Name : ID: Topic
Asim Shahzad 100244 Leading and Motivating Teams and Individuals.
Q. Define Leading and Motivation? Compare between the theories of leading and motivation? Ans. Introduction: All organizations if they are large or small need good leadership which may lead that business to success or failure depending on the leadership. Leadership includes motivating individuals or teams towards the assigned targets and the make strategies to achieve all the objectives of the organization. The dictionary definition of a leader is that of one who leads or goes first. Clearly the leader does not always go first but a separate definition would develop out of the idea of one who leads, ie. one who motivates. Thus it is very difficult to separate out theories and concepts of Leadership and Motivation. The leader to fulfill their role has to know how to motivate people and must seek ways to do this so as to maintain their role as leader. There are many theories of motivation so the leader has quite a scope for their own style of leadership. My research has found that many of these have developed since the end of the Second World War as people’s attitudes to leadership, motivation and management have developed and changed to a more intelligent level. Definition: Leadership is defined as: “ the process in which one individual or a team which influences or motivates other group members or subordinates towards the achievement of defined objectives or the organizational goals”. People exist according to Maslow in an hierarchy of needs, going from Physiological needs through Safety, Social, Esteem to Self Actualization. As each need is satisfied the person moves up a level. Thus people can be motivated by basic needs, but also by the 'spirit' and 'noble cause'. The best example of this is warfare and the partial change of motivation from pay to glory, and a belief in ideas. Indeed the use of propaganda this century has become important in motivating armies, in the sense that your side has more moral worth than the others, though this of course can be true. Some leaders would consider that it is necessary to use pain or threat of pain to motivate, but others consider that this only motivates no one but the dullest and most idle of people. Promises of food, excitement, companionship, involvement and the appreciation of other benefits are better motivators.
Autocratic or authoritarian style Under the autocratic leadership style.Specifically. all decision-making powers are centralized in the leader.Theory of Leadership: Over the years a number of key theories of leadership have been proposed. motives. values. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. situational influences Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership. 3. expertise. Style Theory: Leadership style refers to a leader's behaviour. Zaccaro (2007) noted that trait theories still: • Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as Big Five personality traits. Contingency theory. 1. and bound to. as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to himself until he feels it is needed to be shared with the rest of the group. Participative or democratic style
• • • 2. It permits quick decision-making. 2. as with dictator leaders. It is the result of the philosophy. personality and experience of the leader. its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks.)
. Trait theory. social skills. We are discussing some main theories which are as follow:
1. They do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. to the neglect of cognitive abilities. Style theory. and problemsolving skills Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes Do not distinguish between those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by.) Trait Theory: The trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity.
When there is a good leadermember relation. They can win the co-operation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively. such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates. Herbert Spencer (1884) said that the times produce the person and not the other way around. no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. a highly structured task. According to the theory. and those who have as their prime concern carrying out the task itself (task-oriented). they are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods.
Contingency Theory: Contingency theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability. Laissez-faire or free rein style A free-rein leader does not lead. "what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good-relationships with the group (relationship-oriented).The democratic leadership style favors decision-making by the group as shown.. i. the situation is considered a "favorable situation". According to Fiedler. and high leader position power. Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations. Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation.
3. but leaves the group entirely to itself as shown. according to this group of theories. The decisions of the democratic leader are not unilateral as with the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them. This theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristics. Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as suggested.e. there is no ideal leader. such as leader gives instruction after consulting the group.