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1

Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 3500, 02015 TKK, Finland

2

University Joseph Fourier and CNRS, B.P. 166,

25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble-cedex 09, France

arXiv:cond-mat/0605678v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall] 28 May 2006

[1, 2]. Similarly, thermal conductance at tempera-

ture T is expected to be limited by the quantum

πk2

of thermal conductance of one mode, GQ = 6~B T ,

when physical dimensions are small in compar-

ison to characteristic wavelength of the carriers

[3]. The relation between σQ and GQ obeys the

Wiedemann-Franz law [4] for ballistic electrons

(apart from factor 2 in σQ due to spin degeneracy)

[5], but somewhat amazingly the same expres-

sion of GQ is expected to hold also for phonons

and photons, or any other particles with arbi-

trary exclusion statistics [6, 7]. The single-mode

heat conductance is particularly relevant in nano-

structures, e.g., when studying heat conduction

by phonons in dielectric materials [8], or cooling

of electrons in metals at very low temperatures

[9]. Here we show, based on our experimental

results, that at low temperatures heat is trans-

ferred by photon radiation, in our case along a

superconducting line, when electron-phonon [10]

as well as normal electronic heat conduction are

FIG. 1: The system under investigation. On top we show

frozen out. Thermal conductance is limited by

thermal (left) and electrical (right) models, and on bottom a

GQ , approaching this value towards low tempera- scanning electron micrograph of the device (left), and of re-

tures. Our observation has implications on, e.g., sistor 1 with four adjoining NIS and two NS contacts zoomed

performance and design of ultra-sensitive bolome- (right).

ters and electronic micro-refrigerators [11], whose

operation is largely dependent on weak thermal

coupling between the device and its environment. integrate (1) easily with the result

To get a picture of the radiative thermal coupling, we 2

start by considering two resistors at temperatures Te1 πkB

PνZ=0 = r0 (T 2 − Te2

2

). (2)

and Te2 , whose resistances are R1 and R2 , respectively, 12~ e1

connected via a frequency (ω/2π) dependent impedance Here r0 ≡ 4R1 R2 /(R1 + R2 )2 is the matching factor,

Z(ω), see Fig. 1. For simplicity we assume Z(ω) to be which obtains its maximum value of unity, when R1 =

fully reactive, so that only the two resistors emit and R2 . Thermal conductance by the photonic coupling, Gν ,

absorb noise heating. The net power flow Pν between defined as the linear response of Pν for small temperature

the two resistors from 1 to 2 due to the electron-photon difference ∆T ≡ Te1 − Te2 around T ≡ (Te1 + Te2 )/2 can

coupling is then given by [3, 9] then be obtained from (2) for the lossless connection as

∞

dω 4R1 R2

Z

Pν = ~ω[n1 (ω) − n2 (ω)]. (1) Gν = r0 GQ . (3)

0 2π |Zt (ω)|2

Thus it attains the maximum value for a single transmis-

Here, Zt (ω) ≡ R1 + R2 + Z(ω) is the total series sion channel, the quantum of thermal conductance, in a

impedance of the circuit, and ni (ω) ≡ [exp(~ω/kB Tei ) − matched circuit. This result is predicted to hold not only

1]−1 are the boson occupation factors at the tempera- for such photon-mediated coupling, but much more gen-

tures of the resistors i = 1, 2. Specifically, for a lossless erally for carriers of arbitrary exclusion statistics [12, 13]

direct connection of the two resistors, Z(ω) ≡ 0, we can from bosons to fermions [6, 14, 15].

2

Due to its relatively weak temperature dependence, flux Φ threading through the DC-SQUID loop, since the

∝ T , electron-photon coupling is expected to become the critical current is IC ≃ IC0 | cos(πΦ/Φ0 )|. Here IC0 is the

dominant relaxation means at sufficiently low T . The Ambegaokar-Baratoff critical current [18] determined by

competing electron-phonon thermal conductance Gep be- geometry and materials, and Φ0 = h/2e ≃ 2 · 1015 Wb is

haves normally as Gep ≃ 5ΣΩT 4 , where Σ is a material the flux quantum. Capacitance CJ is a constant deter-

parameter and Ω is the volume of the resistor. This re- mined by geometry and materials.

sult derives from the expression of heat flux from elec- The length of the lines connecting resistors R1 and R2

trons to lattice, Pep ≃ ΣΩ(Tei5 − T05 ), where Tei and T0 is ∼ 30 µm, i.e., much shorter than the typical thermal

are the temperatures of the electrons in the resistor and wavelength λth = 2π~c/kB T , which is several centime-

of the lattice, respectively [10]. Equating Gν from (3) tres at 100 mK; here c ∼ 108 m/s is the speed of light on

and Gep , one finds the cross-over temperature, Tcr , be- silicon substrate. Therefore we do not need to consider a

low which the photonic conductance should dominate: distributed electrical model with a transmission line, but

2

Tcr = [r0 πkB /(30~ΣΩ)]1/3 [9]. For typical metals, for instead Z(ω) is effectively a lumped series connection of

9

which Σ ∼ 10 Wm−3 K−5 , for mesoscopic resistors with two LC circuits, i.e., Z(ω) = i2ωLJ /[1 − (ω/ω0 )2 ]. Here

Ω ∼ 10−20 m3 , and for matching where r0 is not too ω0 = (LJ CJ )−1/2 and we have assumed for simplicity

low as compared to unity, one obtains Tcr ∼ 100 − 200 that the two DC-SQUIDs are identical and they are ex-

mK. Such temperatures are in the range of experiments posed to the same magnetic field. This is expected to be

that we describe here. By state-of-the-art electron-beam a good approximation in view of the symmetric experi-

lithography one can obtain metallic islands of volumes as mental configuration. The net heat flow between 1 and

small as < 10−24 m3 [16], and there Tcr could be as high 2 is then given by

as several K. 2

To investigate the electron-photon thermal conduction πkB 2 2

Pν = (r1 Te1 − r2 Te2 ), (4)

experimentally we have imbedded a tunable impedance 12~

between the two resistors. This allows us to measure the where the matching parameters ri now depend on tem-

modulation of Pν , or Gν , in response to the externally perature as

controllable impedance Z(ω). In practice the two resis-

6r0 ∞ x (ωth,i τR )2 x2

Z

tors are connected to each other symmetrically by two −1

ri = 2 dx x 1+ . (5)

aluminium superconducting lines, interrupted by a DC- π 0 e −1 2 2

[1 − (ωth,i /ω0 ) x ] 2

SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device)

in each line, as shown in the electron micrograph and Above we have defined ωth,i ≡ kB Tei /~ and τR ≡

in the electrical model in Fig. 1. These SQUIDs serve LJ /[(R1 + R2 )/2].

as the thermal switches between the resistors as will be For the full description, we still need a thermal model

described below. incorporating the two competing relaxation mechanisms,

The structures have been fabricated by electron-beam due photons and phonons, respectively. This is schemat-

lithography and three angle shadow evaporation. The ically depicted in Fig. 1, where the temperature in each

film thickness of the superconducting lines is 20 nm. The resistor tends to relax via electron-phonon coupling Gepi

two AuPd resistors are nominally identical, 6.6 µm long, to the constant temperature T0 of the bath, and towards

0.8 µm wide and 15 nm thick. Their resistances are a common temperature of the two resistors via the tun-

Ri ≃ 200 Ω each. One of them, say R1 , is connected by able photonic conductance Gν . Pi denotes the external

four NIS (normal-insulator-superconductor) tunnel junc- heat leak into resistor i: due to wire connections P1 has

tions to external aluminium leads to allow for thermom- a significant non-zero value even in the absence of inten-

etry [17] and Joule heating. The normal state resistance tional heating, whereas P2 turns out to be very small,

of each NIS junction is about 50 kΩ. The resistors are since the corresponding resistor is not connected directly

connected by direct NS contacts to the superconducting to external leads. We may describe the steady state of

lines in between, without a tunnel barrier. The resis- the system by thermal master equations

tors are, however, long enough such that they are not 2

πkB 2 2

affected by proximity superconductivity noticeably. This Pi = ± (r1 Te1 − r2 Te2 ) + ΣΩi (Tei5 − T05 ), i = 1, 2 (6)

is verified by the measured tunnel characteristics of the 12~

nearby NIS tunnel junctions. Due to the superconduc- where ± equals + for i = 1, and − for i = 2, and Ωi

tors at a low working temperature, which is typically a is the volume of resistor i. Equations (6) combined with

factor of ten below the critical temperature TC ≃ 1.2 K (5) can be solved numerically to obtain the temperatures

of aluminium, the normal electronic thermal conductance Tei under given conditions.

along the lines is efficiently suppressed. The experiments were performed in a 3 He-4 He dilution

Each DC-SQUID can be modelled as a parallel con- refrigerator at temperatures from 30 mK up to several

nection of a Josephson inductance LJ and capacitance hundred mK. All the measurement wiring was carefully

CJ . LJ ≃ ~/(2eIC ) can be tuned by external magnetic filtered and essentially only DC signals were employed.

3

values, ∆T ≡ Te1,max −Te1,min, as a function of T0 for the

experimental data in (a). We have added to the figure a

solid line from our theoretical model assuming R1 = R2 ,

P1 = 1 fW, P2 = 0, IC0 = 20 nA. The last value is a

fit parameter, since we cannot measure it directly in our

geometry, but it is in line with the measured values of

critical currents of DC-SQUIDs that we fabricated with

the same parameters separately. We set CJ = 15 fF based

on the geometry of the device. Additionally, we use a typ-

ical value Σ = 2 · 109 WK−5 m−3 [11], and Ωi = 6 · 10−20

m3 for both resistors. The latter corresponds to the vol-

ume of each resistor excluding the overlap areas of NS

contacts. The agreement between the experiment and

the model is very good and we therefore use these very

FIG. 2: Flux modulation of the temperature of resistor 1 in realistic parameters in analyzing all the results in this ar-

the absence of external heating. In (a), Te1 has been recorded ticle. These data imply, see Fig. 2 (c), that ri at integer

at several bath temperatures T0 indicated. The measured values of Φ/Φ0 lies in the range 0.6...0.3, when we vary

amplitude (symbols) of temperature modulation is plotted temperature from ≃ 60 mK (the approximate value of

against T0 in (b) and compared to the theoretical model (line) Te2 at the minimum bath temperature) up to 200 mK,

as described in the text. In (c), the ratio of the photonic ther-

mal conductance Gν and the quantum of thermal conductance

i.e., the electron-photon conductance is about one half

GQ is shown as a function of the electron temperature Tei us- of its quantum value in our experiment. Note that Gν

ing the parameters of our circuit. approaches the quantum of thermal conductance upon

lowering temperature, since the thermal frequency ωth,i

decreases linearly with Tei , and the line impedance at low

A typical measurement was done as follows. One of the frequencies, determined by LJ , decreases likewise.

SINIS tunnel junction pairs connected to resistor 1 was Next we present experiments where external power was

used as a thermometer by applying a small (∼ 3 pA) DC applied to resistor 1, using the second pair of tunnel

current through it and by measuring the corresponding junctions connected to it as a heater. Figure 3 demon-

temperature dependent voltage. When biased at a low strates such measurements at different bath tempera-

enough current, high sensitivity is obtained without sig- tures. Compared to the data at the lowest bath temper-

nificant self-heating or self-cooling effects [11]. The SINIS ature of 60 mK where essentially monotonic decrease of

thermometer is then calibrated by measuring this voltage ∆T can be observed, the intermediate bath temperature

against the bath temperature T0 , by slowly sweeping the data demonstrates non-monotonic dependence with ini-

temperature of the mixing chamber through the range of tial increase of the signal on increasing the heating, and

interest, from about 40 mK up to about 300 mK. The then slow decrease towards higher power levels and Te1 .

actual measurements of thermal coupling are then done Finally, at the highest values of T0 , the signal is first ab-

by stabilizing the bath at a desired temperature. Then sent but emerges upon increasing the input power. This

we apply slow sweeps (∼ 1Φ0 /min) of external magnetic behaviour arises because by applying Joule heating to

flux, which threads the two DC-SQUID loops nominally just one resistor, we can establish a larger temperature

identically. A typical amplitude of the field sweep is such difference between the two. Yet at large enough levels of

that it corresponds to 4 - 5 flux quanta through each P1 , the overall temperature of the system increases, and

DC-SQUID. In our geometry this corresponds to a field the significance of the photon coupling with respect to

of about 100 µT. SINIS thermometer reading is then av- electron-phonon coupling is diminishing, and the temper-

eraged over several tens of such field sweeps, to measure ature modulation becomes very weak. All these depen-

accurately the periodic variation of Te1 in response to the dences are fully consistent with our theoretical modelling

field sweep. of the system, and we obtain quantitative agreement with

Figure 2 shows results of a measurement at a few bath the data by using the same electrical and thermal pa-

temperatures as described above. We see that the modu- rameters of the system as when modelling data of Fig.

lation of Te1 in response to magnetic flux Φ is about 6 mK 2. The theoretical lines in Fig. 3 are the result of this

at the lowest bath temperature and it decreases mono- modelling. In the inset of Fig. 3 we show a few full mod-

tonically when T0 is increased. Based on this data and ulation curves of Te1 vs. Φ at the bath temperature of

our electrical and thermal models above, we expect that 75 mK. The black lines are from experiment and the red

the maxima in Te1 correspond to the weakest electron- ones from the theoretical model. The theoretical lines

photon coupling at half-integer values of Φ/Φ0 . In Fig. catch the main features of the shape of the experimental

2 (b) we plot with circles the corresponding modulation curves.

4

contacts in a two-dimensional electron-gas, Phys. Rev.

Lett. 60, 848-850 (1988).

[2] Wharam, D.A. et al., One-dimensional transport and the

quantisation of the ballistic resistance, J. Phys. C 21,

L209-L214 (1988).

[3] Pendry, J.B., Quantum limits to flow of information and

entropy, J. Phys. A 16, 2161-2171 (1983).

[4] See, e.g., Ashcroft, N.W. and Mermin N.D., Solid State

Physics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1976).

[5] Greiner, A., Reggiani, L., Kuhn, T., and Varani, L.,

Thermal Conductivity and Lorenz Number for One-

Dimensional Ballistic Transport, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,

1114-1117 (1997).

[6] Rego, L.G.C. and Kirczenow, G., Fractional exclusion

statistics and the universal quantum of thermal conduc-

tance: A unifying approach, Phys. Rev. B 59, 13080-

13086 (1999).

[7] Blencowe, M.P. and Vitelli, V., Universal quantum limits

FIG. 3: Results of measurement of ∆T , the modulation of Te1

on single-channel information, entropy, and heat flow,

when flux is varied, with variable amounts of Joule heating

Phys. Rev. B 62, 052104 (2000).

applied to resistor 1. Different sets of data and lines corre-

[8] Schwab, K., Henriksen, E.A., Worlock, J.M., and Roukes,

spond to different bath temperatures T0 . From top to bottom

M.L., Measurement of the quantum of thermal conduc-

T0 = 60 mK, 75 mK, 105 mK, 118 mK, 157 mK and 167 mK.

tance, Nature 404, 974-977 (2000).

The symbols refer to experimental data, and lines are from the

[9] Schmidt, D.R., Schoelkopf, R.J., and Cleland, A.N.,

theoretical model described. The inset shows primary data in

Photon-mediated thermal relaxation of electrons in

form of Te1 against flux, under different input power levels

nanostructures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 045901 (2004).

and at T0 = 75 mK. Black lines are from the experiment and

[10] Roukes, M.L., Freeman, M.R., Germain, R.S., Richard-

red ones from the theory. The full temperature range in each

son, R.C., and Ketchen, M.B., Hot electrons and energy

panel is 6 mK.

transport in metals at millikelvin temperatures, Phys.

Rev. Lett. 55, 422-425 (1985).

[11] Giazotto, F., Heikkilä, T.T., Luukanen, A., Savin, A.M.,

and Pekola, J.P., Opportunities for mesoscopics in ther-

mometry and refrigeration: Physics and applications,

Prior to our experiment, the electron system like Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 217-274 (2006).

the one discussed in this article was assumed to be [12] Wilczek, F., Quantum mechanics of fractional-spin par-

efficiently decoupled from the environment once the ticles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 957-959 (1982).

electron-phonon coupling is suppressed at low tempera- [13] Haldane, F.D.M., “Fractional statistics” in arbitrary di-

mensions: A generalization of the Pauli principle, Phys.

tures. Therefore, the observed ∝ T photonic conductance

Rev. Lett. 67, 937-940 (1991).

has implications on performance and design of micro- [14] Kane, C.L. and Fisher, M.P.A., Thermal Transport in a

bolometers and calorimeters, where efficient suppression Luttinger Liquid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3192-3195 (1996).

of thermal coupling is usually taken for granted. Due [15] Kane, C.L. and Fisher, M.P.A., Quantized thermal trans-

to better coupling to the environment by photon con- port in the fractional quantum Hall effect , Phys. Rev. B

ductance, the expected sensitivity of such devices is re- 55, 15832-15837 (1997).

duced, and their noise is enhanced. On the other hand, [16] Pashkin, Yu.A,, Nakamura, Y, and Tsai, J.S., Room-

temperature Al single-electron transistor made by

this mechanism could possibly provide a way to tune the electron-beam lithography, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2256-

thermal coupling of a bolometer to the heat bath in order 2258 (2000).

to optimize its operation, which is a trade-off between [17] Nahum, M. and Martinis, J.M., Ultrasensitive-hot-

sensitivity and bandwidth. The radiation of heat can electron microbolometer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3075-

possibly be benefitted also in removing excessive heat, 3077 (1993).

e.g., on dissipative shunt resistors of ultra-sensitive or [18] Ambegaokar, V. and Baratoff, A., Tunneling between su-

very low temperature SQUIDs [19], or at the back side perconductors, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 486-489 (1963).

[19] Savin, A.M., Pekola, J.P., Averin, D.V., and Semenov,

of an electronic micro-refrigerator [20]. Furthermore, the V.K., Thermal budget of superconducting digital circuits

photonic coupling could act as a mediator of decoher- at subkelvin temperatures, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 084501

ence, e.g., on solid-state quantum coherent devices [21]. (2006).

The strength of this harmful effect depends, like in our [20] Clark, A.M., Williams, A., Ruggiero, S.T., van den Berg,

present experiment, critically on matching between the M.L., and Ullom, J.N., Practical electron-tunneling re-

noise source and the system that it affects on. frigerator, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 625-627 (2004).

5

[21] Makhlin, Yu., Schön, G., and Shnirman, A., Quantum- and Gerd Schön for useful comments, and Academy

state engineering with Josephson-junction devices, Rev. of Finland (TULE) and the EC-funded ULTI Project,

Mod. Phys. 73, 357-400 (2001). Transnational Access in Programme FP6 (Contract

Acknowledgements We thank Mikko Paalanen, Dmitri #RITA-CT-2003-505313) for financial support.

Averin, Arttu Luukanen, Hugues Pothier, Frank Hekking

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