vision of Bill Gate's $ 4 2 million mansion, which was published in Harper's Magazine in February 1999. The only t h i n g he missed out on was t h e e l e c t r o n i c doggy door. M i c r o s o f t asked Rolling Stones f r o n t - m a n , Mick J a g g e r , if t h e y could use t h e Stones' hit ' S t a r t me up' in p r o m o t i o n s f o r W i n d o w s 9 5 . A l m o s t jokingly, he asked f o r a ridiculous $12 million, t h i n k i n g t h e y ' d t u r n him down. He was shocked when t h e y agreed a l m o s t immediately! Mashayoshi Son f o u n d e d Softbank at age 23. The c o m p a n y h o l d s large stakes in Yahoo!, Comdex and Kingston Technologies.

Before joining Apple, J o h n Sculley was CEO of Pepsi.

to

496.

495.

494.

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Seagate Tech Factoid
Disk d r i v e r e c o r d i n g head f l y h e i g h t (gap b e t w e e n t h e head and t h e disc w h e n t h e d r i v e is s p i n n i n g ) is less t h a n 1 microinch, while: A red blood cell is 3 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s in d i a m e t e r . A p a r t i c l e of t o b a c c o s m o k e is 2 5 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . A p a r t i c l e of s m o g is 1 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s . A h u m a n h a i r is 4 , 0 0 0 m i c r o i n c h e s .

fmasM

4 9 3 .

The original retail price of t h e Apple I c o m p u t e r was $ 6 6 6 . 6 6 , because Steve Wozniak liked n u m b e r s w i t h r e p e a t i n g digits! The legendary m a g a z i n e ' B y t e ' , w h i c h ceased publication w i t h its J u l y 1998 issue, began in S e p t e m b e r 1975. Did y o u know t h a t c o m p o s e r , c o m p u t e r scientist and a u t h o r J a r o n Lanier coined t h e t e r m ' v i r t u a l reality'? The t e r m 'cyberspace' was coined by sci-fi a u t h o r William Gibson, and appeared in his 1984 novel Neuromancer.

4 9 2 .

491.
Of the many rumours about Microsoft, one was a spoof news release in 1994 that claimed Microsoft was purchasing the Catholic Church.

4 9 0 .

4 8 9 .

4 8 8 .

The t e r m 'bit' was coined by J o h n Tuckey. The w o r d f i r s t a p p e a r e d in p r i n t in relation t o c o m p u t e r science sense in 1949. The code name for t h e 12 engineers w h o designed t h e f i r s t IBM PC was 'The Dirty Dozen'. J o h n Brunner is c r e d i t e d w i t h w r i t i n g t h e first c y b e r p u n k novel, called Shockwave Rider. Did y o u know t h a t t h e t h r e e f o u n d e r s of Compaq all c a m e f r o m Texas I n s t r u m e n t s ?

4 8 7 .

a) 4 8 6 . £ 2 4 8 5 . c 4 8 4 .

Byte Magazine ceased publication with its July 1998 issue

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Ted Nelson coined t h e t e r m H y p e r t e x t in 1965, and was also t h e a u t h o r of t h e book Literary Machines.

1483.

Sanai Mito, a f o r m e r Osaka Municipal University w o r k i n g for Sharp in t h e early 1970s, i n v e n t e d t h e LCD.

• 62

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481. 480.

i. t/i o Hotmail, f o u n d e d by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith, w e n t online on = 4 t h J u l y 1996. When M i c r o s o f t acquired H o t m a i l in J a n u a r y 1998, =j H o t m a i l had over 9 million c u s t o m e r s . o
VI

Bill Gates' The Road Ahead

has been t r a n s l a t e d into 2 5 languages,

4 7 9 . ' A d o b e ' came f r o m t h e n a m e of t h e river Adobe Creek t h a t ran behind t h e house of f o u n d e r J o h n Warnock.

o 0

TJ 4 7 8 . 'Apache' got its name because its f o u n d e r s got s t a r t e d by apply ng a (Dpatches t o code w r i t t e n f o r I/I NCSA's h t t p d daemon. The 01 477. result was 'A PAtCHy' server; thus, t h e name Apache. I-a a > Bill Hewlett and Dave -i in Packard tossed a coin t o o 4 7 6 . The name IBM was started by an 3 decide w h e t h e r t h e CD ex-employee of National Cash Register. To one-up t h e m in all respects he called his c o m p a n y International Busines Machines. 4 7 5 . L a r r y Ellison and Bob Oats were company they founded P a c k a r d or P a c k a r d Hewlett. w o u l d be c a l l e d H e w l e t t fl> I/I 01

3

w o r k i n g on a consulting p r o j e c t f o r t h e CIA. The code name f o r t h e project was Oracle. Later t h e y kept t h e same name f o r t h e company. 4 7 4 . The t e r m 'Silicon Valley' was coined by j o u r n a l i s t Don Hoefler. Charles Wang, an i m m i g r a n t f r o m Shanghai, f o u n d e d C o m p u t e r Associates in 1976. 4 7 2 . Sandra Kesinor and L e o n a r d Bosack s t a r t e d Cisco in 1984. The name was simply a s h o r t e n e d version of 'San Francisco'.

4 7 3 .

Adobe is the second largest software company in the world

Adobe

Scott McNealy f o u n d e d Sun M i c r o s y s t e m s in 1982.

In 2 0 0 1 , t h e G u i n n e s s B o o k of W o r l d R e c o r d s l i s t e d M S N H o t m a i l as t h e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t f r e e e - m a i l p r o v i d e r , w i t h more than a 100 million subscribers.

63 •

4 6 9 .

Adobe, or Adobe Systems Incorporated, the c o m p a n y behind Photoshop, A c r o b a t , and so on, was f o u n d e d in 1982. Steven Gray f o u n d e d t h e A m a t e u r C o m p u t e r Society in 1966 and began publishing t h e ACS Newsletter.

4 6 8 .

467.

4 6 6 .

In 1952, Heinz Nixdorf f o u n d e d Nixdorf C o m p u t e r Corp. in Germany. It remained an inde pendent c o r p o r a t i o n until m e r g i n g w i t h Siemens in 1990.

Jeff Hawkins invented the Palm Pilot.

4 6 5 .

In 1969, Xerox Corp. b o u g h t Scientific Data Systems f o r nearly $1 billion—90 times t h e latter's earnings.

464.

Bill Gates' first c o m p a n y was called Traf-O-Data, w h i c h made s o f t w a r e to analyse t r a f f i c , which enabled c o u n t y g o v e r n m e n t s t o get federal m o n e y for road projects. The c o m p a n y was d r i v e n o u t of business by a huge m o n o p o l y - t h e federal g o v e r n m e n t t h a t gave away similar s o f t w a r e for free. Bill Gates' m a t h ' S A T score was a perfect 8 0 0 . The earliest r e f e r e n c e by Bill Gates made to t h e c o m p a n y name ' M i c r o s o f t ' was in a l e t t e r sent by Gates to c o - f o u n d e r Paul Allen on 2 9 t h November, 1975. In t h e letter, t h e name was spelt 'MicroSoft', but the hyphen was e v e n t u a l l y dropped. 3 C o m changed t h e name of t h e PalmPilot to simply 'Palm' because Pilot Pen Company t h r e a t e n e d a t r a d e m a r k lawsuit, c i t i n g possible brand confusion. So 3 C o m backed d o w n and changed t h e name t o 'Palm'. The irony is t h a t t h e Palm „ . ... ,, Pen Company makes styli usable on

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Palm, Windows CE and o t h e r pen based devices. 4 6 0 . Brad Chase, Senior Executive at Microsoft in charge of Windows 9 5 , left t h e c o m p a n y in 1999 and created a board g a m e called Derivation, which is a b o u t English words and phrases and t h e i r origins and meanings.

•64

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4 5 9 . Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak earned money in college by selling "blue boxes" t o o t h e r students. A blue box a t t a c h e d t o a pay t e l e p h o n e and c r e a t e d t h e p r o p e r signals t o allow a user t o make free phone calls. Bill Gates launched his business career in 1969 at age 14 by f o r m i n g a c o m p a n y named Lakeside P r o g r a m m i n g Group. Gates and his f r i e n d Paul Allen signed an agreem e n t w i t h C o m p u t e r Center C o r p o r a t i o n to r e p o r t bugs in PDP-10 s o f t w a r e , in e x c h a n g e f o r c o m p u t e r time.

4 5 8 .

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. One of t h e largest c o m p a n i e s in t h e world, AT&T is believed t o have e m p l o y e d o v e r a million people at one point.

d i g i t

65D

upercomputing
4 5 6 . S e y m o u r Cray, c r e a t o r of high-end c o m p u t e r s , whose vehicle was t e s t e d against accidents by his o w n systems, could not save h i m s e l f - h e died in a car crash. 4 5 5 . A s u p e r c o m p u t e r executes a single p r o g r a m m u c h f a s t e r t h a n a m a i n f r a m e . But m a i n f r a m e s are considered m o r e p o w e r f u l because t h e y s u p p o r t m o r e m u l t i t a s k i n g . A m o n g s t o t h e r uses, s u p e r c o m p u t e r s are used f o r w e a t h e r f o r e casting, a n i m a t e d graphics, nuclear energy research and petroleum exploration. General Motors has purchased an IBM s u p e r c o m p u t e r t h e companies say is t h e fastest in t h e a u t o m o t i v e i n d u s t r y . The new s u p e r c o m p u t e r , based on IBM's Power 4 and Power 5 t e c h n o l o g y , m o r e t h a n doubles t h e c o m p u t i n g capacity of GM, and is expected t o slash t h e a m o u n t of t i m e it takes t o get a vehicle t o m a r k e t f r o m f o u r years t o 18 m o n t h s . The f o u r most p o w e r f u l s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in t h e w o r l d are o w n e d by g o v e r n m e n t agencies or universities. J a p a n ' s Earth S i m u l a t o r Center is listed as t h e w o r l d - r e c o r d holder at 3 5 . 8 t e r a f l o p s .
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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4 5 1 .
•o A u t o m o t i v e companies including Ford, T o y o t a and Daimler o & Chrysler own 12 of t h e 5 0 0 fastest s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in t h e world. n

4 5 0 .

The p e r f o r m a n c e of s u p e r c o m p u t e r s is j u d g e d using t h e UNPACK 3 •a benchmark, i n t r o d u c e d by Jack Dongarra. o Blue Gene is t h e n i c k n a m e of t h e new s u p e r c o m p u t e r f r o m IBM t h a t would be 1,000 times faster t h a n Deep Blue.

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The fastest s u p e r c o m p u t e r in India is the 574-CPU cluster at Intel, Bangalore.

446.

'FLOPS' refers t o 'floating point operations per second', and represents the speed at which a c o m p u t e r can p e r f o r m m a t h e matical calculations (like multiplication and division). Researchers making use of high-performance computing tend to be m o r e interested in this number t h a n in MIPS or the m o r e familiar clock speed MHz rating. The MHz rating is not particularly useful here, as highperformance c o m p u t e r s can p e r f o r m several million m a t h e m a t i c a l operations per cycle. Since it went operational in 2001, t h e Japanese Earth Simulator has consistently claimed t h e t o p spot in the list of the worlds most powerful supercomputers. It has been benchmarked at a speed of 3 5 . 8 6 TeraFLOPs/sec. Apple powers the world's t h i r d most A view of the Japanese powerful s u p e r c o m p u t e r - V i r g i n i a Earth Simulator Tech's X is a cluster s u p e r c o m p u t e r t h a t contains 1100 Apple G5 systems each having t w o IBM PowerPC 9 7 0 processors rated at 2 GHz. Each node has 4GB of

MIPS stands for 'millions of instructions per second'. This is a measure of the speed at which a computer can perform programmed instructions.

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The first fully transistorised supercomputer was the CDC 1604, designed by Seymour Cray in 1958.

67 •

main m e m o r y and 160 GB of Serial ATA storage and 176 TB total secondary storage. The m a x i m u m computing speed benchmarked is 10.28 TeraFLOPs/sec. 4 4 2 . The nine other s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in the list of t o p 10 supercomputers are located in the United States, apart f r o m Japan's Earth Simulator. As of November 2 0 0 3 , t h e r e were seven 'cluster' s u p e r c o m p u t e r s in the t o p 10 list, and just t h r e e traditional 'stratospheric' super computers. Two hundred and eight systems on the t o p 5 0 0 super computers list are classified as clusters, making t h e m t h e most c o m m o n architecture in t h e t o p 5 0 0 supercomputers in the world. Cluster supercomputers are made up by clustering a lot of c o m p u t e r s and connecting t h e m t h r o u g h a high speed network; traditional supercomputers-the 'stratospheric' o n e s are monolithic and have several CPUs w o r k i n g in parallel,
using shared m e m o r y

4 4 1 .

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interconnects. Industry analysts o f t e n say that clusters cannot provide very high p e r f o r m a n c e and this makes for interesting news-since clusters are now predominant on the list.

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CDAC's ParamPadma cluster supercomputer was ranked in June 2 0 0 3 as the world's 171st fastest; by November 2 0 0 3 , it fell down to 2 5 8 with newer and more powerful supercomputers entering the list. "Central iron" is slang for a centrally funded c o m p u t i n g resource, The CNS IBM R S / 6 0 0 0 Rack is an example of central iron. The Berkeley Computer Corporation was f o r m e d in 1968 t o build a supercomputer that could a c c o m m o d a t e up t o 5 0 0 users at a time.

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India's fastest supercomputer is an Intel Xeon cluster owned by Intel, ranked at 105 in the world, in November 2003.

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4 3 5 . 5 0 per cent of the t o p 5 0 0 fastest systems are installed in the United o States. Also, 9 0 percent of all 5 0 0 systems are produced in the United States. 2

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The US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National L a b o r a t o r y

433.

o has commissioned Cray Inc. t o build the world's fastest supercom 5 puter. This 50-100 teraFLOPs machine should surpass NEC's 35 3teraFLOPs Earth Simulator and allow the US t o regain t h e t o p spot ^ in supercomputers. Cray's s u p e r c o m p u t e r will require 12 c megawatts of dedicated power! "S o When it was introduced, Fortune magazine called the IBM 3 6 0 mainframe " t h e most crucial and p o r t e n t o u s - a s well as perhaps the most risky-business j u d g m e n t of recent times."

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4 3 2 .

A r e f r e s h rate of 8 5 Hz on y o u r m o n i t o r means t h a t e v e r y single pixel is refreshed 8 5 t i m e s a second. Moire is a graphic effect that puts an undesirable p a t t e r n composed of small dots placed in a t i g h t p a t t e r n on a plain image.

430.

429.

A nematic liquid crystal is a t r a n s p a r e n t liquid t h a t is used in t w i s t e d nematic displays, t h e most c o m m o n f o r m of liquid crystal display. Self-Scanned A m o r p h o u s Silicon Integrated Display (SASID) technology is used in flat-panel displays in notebook and p o r t a b l e computers. TOLED (transparent organic light-emitting device) is a display technology being developed by t h e Universal Display C o r p o r a t i o n (UDC). It uses t r a n s p a r e n t electrodes and light e m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l s in an organic l i g h t - e m i t t i n g device (OLED). The stair-step e f f e c t t h a t can be seen in diagonal lines of some c o m p u t e r graphics is called 'the jaggies'.

428.

427.

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4 2 5 . The concept of plasma display panels was first c o n c e i v e d in J u l y 1964 at t h e University of Illinois. Plasma m o n i t o r s do not c o m e w i t h in-built t u n e r . An NTSC/ATSC television signal must be passed t h r o u g h a satellite box, cable box, HDTV receiver, VCR/VHS device, or an o u t b o a r d t u n i n g device. Unlike t r a d i t i o n a l displays, where the image is scanned across the screen, in plasma displays, pixels are 'lit' all at once. Plasma t e c h n o l o g y is d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t used in o t h e r display systems in t h a t red, blue and g r e e n light is created in e v e r y A high-definition, futuristic plasma pixel, reducing space. screen looks something like this Charged electrodes between glass panels cause t i n y pockets of inert gas t o change the state of the plasma. This process causes u l t r a v i o l e t light to be produced, which in t u r n reacts w i t h t h e phosphors in each pixel t o produce visible light. Plasma screens have no scan lines due t o t h e f a c t t h a t each and every pixel has its o w n t r a n s i s t o r electrode. This creates a s m o o t h , evenly lit image across t h e e n t i r e surface of t h e display. In 1968, a research g r o u p at RCA in the US, headed by George Heilmeier, developed t h e first LCDs based on DSM, or dynamic scat t e r i n g mode. 4 1 9 . S Kobayashi of J a p a n p r o d u c e d first d e f e c t - f r e e LCD. This was in 1972. 4 1 8 . 4 1 7 . 4 1 6 . NEC, in 1986, p r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t LCD laptop c o m p u t e r . Sharp produced t h e 2 8 - i n c h TFT LCD in 1995. LCDs were first put i n t o use as displays in electronic calculators.

4 2 4 .

4 2 3 .

4 2 2 .

4 2 1 .

4 2 0 .

D I G I T

PRINTERS AND SCANNERS
4 1 5 . A Page Description Language (PDL) specifies t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of a p r i n t e d page t h r o u g h c o m m a n d s f r o m a c o m p u t e r . Printer Control Language (PCL) is a language t h a t enables applications t o c o n t r o l HP DeskJets, LaserJets, and o t h e r HP printers. The name Epson for the popular brand of printers was coined when t h e subsequent models of t h e i r first printer 'Electronic P r i n t e r 101' were called 'Sons of Electronic Printer'. HP's f i r s t Inkjet p r i n t e r was launched in 1984. A Dichroic M i r r o r is an i n t e r f e r e n c e filter t h a t r e f l e c t s a specific part of the s p e c t r u m , t r a n s m i t t i n g t h e rest. It is used in scanners. A i r p o r t scanners in t h e UK will soon be able t o c a p t u r e naked images of travellers, even u n d e r n e a t h several layers of clothing. When desktop scanners w e r e first introduced, m a n y m a n u f a c t u r ers used f l u o r e s c e n t bulbs as light sources.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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408. 407.

Before desktop scanners, c o l o u r pre-press companies used d r u m 3 tu scanners, which were expensive and difficult t o o p e r a t e •a 5' The i n v e n t o r of t h e scanner is Robert S. Ledley, w h o p a t e n t e d t h e whole-body CT ( c o m p u t e r i s e d t o m o g r a p h i c ) diagnostic X-ray scanner. He was a p r o f e s s o r of physiology and biophysics and of radiology, and he was t h e f i r s t t o do medical imaging and t h r e e dimensional r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . TWAIN is an image c a p t u r e API 405. ( A p p l i c a t i o n - p r o g r a m Interface) for Microsoft Windows A CD-RW disk can, in and Apple Macintosh o p e r a t i n g general, be re-written about systems. The s t a n d a r d was a thousand times. In f i r s t released in 1992, and is contrast, a hard disk can be c u r r e n t l y r a t i f i e d at v e r s i o n 1.9 written over virtually an as of J a n u a r y 2 0 0 0 . TWAIN is unlimited number of times. typically used as an i n t e r f a c e between image processing s o f t w a r e and a scanner or digital camera A f l a t b e d scanner is designed f o r scanning prints and o t h e r flat a r t w o r k . Most have a glass bed or 'platen', on which t h e original is placed, on t h e t o p of a box c o n t a i n i n g a light source and p h o t o sensitive receiver, usually a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) a r r a y or a CIS (Compact Image Sensor), a single row of photocells. Older scanners were o f t e n m o n o c h r o m e only, but now all are ' t h r e e c o l o u r ' RGB devices using separate photocells t o measure red, g r e e n and blue light.
__ A flatbed nents G e o r g e J . L a u r e r is scanner's important compoare the light device, source usually and the a CCD phoarray tosensitive •a

406.

404.

403.

considered t h e i n v e n t o r of

t h e UPC or U n i f o r m P r o d u c t Code, invented in 1973. The UPC s y m b o l set for b a r c o d e r e c o g n i t i o n is still used in t h e USA.

Seagate Tech Factoid
A Seagate cleanroom is 100 times cleaner than a typical hospital operating room
[ D I G I T

73D

4 0 2 .

The first UPC scanner was installed at a Marsh's S u p e r m a r k e t in Troy, Ohio, in J u n e 1974. The f i r s t p a t e n t f o r t h e bar code - US Patent # 2 , 6 1 2 , 9 9 4 was issued t o i n v e n t o r s J o s e p h Woodland and Bernard Silver on October 7 , 1 9 5 2 .

4 0 1 .

.4001
A CD-RW disk can, in general, be r e - w r i t t e n about a t h o u s a n d t i m e s . In c o n t r a s t , a hard disk can be w r i t t e n over v i r t u a l l y an

399.

J a c o b Rabinow was t h e invenu n l i m i t e d n u m b e r of t i m e s . t o r of t h e 'Reading Machine', an a u t o m a t e d scanning and s o r t i n g appliance w h i c h scanned printed material and c o m p a r e d each c h a r a c t e r t o a set of standards in a matrix, using f o r t h e f i r s t time, the 'Best Match Principle' t o d e t e r m i n e t h e original message. The simplest 3D scanners o f t e n use physical c o n t a c t using hinged arms. The d e p t h is t h e n calculated by measuring t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e ranged object at t h e i n s t a n t of c o n t a c t . Possibly the first k n o w n example of biometrics in practice was a f o r m of finger p r i n t i n g being used in China in t h e 14th c e n t u r y , as r e p o r t e d by e x p l o r e r J o a o de Barros of Portugal. In t h e 1890s, an a n t h r o p o l ogist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought t o fix t h e HDCD is a new digital encoding/decodp r o b l e m of i d e n t i f y i n g ing process for CD/DVD recording c o n v i c t e d criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. He developed a m e t h o d of m u l t i p l e body m e a s u r e m e n t s , which got named a f t e r him-Bertillonage.

3 9 8 .

3 9 7 .

3 9 6 .

.

The m o d e r n f i n g e r p r i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e , which was developed by Richard Edward H e n r y of Scotland Yard, essentially r e v e r t s t o t h e W h e n t h e CD w a s being i n v e n t e d , it was d e c i d e d t h a t a CD s h o u l d be long e n o u g h t o hold B e e t h o v e n ' s N i n t h S y m p h o n y at any t e m p o - p r e c i s e l y 7 2 minutes.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

394.

74

Seagate
same m e t h o d s used by t h e Chinese for centuries.

393.

EyeDentify, a Belgian c o m p a n y f o u n d e d in 1976, developed The Eyedentification 7.5 personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n unit, t h e f i r s t r e t i n a scan device made f o r c o m m e r c i a l use, in 1984.

•2.
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OPTICAL STORAGE
3 ) 2 . The t i t l e of 'world's largest h a r d disk' would go to t h e W a v e l e n g t h Disk Drive Project by Canadian g r o u p CANARIE. The p r o j e c t aims at using n e t w o r k b a n d w i d t h t o s t o r e data. HDCD (High Definition C o m p a t i b l e Digital) is a digital e n c o d i n g and decoding process f o r CD and DVD audio recording. and a u t h e n t i c a t i o n m e t h o d used t o p r o t e c t digital versatile disk movies f r o m being illegally v i e w e d f r o m o t h e r devices. Enhanced CD (E-CD) is a c o m p a c t disk f o r m a t t h a t enables disks t o be played on either a CD player or a multimedia-capable device. A CD-Bridge Disc is a CD f o r m a t t h a t includes extra i n f o r m a t i o n on a CD-ROM XA track, so t h a t t h e disk can be played on e i t h e r a CDplayer a t t a c h e d t o a TV or a CD-ROM XA drive a t t a c h e d t o a PC. . CD-ROM XA (Compact D i s k - r e a d - o n l y m e m o r y , e x t e n d e d a r c h i t e c t u r e ) is a m o d i f i c a t i o n of CD-ROM t h a t defines t w o new types of sectors t h a t enable it t o read and display data, graphics, video, and audio at t h e same t i m e . The Yellow Book is t h e i n f o r m a l name for Philips and Sony's ECMA130 s t a n d a r d specification f o r c o m p a c t disk, r e a d - o n l y - m e m o r y (CD-ROM). It was published in 1988. The Red Book is the 1980 d o c u m e n t that provides the specifications for t h e standard c o m p a c t disk developed by Sony and Philips. A f e m t o s e c o n d is one m i l l i o n t h of a nanosecond, or 10"15 of a second. It is a m e a s u r e m e n t s o m e t i m e s used in laser technology. The f i r s t optical data s t o r a g e disk, developed by Philips, had 6 0 t i m e s the capacity of a 5 . 2 5 - i n c h floppy disk. 750

391.

3907 The Content Scrambling S y s t e m (CSS) is a data e n c r y p t i o n
3 8 9 .

3 8 8 .

3 8 7 .

3 8 6 .

3 8 5 .

3 8 4 .

3 8 3 .

i i m i

3 8 2 .

CD-ROM XA was developed j o i n t l y by Sony, Philips, and Microsof and its specifications were published in an extension t o t h e Yello Book. ' O v e r b u r n i n g ' is t h e process of w r i t i n g beyond t h e official capacity of a CD-R or CD-RW. This is possible by using t h e lead-oi t o store d a t a - t h e lead-out is used to indicate t h e end of t h e disk and contains n o t h i n g but zeroes.

3 8 1 .

o> e o» m E
• 76 1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

3 8 0 .

A soft m o d e m is s o f t w a r e t h a t p e r f o r m s m o d e m f u n c t i o n s using t h e c o m p u t e r ' s CPU r a t h e r t h a n in m o d e m h a r d w a r e . A Yagi antenna, also k n o w n as a Yagi-Uda a r r a y or simply a Yagi, is a unidirectional a n t e n n a c o m m o n l y used in c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w h e n a f r e q u e n c y is above 10 MHz. Bluesnarfing is t h e t h e f t of i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a wireless device through a Bluetooth connection. Bluejacking is the practice of sending messages b e t w e e n mobile users using a B l u e t o o t h wireless c o n n e c t i o n . In c o m p u t e r j a r g o n , ' c o c o o n i n g ' is t h e act of hiding oneself f r o m t h e n o r m a l social e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h may be perceived as u n f r i e n d l y or unwelcome. Cloaking is the masking of t h e sender's name and address in an email note or d i s t r i b u t i o n . Hacktivism is the act of hacking, or breaking i n t o a c o m p u t e r system, f o r a politically or socially m o t i v a t e d purpose.

3 7 9 .

3 7 8 .

3 7 7 .

3 7 6 .

3 7 5 .

3 7 4 .

.

The popular phrase T h e quick b r o w n fox j u m p s over t h e lazy dog' was t h e first message sent b e t w e e n the Kremlin and t h e White house, when testing t h e h o t l i n e telex. That phrase c o n t a i n s each of t h e letters of the alphabet at least once.

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.

Hayes Corp. p r o d u c e d t h e first m o d e m t h a t used t h e c o m m o n A' c o m m a n d set. Britain i m p l e m e n t e d its ' 9 9 9 ' emergency telephone system in 1937 The first 9 9 9 call r e p o r t e d a burglary; t h e b u r g l a r was appre hended. The '911' e m e r g e n c y t e l e p h o n e system was developed by AT&T ir t h e US as a public service. T o u c h - t o n e service was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d c o m m e r c i a l l y in t h e US ir 1963, but t o o k almost 10 years t o gain w i d e s p r e a d use. On J u n e 3 , 1 8 8 0 , Bell t r a n s m i t t e d the first wireless t e l e p h o n e message on his n e w l y - i n v e n t e d ' p h o t o p h o n e ' . The device allowec for the transmission of sound on a beam of light. Bell's p h o t o p h o n e is recognised as t h e p r e c u r s o r of m o d e r n fibre optics, w h i c h t o d a y t r a n s p o r t o v e r eight percent of the w o r l d ' s telecommunications.
Modems In 1 9 7 0 , a t e a m o f r e s e a r c h e r s
the

371.

3 7 0 .

3 6 9 .

3 6 8 .

3 6 7 .

366.

were developed

because < needs

NAAD's

data transmission

at Corning Glass Works in New York made f i b r e optic c o m m u n i c a tions a reality, using f i b r e - o p t i c wire which could c a r r y 6 5 , 0 0 0 times m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n copper wire.

365.
> c o

Nearly all of t h e m o r e t h a n 2 5 million kilometres of fibre-optic wir installed in t h e US t o d a y is based on t h e f i r s t " O p t i c a l Waveguid Fibers" designed by Corning Labs' Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and Peter Schultz. Digital modems developed f r o m the need to t r a n s m i t data for Nort American Air Defence d u r i n g t h e 1950s. The first c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m was AT&T's Bell 103, m a n u f a c t u r e d i 1962. It had full-duplex transmission, frequency-shift keying or FSH

364.

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• 78

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and a speed of 3 0 0 bits per second or 3 0 0 bauds. o

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361.

The electric t e l e g r a p h was b o r n in 1830 when an A m e r i c a n named | J o s e p h Henry sent an e l e c t r o n i c c u r r e n t over one mile of w i r e to 2 . a c t i v a t e an e l e c t r o m a g n e t which caused a bell to strike. T h o u g h Samuel Morse gave a public d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e Morse Code in 1838, t h e Congress f u n d e d $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 to c o n s t r u c t an exper imental 4 0 - m i l e t e l e g r a p h line f r o m Washi n g t o n to Baltimore, only five years later. The message " W h a t h a t h God w r o u g h t ? " was t h e first official message sent in Morse Code on May 2 4 , 1 8 4 4 , f r o m t h e old Supreme Court c h a m b e r in Washi n g t o n to Baltimore. The basic concept of cellular phones began in 1947, when researchers looked at crude mobile car phones and

3 6 0 .

The electric telegraph was born 1930 in the United States

in

3 5 9 .

Seagate Tech Factoid
Seagate must keep the "wear r a t e " of its drives very low to guarantee eliability. How low is very low? Over the typical five-year service life of a Seagate 10,000 rpm disk drive In a common server application, the sliding distance of the head over the disk is more than two million miles - t h a t ' s longer than four round-trip ourneys from the earth to the moon (each round trip is a mere 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 miles or so). Mow compare these numbers to car tyres, the best of which are made of material about 10 million times thicker than a disc's overcoat. Tyres are made of essentially the same material as the overcoat (carbon) but most mechanics would agree that tyres become not reliable after only about 100,000 miles. What does all this mean? If the tyres on a car were as robust as the disk overcoat on a Seagate drive, they should survive 1014 miles, t h a t ' s 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , or 100 trillion miles. If you drove 10,000 miles a /ear with these wonder wheels on your car, they should last one billion /ears before having to be changed.

79d

realized t h a t by using small c e l l s - r a n g e of service a r e a - w i t h f r e q u e n c y reuse t h e y could increase the t r a f f i c capacity of mobile phones substantially. However at t h a t t i m e , t h e technology to do so was n o n e x i s t e n t . 3 5 8 . Despite incredible d e m a n d , it took cellular phone service 37 years to become c o m m e r c i a l l y available in the United States. Consumer d e m a n d quickly o u t s t r i p p e d the 1982 s y s t e m standards. By 1987, cellular t e l e p h o n e subscribers exceeded one million and t h e airways w e r e c r o w d e d . In t h e 1970s, t h e very first cordless phones w e r e i n t r o d u c e d . In 1986, the Federal C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Commission or FCC granted the frequency range of 4 7 - 4 9 MHz for cordless phones. In 1990, this became 9 0 0 MHz. In 1994, digital cordless phones, and in 1995, digital spread s p e c t r u m , were respectively i n t r o d u c e d . In 1998, t h e FCC g r a n t e d the f r e q u e n c y range of 2.4 GHz f o r cordless phones. As of 2 0 0 3 , t h e u p w a r d range was 5 . 8 g i g a h e r t z .

357.
3 5 6 .

355. 354.

A Regional I n t e r n e t Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific region was originally p r o p o s e d at t h e APCCIRN (Asia-Pacific C o o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Research N e t w o r k i n g ) m e e t i n g on 13 J a n u a r y 1993. It was t h e p r e c u r s o r of APNIC (Asia-Pacific N e t w o r k I n f o r m a t i o n Center). The 1st APNIC m e e t i n g was held at C h e r a r o n k o n University, Bangkok, Thailand, on J a n u a r y 16 and 17,1995. On April 3 0 , 1 9 9 6 , APNIC was registered in Seychelles as non-profit international organisation. The A m e r i c a n Registry for Internet N u m b e r s (ARIN), whose a u t h o r i t y it is t o m a n a g e t h e IP address space in use in N o r t h and South America, t h e Caribbean and sub-saharan Africa, began o p e r a t i o n s on December 2 2 , 1 9 9 7 .
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In October 1998, t h e US G o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e d a p r i v a t e organisation called I n t e r n e t C o r p o r a t i o n f o r Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to oversee t h e opening of t h e Domain Name Registration s y s t e m t o o t h e r c o m p e t i n g companies.

1 3 5 0 . The Domain Registry at t h e I n f o r m a t i o n Sciences I n s t i t u t e of the U n i v e r s i t y of S o u t h e r n California a d m i n i s t e r s t h e top-level domain '.us'.

• 80

Seagate
3 4 9 . ADSL, the most widely-used DSL s t a n d a r d in the US, can d o w n l o a d at speeds b e t w e e n 1.5 and 9 Mbps, and can upload at speeds between 16 and 6 4 0 Kbps. 3G, s h o r t for " t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n " , refers to wireless t e c h n o l o g i e s designed for high-speed voice and data transmission. It promises p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t ' s h u n d r e d s of times faster t h a n t o d a y ' s technology. The fastest t y p e of i n t e r n e t c o n n e c t i o n is t h e T3, w h i c h can go up t o 4 4 Mbps. Of course, t h e y ' r e used mostly by ISPs. The f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l m o d e m was t h e Dataphone f r o m AT&T, in 1960.

3 4 8 .

3 4 7 .

3 4 6 .

fcanarar

3 4 5 .

Bell Labs conceived t h e idea of t h e cellular phone in 1947. Citizens of N o r w a y can s u b m i t t h e i r tax f o r m s by SMS. Catholics in the Philippines are not allowed t o confess their sins via t e x t m e s s a g i n g because t h e Bishops f e e l t h a t e - m a i l and fax confessions are not secure enough. The Nokia 5160 series included an edition w i t h Disney characters Mickey, Minnie, Goofy and Donald. CDMA t e c h n o l o g y uses multiple channels s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . It does this by assigning each user a code t h a t is used in t h e multiplexing of data. Michael Faraday's e x h a u s t i v e research i n t o w h e t h e r space could conduct e l e c t r i c i t y had an incalculable e f f e c t on cellular phone d e v e l o p m e n t . Cell phones w e n t public in 1977, when Chicago began public cell phone trials w i t h 2 0 0 0 c u s t o m e r s . J a p a n began t e s t i n g cellular phone services in 1979. Dr. Mahlon Loomis of Virginia, a dentist, may have been t h e first person t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h r o u g h wireless via t h e a t m o s p h e r e .

344. 343.

342. 341.

340.

339.

338.

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Seagate
3 3 7 . Nearly 4 5 countries, including India, have banned t h e use of cell phones while driving. In Ireland, y o u can be f i n e d $ 3 8 0 a n d / o r face i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r t h r e e months. o o

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Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) t e c h n o l o g y was originally developed f o r m i l t a r y use in t h e late 1960s. Studies c o n d u c t e d by NASA show t h a t the use of cell phones and other personal e l e c t r o n i c devices inside and in t h e vicinity of a i r c r a f t is potentially dangerous.

Or M a r t i n C o o p e r is c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n v e n t o r of the first portable handset. A s t h e f o r m e r GM f o r t h e S y s t e m s division at M o t o r o l a , he w a s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n t o m a k e a c a l l on a portable cellular phone.

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333.

Japanese t e l e c o m c a r r i e r NTT DoCoMo launched t h e w o r l d ' s f i r s t 3G mobile phone services in J a p a n in October 2001. A large a m o u n t of t h e r a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by a cell phone, gets absorbed by t h e user's head. A similar amount of radiation comes f r o m t h e keypad and t h e m o u t h
D i e c e as w e l l Studies phone aircraft by NASA show is potentially that cellof usage in the vicinity

332.

31.

The WHO says t h e r e is still no

dangerous

evidence t o prove t h a t cellular phones pose any h e a l t h risks, but f u r t h e r research is needed.

330.

Mobile phone r i n g t o n e s was t h e most searched-for t e c h n o l o g y t e r m in Yahool's annual survey, f o l l o w e d by digital c a m e r a s and mobile phones. When cordless phones and t h e first analogue cellphones hit t h e m a r k e t , anybody w i t h a scanner t h a t o p e r a t e d at t h e right f r e q u e n c y could easily listen in on calls not i n t e n d e d f o r t h e m . Multiple independent t e s t s have confirmed t h a t t h e r a d i a t i o n f r o m t h e e a r p i e c e of a c e l l p h o n e is up t o f o u r times that from the antenna.

329.

83 •

3 2 7 .

The Chameleon Card is a p r o g r a m m a b l e card in d e v e l o p m e n t at Chameleon N e t w o r k t h a t can represent each of t h e o w n e r ' s credit, debit, and c u s t o m e r cards as required, so t h a t one doesn't c a r r y all of t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d . Cellphones are m o r e popular in European and Asian countries t h a n t h e y are in t h e United S t a t e s - m o r e t h a n 9 0 percent of Europeans o w n a cell phone, c o m p a r e d t o a b o u t 5 0 percent of A m e r i c a n s .

3 2 6 .

325.
On December 3 , 1 9 9 2 , an engineer named Neil Papworth sent the first SMS-"MERRY CHRISTMA S " - t o his colleagues at Vodafone in Britain.

3 2 4 .

Cellphones o p e r a t e in t h e 9 0 0 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1 9 0 0 MHz bands; B l u e t o o t h uses t h e 2.4 GHz band; and Wi-Fi and WiMax o p e r a t e on t h e 2 . 4 GHz and 5.8 GHz f r e q u e n c y bands.

323.

The 2.4 GHz band is generally a delicensed band, which means that y o u do not have t o apply f o r a license f o r using devices on this band.

3 2 2 .

The 2.4 GHz band comes under t h e so-called ISM band, which stands f o r I n s t r u m e n t a tion, Scientific and Medical (usage), specified as t h e 9 0 2 9 2 8 MHz band, t h e 2 4 0 0 - 2 4 8 3 MHz band and t h e 5 7 2 5 - 5 7 8 0 MHz band.

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321. 320.

The Bose Wave radio, w h i c h is 14" wide, houses a o n e - m e t r e long waveguide. Nintendo's release in 1983 of t h e Famicom, in J a p a n , m a r k e d t h e second age of h o m e video games and the s t a r t of Nintendo's dominance in t h e g a m i n g w o r l d . The Coleco C o l e c o v i s i o n c o n s o l e , released in 1982, was as p o w e r - f u l as t h e most p o w e r f u l PCs at t h a t t i m e . Nolan Bushnell originally named his company 'Syzygy'. Today, this c o m p a n y is known as A t a r i - p u b l i s h e r s of t h e f a m o u s Unreal game series. In 1970, t h e first a l l - c o m p u t e r championship was held in New York and w o n by CHESS 3 . 0 (CDC 6 4 0 0 ) , a p r o g r a m w r i t t e n by Slate, A t k i n and Gorlen at N o r t h w e s t e r n University. On November 2 2 , 1 9 6 6 , a USSR chess p r o g r a m m e began a correspondence m a t c h w i t h t h e K o t o k - M c C a r t h y MIT chess p r o g r a m . The m a t c h lasted 9 m o n t h s and was w o n by t h e Soviet c o m p u t e r .

319. 318.

317.

316.

3 1 5 .

Did you know t h a t Sega released Sonic t h e Hedgehog in 1991 as a direct response t o Nintendo's Super NES g a m i n g s y s t e m ? In 1962, Alan Kotok w r o t e t h e first MIT chess p r o g r a m f o r his B.S. thesis project. He was assisted by J o h n McCarthy of Stanford. Alex Bernstein w r o t e a chess p r o g r a m in 1957 for an IBM 7 0 4 , which could do 4 2 , 0 0 0 instructions per second and used 7 0 K of m e m o r y . It was t h e first ' p r o p e r ' chess playing p r o g r a m . The Sega Genesis, released as MegaDrive in J a p a n in 1988, m a r k e d Sega's e n t r y into t h e video game m a r k e t .

3 1 4 .

313.

311.

In 1950, mathematician Alan Turing wrote the first chess program.

310.

In 1952, Alick Glennie, w h o w r o t e t h e f i r s t c o m p i l e r , d e f e a t e d Alan Turing's chess p r o g r a m , T u r b o C h a m p . He was t h e first person t o beat a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m at chess. A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y in May 2 0 0 0 , one o u t of e v e r y f o u r households in t h e United States had a PlayStation.

3 0 9 .

3 0 8 .

The first VCR (Video Cassette Recorder) was made in 1956 and was t h e size of a piano.

307.

In 1977, A t a r i released its VCS (Video C o m p u t e r System), also called t h e The first VCR didn't look like 2 6 0 0 . It was t h e f i r s t A t a r i was the size of a piano! 8 - b i t video console and r e v o l u t i o n i s e d t h e h o m e video game m a r k e t .

this-it

3 0 6 .

In 1986, Steve J o b s purchased t h e c o m p u t e r graphics division of Lucas Films L t d for $10 million, and established it as an inde pendent c o m p a n y c h r i s t e n e d ' P i x a r ' . I In 1951, Charles Ginsburg, known as t h e f a t h e r of t h e video cassette recorder, led a research t e a m at Ampex C o r p o r a t i o n in developing the first practical v i d e o t a p e recorder.

3 0 5 .

3 0 4 . The still video or digital c a m e r a was first d e m o n s t r a t e d in 1981. It

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used a f a s t - r o t a t i n g m a g n e t i c disc t w o inches in d i a m e t e r , and 8 r e c o r d e d on it up t o 5 0 images f o r m e d in a solid-state device in t h e 3 camera. 3 0 3 . The first v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l on a TV show was "Douglas Edwards and t h e News", broadcast on CBS on N o v e m b e r 30, 1956.

302.
'Walkman', 'Pressman', 'Watchman', and 'Discman' are Sony trademarks.

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The first c o m m e r c i a l blank videotape was o f f e r e d by 3M Corp. in 1957. It was priced at $ 3 0 7 per reel. In 1963, Philips d e m o n s t r a t e d its first 'Compact A u d i o Cassette 1 using BASF 1/8-inch tape. The mass p r o d u c t i o n of c o m p a c t audio cassettes began in 1965 in Hanover, Germany, as did c o m m e r c i a l sales of p r e - r e c o r d e d music cassettes, known as musicassettes. Akio Morita, Masaru Ibuka and Kozo Ohsone i n v e n t e d t h e p o r t a b l e 'Sony Walkman' audio cassette player. It was released in 1979. Akio Morita along w i t h Masaru Ibuka f o u n d e d t h e T o k y o Tele c o m m u n i c a t i o n s Engineering C o r p o r a t i o n in 1946. This was later renamed Sony. Sony's name takes f r o m t h e Latin w o r d 'sonus', m e a n i n g sound, and t h e English w o r d 'sunny'. Sony's first f o r a y i n t o t h e
audio cassettes began in 1965

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2 9 8 .

2 9 7 .

2 9 6 .

g a m i n g market was in 1988, w h e n it e m b a r k e d on a deal w i t h Nintendo to develop a CD-ROM drive for t h e Super NES. 2 9 5 . Sony acquired Psygnosis, a relatively u n k n o w n European devel oper, for $ 4 8 million. It was r e n a m e d Sony I n t e r a c t i v e E n t e r t a i n ment, and is responsible f o r some of the PlayStation's best games, including WipeOut and D e s t r u c t i o n Derby. W h e n H e w l e t t P a c k a r d ' s c o m p u t e r d i v i s i o n e x h i b i t s at t r a d e shows, t h e y a l w a y s play t h e s a m e t u n e at t h e e n d of t h e
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s h o w in t h e i r b o o t h - t h e p o p u l a r h y m n A m a z i n g Grace. 2 9 3 . In 1985, Sony and Philips produced t h e s t a n d a r d f o r CD-ROM disks, which would use t h e same laser t e c h n o l o g y as t h e audio CD. In 1988, CD sales surpassed LP sales for t h e f i r s t t i m e , leaving the CD and the audio cassette as the t w o d o m i n a n t c o n s u m e r f o r m a t s . On August 6 , 1 9 9 8 , t h e f i r s t HDTV set went on sale f o r $ 5 , 4 9 9 t o t h e public in San Diego. It was a 56-inch Panasonic set t h a t was developed at t h e c o m p a n y ' s research and d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r e in San Diego, and m a n u f a c t u r e d in Tijuana. The IMAX s y s t e m has its roots in t h e EXPO ' 6 7 in Montreal. A small g r o u p of Canadian f i l m m a k e r s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s - G r a e m e Fergu son, Roman K r o i t o r and Robert Kerr-decided to design a new s y s t e m using a single, p o w e r f u l projector, r a t h e r t h a n t h e c u m b e r some multiple p r o j e c t o r s used at t h e time. The IMAX dome, t h e n called t h e Omnimax, d e b u t e d a t h e Reuben H FleetSpace T h e a t r e in San Diego, California, in 1973. Disney released Fantasia 2 0 0 0 in the IMAX film f o r m a t w i t h 6-channel digital sound on J a n u a r y 1, 2 0 0 0 .

2 9 2 .

2 9 1 .

2 9 0 .

2 8 9 .

2 8 8 .

The first HD card radio January 5, 2004.

was sold on

2 8 7 .

The first HD car radio was sold on J a n u a r y 5, 2 0 0 4 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

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From March 6 , 1 9 9 9 , HBO began HDTV satellite m o v i e broadcasts, s t a r t i n g w i t h "US Marshals" at 8 pm. In 1998, The Last B r o a d c a s t , a film by Stefan Avalos and Lance Weiler, p r e m i e r e d as " t h e first desktop f e a t u r e f i l m " , produced and exhibited digitally, co-sponsored by Texas I n s t r u m e n t s using its DLP digital cinema p r o j e c t o r . In November 1997, San Diego's MP3.com was f o u n d e d by Michael Robertson w i t h 3 , 0 0 0 songs available for f r e e d o w n l o a d . In the next 12 m o n t h s , it became the #1 music site on t h e I n t e r n e t w i t h 3 million hits m o n t h l y .
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Dick Tracy, released J u n e 15, 1990 was the first 3 5 m m f e a t u r e film d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a digital soundtrack by Cinema Digital Sound (CDS), developed by East man Kodak and Optical Radiation Corp. In t h e s t o p - m o t i o n kind of a n i m a t i o n , one must m o v e each joint of each character f o r e v e r y f r a m e , which means y o u need to stop the camera and m o v e a n y t h i n g t h a t is moving for e v e r y f r a m e . The biggest drawback of this kind of a n i m a t i o n is t h a t it is v e r y t i m e consuming. The longest example of stopm o t i o n a n i m a t i o n was The N i g h t m a r e Before Christmas, d i r e c t e d by Henry Selick. This movie lasted for 7 4 minutes, w h i c h required a t o t a l of 1 0 6 , 5 6 0 frames! Each of these had t o be filmed individually. The characters in t h e m o v i e were puppets made of f o a m rubber. Producing t h e e n t i r e movie required a t o t a l of 3 0 0 puppets for the 7 4 roles.
Tron r e l e a s e d in In 1993, Jurassic Park released on May 3 0 as t h e f i r s t f i l m w i t h DTS sound, developed by T e r r y Beard, f o u n d e r of Digital T h e a t r e Systems in Westalke Village, CA, partly o w n e d by Steven Spielberg and Universal Pictures. This digital sound f i l m f o r m a t records six tracks on s e p a r a t e CD-ROM disks, s y n c h r o n i s e d by an optical t i m e code t r a c k r e c o r d e d on t h e film, co-existing w i t h a backup optical s o u n d t r a c k similar t o Dolby Stereo.

279.

2 7 8 .

1 1 7 .

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2 7 6 .

_ 2 7 5 .

MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) develops s t a n d a r d s for digi tal video and digital audio compression. It o p e r a t e s under t h e auspices of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Organisation f o r S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n (ISO). _ _ In 1995, amidst g r e a t f a n f a r e , Pixar A n i m a t i o n Studios and Disney released t h e f i r s t f u l l - l e n g t h c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d film, Toy Story. Toy Story d i r e c t o r J o h n Lasseter had w o n an a c a d e m y a w a r d for a previous c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d short film, Tin Toy. The sci-fi flick Gog (1954), in which a nuclear 'brain' takes over a secret laboratory, was the first film to feature a c o m p u t e r as the main character in a movie. The first true digital camera for the consumer was introduced to t h e world in 1990. It was the Dycam Model I, and it produced black and white photos at a resolution of 3 2 0 x 2 4 0 pixels. The camera was capable of storing 32 compressed images on 1MB of built-in RAM. The images could be downloaded, using a cable, t o a PC or a Mac. The world's first portable video recording system, t h e D V - 2 4 0 0 Video Rover, was launched by Sony in 1967. It filmed in B&W only, and required a separate unit for playback.
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In the late 1980s, Sony introduced their professional ProMavica M V C - 5 0 0 0 . Mavica was short for "magnetic video cam", and that's really what it was. It was a professional level digital camcorder that had the ability to take freeze-frame pictures, and not a still digital camera. In 1992, Sharp, in its quest to make filming easier, introduced the first colour LCD screen, so videographers could see the display on a screen, w i t h o u t having to squint t h r o u g h a viewfinder. Today, this is a standard f e a t u r e on all camcorders. Phillips developed the first wearable CD player. It was manufactured attached to a jacket, in 2003.
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Tetris has sold o v e r 4 0 million copies worldwide, since it began in 1982. That comes t o $ 8 0 0 million in revenues! The first all-computer c h a m p i o n s h i p was held in New York in 1970, and was w o n by CHESS 3 . 0 - a p r o g r a m w r i t t e n by Slate, Atkin and Gorlen at N o r t h w e s t e r n University, Illinois. In Spring 1967, MacHACK VI became t h e f i r s t chess p r o g r a m t o beat a human, at t h e Massachussets State Chess Championship. The Sega Dreamcast, released in 1999, was t h e f i r s t console game machine to sport a 128-bit a r c h i t e c t u r e .

2 6 6 .

2 6 5 .

2 6 4 .

2 6 3 .

On 2 2 n d November, 1966, a USSR chess p r o g r a m m e began a correspondence m a t c h w i t h t h e K o t o k - M c C a r t h y MIT chess p r o g r a m . The m a t c h lasted 9 m o n t h s and was won by t h e Soviet c o m p u t e r , w i t h 3 wins and 1 loss. Sega released Sonic t h e Hedgehog in 1991 as a d i r e c t response to Nintendo's Super NES g a m i n g system.

2 6 2 .

2 6 1 .

In 1968, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Master David Levy made a $ 3 , 0 0 0 bet w i t h J o h n McCarthy, r e s e a r c h e r in Artificial Intelligence at S t a n f o r d University, t h a t no chess c o m p u t e r would beat him in 10 years. He w o n his bet!

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2 6 0 .

In 1988, Sega e n t e r e d t h e video g a m e m a r k e t w i t h Genesis, which was called MegaDrive in Japan. The console, w i t h its 16bit processor, was t h e f i r s t t o challenge Nintendo's monopoly. The Mattel Intellivision was released in 1980, and was t h e f i r s t 16-bit h o m e g a m e console.

259.

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The f i r s t a r c a d e v i d e o game t h a t used vector g r a p h i c s i n s t e a d of a r a s t e r d i s p l a y w a s Space Wars. T h e g a m e w a s r e l e a s e d in 1 9 7 7 .

2 5 8 .

2 5 7 .

In 1978, A t a r i Football became the first arcade g a m e t o use a track ball. The first c o m p u t e r book t o sell one million copies was 101 BASIC Computer Games. It was published in the US by Creative Computing in 1978. The first 32-bit h o m e video game s y s t e m was t h e Panasonic 3 D 0 released in 1993. Sony released a m a t t e black version of its P l a y S t a t i o n in 1997, which enabled p r o g r a m m e r s t o c r e a t e t h e i r o w n video games in the C p r o g r a m m i n g language. It was called Net Yaroze. In 1972, t h e f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l home game s y s t e m was launched t h e Magnavox Odyssey, by Magnavox, in t h e US.
A matte black version The first s o f t w a r e t o be PlayStation i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e Soviet Union to t h e US was Tetris, developed in 1985 by Alexey Pazhitnov. of the Sony

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Playstation 2 hit the shelves in Japan on March 4, 2 0 0 0 , and sold 9 8 , 0 0 0 units in four hours. In 1988, Deep Thought and Grandmaster Tony Miles shared first place in the US Open chess championship. Deep Blue's chess playing p r o g r a m is w r i t t e n in C and runs under the AIX operating system. It is capable of evaluating 10 crore positions per second. Did you know that an estimated 1 lakh copies of the PlayStation game Tiger Woods 9 9 were recalled after The Spirit of Christmas, a clip in which Jesus Christ and Santa Claus get into fistfight over the t r u e meaning of Christmas, was discovered in a hidden file on the CD-ROM? The recall was necessitated due to the fact that the clip was unauthorised and was full of expletives. The year 1984, made famous by George Orwell, is also the year the great crash of the video game market occurred. William Higginbotham created what might have been the first video game, in 1958. His game, called 'Tennis for Two', was characters created and played on a Brookhaven National L a b o r a t o r y oscilloscope. Designed by Ralph Baer, the first commercial video game console that could be used in the home, the Odyssey, was released by Magnavox in 1972. On June 17,1980, Atari's 'Asteroids' and 'Lunar Lander' were the first two video games to ever be registered in the Copyright Office.

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2 4 7 .

2 4 6 .

2 4 5 .

244.

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2 4 2 .

2 4 0 .

Nintendo s t a r t e d its e n t e r p r i s e in 1889, w h e n t h e g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r of the c u r r e n t Nintendo president, Fusajiro Yamauchi, f o u n d e d N i n t e n d o Koppai, which made special playing cards called Hanafunda ( " f l o w e r cards"). In 1981, Shigeru M i y a m o t o , guided by Gunpei Yokoi, made the first game f o r Nintendo s t a r r i n g Mario, which was p r e v i o u s l y t h e arcade game Donkey Kong. In 1952, A S Douglas Microsoft's Flight Simulator was the c r e a t e d t h e f i r s t graphical bestselling PC game of all time c o m p u t e r game. It was a version of Tic-Tac-Toe, p r o g r a m m e d on t h e EDSAC vacuumt u b e c o m p u t e r , which had a cathode ray t u b e display. Gunpei Yokoi was t h e c r e a t o r of t h e Game Boy and V i r t u a l Boy. He w o r k e d on Famicom, t h e Metroid series, Game Boy Pocket, and did extensive w o r k on t h e s y s t e m we know t o d a y as t h e Nintendo E n t e r t a i n m e n t System. PacMan got its name f r o m t h e Japanese w o r d " p a c u " , meaning " t o m u n c h " . Since " p a c u " is p r o n o u n c e d t h e same as " f — y o u " , only w i t h a 'p' sound, its name was changed to " P a c M a n " .

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The w o r d N i n t e n d o is c o m p o s e d of t h r e e J a p a n e s e Kanji characters, Nin-ten-do. These characters can be t r a n s l a t e d into " H e a v e n blesses hard w o r k " . The most expensive game ever developed was ShenMue for Sega Dreamcast. It cost $ 2 0 million.

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The QWERTY k e y b o a r d was present on t h e v e r y f i r s t t y p e w r i t e r called the 'Sholes & Glidden Type Writer', p r o d u c e d by g u n m a k e r s E Remington & Sons in llinois, New York. Mice first broke o n t o t h e public stage w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Apple Macintosh in 1984.

2 3 2 .

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Everytime a mouse moves or t h e user clicks a b u t t o n , t h e mouse sends t h r e e bytes of data t o t h e c o m p u t e r it's a t t a c h e d to. The first i n f r a r e d wireless k e y b o a r d for M i c r o s o f t ' s WebTV set-top box was m a n u f a c t u r e d by Sejin Electron Inc in Korea.

2 3 0 .

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The QWERTY k e y b o a r d layout is 129 years old! Dvorak keyboards, n a m e d a f t e r Dr A u g u s t Dvorak, have nine of t h e most used letters in t h e middle row of the keyboard. This allows y o u t o w r i t e over 3 , 0 0 0 w o r d s w i t h o u t t h e f i n g e r s reaching out t o t h e other rows. In c o n t r a s t , only about 5 0 w o r d s can be t y p e d on a QWERTY k e y b o a r d w i t h o u t reaching o u t t o t h e middle or home row. In September of 1940, G. R. Stibitz d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e Model 1

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c o m p u t i n g device, which, f o r t h e first t i m e , utilised input f r o m a t e l e t y p e k e y b o a r d or paper tape and p r e s e n t e d o u t p u t on t h e m as well. This d e m o n s t r a t i o n was additionally unique in t h a t it was accomplished in r e m o t e fashion over t e l e p h o n e lines, some t h i n g t h a t w o u l d not be duplicated for a n o t h e r decade.

226.

Research o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s A u t o m a t i c Speech Recognition and T r a n s c r i p t i o n technologies began in 1936 at AT&T's Bell Labs. At t h a t t i m e , most • • • • H I research was f u n d e d and The mouse became popular when p e r f o r m e d by Universities and Apple Macintosh was launched in t h e U.S. G o v e r n m e n t , p r i m a r i l y 1984 by t h e Military and DARPA. It wasn't until t h e early 1980s t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y reached the commercial market. The now u b i q u i t o u s direct m a n i p u l a t i o n i n t e r f a c e , w h e r e visible objects on t h e screen are d i r e c t l y m a n i p u l a t e d w i t h a pointing d e v i c e - l i k e w i t h a mouse or a light p e n - w a s f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t e d by Ivan S u t h e r l a n d in SketchPad,which was his 1963 MIT PhD thesis. SketchPad s u p p o r t e d t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of objects using a light pen, including g r a b b i n g objects, m o v i n g t h e m , changing size, and using c o n s t r a i n t s . The s y s t e m was built at Lincoln Labs w i t h s u p p o r t f r o m the Air Force and NSF. The first pen-based input device, the RAND tablet, was f u n d e d by ARPA. Later, A m i t Teitelman, in 1964, developed t h e first trainable g e s t u r e recogniser. A v e r y early d e m o n s t r a t i o n of g e s t u r e

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r e c o g n i t i o n was T o m Ellis' GRAIL system on t h e RAND tablet. 2 2 3 . The first 3-D s y s t e m was p r o b a b l y T i m o t h y J o h n s o n ' s 3-D CAD system, in 1963. — 2 2 2 . The 'Lincoln Wand' by L a r r y Roberts was an ultrasonic 3D location sensing system, developed at Lincoln Labs in 1966. An early use was f o r m o l e c u l a r modelling. David Canfield S m i t h coined t h e t e r m ' i c o n ' i n his 1975 S t a n f o r d PhD thesis on Pygmalion, f u n d e d by ARPA and NIMH. S m i t h later popularised icons, as one of t h e chief designers of t h e Xerox Star. «

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220. T i t a n i u m is t h e name of a popular laptop c o m p u t e r f r o m
It's called so because it's encased in t i t a n i u m .

Apple.

219.

In graphic design, t o ' f e a t h e r ' is to s o f t e n an edge of an image by m a k i n g t h e edge gradually fade o u t until it becomes transparent. To 'quiesce' is t o put a c o m p u t e r , a p r o g r a m , a t h r e a d , or s o m e o t h e r c o m p u t e r r e s o u r c e i n t o a t e m p o r a r i l y i n a c t i v e or inhibited state. OXGA ( Q u a n t u m Extended Graphics A r r a y ) is a display specificat i o n capable of s u p p o r i n g a r e s o l u t i o n of 2 0 4 8 x 1536. The 'Quiet zone' is t h e blank m a r g i n on e i t h e r side of a bar code t h a t is used t o tell t h e barcode reader w h e r e a barcode's symbology starts and stops. ' P r o j e c t B a n j a r a ' was t h e c o d e n a m e g i v e n by t o its d e v e l o p m e n t of J U M P (Java User M i g r a t i o n Path). The project was e x e c u t e d at Hyderabad. Microsoft

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The first Indian s o f t w a r e e n t e r p r i s e to c r e a t e a video t h a t went on t o win a G r a m m y was Bangalore-based 'Thinking Pictures', f o r t h e video Deep Forest.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

213.

Mobile service p r o v i d e r Orange had bought Ananova, t h e virtual newscaster, f o r 9 5 million pounds, f r o m Digital A n i m a tions Group based in Bellshill near Glasgow. PERL, the p r o g r a m m i n g language, was c r e a t e d by L a r r y Wall w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of re-humanising c o m p u t i n g technology.

212.
'Nerd' was coined in 1950 by Dr Seuss in the book 'If I Ran the Zoo'. 'Worm' was coined by writer John Brunner in 1975 for selfreplicating malicious programs.

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211.

210.

It was once f e a r e d t h a t on September 9 , 1 9 9 9 , c o m p u t e r s would shut down because p r o g r a m m e r s o f t e n use a series of nines as a code t o shut d o w n systems. In t h e IT world, a 'PnP r e c r u i t ' means an e m p l o y e e , who, like a Plug and Play device, can i m m e d i a t e l y be p r o d u c t i v e t o t h e c o m p a n y because of his skills and knowledge. Fiat claimed t h a t it had made one of the most p o w e r f u l engines, but not for cars. They had developed t h e p r o g r a m m a b l e pacemaker for the h u m a n heart. A car named Fingo was in t h e news when it w e n t a r o u n d t h e world, because it was r e m o t e c o n t r o l l e d and had no steering wheel. It was d e v e l o p e d by Fernando Lopez and Osvaldo Malvestitti of A r g e n t i n a . A special parallel-processing c o m p u t e r called ' B e o w u l f was used f o r t h e special e f f e c t s in t h e multiOscar-winning m o v i e Titanic.

2 0 9 .

2 0 8 .

2 0 7 .

2 0 6 .

orange
Orange bought Ananova for 95 million pounds

2 0 5 .

Despite having radios and e-mail, t h e Orissa state police force uses 7 0 0 'pigeon police' t o s h u t t l e messages b e t w e e n distant stations.

D I G I T

99D

2 0 3 . The NEC Turbografx-16, released in J a p a n in 1988 as t h e PCEngine, was t h e first s y s t e m to have a CD player a t t a c h m e n t . 201. The original Apple C o m p u t e r logo p i c t u r e d Sir Isaac Newton. Atari's c o m p u t e r , called t h e 520ST, was d u b b e d 'Jackintosh' after Atari owner Jack Tramiel.

202.

Apple had once planned t o s h o r t e n t h e n a m e of t h e Macintosh computer to simply 'Mac', to stand for 'Mouse-Activated Computer'.

2 0 0 .

199.

In J u l y 1995, Bob Massey of CompuServe, Steve Case of AOL, and Edward Bennett of Prodigy w r o t e and signed a letter to Microsoft CEO Bill Gates, urging him t o un-bundle t h e M i c r o s o f t N e t w o r k (MSN) f r o m Windows 95. In 1899, V a l d e m a r Poulsen invented the f i r s t m a g n e t i c recordings, using m a g n e t i s e d steel tape as t h e r e c o r d i n g medium. Loudspeakers were also invented t h e same year. In 1994, the 'Annie' awards, given each year f o r t h e best a n i m a t e d c o m m e r c i a l s , went for the first t i m e t o a c o m p u t e r generated animated commercial done for Coca Cola. It f e a t u r e d a n i m a t e d Polar Bears. In 1977, the c r e a t o r s of t h e RSA129 e n c r y p t i o n scheme e n c r y p t e d a message w i t h a 4 3 0 - b i t public key and o f f e r e d $100 to anyone w h o could d e c r y p t t h e message. The message was d e c r y p t e d in 1994, using parallel c o m p u t i n g resources.

198.

W T .

:i((§|P' 1 n

196.

V %
on the logo orig-

Newton

was pictured Computer

)

ik

inal Apple

In 1 9 0 2 , G u g l i e l m o M a r c o n i t r a n s m i t t e d r a d i o s i g n a l s

195.

f r o m C o r n w a l l t o N e w f o u n d l a n d - t h e f i r s t r a d i o signal across the Atlantic.

• 100

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T E C H F A C T S

Seagate (C 194.
In the 1997 book 'TechnoStress', by Michelle Weil and Larry Rosen, it's m e n t i o n e d t h a t some people b e c o m e so i m m e r s e d in t e c h n o l o g y t h a t t h e y risk losing t h e i r o w n ident i t y , a s y n d r o m e called 'technosis'. in to 5T to o
3

1 9 3 . Using v i r t u a l reality h e a d s e t s is k n o w n t o r e s u l t in a h e a l t h d i s o r d e r called binocular dysphoria.

1 9 2 .

The n u m b e r one use f o r home c o m p u t e r s is w o r d processing. Number t w o is g a m i n g .

191.

SWF/LFM-926 was t h e first c o m p u t e r virus t o use Macromedia's Shockwave Flash files t o t r a n s m i t itself w h e n a v i c t i m ran t h e Flash movie. From t h e smallest m i c r o p r o c e s s o r t o t h e largest of m a i n f r a m e s , t h e average A m e r i c a n depends on m o r e t h a n 2 5 0 c o m p u t e r s per day. Did y o u know t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t to have a bar code on its package was Wrigleys c h e w i n g g u m ? More t h a n 3 0 0 t e c h n i c a l s t a f f e r s g a t h e r e d at M i c r o s o f t ' s head The first product to use a barq u a r t e r s on New Year's Eve of code was Wrigleys chewing gum 2 0 0 0 , expecting s o m e t h i n g t o go w r o n g as t h e new m i l l e n n i u m dawned. N o t h i n g happened. Puma ( P r o g r a m m a b l e Universal Machine f o r A s s e m b l y ) was designed by Vic S c h i e n m a n in t h e 1970s, and was built by Swiss company Staubli Unimation. It is the most c o m m o n l y used robot for assembly lines and u n i v e r s i t y laboratories.

190.

189.

1 8 8 .

1 8 7 .

1 8 6 .

MetaCreations' Fractal Design Painter, a graphics s o f t w a r e , is pac aged in a paint can!

S o u t h K o r e a ' s SK T e l e c o m o f f e r s an i n a u d i b l e r i n g t o n e t o i t s c u s t o m e r s w h i c h , it c l a i m s , c a n r e p e l m o s g u i t o e s .

[ D I G I T

101D

'Booting' y o u r c o m p u t e r means s t a r t i n g it up, but did y o u know t h a t t h e w o r d comes f r o m 'pulling yourself up by y o u r bootstraps'?

183.

In 1986, Honda c o m m e n c e d the h u m a n o i d research p r o g r a m . It was in S e p t e m b e r 1997 t h a t a r o b o t , weighing 130 kg, was designed. It was named ' H u m a n o i d P3'. AT&T Bell Labs was t h e first c o m p a n y to t r a n s m i t h u m a n voice across t h e A t l a n t i c on 2 5 t h J a n u a r y , 1915.

.

182.
C o r n i n g Glass i n v e n t e d t h e O p t i c a l F i b r e in 1 9 7 0 . It r e v o l u t i o n i s e d t h e communications industry, as GE a n d A T & T began testing the transference of s o u n d a n d i m a g e d a t a t h r o u g h these fibres.

181. 180.
1 7 9 .

Ken T h o m p s o n designed t h e 'B' language for c o m p u t e r s t h a t were s w i t c h e d t o C in t h e early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie. The Biztalk Server is a Microsoft product. It unites e n t e r p r i s e application i n t e g r a t i o n (EAI) and business-to-business (B2B) i n t e g r a t i o n in a single product. Dr. Seymour Papert, in 1968, created t h e Logo language, aimed at teaching p r o g r a m m i n g to schoolchildren.

178.

177.

Adobe, or A d o b e Systems Incorporated, is t h e second-largest PC s o f t w a r e c o m p a n y in the world, after Microsoft. 'Convergence' refers to how sharply an individual color pixel on a monitor appears. Each pixel is composed of
Humanoid September P3, designed 1997 in

1 7 6 .

t h r e e d o t s - a red, a blue, and a green one.

In 1971, t h e f i r s t s p e e c h r e c o g n i t i o n s o f t w a r e , H e a r s a y ,

175.

w a s d e v e l o p e d in India.

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74.
7 3 .

Project Chicago was t h e code name for Windows 9 5 . In December 2 0 0 3 , L i t t l e GLORIAD (Global Ring N e t w o r k f o r Advanced A p p l i c a i ' development) started operations, consisting of a n e t w o r k e d ring w i t h connections in Chicago, A m s t e r d a m . M o s c o w , Beijing and Hong Kong.

(/i o <0

172.

Garret Gruener, c o - f o u n d e r of AskJeeves.com, was a Democratic candidate in t h e f a m o u s recall election of California involving Arnold Schwarzenegger, who is a Republican. The Bell Telephone C o m p a n y set up by Alexander Graham Bell in 1877 has m o r p h e d over t h e years into t o d a y ' s AT&T.

171.

Graham stration

Bell giving of his

a

demon-

invention

170.

The ring, t h e bus and t h e star are ways in w h i c h c o m p u t e r s are a r r a n g e d in a LAN. In a ring, for example, t h e c o m p u t e r s are c o n n e c t e d in a ring-like fashion, with each one c o n n e c t e d t o t w o others. "To get a m a z o n n e d " means t h a t one has lost a significant p o r t i o n of one's business t o a dotcom enterprise. In 2 0 0 3 , flash mobs, organised over t h e 'Net, s t a r t e d in New York and quickly f o r m e d in cities w o r l d w i d e .

169.

168.
The s y m b o l has no particular designation, a l t h o u g h i t is o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e ' c o m m e r c i a l a'.

1 6 7 .

1 6 6 .

" A u d i o m i n i n g " is t h e t e r m used to refer t o e x t r a c t i n g data f r o m audio recordings. The process uses speech recognition techniques.

A s of t h e y e a r 2 0 0 0 , 9 6 per c e n t of all e - c o m m e r c e

165.

w e b s i t e s w e r e in E n g l i s h , w h i l e half of all I n t e r n e t u s e r s were native English speakers.

[ D I G I T

103D

164.

In 1994, J e f f Hawkins invented Graffiti, t h e h a n d w r i t i n g recog nition s y s t e m used in some PDAs. Leonardo Chiariglione and o t h e r s developed t h e MP3 f o r m a t in 1988 at t h e University of Erlangen, Germany. MP3 stands f o r 'MPEG Layer3'.

163.
Metcalfe's Law, propounded by the d e s i g n e r of t h e E t h e r n e t protocol, states t h a t the u t i l i t y of a n e t w o r k is proportional t o t h e square of t h e n u m b e r of u s e r s .

162.

161.
160.
159.

In CDs, bumps and flat areas on t h e disk's s u r f a c e represent 1s and Os. The bumps and flats are a r r a n g e d in a c o n t i n u o u s spiral track t h a t is five k i l o m e t r e s in length. The vi editor was the de facto Unix standard editor until about 198' when Emacs t o o k over. The a c r o n y m stands f o r Visual Interface. The Economist magazine r e p o r t e d t h a t Lee Stein opened the firs t r u l y e l e c t r o n i c bank on t h e Internet in 1994 called 'First V i r t u a l Holdings'. Apple named t h e f i r s t release of its Mac OS X 10.0. The second v e r s i o n was called J a g u a r . A c c o r d i n g to t h e book 'The Cuckoo's Egg' by Clif f o r d Stoll, an a c c o u n t i n g discrepancy of 7 5 cents on a c o m p u t e r at L a w r e n c e Berkeley Labs, led t h e

158.

157.

Apple first

has come release

a long

way since

its

a u t h o r t o u n c o v e r a German hacker ring. This happened in t h e late 1980s. 1 5 6 . In 1993, a fire destroyed a Sumitomo Chemical Company plant in Japan and memory prices skyrocketed, since the plant supplied 6 0 percent of the world's supply of Cresol, used in memory chip casings. " T r e e w a r e " is s l a n g f o r a n y p a p e r - b a s e d m a t e r i a l . T e c h i e s use it t o r e f e r t o d o c u m e n t a t i o n m a n u a l s .

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T E C H F A C T S

Seagate
1 5 4 . In t h e 1980s, a stir was c r e a t e d in the Unix c o m m u n i t y when a publicly d i s t r i b u t e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of Unix f o r PCs was released. It was called Minix. Thriller w r i t e r Robert Harris w r o t e a semi-fictional a c c o u n t , in 1996, of t h e breaking of t h e German codes at Bletchely park, England, d u r i n g World War II, in his book Enigma. 3

D)
n

=

153.

152.
In 1980, there was only one country in the world with no telephonesBhutan.

o c
i/i

151.

The US Congress passed laws in 1999 t o discourage t h e p r a c t i c e - k n o w n as c y b e r s q u a t t i n g - o f registering t r a d e m a r k d o m a i n names for t h e sole purpose of resale and p r o f i t . One of t h e earliest f o r m s of mechanical i n f o r m a t i o n storage was an ancient Peruvian device consisting of a c o r d w i t h k n o t t e d strings of various colours a t t a c h e d . The device was called t h e Ouipu. The Chinese had a similar device with beads, called the abacus. The FBI r e c r u i t e d t h r e e 14-year-old girls in J u n e 2 0 0 3 t o t e a c h agents how t o c o m m u n i c a t e like y o u n g girls on the 'Net. The o p e r a t i o n aims at t r a c k i n g d o w n paedophiles. In 1990, f a m e d c o m p u t e r e d u c a t o r Donald Knuth gave s o m e t h i n g up and is now, as he asserts, 'a happy man'. He was r e f e r r i n g t o e-mail. The first c o m p u t e r t h a t was operated w i t h a mouse was t h e Xerox Alto.
to reach a million in sales

1 5 0 .

1 4 9 .

1 4 8 .

147.

1 4 6 .

GNU s o f t w a r e is c o p y r i g h t e d . S o f t w a r e c r e a t e d under t h e GNU Public License is f r e e t o r e p r o d u c e but carries c e r t a i n

restrictions. This concept is called ' c o p y l e f t ' .

144. 142.

The DVD of t h e movie 'Matrix' was the f i r s t t o reach one million in sales. Did you know C o m p a q C o m p u t e r was f o r m e d in 1982, and t h e i r f i r s t p r o d u c t , a n n o u n c e d in N o v e m b e r 1982, was the Compaq Portable?

143.
Did you know that the world's first transistor is located at Murray Hill, New Jersey?

141. 140.

Did you know t h a t Bill Gates and Paul Allen s t a r t e d a c o m p a n y called Traf-O-Data t o m o n i t o r t r a f f i c f l o w ? HP's first p r o d u c t to hit the market 2 0 0 A - a resistance capacity audio oscillator, w h i c h was used to test sound e q u i p m e n t . The first ' t e c h n o l o q y ' c o r p o r a t i o n t o m o v e into California's Silicon Valley was Hewlett-Packard, in 1938. The first web browser w r i t t e n in Java was by J a m e s Gosling. Initially called 'WebRunner', it was later
......
r e n a m e d H o t J a v a

139.

138.

T° counter paedophiles, the
FBI recruited teenage girls this year to teach officers to behave like girls on the Net

, '

137.

The servers are in Denmark. The s o f t w a r e is f r o m Estonia. The domain is registered in Australia, and the c o r p o r a t i o n is on a South Pacific island. That's K a z a a - t h e world's f a v o u r i t e P2P s o f t w a r e . 'Stewardesses' is the longest w o r d you can t y p e w i t h y o u r left hand using t h e usual t w o - h a n d e d t y p i n g m e t h o d . American cartoon artist Paul Kinsella has set up a Web site called 'Afterlife telegrams', where the living can send telegrams to the dead.

1 3 6 .

1 3 5 .

I Did you know that the first glossary of computer I technology came out in 1954? it was edited by Rear I Admiral Grace Hopper of the US Navy.

• 106

Seagate
133. Messages were left by 5.8 lakh people on t h e official Web site of t h e British m o n a r c h y in S e p t e m b e r 1997, f o l l o w i n g t h e death of Princess Diana. An average of 4 0 million H o t m a i l e-mails are sent each day, and MSN has e s t i m a t e d tth a tt t h e i r service saves 5 0 0 t r e e s - a b o u t ha 7 2 , 7 2 0 Kg of paper per day. The lobby of Cyrix Corporation's c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s has a m a u s o l e u m w i t h t h e inscription " I n t e l Inside." 3 £ =

132.

o

|j|

131.

130.
Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems has a dog called Network.

129.

Toonz A n i m a t i o n India, an a n i m a t i o n c o m p a n y based in T h i r u v a n a n t h a p u r a m , p r o d u c e d the film Stone Crusher, free of charge, for UNICEF. The Apple ' T h i n k D i f f e r e n t ' c a m p a i g n used M a h a t m a Gandhi's philosophy in one of its ads. Before c o - f o u n d i n g Apple, Steve J o b s w o r k e d f o r Atari, t h e c o m p u t e r and video g a m e maker. Sending e-mails w i t h CCs m a r k e d t o f a m o u s personalities are called mail droppings in t h e IT world. 'Bloatware' is s o f t w a r e t h a t ' s t o o large for its utility. Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee was t h e f i r s t subscriber t o India's first p r i v a t e I n t e r n e t Service Provider, S a t y a m Infoway.

128.
127.

126.
125, 124.

Vajpayee Infoway's

was first

Satyam subscriber

123.

In c o m p u t e r slang, an o r d i n a r y , postal mail is called snail mail. HP came up w i t h an a l t e r a t i v e t o Java, called Chai, in 2001.

122.
121.

Did you know that Seagate was the first company to manufacture hard disks for microcomputers?

107O

120,
119.

In t e c h parlance, 'chip j e w e l l e r y ' is an o u t d a t e d c o m p u t e r . Windows 1.0 was released in 1985. Bill Gates and Apple CEO J o h n Sculley signed c o n f i d e n t i a l a g r e e m e n t s t h a t allowed Microsoft t o use e l e m e n t s of the Apple GUI in its soft Steve Wozniak, co-founder ware. Infosys was t h e f i r s t Indian c o m p a n y t o release its annual r e p o r t in CD-ROM format.

117.

of Apple, worked for Hewlett-Packard as a summer trainee.

116.

The T u r i n g A w a r d , given by t h e Association f o r C o m p u t i n g Machinery, based in New York, is a w a r d e d t o people w h o have made significant c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a technical n a t u r e t o t h e c o m p u t i n g c o m m u n i t y . It is r e f e r r e d t o as 'the Nobel Prize of c o m p u t i n g ' , and is named after Alan Turing, t h e well-known British m a t h e m a t i c i a n and c o m p u t e r scientist. A 'Turing m a c h i n e ' defines our n o t i o n t o d a y of w h a t a c o m p u t e r is. It consists of a tape head, a tape w i t h 1s and Os on it which can scroll in either d i r e c t i o n , and something to interpret what t h e sequence of 1s and Os mean.

115.

A demonstration

of the Univac

in

action

114.

Fly-by-wire is a t e c h n o l o g y where a c o m p u t e r c o n t r o l s the flight of an a i r c r a f t and w h e r e the pilot's responses are relayed t o a c o m p u t e r , which t h e n gives t h e a p p r o p r i a t e response t o t h e a i r c r a f t ' s h y d r a u y l i c systems. The first f l y - b y - w i r e test flight was held in 1972 on a NASA F-8 test plane. The first passenger a i r c r a f t t o get f l y - b y - w i r e tech-

113.

112.

Hewlett Packard started at a garage in Palo Alto in 1939.

Seagate
nology was t h e Airbus A 3 2 0 , launched in 1988. 110.

In 2 0 0 3 , software The origin of t h e t e r m 'taped companies lost $5.5 o u t ' comes f r o m t h e process billion due to piracy in of creat ing an optical mask for Asia. a s e m i c o n d u c t o r device. It was done by laying out p i e c e s ' o f ' tape r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e various parts of t h e chip on large tables.
In 1952, a c o m p l a i n t was filed against IBM, alleging monopolistic practices in its c o m p u t e r business, in v i o l a t i o n of t h e Sherman Act. BASIC, t h e name of t h e popular beginners' p r o g r a m m i n g language, is an a c r o n y m for Beginners' A l l - p u r p o s e Symbolic Instruction Code. V i e t n a m War p r o t e s t e r s a t t a c k e d u n i v e r s i t y c o m p u t e r centres in 1970. At t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, t h e toll was one h u m a n and f o u r machines. On election night, N o v e m b e r 4, 1952, CBS News b o r r o w e d a UNIVAC t o make a scientific prediction of t h e o u t c o m e of t h e race for t h e presidency between Dwight D. Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson. The US Navy spent $ 3 7 5 , 0 0 0 on an ' a e r o d y n a m i c analysis of t h e self-suspended flare'. The research proved t h a t the frisbee was not feasible as m i l i t a r y h a r d w a r e .

i/> o 2L
57

3 o c tfl

m

1 0 9 .

1 0 8 .

107.

1 0 6 .

1 0 5 .

nally called

OS/2

magazine

1 0 4 .

Google recently added linear local search capabilities to its existing services.

Macquariums are aquariums made from old Macintosh computers.

J
109O

102.

Content P r o t e c t i o n f o r Removable Media (CPRM) is a hardware-based t e c h n o l o g y designed t o e n f o r c e copy p r o t e c t i o n restrictions. The publication 'Windows Magazine', on since February 1992, was launched in 1990 under t h e name 'OS/2 Magazine'.

100.

There are more than 2 0 0 satellites orbitinq earth just for private communications services-including the pager, telephone, and Internet services.

9 9 .

The f i r s t Comdex was held in 1979 w i t h 150 companies and 4 , 0 0 0 visitors. In Silicon Valley slang, ' m e a t l o a f ' means unsolicited personal mass mailings. The Sony VAIO, a cool and a f f o r d a b l e line of c o n s u m e r PCs and laptops, is a popular brand. 'VAIO' stands for 'Video A u d i o I n t e g r a t e d Operation'. "10.22.38" was t h e f i r s t ever Xerox taken, on October 2 2 , 1 9 3 8 , at a place called Astoria, by Xerox Machine f o u n d e r Chester Carlson.

HDTV made its debut but still hasn't gotten

a long time to the

ago,

masses

95.

Dropping a c o m p u t e r one f o o t o n t o a flat surface was an Appleendorsed p r o c e d u r e for t h e Apple III t o ensure t h a t t h e machine's i n t e g r a t e d circuits were securely in t h e i r sockets. By t h e early 1980s, MS Word had became t h e most popular w o r d processing p r o g r a m . Half a b y t e is c a l l e d a nibble.

9 4 .

•110

1001

TECHFACTS

Seagate

92. 91.

2001 was t h e serial n u m b e r of t h e f i r s t Apple t h a t rolled out of t h e assembly line. Taxes made headlines in 2 0 0 3 , as US I n t e r n e t retailers collected taxes on all purchases. Some US states taxed I n t e r n e t b a n d w i d t h and t h e EU r e q u i r e d all I n t e r n e t companies t o collect Value Added T a x ( V A T ) o n digital d o w n l o a d s . A NUKE InterNETWORK poll in 2001 f o u n d t h a t 5 2 per cent of Internet users had cut back on w a t c h i n g TV in o r d e r to spend m o r e t i m e online; 12 per cent had cut back on seeing t h e i r friends.

8 4 0
W h e n t h e O r i g i n a l Mac was introduced, priced at $ 6 6 6 , many Christians were against it because 6 6 6 is ' S a t a n ' s n u m b e r ' .

u> o 2. 5T 3 < D O c
IA

90.

89.

In 1989, HDTV made its debut in Japan. Air c o n d i t i o n i n g was invented by Willis Carrier t o help a Brooklyn, New York, p r i n t e r t o get decent c o l o u r d u r i n g hot, humid w e a t h e r . Air c o n d i t i o n ing wasn't used f o r cooling people until 1924 w h e n it made its debut at t h e J L Hudson D e p a r t m e n t S t o r e in Detroit, Michigan. The w o r d r o b o t comes f r o m t h e
One of the first Apple

88.

1
Macs

^

87.

Czech w o r d ' r o b o t a ' meaning ' d r u d g e r y ' , ' s e r v i t u d e ' , or ' f o r c e d labour'. The w o r d came into English in t h e early 1920s f r o m a play, R.U.R (Rossum's Universal Robots), by Karel Capek. Capek's b r o t h e r suggested t h e word. 1975 saw t h e e m e r g e n c e of t h e first w o r d processing s o f t w a r e , t h e Electric Pencil. WordStar was released in 1978. The t e c h n o l o g y c o n t a i n e d in a s i n g l e G a m e B o y u n i t in 2 0 0 0 e x c e e d s all t h e c o m p u t i n g p o w e r t h a t w a s used t o p u t t h e f i r s t m a n on t h e Moon in 1 9 6 9 .

86.

D I G I T

84.

The r e c o r d i n g i n d u s t r y lost m o n e y as a result of t h e 'Napster Revolution', but some people did make m o n e y off it: f r o m 1999 t o 2001, sales of CD b u r n e r s and blank CDs skyrocketed. 1975 saw t h e e m e r gence of t h e f i r s t w o r d processing soft ware, the Electric Pencil. WordStar was released in 1978.

It was only on the 3rd of July, 1978, that the New York Times began using computerised word processing.

8 2 .

81.

SGI machines, hailed as high p e r f o r m a n c e graphics w o r k s t a t i o n s , use a c u s t o m developed UNIX-like OS, IRIX, and used to use CPUs f r o m a c o m p a n y called MIPS. In 1990, M i c r o s o f t shipped Windows 3.0 o n May 22. Compatible w i t h all DOS p r o g r a m s , it was t h e f i r s t successful version of Windows t h a t finally o f f e r e d satisfactory p e r f o r m a n c e to PC users. DEC ( m e r g e d w i t h Compaq, which has since m e r g e d w i t h HP) used t o assemble Apple Macs in India. IBM developed an early m e m o r y t e c h n o l o g y k n o w n as Bubble M e m o r y ; as a part of a deal w i t h Intel t o m a n u f a c t u r e and use the 8 0 8 6 processors in t h e i r Display Write Intelligent T y p e w r i t e r , IBM exchanged t h e IPR f o r Bubble M e m o r y w i t h Intel. Steve J o b s and Steve Wozniak f o u n d e d Apple C o m p u t e r in 1976. M i c r o s o f t was l a t e r o f f i c i a l l y f o u n d e d in 1977. Apple's MacOS X utilises elements f r o m BSD Unix, OpenStep, and MacOS9. The Unix base of OS X is Darwin, w h i c h is open source.
Alan turing

80.
79.

78.

77.

In the late 8 0 s and early 90s, the Union Budget was made on Apple computers gifted to the Finance Ministry.

•112

1 0 0 1

T E C H F A C T S

Seagate (C

74.

An i n t e r e s t i n g historical aspect of t h e classic Mac OS was a relatively u n k n o w n One of India's first parallel secret p r o t o t y p e Apple s t a r t e d processing computers, an work on in 1992, code-named Project Star Trek. The goal of early PARAM, used this project was t o c r e a t e a Transputer CPUs from a version of Mac OS t h a t w o u l d British company called run on I n t e l - c o m p a t i b l e x 8 6 INMOS. PCs. It was s h o r t lived, being cancelled only one year later in 1993, due t o political infighting, w i t h t h e goal not having been met. A l t h o u g h a direct port was never released, it did eventually become possible t o r u n t h e classic Mac OS on x 8 6 PCs by using t h i r d - p a r t y M a c i n t o s h e m u l a t o r s , such as vMac and Basilisk II. The S t r o n g A R M m i c r o p r o c e s s o r is a f a s t e r v e r s i o n of t h e Advanced RISC Machines ARM design. It was c r e a t e d by Digital Equipment C o r p o r a t i o n , but later sold t o Intel, w h o continues t o produce it t o d a y as t h e XScale. The Turing Test d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r Al has been reached. The setup is of a c o m p u t e r in one room, a h u m a n in t h e other, and an i n t e r r o g a t o r in t h e t h i r d . The Loebner Award, for a machiIf t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r c a n n o t make ne passing the Turing Test out the h u m a n f r o m t h e c o m p u t e r , t h e l a t t e r is declared intelligent.

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72.

70. 69.

The Loebner A w a r d is a prize consisting of a solid 2 4 - k a r a t gold medal t o one w h o makes a machine pass t h e T u r i n g Test. Intel produced t h e i 8 6 0 , a RISC microprocessor, which was released in 1989. The processor f o u n d limited m a r k e t s in w o r k s t a t i o n s as a graphics a c c e l e r a t o r . Magnetic t a p e was f i r s t used t o r e c o r d data in 1951. The r e c o r d i n g m e d i u m was a t h i n band of solid steel.

68.

67.
[ D I G I T

Did you know Apple and Sun came very close to a merger in 1996?

113D

66.
i v iMILI urneiei :> IUMLJ, aciudiiy has six s t r u m m a b l e strings.

64.

Q u a n t u m c r y p t o g r a p h y is the u l t i m a t e f o r m of c r y p t o g r a p h y . The chances of an eavesdrop per being u n d e t e c t e d are one in trillions or quadrillions, which means for all practical purposes in t h e universe, nil.

Xerox was the first company to develop technology to protect digital intellectual property rights.

6 3 .

Under Hong Kong laws, t h e t e r m " c o m p u t e r " is defined as " a n y device f o r s t o r i n g , processing or r e t r i e v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " . A c c o r d i n g t o this definition, a slide rule and a pocket calculator are computers. On 3 0 t h April 2 0 0 4 , Peter Burke and his t e a m at t h e University of California at Irvine built a high-speed, c a r b o n n a n o t u b e t r a n s i s t o r . This is t h e latest in a string of devices t h a t can be made w i t h nanotubes, and a c c o r d i n g to t h e researchers, is t h e next step t o w a r d s replacing silicon in a v a r i e t y of e l e c t r o n i c applications. Apple was t h e first mass-market c o m p u t e r m a n u f a c t u r e r to eschew t h e floppy a l t o g e t h e r , w i t h t h e release of t h e iMac in 1998. The first iMac had no f l o p p y disk drive. How t h e 5.25 inch floppy is t h a t large is i n t e r e s t i n g . In 1976, J i m Adkisson, was a p p r o a c h e d by An Wang of Wang Laboratories, The 'nanoguitar'-a guitar on the w h o felt t h a t t h e 8 " f o r m a t of nanoscaie with actual strings t h e t i m e was t o o large f o r t h e desktop w o r d processing machines he was developing at t h e time. A f t e r m e e t i n g in a bar in Boston, Adkisson asked Wang what size he t h o u g h t t h e disks should be, and Wang p o i n t e d t o a napkin and said " a b o u t t h a t size". Adkisson t o o k t h e napkin back to California, f o u n d it t o be 5.25 inches wide, and developed a new drive of this size s t o r i n g 110 KB.

6 2 .

61.

60.

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5 8 . Apple selected t h e Sony 3 1/2" f o r m a t for t h e i r Macintosh c o m p u t - 3 ers, t h e r e b y f o r c i n g t h e 3 1/2" t o become t h e s t a n d a r d f o r m a t f o r $ floppy drives in t h e US. 5: Q) A c c o r d i n g t o an IDSA estimate, w o r l d w i d e piracy cost t h e US enter t a i n m e n t s o f t w a r e i n d u s t r y $3.2 billion in 1998. P r o g r a m m i n g languages are c o m m o n l y divided i n t o f o u r g r o u p s - i m p e r a t i v e , declarative, logical, and o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d . Respective examples are C, Lisp, Prolog, and J a v a . 128-bit SSL e n c r y p t i o n is so s t r o n g t h a t it w o u l d t a k e much, m u c h longer t h a n t h e age of t h e universe t o crack a message e n c r y p t e d using it. Even 2 0 years f r o m now, if c o m p u t e r s are a million times faster, it w o u l d still t a k e longer t h a n t h e age of t h e universe t o crack it. § 5

5 7 .

5 6 .

5 5 .

2002:1

billion

PCs sold so far

5 4 .

An expert s y s t e m is a c o m p u t e r s y s t e m t h a t answers questions t h a t would t a k e a h u m a n e x p e r t t o be a n s w e r e d p r o p e r l y . They are used, for example, in medical diagnosis. Mycin, one of t h e oldest expert systems, is m o r e a c c u r a t e t h a n a h u m a n d o c t o r at answering questions a b o u t diagnosis. In 2 0 0 2 , t h e one billion m a r k for n u m b e r of PCs sold was reached. The 2 billion mark, it is e s t i m a t e d , will be r e a c h e d in 2 0 0 8 . The field of A r t i f i c i a l Life aims at c r e a t i n g complex, life-like behaviours in c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s . A r t i f i c i a l Life can evolve, and produce results, or behaviours, not e n v i s i o n e d by t h e p r o g r a m m e r s , or, beyond what the p r o g r a m m e r s defined in t h e first place. Xerox and TDA research are w o r k i n g on p r o j e c t s t h a t could ulti m a t e l y lead t o t h e r e p l a c e m e n t of silicon in chips by plastic polymers. One p o l y m e r , Pedot, shows special promise. The Cyc p r o j e c t , p i o n e e r e d by Doug L e n a t , aims at c r e a t i n g a database of c o m m o n - s e n s e , which all c o m p u t e r s can use so t h a t t h e y b e c o m e " a u t o m a t i c a l l y " m o r e intelligent.

53. 52.

51.

5 0 .

D I G I T

115D

49.

A c c o r d i n g t o a N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 3 e s t i m a t e , Google receives a 2 0 0 million hits a day. There are a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 5 million .com d o m a i n names registered worldwide. Urban India stands at position 11 in t h e w o r l d in t e r m s of I n t e r n e t p e n e t r a t i o n , w i t h a rate of 19%. It was in 1972 t h a t Ray Tomlinson developed t h e first n e t w o r k e d based e-mail p r o g r a m . He i n t r o d u c e d t h e '<E>' sign in addresses. ICO was t h e first instant messaging p r o g r a m , and t h a t ' s notable because it's still running, a l t h o u g h it's been b o u g h t by AOL. The JPEG s u b - c o m m i t t e e was set up by t h e ISO in t h e late 1980s t o r e c o m m e n d a file f o r m a t for t h e s t o r a g e of high quality still images. The c o m m i t t e e delivered, instead, an image c o m p r e s s i o n standard. JPEG stands f o r J o i n t P h o t o g r a p h i c Experts Group. Claude Shannon is arguably t h e f a t h e r of I n f o r m a t i o n Technology. In 1948, he published " A M a t h e m a t i c a l T h e o r y of C o m m u n i c a t i o n " in t h e Bell System Technical J o u r n a l . This paper f o u n d e d t h e subject of i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y . The f i r s t high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was Fortran. It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. F o r t r a n became c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957.

47. 46. 45.
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The f i r s t o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d language was Simula, a l t h o u g h it was not c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d . It was d e v e l o p e d by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in t h e mid 1960s.

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ELIZA was t h e first well-known example of a " t a l k i n g " Al p r o g r a m . It m i m i c k e d a psychiatrist talking to one of her patients, and was reasonably realistic f o r t h e t i m e . The t e r m ' b a n d w i d t h ' is c o m m o n l y used t o refer t o how fast data can t r a v e l over a connection. Actually, b a n d w i d t h refers t o t h e range of f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t t h e data is t r a n s m i t t e d over.
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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3 8 . T h r e e MIT s c i e n t i s t s , Ronald Rivest, A d i S h a m i r , and L e o n a r d A d l e m a n i n v e n t e d t h e RSA cipher in 1978. The RSA public-key e n c r y p t i o n a l g o r i t h m remains t h e most widely-used e n c r y p t i o n s t a n d a r d by secure Web sites etc. DVD-18 is a s t a n d a r d t h a t increased DVD capacities t o 17 GB. The s t a n d a r d provides f o r 2 layers of data on e i t h e r side of t h e disk, t h a t is, dual-sided dual-layered. The f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l DVD-18 title, The Stand, was released in October 1999. A m o n g Unix users, a bang is an e x c l a m a t i o n point. 3 5 . Nieman-Marcus o f f e r e d a Honeywell H316 c o m p u t e r in 1969 f o r $10,600. That was t h e first t i m e a h o m e c o m p u t e r was o f f e r e d f o r sale by mail o r d e r . 3 4 . In 1995, Iomega Corp. went f r o m $3.5 a share t o $ 4 8 . 6 3 , Rivest, Shamir and Adleman, the f o r a gain of 1396%. This made men behind RSA encryption it t h e c o m p a n y t o have t h e greatest p e r c e n t a g e gain of all NASDAQ h i g h - t e c h stocks ever. The n e t w o r k 'ping' p r o g r a m get its name f r o m t h e sound of a sonar. The c r e a t o r , Mike Muuss, says he n a m e d it a f t e r t h e sound t h a t a sonar makes, inspired by the principle of echo-location. 3 2 . Bridgeville in N o r t h e r n California, t h e f i r s t t o w n t o be a u c t i o n e d on eBay, was p u r c h a s e d recently f o r $ 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 , by a S o u t h e r n Cali f o r n i a financial adviser. The t e r m 'silver bullet', which applies t o any new t e c h n o l o g y or practice t h a t will easily cure a major prevailing problem, originates f r o m t h e m y t h t h a t only a silver bullet could kill a w e r e w o l f . '. C r y p t o g r a p h y , t h e study of ways t o c o n v e r t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m its normal, c o m p r e h e n s i b l e f o r m into an o b s c u r e d and unreadable guise, o r i g i n a t e s f r o m t h e f r o m Greek w o r d s ' k r y p t o s ' ( " h i d d e n " ) and 'graphein', ( " t o w r i t e " ) . The technique of compressing text or images into microdots to prevent their viewing by unintended recipients was invented by the Germans during World War II. It was later used by several countries to pass messages through insecure channels.

3 7 .

3 3 .

2 9 .

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117 •

2 8 .

Smart cards, t i n y secure c o m p u t - ers f o r c a r r y i n g out c r y p t o graphic o p e r a t i o n s e m b e d d e d w i t h i n a credit card-sized or smaller cards were i n v e n t e d and p a t e n t e d in France by Roland Moreno in t h e 1970s. The IKONOS satellite, used for c o m m e r c i a l satellite p h o t o g r a p h y , can c a p t u r e satellite images u p t o a r e s o l u t i o n of 1m. The Quick bird satellite can go upto a reso lution of 0 . 7 m - w h i c h means cars esfRSH can be i d e n t i f i e d using photos A ^TTW—"""III • 1 B • K 2 2 Z X Z 2 H f r o m these satellites! George Philbrick was a pioneer in analogue c o m p u t i n g . During t h e 9 3 0 s , he developed the o p e r a t i o n a l amplifier, which was key t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of analogue c o m p u t e r s .

2 7 .

2 6 .


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France

2 5 .

The Last Starfighter, released in 1984 and directed by Nick Castle, was the first movie to do all special effects (except makeup) on a computer. All shots of spaceships and space were generated on a Cray computer. All of the special effects shots took just eight hours to generate. Some regard Alan T u r i n g as t h e f a t h e r of Al, some say it is J o h n McCarthy. M c C a r t h y also invented t h e LISP language. Alan Turing is well-known f o r cracking German codes d u r i n g WWII, and some say it's due t o him t h a t we Indians speak English now instead of German. LISP is a p r o g r a m m i n g language w r i t t e n in LISP itself. When y o u define f u n c t i o n s in LISP, t h e e n t i r e language gets modified. Under Hong Kong laws, the term "computer" is defined as "any device for storing, processing or retrieving information". According to this definition, a slide rule and a pocket calculator are computers. In t h e Deep Web, t h e part of t h e Web not c u r r e n t l y catalogued by search engines, public i n f o r m a t i o n is 5 0 0 t i m e s larger t h a n on the WWW. The Deep Web contains 7 , 5 0 0 t e r a b y t e s , c o m p a r e d t o 19 t e r a b y t e s o n t h e surface Web. It contains nearly 5 5 0 billion indi vidual d o c u m e n t s c o m p a r e d t o t h e 1 billion of t h e surface Web. Many researchers and surfers consider t h a t t h e first search engine
1 0 0 1 T E C H F A C T S

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PL-I is a c o m p u t e r language developed by

IBM t h a t never

reached wide usage. That was because it t r i e d t o be s o m e t h i n g § of e v e r y t h i n g , s o m e t h i n g usable in business, m a t h e m a t i c s , and 5 other disciplines. Business users, for example, began using COBOL, and scientific users m i g r a t e d t o Fortran. , , The first high-level p r o g r a m m i n g language was F o r t r a n . It was developed in 1956 by an IBM t e a m headed by J o h n Backus. F o r t r a n b e c a m e c o m m e r c i a l l y available in 1957. The first o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d language was Simula, a l t h o u g h it was not c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d . It was developed by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in the mid 1960s.

18.

17.

QuickTime, the most

in 1992, popular

was codec

16.

The BIOS, or Basic I n p u t / O u t p u t System, will be superseded by technologies such as Phoenix's CME (Content M a n a g e m e n t Engine) and t h e EFI (Extensible F i r m w a r e Interface). To a u t h o r and p r o d u c e digital video t e c h n o l o g y w h e n it first appeared on t h e scene averaged $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 . Today, a school district can utilise digital video at a very low cost and can produce digital video technologies for as little as $ 2 , 0 0 0 . In 1992, w o r k i n g w i t h digital video t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e d at least $ 6 , 0 0 0 at s t a r t up. Today, you can increase t h e price of a G3 by $130 for it t o have audio-visual capabilities. This is a 9 7 % decrease in 5 years t i m e . When QuickTime was developed, it played 5 f r a m e s per second. Today, y o u can achieve b r o a d c a s t - q u a l i t y f r a m e rate and speed w i t h some digital video and s t r e a m i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s . It was in t h e early 1990s t h a t digital video was i n t r o d u c e d o n t o the t e c h n o l o g y f r o n t , with no compression. In 1992, QuickTime 1.0 a r r i v e d on t h e scene as t h e p r i m a r y codec p r o g r a m . Only a f e w m o n t h s a f t e r QuickTime's release, Video for Windows was released as an AVI f o r m a t . 119D

15.

14.

13.

12.

11.

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10. 9.

MPEG1/Motion JPEG arrived on the scene as the latest codecs in 1995. 1 , 5 2 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , or 152 crore, miles of t e l e p h o n e wire is s t r u n g across t h e U.S. The f i r s t device w i t h an in-build h a r d drive f o r image r e c o r d i n g was t h e Kodak DCS 2 0 0 , in 1992. In 1994, t h e Apple Quick Take 100 was t h e first mass-market colour digital camera. It had a 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 pixel CCD. Up to eight 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 r e s o l u t i o n images could be s t o r e d in internal m e m o r y It had a fixed-focus 5 0 m m lens, and an in-built flash. The RDC-1 was t h e first digital c a m e r a t o o f f e r b o t h still and m o v i n g image and sound r e c o r d i n g / r e p r o d u c t i o n . Its r e c o r d i n g capacity on a 2 4 M B PC card was 2 4 6 still pictures in s t a n d a r d mode, or 4 9 2 in e c o n o m y mode, or f o u r video scenes of five seconds each w i t h sound. This was in 1995. The f i r s t mass usage of ' s m a r t cards' was p a y m e n t in French payphones, beginning in 1983. They w e r e called 'Telecartes'. In 1952, Alick Glennie, w h o w r o t e t h e f i r s t c o m p u t e r compiler, d e f e a t e d British m a t h e m a t i c i a n Alan Turing's chess p r o g r a m , T u r b o C h a m p . He was t h e first person t o beat a c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m at chess. In 1957, Nobel laureate Herbert Simon said t h a t w i t h i n 10 years, a digital c o m p u t e r would be t h e w o r l d ' s chess c h a m p i o n . A r t i f i c i a l Intelligence was listed by Wired Magazine in 2 0 0 3 as one of t e n 'ideas t h a t failed'. It is said t h a t in t h e late 1800s, t h e US p a t e n t o f f i c e said t h a t it m i g h t as well close, because e v e r y t h i n g t h a t could be invented had already been invented. This is similar t o w h a t physicist L o r d Kelvin said in 1900: " T h e r e is n o t h i n g new t o be discovered in physics n o w . "

8. 7. 6.

5. 4. 3. 2. 1.

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