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PART I: INTRODUCTION A. Definition Microsoft Excel for Windows is a powerful spreadsheet application that you can use for charting, managing and analyzing your data. Microsoft Excel provides the automated business tools you need for your data analysis, list keeping, and calculations as well as the presentation tools you need for reporting your results. Worksheets. You can store, manipulate, calculate and analyze data such as numbers, text and formulas on a worksheet. You can add graphic elements such as lines, rectangles, text boxes and buttons to your worksheets, macro sheets and charts. You can use redefined formats to create tables. Databases. You can conveniently sort, search and manage a large amount of information on a worksheet, using standard database operations. Charts. You can quickly present your worksheet data visually in a chart. In addition to choosing from the many built-in variations of two-dimensional (2-d) and three dimensional (3-d) chart types, you can customize any chart to appear the way you want. Presentations. You can use cell styles, drawing tools, chart gallery and table format to create high-quality presentations. You can display these directly on the screen or print them. Macros. You can automate frequently performed tasks, perform specialized calculations and customize Microsoft Excel by creating and storing your own macros. B. Starting Microsoft Excel 97 Microsoft Excel 97 for Windows must run on a Window-based environment.

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Double-click on the Microsoft Excel 97 icon or click on: START PROGRAMS MICROSOFT EXCEL PART II: MOVING AROUND THE SCREEN In order for you to use Microsoft Excel 97 for Windows effectively, you need to know how to move around the screen. Given below are the basic screen action.
To Do This

Scroll through a Window Change the size of the window Enlarge a windows to fill the screen Shrink a window to an icon Restore a window to its previous size

Click the scroll bars or drag scroll box Drag any of the window edges or corners Double-click the title bar or click the maximize button Click the minimize button Click the restore button

Microsoft Excel 97 Screen Format
Title Bar Menu Bar

Control Button

Standard Toolbar Cell Reference Active Cell Formula Bar Column Heading

Scroll Bars Row Heading

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Sheet Tabs

Worksheet

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PART III: WORKING WITH FILES In Microsoft Excel 97, files are created workbooks. Workbooks can contain multiple worksheets, chart sheets, and Visual Basic modules. With the workbooks in MS-Excel 97, you can switch between sheets separately to make them easy to distinguish. You don’t need to use a contents page to switch between sheets or view the sheet names with a workbook, or save sheets separately. Instead, all of the sheets are accessible at all times, and you save the entire workbook at once. Whenever you start Microsoft Excel, a blank workbook opens, ready for you to work. This workbook consists of several worksheets in which you can enter and edit information. When you start working in MS-Excel, you can either begin working on the blank workbook that MS-Excel creates, or you can open an existing file to work on instead. A. Creating a New File There are two ways of creating a new file: 1. Click on File Menu and choose New command or 2. Click on the New button. B. 1. 2. 3. Opening an Existing Workbook Click the Open button on the toolbar. The Open dialog box appears. In the File Name list, select the file you wish to open and then choose OK.

C. Save an Existing Workbook There are three ways of saving file: Save, Save As and Save Workspace command. 1. Save command saves the file with the same filename (if name already exists). 2. Save As command saves the file with a different filename.

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3. Save Workspace command saves current open workbook and their size and position on the screen.

PART IV: MOVING AROUND THE WORKSHEET A Worksheet consists of columns and rows. Columns run vertically and are identified by letters: rows run horizontally and are identified by numbers. The intersection of a column and a row is called a cell. Cells are named by their positions in the rows and columns. This combination of the column letter and row number for a cell is called a cell reference. The intersection of the first column with the first row is cell called A1. The cell one column of the right is called B1. The cell one row down from A1 to A2 and so on. When you select a cell with the mouse button or with the cursor keys, you make that cell the active cell. When you make a cell active, you can type new data into it, or edit the data it contains. The active cell has a border around it. You can always determine the reference for the cell you are in by looking in the name box on the formula bar. A. Entering Data There are three types of entries namely: text, numbers and formulas. You simply select a cell and then type. Whatever you type appears in both active cell and the formula bar. You can enter your data in the active cell by clicking the enter box (the box with a check on it) in the formula bar or by pressing ENTER. You can cancel the entry by clicking the cancel box in the formula bar or by pressing Esc. If you make a mistake while you are typing in a cell, you can use the Backspace key or the arrow keys to move the insertion point. The blinking vertical line indicates where you can enter text. Working with the Formula Bar The formula bar is the part of the Microsoft Excel window below the toolbar where you can enter or edit data in a worksheet cell. When you start typing or editing cell data, the formula bar becomes active.

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Text On a worksheet, text is any set of characters entered in a cell that Microsoft Excel does not interpret as a number, formula, time, logical value or error value. As with constant numbers, Microsoft Excel does not change text rules unless you select the cell containing the text and then edit it. Given below is typical text entry.

To enter text as a constant, you select a cell and type the text. Text may contain letters, digits and other special characters that you can produce on your printer. A cell can hold up to 255 characters of text. You can also create text entries that include numbers and text or just numbers. If you want to enter an airline flight number such as “TWA394”, you need only to type the entry, because the entry contains non-numeric characters. Microsoft Excel interprets it as text. However, you may want to enter a number, such as postal code or phone numbers as text. To enter a number as text, precede it with an apostrophe. You can also enter text in formulas and in charts. In formulas, text includes those characters enclosed in double quotation marks (“”). In charts, the various labels that can be displayed are considered as text.

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Number To enter a number as a constant, select a cell and type the number. Numbers can include numeric characters (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9) and any of the following special characters:

+ - ( ) , / $ %. e E
Microsoft Excel ignores plus sign (+) that come before constant numbers. To enter a negative number, either precede it with a minus sign (-) or enclose it within a parenthesis (0). You can include commas in numbers you enter as constants, such 1,000,000. Microsoft Excel treats a single period in a numeric entry as a decimal point. Formula Formula is a sequence of constant values, cell references, names, functions or operators that produce a new value from existing values. Formulas always begin with an equal sign (=). A formula performs operations, such as addition, multiplication and comparison, on worksheet values. There are several ways of entering a formula namely: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Typing Pointing Functions Ranges Names AutoSum Tool

PART V: WORKING WITH WORKBOOKS You can move between sheets in a workbook by clicking the tabs at the bottom of the sheets. You can use the arrows at the lower-left corner of the screen to move to the first sheet. One sheet backward, one sheet forward, or to the last sheet in a workbook. You can also use the keyboard shortcuts to move between sheets. If you press CTR+PAGE DOWN, you’ll move to the next sheet. If you press CTRL+PAGE UP, you’ll move to the previous sheet. The following illustration shows the tabs and arrows you can use to move around in a workbook.
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Microsoft Excel 97 Workbook

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Sheet Tans

You can also select several sheets at a time in the same way that you select several cells at a time. You select several adjacent sheets by holding down SHIFT and selecting the tabs on the sheets that you want, or you select several non-adjacent sheets by holding down CTRL and selecting the sheet tabs. When you select several sheets in a workbook, you can enter the same data on each sheet all at once. You simply select several non-adjacent sheets by holding down CTRL and selecting the sheet tabs. When you select several sheets in a workbook, you can enter the same data on each sheet all at once. You simply select the sheets that you want the data to appear on, and then type the data on one of the sheets. The data appears in the same cell on each selected sheet.

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A. Inserting, Deleting and Renaming Sheets 1. To insert a new worksheet, click the sheet tab where you want to insert and choose the Worksheet command in the Insert Menu. 2. To delete a worksheet, click the sheet tab that you want to delete and choose the Delete sheet command on the Edit menu. 3. To rename a worksheet, use the Rename command under the Sheet command on the Format menu or double-click on the tab of the sheet you wish to rename. B. Working with Cells, Rows and Columns You can insert or delete cells, rows or columns easily, if you need to. When you delete a cell, you are not just clearing the contents. You are removing the entire cell from the sheet and other cells must move into the deleted cell’s place, either from right or bottom of the deleted cell. C. Inserting Rows and Columns 1. Click the header button to select the entire row or column, not just part of it. 2. Select the Rows and Columns on the Insert Menu. D. Deleting Rows and Columns 1. Click the header button to select the entire row or column, not just part of it. 2. Select the Delete command on the Edit menu. E. Inserting Cells 1. Highlight the cell(s) you want to delete. 2. Select the Delete command on the Edit menu. 3. Choose whether you like to shift: cells left, cells up, entire row, entire column.

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F. Deleting Cells 1. Highlight the cell(s) you want to delete. 2. Select the Delete command on the Insert menu. 3. Choose whether you like to shift: cells left, cells up, entire row, entire column. G. Changing Column Width 1. Highlight any cell within the column you want to change or the column heading you want to change. 2. Select the Column Width command under the Format menu. 3. Change whether you like to use: Width, AutoFit Selection, Hide, Unhide, Standard Width. H. Changing Row Height 1. Highlight any cell within the row you want to change or the row heading you want to change. 2. Select the row Height command under the Format menu. 3. Choose whether you like to use: Height, AutoFit, Hide, Unhide PART VI: FORMATTING YOUR DATA You can format your data so that the information is more meaningful. By formatting your data, you can also integrate your sheet with the rest of the presentation or report. With AutoFormat, Format Painter and the formatting buttons on the toolbar, you can easily create clear and betterlooking sheets.

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Format Cells Window

A. Font You can quickly change fonts and font sizes with Font and Font Size boxes on the Formatting toolbar. You can also use the format Cells command. You can also use the Bold, Italic or Underline buttons on the toolbar. You must first select the cell(s) you want to change and then choose the command. B. Number You can quickly change number formats with the Number Format buttons on the formatting toolbar or you can use the Format Cells command. You can format the numbers in a cell by using the Currency Style. Percent Style and Comma Style buttons on the toolbar. Each of these styles has a default number of decimal points that you change with the Increase Decimal and Decrease Decimal buttons.

To apply a Number command:
1. Select group of cells you want to format. 2. Click Format menu and choose Cells. 3. Click Number tab select any numbering format.

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C. Alignment When you open a new sheet and begin entering data, your text is automatically left-aligned and your numbers are automatically right-aligned. However, you might decide that you want labels to be right-aligned or data to be centered in the cells. You can easily align text to the right, left or center or center text across columns using the buttons on the Formatting toolbar. You simply select the cell or range that you want to change and then click the Align Left, Center or Align Right on the Formatting toolbar. If you want to align a title across several columns, you select the cells that you want the text to be centered in and click the Center Across Columns button of the Formatting toolbar. All these commands are available under the Cells command on the Format menu.

To apply Alignment command:
1. Select the group of cells you want to format. 2. Click Format menu and choose Cells. 3. Click Alignment tab and select any alignment format. D. Border You can emphasize particular areas of the sheet or specific cells by using borders. Borders are lines above, below or to either side of a cell. You can add a single line or multiple lines, along one side of a cell or around it. Adding borders is as simple as selecting a cell, clicking the Borders button on the toolbar, and selecting a style. The border command can be found under the Cells command on Format menu.

To apply Border command:
1. Select the group of cells you want to format. 2. Click Format menu and choose Cells. 3. Click Border tab and select any bordering format.

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E. Pattern You can shade a cell in one of many patterns or colors. Adding color is as simple as selecting a cell, clicking the Color button on the toolbar, and selecting a color. You can also change the color of your text with the Font color button on the toolbar. You must first select the cell or group of cells you want to shade and choose the Color button on the Formatting toolbar.

To shade worksheet cells:
1. 2. 3. 4. Select the cells you want to format with shade. Choose the Pattern tab under Cells on the Format menu. Choose any color from the color shading. Click on the OK button to accept.

F. Protection Protecting specific cells is useful when creating templates or models that you want other people to be able to fill in but not rearrange or format. You can protect worksheet cells by locking or hiding them. Note: Locking a cell prevents its contents from being changed. Hiding a cell prevents the cell’s formula from being displayed in the formula bar when the cell is selected. Only the result of the formula is displayed.

To protect worksheet cells:
1. Select the cells whose protection status you want to change 2. From the Format menu, choose Cell Protection tab. 3. Set the protection status you want by selecting or cleaning the locked Hidden check boxes. 4. Choose the OK button. To enforce your protection settings, you must select Protection Sheet/Protect Workbook command under Protection on the Tools menu in order for the protection to take effect.

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PART VII: WORKING WITH RANGES You have already learned how to execute different formatting commands. You might ask if there is a way of applying the same formatting command to two or more cells. Yes this can be achieved with the use of ranges. Ranges are defined as a rectangular section containing two or more cells.

To select adjacent cells:
1. Select the first cell in the set. 2. Hold down the SHIFT key and then select the last cell in the set. 3. Group of cells are now highlighted.

To select non-adjacent cells
1. Simply click the first cell. 2. Hold down the CTRL key and click the next cell that you want. 3. Group of cells are now highlighted. A. Selecting Multiple Cells You can select several cells at once by holding down either the SHIFT or CTRL key while you click the mouse. To select several adjacent cells, you select the first cell in the set, hold down SHIFT, and then select the last cell in the set. Or, you can select the first cell and drag the last cell. Either way, every cell between the first and last cell is selected. When you select more than one adjacent cell, you are selecting a range of cells. To select several non-adjacent cells, you simply click the first cell, hold down CTRL, and click the next cell that you want. PART VIII: COPY AND MOVE COMMAND If you want to duplicate or change the location of your data from one point to another, you actually want to copy or move the data. In order to do that, you have to execute the copy command, the basic COPY and PASTE principle is applied. And to execute the move command, the basic CUT and PASTE principle is applied. There are several ways to execute this namely: 1) Toolbar; 2) Edit Menu; 3) Mouse Pointer.
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To copy cells:
1. Select the cells you want to copy. 2. Choose the Copy command. 3. Select the destination and choose the Paste command.

To move cells:
1. Select the cells you want to move. 2. Choose the Cut command. 3. Select the destination and choose the Paste command. PART IX: RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE ADDRESSING When you copy a formula from a cell to another cell, the cell references used in the formulas are automatically adjusted to reflect the column that the formulas were in. References that change automatically when you move them are called relative references. When you copy a formula containing relative references, the references are adjusted to reflect the new location of the formula. However, you can also use formulas with absolute references, references are adjusted to reflect the new location of the formula. However, you can also use formulas with absolute references, references that always refer to the same cell, regardless of where the formula is copied to. A relative reference describes the location of a cell in terms of its distance, rows and columns, from another cell. Relative references are analogous to giving directions, such as “cross the street and go to the third house on the right”. Ex. C5 An absolute cell reference describes a specific cell address. Absolute references are analogous to giving directions, such as “Deliver the newspaper to Room 201, 2/F Bldg. 9, San Lazaro Compound, Tayuman St., Sta. Cruz, Manila. Ex. $C$5 Usually, when you use a cell reference in a formula, the reference is relative.

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PART X: LINKING FILES When you are creating a worksheet, you often need to use data stored in a different worksheet or workbook. You can copy and paste the data, but what if the data changes frequently? If you copy or paste, you’ll need to do it again when the data changes. Linking provides the solution. You can create a link between a dependent worksheet that will use the data and a source worksheet – the worksheet in which the original data resides. Your dependent worksheet will then be updated whenever the data changes in the source worksheet. With Microsoft Excel, you can easily create links between a dependent worksheet and a source worksheet Microsoft Excel 97 can update the data automatically when it changes.

To create a link between two worksheets:
1. Click the cell in the dependent sheet where you want the data to appear. 2. Type “=” in the cell. 3. Switch to the source sheet and click the cell that contains the data.
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4. Press ENTER.

To update a link between two worksheets:
1. Open the document file. 2. If you are prompted to update the links, Click Yes.

To change a link:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the Edit menu in the dependent workbook, choose Links. Select the source filenames of the link that you want to change. Click the Change Source button. Select a new source file in the First Name List. Choose OK.

PART XI: CREATING CHARTS A worksheet calculates and presents differences between numbers, similarities between numbers and changes in numbers over time. But data, by itself, cannot illustrate these concepts. When you make a presentation, or show progress, or change in a report, data cannot illustrate your ideas or perceptions over time, or how the parts of your data fit together as a whole. You can rearrange your data, even after you have charted them, or added data that you left out. With Microsoft Excel’s Chart Wizard, you can easily turn your data into dynamic charts for use in your presentation or reports. You can create charts in two ways; either on the same sheet as your data, or on a separate chart sheet in the same workbook. When you create a chart on the same sheet as your data, you can view both the data and chart at the same time. When you create a chart on separate chart sheet in the same workbook, you still have easy access to the chart, but you can print the chart separately.

To create a chart on a worksheet:
1. Select the data that you want to chart, and then click the Chart Wizard button on the toolbar. 2. Select a range for the chart and click Next.
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3. Select a chart type and click Next. 4. Select a chart variation. 5. Add chart titles and axis titles if needed, and click Finish.

A Typical chart screen format

To create a chart on a chart sheet:
1. Select a data range 2. From the Insert Menu, choose Chart, and then choose As a New Sheet and click Next. 3. Select a chart and click Next. 4. Select a chart variation. 5. Add a chart title and axis titles as needed, and then click Finish.

To activate a chart:
1. Double-click the chart.

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To delete a data series:
1. Activate the chart. Drag it to the chart. 2. Release the mouse button.

To add data to a chart on a chart sheet:
1. From the Insert Menu, choose New Data. 2. Select the data range. 3. Choose OK. A. Modifying Your Charts: When you chart your data, you might not always end up with exactly what you envision the first time. Microsoft Excel’s charting features are flexible so that you can change your chart to match your idea. In here, you will learn how to modify your chart, change between types, add lines, color and text and use chart auto formats to save steps in creating a set of standardized charts. You’ll also learn how to create your own standard chart format, so you can repeat your formatting choices automatically. To do this: 1. Activate the chart and click Chart type in Format menu. 2. In Chart Type dialog box, select the type you want and choose OK.

To add gridlines:
1. Activate the chart. 2. Click the right mouse button to display the pop-up menu. 3. Select the Chart Options and then click the gridlines tab then select the type gridlines that you want and then choose OK.

To add a legend:
1. Activate the chart. 2. Click the right mouse button to display the pop-up menu. 3. Select Source Data. Click the series tab and type the text you want for the legend.

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To position a legend:
1. Activate the chart. 2. Click the right mouse button to display the pop-up menu. 3. Select the Chart Options. Click on the Legend tab and select the position you want for your legend.

To add a text box:
1. On the Drawing toolbar, click the Text Box button. 2. Drag the Text box button. 3. Type your text.

To change text formats:
1. Select the text you want to change. From the Format menu, choose Font. Select the Font Tab, make your selections and then choose OK. Or Select the text and use the buttons on Formatting toolbar to change the text formats.

To change chart colors:
1. Activate the chart. Select the object or senses that you want to change. 2. Click the right mouse button to display the pop-up menu and choose 3. Click Format Chart Area options, select the Patterns tab and select the colors you want 4. Choose Ok. PART XII. PRINTING WORKSHEETS AND CHARTS Now comes the data or chart presentation. You want to print your report or presentation with page breaks in the right places, a header or a footer to show a date, a page number, or the name of the workbook. Here, you will learn how to setup your pages with print titles, margins, headers/footers, and how to preview the pages before printing. You will also learn how to print charts, without cutting off any areas or taking up too much space.
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To preview your worksheet:
1. Click the Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar or from the File menu, choose Print Preview.

To print part of a worksheet:
1. Select the range you want to print. 2. From the File menu, choose Print. 3. In the Print What area, click the Selection option, and then choose OK.

To fit your worksheet onto specified pages:
1. 2. 3. 4. From the File menu, choose Page Setup. Click the Page Tab. In the Scaling area, type in the Fit to “number” of pages. Choose OK.

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To add print titles:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the File menu, choose Page Setup. Click the Sheet Tab. In the Print Titles area, select Columns or Rows. Select the range that includes the titles in the worksheet. Choose OK.

To change margin:
1. Form the File menu, choose Page Setup. 2. Click the Margins tab. 3. In the Top, Bottom, Left and Right margin boxes, type the margins you want. 4. Choose OK.

To add a page break:
1. Select the row below or the column to the right where you want the page break to appear. 2. From the Insert menu, choose PageBreak.

To change printing order of pages:
1. 2. 3. 4. From the File menu, choose Page Setup. Click the Sheet tab. In the Page Order box, select a printing order. Choose OK.

To add or delete a standard header or footer:
1. From the File menu, choose Page Setup. 2. Click the Header/Footer tab. 3. In the Header or Footer list box, select the style you want or click None to remove the header or footer. 4. Click OK.

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To print a worksheet:
1. From the File menu, choose Print. Select the options you want and click OK. Or Click the Print button on the Standard toolbar.

To print a chart sheet:
1. 2. 3. 4. From the File menu, choose Page Setup Click the Chart Tab and change the scaling if necessary. Click the Print button in the dialog box. Click OK. Or Click the Print button.

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