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# DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING UNIT I

## TWO MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

1. Define virtual short. The differential input voltage Vd between the non-inverting and inverting input terminals is essentially zero and the input current of the op-amp is always zero. 2. What is differential amplifier? The differential amplifier amplifies the difference between two input voltage signals. 3. Define slew rate. The maximum rate of change of output voltage with respect to time is called slew rate of op-amp. The slew rate equation is, S=2fVm in V/Sec (Or) The slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage caused by a step input voltage and is usually specified in V/s. Slew rate of 741 IC is 0.5V/S. 4. Define log- antilog amplifiers. A logarithmic amplifier is one which gives an output equal to the logarithm of the input and Anti log Amp does the reverse operation. One operation can be that, these Log and Antilog amps can be used for making multipliers. 5. Differentiate Average & peak detector. It is sometimes necessary to measure the maximum positive excursion (peak value) or negative excursion (valley value) of a waveform over a given time period. There may also be a requirement to capture and hold some maximum value of a positive or negative pulse. A circuit that performs this function is a peak detector.

## An op amp acts as an Integrator a differentiator

An op amp acts as

## Full wave rectifier using

Precision diode is the diode which is placed in the feedback loop of an op-amp which is capable of rectifying input signals of the order of mill volts. (Or) The major limitation of ordinary diode is that it cannot rectify voltages below the cut in voltage of the diode. A circuit designed by placing a diode in the feedback loop of an op amp is called the precision diode and it is capable of rectifying input signals of the order of mill volts.

## DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

9. Define V to I converter. The output load current is proportional to the input voltage. 10. Define I to V converter. The output voltage is proportional to the input current. 11. List the important characteristics of an ideal op-amp. Characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier: S.N O 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Characteristics Open loop voltage gain Input impedance Output impedance Zero offset voltage Band width CMMR Slew rate Power Supply Rejection Ratio Symb ol AOL Ri Ro Vo BW S PSRR Values (infinity) (infinity) 0 (zero) 0 (zero) (infinity) (infinity) (infinity) 0 (zero)

12. Define CMRR and PSRR. Definition of CMRR: The relative sensitivity of an op-amp to a difference signal as compared to a common mode signal is called the common mode rejection ratio. It is expressed in decibels. CMRR= Ad/Ac (Or)

## DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) is defined as the ratio of difference mode gain to common mode gain. Its ideal value is infinity, and it is given by, CMRR = | Ad| / |Ac| Where, Ad is difference mode gain and Ac is common mode gain. Definition of PSRR: Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) is defined as the change in opamps input offset voltage due to variations in supply voltage. It is expressed in microvolt per volt or in db. (Or) PSSR is Power Supply Rejection Ratio. It is defined as the change in the input offset voltage due to the change in one of the two supply voltages when other voltage is maintained constant. Its ideal value should be zero. 13. What is hysteresis? The graph indicates that once the output changes its state, it remains there indefinitely until the input voltage crosses any of the threshold voltage levels. This is called hysteresis of Schmitt trigger. The hysteresis is also called dead band or dead zone. 14. Draw the circuit diagram of monostable vibrator.

## V.M.K.V ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 15. What is meant by filters? What are the types? Filter is a frequency selective circuit that passes signal of specified band of frequencies and attenuates the signals of frequencies outside the band. Based on functions: Low pass filter, High pass filter, Band pass filter, Band reject filter Based on order of transfer function: first, second, third higher order filters. Based on configuration: Bessel, Chebychev, Butterworth filters.

16. Write short notes on instrumentation amplifier? In a number of industrial and consumer applications, the measurement of physical quantities is usually done with the help of transducers. The output of transducer has to be amplified So that it can drive the indicator or display system. This function is performed by an instrumentation amplifier. 17. What is Peak detector? A peak detector is circuits which notes and remember the peak positive or negative value of an input signal for an infinite period of time until it is rest. 18. Draw the circuit diagram of triangular generator.

## V.M.K.V ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 19. Give the application of op-amp. linear applications of op amps : Adder, subtractor, voltage to- current converter, current to- voltage converters, instrumentation amplifier, analog computation, power amplifier, etc are some of the linear op-amp circuits. Non linear applications of op-amps:Rectifier, peak detector, clipper, clamper, sample and hold circuit, log amplifier, anti log amplifier, multiplier are some of the non linear opamp circuits. 20. Write short notes on Schmitt trigger? Schmitt trigger is a regenerative comparator. It converts sinusoidal input into a square wave output. The output of Schmitt trigger swings between upper and lower threshold voltages, which are the reference voltages of the input waveform. (Or) Schmitt trigger is an inverting comparator with positive feedback. It converts an irregular-shaped waveform to a square wave or pulse, and is called as squaring circuit.