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**A function is like a free Snack Vending Machine.
**

input function output

L2

But in mathematics, a function can work with any kind of inputs and outputs.

Like the Car Crusher Function.

In mathematics there’s no need to be constrained by reality, so we can even deﬁne the Car UnCrusher Function.

UnCrusher Function

Most mathematical functions deal with numbers: both the inputs and the outputs are usually numbers. 5 → function → 17 Functions are usually given single-letter nicknames, like f , H, or γ. To represent the output of a function, the input is wrapped in parenthesis and placed to the right of the function’s name. f (5) = output of f when the input is 5 So in the case above, f (5) = 17.

that is. You can give examples. input x 1 2 3 output f (x) 3 7 -13 But what happens on other inputs? . f (1) = 3 f (2) = 7 f (3) = −13 For this tables are helpful.There are diﬀerent ways to explain what a function does. to deﬁne it.

Pretty. You can draw the graph. to deﬁne it. that is. but not 100% accurate.There are diﬀerent ways to explain what a function does. .

that is.7? f (2. what happens if we input 2. For example.7 − 1) (2.There are diﬀerent ways to explain what a function does.7 − 3) 13 − (2.7) = 3 (2.7 − 2) (2. to deﬁne it.7 − 2) 2 = −4.7 − 1) (2. but precise.48 .7 − 3) 2 −7 (2. f (x) = 13 3 (x − 2) (x − 3) − 7 (x − 1) (x − 3) − (x − 1) (x − 2) 2 2 Ugly. You can give the mathematical formula.

. and f (−2) are? 2 1 f (1) = 0 = f (− ) = f (−2) 2 These inputs are called the zeros of the function f .Another example. f (x) = (x − 1) x+ 1 2 (x + 2)2 1 Can you tell what f (1). f (− ).

Here’s the graph of f . Notice that there’s one point on the curve where it crosses the vertical axis. That’s where the input is 0. −0.5. and 1. f (0) = (0 − 1) 0 + 1 (0 + 2)2 = −2 2 That point on the graph is called the vertical intercept. . The zeros can be called horizontal intercepts. The zeros are at −2.

The simplest kind of function is the constant function: whatever inputs you plug in. f (2) = 37. Still very predictable. etc. Example: f (1) = 5 f (2) = 8. for this function.5 f (0) = ? 2 .5) = ? 14 6. In this case we can just say that f (x) = 37 for any x. you always get the same answer. The second simplest function is the linear function. f (5) = 17. f (4) = ? f (1. It’s easy. f (1) = 37. to predict every value. f (3) = 11. f (3) = 37.

it increases by 3’s.Because linear functions have nice predictable growth patterns. . Hence “linear” function. All you need to know about this function: It starts at 2. the graph is a straight line.

. The vertical intercept is 2. Slope will be extremely important for us. f (0) = 2. i. (Note that steepness is reversed when reading from right to left.) Numerically we deﬁne slope as the ratio of upward movement to rightward movement. Slope measures steepness when reading the graph from left to right.e.More precisely: 1. 2. In fact it’s the foundation of all of Calculus. whenever you move right 1.e. i. The slope is 3. you go up 3.

14).5) to Jill’s picnic site at (4. 2. Jack’s path.Jack and Jill have a date on a hill.1 Horizontal: 4 − 1 = 3 2. Straight line. 2.2 Vertical: 14 − 5 = 9 . 1. use Pythagorean Theorem to ﬁnd distance. Jack is climbing up the line from (1. Horizontal and vertical components.

Slope = m = y2 − y1 x2 − x1 . 4−1 3 In general.Slope is the ratio rise/run: m= 9 14 − 5 = = 3.

2. The slope is 3. To ﬁnd the value of ?. f (0) = 2. Fact 2 means that f grows like 3x. the equation of a linear function is f (x) = mx + b (Slope-Intercept Form) where m is the slope and b is the vertical intercept. So ? has a value of 2. f (x) = 3x + 2 In general.e.What’s the formula for this function? 1. . use Fact 1: 2 = f (0) = 3 · 0 + ?. The vertical intercept is 2. i. So f (x) = 3x + ?.

Since this holds for any (x2 . Both forms have their strengths and weaknesses for problem solving. . we can think of it as the deﬁning equation of the line: m(x − x1 ) = y − y1 . x2 − x1 Now rearrange terms to get rid of the fraction: m(x2 − x1 ) = y2 − y1 . y2 ) on the line.Here’s another form of the linear equation: Start with the deﬁnition of slope: Slope = m = y2 − y1 . This is called point-slope form.

Slope-Intercept form is usually best. determine facts about it. Given the equation of a line. . ﬁgure out its equation.Types of problems: 1. Given information about a line. 2. Point-Slope form is usually best.

Example: 1.2 #4 Given the equation −4y + 2x + 8 = 0. ﬁnd the slope and y -intercept. Slope-Intercept form is usually best. Solution Rewrite in Slope-Intercept form: −4y = −2x − 8 1 y = x + 2. 2 Now we can read oﬀ the info we need: m= 1 2 b=2 .

Solution: First ﬁnd the slope.2 #8 A line passes through the points (4. y − 5 = 3(x − 4) . m= −1 − 5 −6 y2 − y1 = = =3 x2 − x1 2−4 −2 Now apply the point-slope form. What is the equation of the line? Point-Slope form is usually best.Example: 1. −1). 5) and (2.

population was 30. 45.000. 000 Solution 1. Plug in t = 10.There are exceptions. 2.700. Example: 1.200 3.700 14.700 and grew at a rate of 850 per year.700 = 39. P(2010) = 850 · 10 + 30.000 = 850t + 30. 3. 2.300 = 850t t ≈ 16.2 #12 The 1. Give the formula for P as a function of t (years since 2000). P = 850t + 30. Note that P = f (t) where f (t) = 850t + 30. Plug in P = 45. f (2010) = ? f (?) = 45.8 .700. 700. I’ll usually just write P(t) = 850t + 30.

Example: 1. 33 . l2 − l1 11 − 44 33 # Species 34 26 Now apply point-slope form: N − 26 = − 8 (l − 44).2 #24 Latitude 11◦ 44◦ (a) First ﬁnd the slope: m= N2 − N1 34 − 26 8 = =− .

8 8 8 110 l + 44 + 26 = − l + . 33 33 33 3 (c) . 33 (b) Let’s ﬁrst rewrite the equation in slope-intercept form: N − 26 = − N=− Now we can say: 8 m = − 33 species per degree. 110 b = 3 species at the equator.8 (l − 44).

sometimes rising. sometimes falling. .What if a function isn’t linear? This function is sometimes steep. sometimes shallow.

5 − (−1) 3 “increasing” = slope is + “decreasing” = slope is − . average slope = Note that −3 − 1 8 =− 0.Even in this case we can talk about average slope.

. The answer is: The average slope from −3 to −1 is −.... What is the shape of the function y = x 2 ? . The question is. the average slope from 1 to 3 is +. the average slope from −1 to 1 is 0.Let’s play Jeopardy.

If the slopes are consistently decreasing. . the shape is called concave down.This shape is called concave up. and occurs whenever the slopes are consistently increasing.

This even applies to any piece of the functions. What shapes? .

this is confusing) Concave Up Concave Down ⇔ ⇔ Slope is Sloping Up Slope is Sloping Down .Remember I said that slope is the foundation of calculus? We haven’t really started calculus yet but.. (careful..

(a) Concave Up (b) Concave Down (c) Slope is Sloping Up (d) Slope is Sloping Down .

what does the 12 oz. coﬀee cost? . Assuming the relationship between price and size is linear.Problem: A coﬀee shop sells coﬀee to go in three sizes.

1.09(x − 8) and y = 0.08 2.28 = $1. when x = 12.09.08 − 1.36. x 8 12 20 Price in $ y 1.08 (It’s OK to reverse x and y . 20 − 8 12 .00 ? 2.28.) Solution: First ﬁnd the slope: m= Therefore y − 1.09 · 12 + 0.00 = = 0. Finally.00 = 0. just be consistent.Size in oz.09x + 0. y = 0.

09x + 0.28 (the y -intercept) mean in this problem? Solution: The slope is rise/run. So if you buy 0 ounces of coﬀee it still costs you 28¢. Problem: What do m = 0. b = ﬁxed costs mx = variable costs . Evidently that is the price of renting a mug.y = 0. The value of b is the value that y takes when x = 0. in this case $/oz.28.09 and b = 0. So evidently coﬀee costs 9¢ per ounce.

000.000 Revenue. Solution: We have m = 20 and b =650.000. .4 #12 ﬁxed costs = $650. Also ﬁnd the total revenue and total proﬁt. C (q) = 20q + 650. the total amount of money taken in. the quantity of pairs of shoes. is even easier: R(q) = 70q.000) = 50q − 650.1.000 variable costs = $20 per shoe selling price = $70 per shoe Find the total cost in terms of q. Proﬁt is just the diﬀerence between the two: π(q) = R(q) − C (q) = 70q − (20q + 650.

C (q) = 20q + 650. So “cost at the margin” means the cost of producing one more pair of shoes. π(q) = 50q − 650. The marginal proﬁt is $50. .In business problems. R(q) = 70q. the term margin means “one more unit”. then the marginal cost is just the slope of the cost function.000 So the marginal cost is $20.000. The marginal revenue is $70. which means the same thing. Instead of saying “cost at the margin” you’ll often see the phrase “marginal cost”. If the cost function is linear.

How does slope behave for the Demand function? Consistently −. .

How does slope behave for the Supply function? Consistently +. .

The Equilibrium point is where the supply and demand curves meet: that is where the price and quantity are stable. On the vertical line. producers are depressed: not selling enough. producers are manic: not producing enough At the equilibrium point. . On the horizontal line. producers are perfectly content.

000.000 Supply: q(100) = 100. Solution: (a) Demand: q(100) = 50.000 − 500p = q = 1000p 120.000 = 1500p p = 80 At that price. . 000 Price is too high.1. q = 1000 · 80 = 80.4 #26 Demand: q = 120.000 − 500p Supply: q = 1000p (a) What happens at a price of $100 per unit? (b) Find the equilibrium point. (b) 120.

So they tax the pipe company $5 per pipe.Suppose the company is selling pipes. (This is called a speciﬁc tax. which the government wants to discourage.) How do things change? .

000 − 500p Supply: q = 1000(p − 5) = 1000p − 5000 Equilibrium: 120.33 − 5000 = 78.33 At that price. q = 1000 · 83. .000 − 500p = q = 1000p − 5000 125.000 and p = 80 New equations: Demand: q = 120.Old equations: Demand: q = 120.000 = 1500p p = $83.000 − 500p Supply: q = 1000p Equilibrium: q = 80.333.

.30 · 130 = $169. you’ll owe the $130 plus an extra 30%: 130 + 0. Every month you owe 1. . . Suppose you owe $100 to a loan shark who charges 30% interest per month. debt. x debt y $100 $100 · 1.3 times what you owed the month before.33 = $219. month x 0 1 2 3 . The month after that.3x .You’ve probably heard about quantities that grow exponentially. For example.3 = $130 $100 · 1. $100 · 1. .32 = $169 $100 · 1. If you don’t pay anything back.70 .30 · 130 = 1. next month you’ll owe $130.

Exponentially functions grow extremely quickly: because the slope is continually getting steeper.324 =$54. Population: people beget people.So the formula for debt y as a function of time in months x is y = 100 · 1. This called an exponential function because the input is plugged into an exponent.08. . Mistakes: errors beget further errors. 2. Technology: inventions beget new inventions. you will owe 100 · 1. Other things that grow exponentially: 1.280. 3.3x . When x = 24.

Some things decay exponentially: The more you have. Radioactive elements. 1. Chemicals. 3. Endangered species. the more there is to be lost. and may never quite happen. Constantly decreasing. 2. . but at a slowing rate: slope is continually getting less steep. It can take a very long time for the level to reach 0.

about 36% of the original forest remains after 35 years. So.029(last year) = .1.357F .9% per year. Let x be the time in years from the start.971x F so that after 35 years y = 0. How much existing forest will remain in 35 years? Solution: Every year the amount of forest remaining is 2.5 #20 Deforestation occurs at a rate of about 2. .971. and let y be the amount of forest remaining.97135 F = .9% less than it was the year before: this year = (last year) − . And suppose the amount of forest at the start is F .971(last year) So the base of the exponential will be . Then y = 0.

In general exponential functions have formulas like this: P = P0 a t . The constant a represents the ratio between values of P at successive moments of time. Here P is an exponential function of t. So a represents the growth or decay rate. that is. the value P takes when time t = 0: P0 = P(0). . And P0 is the initial value of P. which is usually time.

Solution: P = 8000 · 1.Growth Example A town’s population is currently 8000 and is growing at a rate of 1% per year.01t Decay Example A town’s population is currently 8000 and is falling at a rate of 2% per year. Express the population P as a function of time t from the present.98t . Express the population P as a function of time t from the present. Solution: P = 8000 · 0.

.

98t .A funny thing about bases.718281828459045. This is actually equivalent.02020270731751947 )t = 0. So rather than write 0. They call this base e. because e−. so e−. namely 2. If k had been +.02020270731751947 is usually referred to as the decay rate. they prefer to write e−. we would call it the growth rate.98t .. Mathematicians have a favorite base. .02020270731751947t .02020270731751947 = 0.. This number −.98.02020270731751947t = (e−.

Remember the CarCrusher and Uncrusher functions? Car Crusher Function UnCrusher Function .

Replace “CarCrusher” by “exponential” function and “UnCrusher” by “logarithmic”: .

.08553692318767. that is 3 −→ exponential −→ 20.08553692318767. that is ln(20. So the exponential and logarithmic functions simply undo each other. For any x and a > 0.So for example.08553692318767) = 3. then 20. if e3 = 20.08553692318767 −→ logarithmic −→ 3. a = ex ⇐⇒ ln(a) = x.

2. 3. Because e0 = 1. Because ex ey = ex+y . ln(1) = 0. Because e1 = e. ln(ab) = ln(a) + ln(b). Because (ex )y = exy . ln(ay ) = y ln(a).For any x and a > 0. Properties of ln: 1. . ln(e) = 1. a = ex ⇐⇒ ln(a) = x. (a = ex ) 4.

Solution: ln(.0202 = = = = ln(ekt ) ktln(e) kt k .98) − .Example: Find the number k such that .98t = ekt .98t ) tln(.0202t − .

using base e.1133 = k = So P(t) = 35.12) = 0.000.12 · 35.000 35. 1.01133 .000 = 1.12 · 35.000e10k e10k 10kln(e) 10k · 1 0. Now use the known growth data to ﬁnd the growth rate k: P(10) = = 1. Express the population as a function of time.Example Suppose a population is initially 35.000e10k 35.000e0. We also know that P0 = 35.000 and grows 12% in 10 years.01133t . Solution: We know the general form of the exponential function: P(t) = P0 ekt .12 = ln(1.

In an exponential growth problem. the doubling time is the time required for the population to double.02 . How long does the population take to double in size? Solution: P = P0 e0.02t When is P = 2P0 ? 2P0 = P0 e0. This does not depend on the initial population! Example Suppose a population is initially P0 and has a growth constant of 0.66 0.02t 2 = e0.02.02t ln(2) = 0.02t ln(2) t = = 34.

051 13. 1 We know that Q = 2 Q0 when t = 13.6 2 . Example: An isotope of Cadmium has a half-life of 13.6k = 13. How long will it take for 99% of the original quantity to decay? Solution: We know the equation looks like Q = Q0 ekt First we need to ﬁgure out k.6k = e13. the time it takes for the quantity to be reduced to half the initial size.The corresponding concept for exponential decay is half-life.6 years. 1 2 Q0 1 2 ln( 1 ) 2 = Q0 e13.6 years.6k 1 k = ln( 1 ) = −0.

How long will it take for 99% of the original quantity to decay? Solution: So now we have this: Q = Q0 e−0.051 So it will take 90. We want to know at what time t the quantity Q will have been reduced to 0.01Q0 .Example: An isotope of Cadmium has a half-life of 13.01 = e−0.051t ln(0.051t 1 t = − ln(0.01) = −0. .01Q0 = Q0 e−0.051t .3 years.01) = 90.6 years.3 0. 0.051t 0.

02 = 1. if the interest rate the initial deposit the number of years elapsed and the balance after t years then B = B0 (1 + r )t . = = = = r % APY B0 t B .02)t .02. In general. Every year your balance grows by a factor of 1 + 0. So after t years your balance has grown to 1000(1.Suppose you deposit $1000 in a savings account at an interest rate of 2% APY (annual percentage yield).

..02t 2 = 1.03)20 = $1806. B(20) = 1000(1 + 0. 2B0 = B0 · 1. . Example: How much will $1000 grow to over 20 years under.. 1.02) ln(2) t = = 35 ln(1.B = B0 (1 + r )t . B(20) = 1000(1 + 0.03t .95 2.11 Doubling times: 1...02) 2.. .02t ln(2) = tln(1.3% APY? Calculate the doubling times under these two conditions.2% APY? 2. Solution: 1. 2B0 = B0 · 1.02)20 = $1485.

We say that the future value of $1000 now is $1806. These are just two diﬀerent ways of saying the same thing. If we let P be the present value. This gives us B in terms of P.Now we’ll look at interest from a slightly diﬀerent perspective. We can also say that the present value of $1806. (1 + r )t . B = P0 . then B = P(1 + r )t . i.11.11 in the future is $1000. We saw in the previous problem that $1000 invested at 3% APY for 20 years yields $1806. If we want P in terms of B we can rearrange the equation: P= B .11.e.

Present and Future Value B = P(1 + r )t P = Where t r P B = = = = time interest rate (APY) present value future value B (1 + r )t = B(1 + r )−t . .

1.7 #34 Assume an interest rate of 7.000 now Taxes: $580 in 1 year $464 in 2 years $290 in 3 years Sell: $5000 in 3 years Nominal Cost: $8334 Versus: Lease: $2650 now $2650 in 1 year $2650 in 2 years $2650 in 3 years Nominal Cost: $10. .75% APY.600 Which deal is better? Solution: Compute the present value of each to compare. Buy: $12.

0775)3 = $9510.0775) (1.23 .0775) (1.0775) (1.600 Compute present value of the costs with r = 7. Total Cost = 2650 2650 2650 2650 + + + 0 1 2 (1.Lease: $2650 now $2650 in 1 year $2650 in 2 years $2650 in 3 years Nominal Cost: $10.75% using P= B (1 + r )t = B(1 + r )−t .

0775)3 − 5000 (1.0775) (1. Total Cost = 12.0775)3 = $9149.68 Conclusion: Buying is still cheaper than leasing.0775) (1.000 580 464 290 + + + 0 1 2 (1.Buy: $12.75%.000 now Taxes: $580 in 1 year $464 in 2 years $290 in 3 years Sell: $5000 in 3 years Nominal Cost: $8334 Compute present value of the cost with r = 7. .0775) (1.

if r is the nominal annual interest rate. So we get the formula P = P0 (1 + . If t is number of years. So after k quarters your account has grown to 1000(1 + 0. In general. where t = time in years. and n is the number of compounding periods.Suppose you deposit $1000 in the bank at 2% interest compounded quarterly.5% interest every quarter (3 4 months).005)4t . That means you are paid 2 = 0. then k = 4t. then the formula is r B = P(1 + n )nt . .005)k .

41 . n = 1: B = 100(1 + B = 100(1 + .Compound Interest r B = P(1 + n )nt t = time in years n = # compounding periods per year Example: Suppose you deposit $100 in a savings account at 2% nominal interest.02 1·1 1 ) .021 = 102 = 100 · 1. Solution: Yearly Compounding.025 = 110. and daily compounding. Compute the future balance at 1 and 5 years under yearly.02 1·5 1 ) = 100 · 1. quarterly.

02 4·5 4 ) = 100 · 1.015 = 100 · 1.00520 = 110.0054 = 102.02 4·1 4 ) .02 365·5 365 ) = 100 · 1.00005479365 = 102.Compound Interest r B = P(1 + n )t t = time in years n = # compounding periods per year Quarterly Compounding.000054791825 = 110. n = 365: B = 100(1 + B = 100(1 + .02 365·1 365 ) . n = 4: B = 100(1 + B = 100(1 + .49 Daily Compounding.52 .02 = 100 · 1.

02 3.0000023418760 = 102. Hourly Compounding.02 2. n = 8760: B = 100(1 + .02 525600·1 525600 ) = 100 · 1. n = 525600: B = 100(1 + . n = 365: B = 100(1 + .02 365·1 365 ) = 100 · 1.02 .02 8760·1 8760 ) = 100 · 1.00000003805175525600 = 102.00005479365 = 102. Daily Compounding.Compound Interest r B = P(1 + n )t t = time in years n = # compounding periods per year What happens as the number of compounding periods gets greater? 1. Per Minute Compounding.

we’ll just say that n= . So we can deﬁne continuous compounding to mean compounding when n is large. Since the particular value of n doesn’t matter.Moral: For large n the results are all nearly the same.02 = $102. So if you invest $100 in a savings account at 2% nominal interest compounded continuously. . after one year your balance has grown to 100 1 + 0.02.

.One year continuous interest growth factor for nominal rate r : r 1+ . .. If the initial deposit is P. then the future value B after one year is: r B=P 1+ . This growth factor is an interesting function.

r . .Another big number is . Suppose that = then =r .

Substituting =r into the growth factor r 1+ gives 1+ 1 r .

Notice that the expression in [ ]’s is a constant. . Evaluate it on your calculator: 1 1+ = 2..71828..So the growth factor can also be written r 1+ 1 .

So if the money is invested for t years.Remember that number? It’s mathemticians’ favorite base. B = P(er )t = Per t . and the one year continuous interest formula is B = Per .. . B = Per er er . So the growth factor is er .. e. What happens if you wait longer than one year? You multiply by the growth factor once for each year.

Example: Suppose $1500 is invested at 3% interest compounded continuously. the initial investment.18 .03·20 = $2733. What is the balance after 20 years? Solution: B = 1500e0. the balance after t years. the nominal interest rate.Continuous Compounding Formula B = Per t where t r P B is is is is time in years.

Because every y -value has been increased by 1. f (2) = 4 while you want it to be 5. Example: Suppose you have a function f that has the shape you want. we call g a vertical shift of f . but g (2) = 5. Same shape.. .Recycling functions: Functions can be modiﬁed to get the behavior you want. Solution: Deﬁne a new function g (x) = f (x) + 1.. but.

This might be f : Then this would be g : .

There’s another way to get almost the same eﬀect. Deﬁne 5 h(x) = f (x). 4 Then 5 5 h(2) = f (2) = 4 = 5. 4 4 The graph of h is almost the same shape as the graph of f . it’s just been stretched vertically. .

like 1 or 5 . if C is − then the shift is down. Vertical Stretch: if if if if |C | > 1 |C | < 1 C is + C is − then then then then the the the the stretch is out (expands).So know we know how to vertically shift and stretch functions. Vertical Shift Vertical Stretch g =f +C g = Cf In both forumulas C is a constant. stretch is in (shrinks). 4 Vertical Shift: if C is + then the shift is up. stretch preserves orientation. . shift reverses orientation.

formula: C > 0: C < 0: |C | > 1: |C | < 1: Examples: f (x) Vertical Shift g =f +C up down Vertical Stretch g = Cf rightside-up upside-down expand shrink f (x) + 2 f (x) f (x) − 2 .

. f (g (x)) This produces a new function we’ll call h.. The functions f and g have been composed to form h.sometimes they get intimate. h(x) = f (g (x)) Mathematicians call this composition of functions..Sexual Reproduction of Functions When two functions are alone together. g (x) . f (x) ..

.Composition is what geeks mean by daisy-chaining.

Find h(4). . Solution: h(4) = f (g (4)) = f (19) = 41 g (x) = 5x − 1. and h(x) = f (g (x)).Composition of Functions input −→ g −→ f −→ output output = f (g (input)) y = f (g (x)) Example: f (x) = 2x + 3.

Solution: h(x) = f (g (x)) = f (5x −1) = 2(5x −1)+3 = 10x −2+3 = 10x +1 g (x) = 5x − 1. Find h(x). and h(x) = f (g (x)). .Composition of Functions input −→ g −→ f −→ output output = f (g (input)) y = f (g (x)) Example: f (x) = 2x + 3.

Composition of Functions input −→ f −→ g −→ output output = g (f (input)) y = g (f (x)) Example: f (x) = 2x + 3. . Find h(4). and h(x) = g (f (x)). Solution: h(x) = g (f (4)) = g (11) = 54 g (x) = 5x − 1.

and h(x) = g (f (x)). Find h(x).Composition of Functions input −→ f −→ g −→ output output = g (f (input)) y = g (f (x)) Example: f (x) = 2x + 3. Solution: h(x) = g (f (x)) = g (2x + 3) = 5(2x + 3) − 1 = 10x + 14 g (x) = 5x − 1. .

The shape of the graph of f (g (x)) can be hard to predict. Example: f (x): g (x):

f (g (x)):

g (f (x)):

The only time it’s easy to predict the shape of f (g (x)) is when g is a linear function. Example: f = , g (x) = x + 1.

What is the graph of f (g (x))? Notice that g is a shift applied to the simple function y = x. But the output of g is the input of f . So it’s the x values of f that are changed, not the y values.

Note the shift is to the left.

Note the shift is to the left. To remember the direction of the shift, think: f (x + 1) is 1 unit ahead of f (x) (when reading from left to right). f (x − 1) is 1 unit behind f (x), so it’s graph is

You can also do horizontal stretches: f (C x). As with shifts, directions are reversed in comparison with vertical stretches: f (x) f (2x)

f (x)

f ( 1 x) 2

formula: C > 0: C < 0: |C | > 1: |C | < 1: Horizontal Shift g (x) = f (x + C ) left right Horizontal Stretch g (x) = f (C x) usual orientation mirror orientation shrink expand .

Example: h(x) = x 2 ex Solution: h(x) = g (x)f (x) Example: h(x) = ex 2 Solution: h(x) = f (g (x)) Example: h(x) = e2x Solution: h(x) = g (f (x)) g (f (x)) = g (ex ) = (ex )2 = e2x . Example: h(x) = ex + x 2 If we deﬁne f (x) = ex and g (x) = x 2 then h(x) = f (x) + g (x).In calculus it will useful to able to decompose complicated functions into their simpler constituent parts.

4)? Solution: The input 3.20(19 − 7) = 7 + 0. What is f (3.Proportionality Recall the predictability of linear functions: Example: Suppose f is linear and f (3) = 7 and f (5) = 19.4 = 9. Therefore f (3. So rise is always 6 times bigger than run. Rise is a % of 19 − 7 = 12.4 The rise and the run are proportional: they are each the same % of something.4 is 20% of the way from 3 to 5.20 · 12 = 7 + 2.4) is 20% of the way from 7 to 19. Run is a % of 5 − 3 = 2. f (3. rise = 6 · run .4) = 7 + 0.

Gas consumed and miles driven. .) 2. (At least for constant speed.Whenever variables x and y are related by y = kx for some constant k. Examples: 1. 4. we say that y is directly proportional to x with constant of proportionality k. Force of a spring and its displacement (stretch). Population and food consumption. (AC) 3. Temperature and power consumption.

How much would it stretch with a 1.Example: A spring in free equilibrium is 3 inches long. 1. We know that y = 2 when x = 4.5 pound weight? 2. When stretched with a 2 pound weight it stretches to 7 inches. How much weight would be necessary to stretch it to 8 inches? Solution: Let x be displacement and y be the weight.5 4 . 2 = k4 k = 2 = 0. The y = kx for some constant k.

So you would need to use 2. When x = 8 − 3 = 5. How much weight would be necessary to stretch it to 8 inches? 1. When y = 1.5. y = 0. 2. How much would it stretch with a 1.5 = 0.5 pounds.5 pound weight? 2.1.5x ⇒ x= 1. .5 · 5 = 2.5 0.5 = 3. So the spring would stretch to 3 + 3 = 6 inches. 1.5.

$50. or we can say that the value per share is inversely proportional to the number of shares. let y be the value per share. x x We can say that the value per share is directly proportional to the inverse of the number of shares.000 value per share = 1. Then each share is worth (nominally) $50.000 = $50 Let x be the number of shares issued.000.000.000. and let k be the total value of the company.000 and has issued 1.Stocks Suppose a company is worth $50. .000 shares of stock. Then y= 1 k =k .000.

8 . What would y be when x = 16? When x = 8? Solution: First ﬁnd k: 20 = k 12 240 = k Then when x = 16. and y = 20 when x = 12. y= 240 = 15. y= and when x = 8.Example: Suppose that y is inversely proportional to x. 16 240 = 30.

Force is a power function of the inverse of the distance. 1 F =G r2 3. We can describe this in three diﬀerent ways. and r is the distance between them. 2. Force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. F =G 1 r 2 .Gravity If F is the gravitational force between two bodies. 1. Force is directly proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance. then F = G r2 where G is the gravitational constant.

If F = then we can say: F is a power function of F =G or 1 r 2 G r2 1 r F is a power function of r F = G r −2 . .Power Functions We say that y is a power function of x if y = kx p where k is the constant of proportionality and p is another constant.

y = x2 4 2 1 x2 0 -2 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 y = x −2 4 2 0 x 1 2 3 4 1/x2 0 . Power functions are the third simplest kinds of functions. But there’s quite a variety of shapes.√ If y = 5 x then y is a power function of x: y = 5x 2 .

ex 2 . Examples: 2x 3 . .Polynomials A monomial is a power function whose power is a whole number. Examples: 3x 2 − 4x + 1 5 − 4x + 3x 2 − 9x 3 + 2x 4 (x − 3)(2x + 5) = 2x 2 − x − 15 √ 3x 2 − e /2 x + π 1 The highest power of the variable is called the degree of the polynomial. A polynomial is a sum of monomials. 17x 12 .

Graphs of Polynomials The number of bumps can be as large as the degree. y = 1 (x 3 − 3x) 3 4 2 (x3-3*x)/3 0 -2 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 y= 4 1 4 12 (3 x 0 x 1 2 3 4 + 4 x3 − 12 x 2 ) 2 . The graphs of polynomials can look like virtually anything.

1.000 − 700p R = 3000p − 20p 2 120000 Revenue Cost 100000 80000 60000 $ .000 − 700p p(3000 − 20p) = 3000p − 20p 2 (Demand) R = (b) C = 115.000 + 35q R = pq q = 3000 − 20p (a) C = 10.000 + 35(3000 − 20p) = 115.9 #38: C = 10.

.411 Remember these equations? 1 e = 1+ er Unprofessional looking.. = 1+ r .

**Let’s go back to using n for the gigantic number. e = 1+ 1 n
**

n

**But we need a reminder this is valid only if the value n is gigantic. e = If
**

n→∞

1+

1 n

n

Read the → as “approaches”. The answer is more reliable for bigger values of n. There’s just one hitch...

e =

If

n→∞

1+

1 n

n

**This works ﬁne for the present expression f (n) = 1 1+ n
**

n

3

2.5

2 (1+1/n)n

1.5

1

0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 n 60 70 80 90 100

But what about other functions?

**Suppose that f is this function:
**

1.5 1

0.5

n

(1+1/n)

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5 10 20 30 40 50 n 60 70 80 90 100

What is

n→∞

If f (n) = ?

We say in this case that f (n) has no limit as n → ∞. For the previous function the limit was e.

Since we need the limits to exist. . n Thus lim n→∞ 1+ 1+ 1 n r n = e n lim n→∞ = er . we will write n→∞ lim f (n).

Consider some other limits. lim x→∞ 1 x 3+ 1 x = 0 lim x→∞ = 3 lim x→∞ 1 x +3 x x +3 x +5 x +3 x x2 + 3 = 0 lim x→∞ = 1 lim x→∞ = 1 lim x→∞ = 0 .

lim x→∞ x −x x2 x2 + x x2 − x x 2 − 100x = ∞ = −∞ lim x→∞ lim x→∞ = ∞ = ∞ = ∞ = ∞ −∞ lim x→∞ lim x→∞ lim x→∞ lim x→∞ 100x − x 2 = .

We get the following rule: If f is a polynomial. For example. By leading term we mean the term of the highest degree (power). lim x→∞ 3x 5 − 100x 4 − 90x 3 + 7x 2 + 3x − 1 = ∞ lim x→∞ −3x 5 + 100x 4 − 90x 3 + 7x 2 + 3x − 1 = −∞. then x→∞ lim f (x) = ±∞ where the sign is the same as that of the leading term in f . .

ex By comparison.These two are easy: lim x→∞ ex = ∞ lim x→∞ ln(x) = ∞. ex+1 = e = 2. x5 . x 5 hardly seems to grow at all: (x + 1)5 → 1.718. But this one is tricky: lim x→∞ ex − x 5 = ? Key: ex more than doubles on every step to the right.

So ex consistently outgrows x 5 . . and therefore lim x→∞ ex − x 5 x 5 − ex x5 ex ex x5 = ∞ = −∞ lim x→∞ lim x→∞ = 0 lim x→∞ = ∞ The same is true when you replace x 5 by any polynomial: lim x→∞ ex 100x 7 − 3x 4 + 25x 3 − 2 = ∞.

The opposite is true for ln. 100 %e log(x) x 80 60 y 40 20 0 0 20 40 x 60 80 100 lim x→∞ ln(x) − x 5 x 5 − ln(x) x5 ln(x) = −∞ lim x→∞ = ∞ lim x→∞ = ∞ .

You can take limits as x → anything. lim x→−∞ 100x 7 + 3x 4 + 25x 3 − 2 100x 7 + 3x 4 + 25x 3 − 2 1 x = = = −∞ −2 ±∞ lim x→0 lim x→0 4 2 1/x 0 -2 -4 -4 -2 0 x 2 4 . not just ∞.

lim x→0 1 x +2 1 x +2 1 x +2 x +1 x +2 x +1 x +2 x +2 x +2 = 1 2 lim x→−2 = ±∞ 1 4 3 4 lim x→2 = = lim x→2 lim x→−2 = ±∞ lim x→−2 = 1 .

x +2 lim x→−2 x 2 + 3x + 2 x +2 = −1 .lim x→−2 x +2 x +2 (x + 2)2 x +2 = 1 lim x→−2 = 0 Because (x + 2)2 = x + 2. x +2 lim x→−2 (x + 2)(x + 1) x +2 = −1 Because (x + 2)(x + 1) = x + 1.

lim x→0 x 2 + 3x x = 3 Because x 2 + 3x = x + 3. x lim x→0 5x 2 − 4x x 5x 3 − 4x 2 x 5x 3 − 4x 2 + 7x x 5x 3 − 4x 2 + 7x + 1 x = −4 lim x→0 = 0 lim x→0 = 7 lim x→0 = ±∞ .

5 .5 and 1. “Instantaneous Slope”.5.Instantaneous Rate of Change Or. The slope at the point x = 1.5 2 1.5 0. 2. 1). 0 0.5 x 1 1.5 1 Not the average slope between 0 and 2 or between .5 0 -0. Problem: Find the slope of the function f (x) = x 2 at the point (1.

5 1 1.What we want is the slope of the tangent line.5 2 1.5 How do we calculate that? .5 y 1 0. 2.5 0 -1 -0.5 0 x 0.

We can use average slope to get a pretty good approximation of instantaneous slope.5 x 5 2 2.5 3 4 .5 1 1. 5 4 3 y 2 1 0 0.

and a → 1.5 3 1 0 The average slope is Average Slope = a2 − 1 .Instantaneous Slope = lim (Average Slope) Let’s use this to compute the slope of the tangent line.5 1 1.5 x 2 2. a−1 . 1) and (a. 5 4 3 y 2 Here the two points used for the average slope are (1. 0. a2 ).

Average Slope = We want the limit as a → 1: lim a→1 a2 − 1 . . a−1 a2 − 1 a−1 (a − 1)(a + 1) a−1 (a + 1) =2 = lim = lim a→1 a→1 You can use this technique to calculate the instantaneous slope anywhere on the parabola.

And we take the limit as h → 0. . Then a = 1 + h. lim h→0 (1 + h)2 − 1 (1 + h) − 1 1 + 2h + h2 − 1 h 2h + h2 h (2 + h) =2 = lim h→0 = = lim h→0 lim h→0 This style is used more generally than the previous one. Let’s use h to represent the distance of the second point from the ﬁrst.Here’s another way to do the algebra.

the slope of the tangent line). Note that the derivative is also a function: its values depend on the input x. we get g (x) = m for all x. For a linear function g with slope m. So for the previous function. In other words. . if g (x) = 4x − 6 then g (1) = 4 = g (2) = g (19). f (5) is probably something completely diﬀerent. f (1) = 2.The derivative of a function is the value of the instantaneous slope (or equivalently. Shorthand notation: the derivative of f can be denoted f . the value of the derivative varies from point to point. For example.

To warm up let’s compute f (3).Let’s ﬁnd a general formula for the derivative of f (x) = x 2 . The two points used in the average slope are (3. (3 + h)2 . now we’d like to know f (x) =?. f (3) = lim h→0 (3 + h)2 − 9 (3 + h) − 3 9 + 6h + h2 − 9 h 6h + h2 h (6 + h) =6 = lim h→0 = = lim h→0 lim h→0 . We know that f (1) = 2. 9) and 3 + h.

x 2 ) and x + h. The two points used in the average slope are (x. f (x) = lim h→0 (x + h)2 − x 2 (x + h) − x x 2 + 2xh + h2 − x 2 h 2xh + h2 h (2x + h) = 2x = lim h→0 = = So f (x) = 2x.So now we know that f (1) = 2 and f (3) = 6. (x + h)2 . lim h→0 lim h→0 . Let’s repeat the calculation for x instead of 1 or 3.

y -2 -1.5 2 x . More generally.4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 f f’ In fact the derivative of any quadratic function is linear.5 0 0. Note that f slopes up because f is concave up. the derivative of a polynomial is always simpler (lower degree) than the original.5 -1 -0.5 1 1.

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