1. CONTINOUS PRODUCTION SYSTEM  Simpler than intermittent production  Highly standardized goods and services  Used by many manufacturing industries  Concept of constant production (Without breaking or interrupting)  Mostly used in oil and other chemical plants
 Maintenance is very important in this concept because if

production stops it affects both up and down in the supply line  Great deal of investment into machinery and process design

A. Mass production:  Also called as repetitive flow, series production or serial production  Dealing with large amount of specialized products
 Creation of many products in a short period of time using time-

saving techniques such as assembly line and specialization
 It allows a manufacturer to produce more per worker-hour, and

to lower the labor cost of the end product.  This in turn allows the product to be sold for a lower cost  One hand to another hand, necessary tools required for worker to worker

B. Process production:  Three main parts in process production is input, transaction process and output  Business create products and services is called process planning  Needs and wants of the customer(correct product, shortest time, best quality at a competitive price)
 Single raw material is transformed into different kinds of

products at different stages of process planning  Two types of process planning: (a) analytical process, (b) synthetic process  Analytical process: breaking raw material to manufacture different parts to get different outputs
 Synthetic process: mixing of two or more material to

manufacture a product C. ASSEMBLY LINE:  Manufacturing process  Parts are added to the product to create a finished goods  Each movement of material is made as simple and short as possible, with no cross flow or background

2. INTERMITTENT PRODUCTION:  Goods manufacture to fulfill the orders placed by the consumers  Inputs may be processed in any specific sequence of operations  Production system model can be made to fit  Number of operations may vary from one to any finite number  Storage occur between all operations and time in storage may vary from essentially negligible to any finite amount

A. JOB PRODUCTION  Associated with small firms  Making specific product for specific control  Work is generally high quality  Higher cost of production
 Require to use specialized labor

 Very slow production  One – off products  Products altered to the specific customers  It creates a unique selling point (USP)  Expensive process

B. BATCH PRODUCTION:  Works of previous batch is completed to take new batch process
 Suppose stopping in-between is called down time

 Require careful planning  Batch is in production it is different to change, as switching to another batch takes time and will mean less of output

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