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Glossary Chapter 8 “How Cells Use Energy”

Chapter 8
acetyl-CoA Coenzyme A attached to a two-carbon fragment from pyruvate, which it
transfers to oxaloacetate for the Krebs cycle.
aerobic respiration Oxygen-requiring pathway of ATP formation; from glycolysis, to Krebs cycle, to
electron transfer phosphorylation. Typical net energy yield: 36 ATP per glucose
molecule.
alcoholic Anaerobic ATP-forming pathway. Pyruvate from glycolysis is degraded to
fermentation acetaldehyde, which accepts electrons from NADH to form ethanol; NAD+
needed for the reactions is regenerated. Net yield: 2 ATP.
anaerobic electron Flow of electrons through transfer chains in plasma membrane that drives ATP
transfer formation. A compound other than oxygen is the final electron acceptor.
electron transfer Last stage of ATP formation by aerobic respiration; uses the hydrogen and
phosphorylation electrons that many reduced coenzymes deliver to electron transfer chains.
FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide, a type of nucleotide coenzyme; it transfers
electrons and unbound protons (H+) between reaction sites. At such times it is
abbreviated FADH2.
glycolysis Breakdown of glucose or another organic compound to two pyruvate
molecules. First stage of aerobic respiration, fermentation, and anaerobic
electron transfer. Oxygen has no role in glycolysis, which occurs in the
cytoplasm of all cells. Two NADH form. Net yield: 2 ATP per glucose molecule.
Krebs cycle A stage of aerobic respiration, in mitochondria only; it (and a few preparatory
steps) breaks down pyruvate to CO2 and H2O. Many coenzymes accept
protons (H+) and electrons from intermediates and deliver them to the next
stage of reactions; 2 ATP form.

lactate fermentation An anaerobic pathway of ATP formation. Pyruvate from glycolysis is


converted to three-carbon lactate, and NAD+ is regenerated. Net energy
yield: 2 ATP.
mitochondrion Double-membrane organelle of ATP formation. Only site of aerobic
respiration's second and third stages. May have endosymbiotic origins.
NAD+ A nucleotide coenzyme can pick up and carry electrons and H+ to a reaction
site.
oxaloacetate A fourcarbon compound with roles in metabolism (e.g., the point of entry into
the Krebs cycle).
pyruvate Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules
form as end products of glycolysis.
substrate-level The direct, enzyme-mediated transfer of a phosphate group from a substrate
phosphorylation to a molecule, as when an intermediate of glycolysis is made to give up a
phosphate group to ADP, forming ATP.