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Problem 1. On R3 , write x = (x′ , x3 ), so x′ = (x1 , x2 ). Suppose f is a compactly supported C 1 function in x3 ≥ 0 in R3 vanishing near x3 = 0. Find the solution u of ∆u = f, x3 ≥ 0, ∂x3 u(x′ , 0) = 0 which goes to 0 at inﬁnity. Write your solution as explicitly in terms of f as possible. Problem 2. (i) Using the method of reﬂection, solve the wave equation with Neumann boundary conditions on the interval [0, ℓ]x: utt − c2 uxx = 0, u(x, 0) = φ(x), ut (x, 0) = ψ(x), ux (0, t) = 0 = ux (ℓ, t). You do not need to write an explicit formula containing only φ and ψ; the appropriate extension of φ and ψ to R may appear in the formula. (ii) If ψ = 0 and φ is C ∞ except at a point x0 ∈ (0, ℓ), where do you know for sure that u is C ∞ ? Problem 3. Write the solution of the wave equation on R3 × Rt , x utt = c2 ∆x u, u(x, 0) = φ(x), ut (x, 0) = ψ(x), in a form that does not involve the Fourier transform by using convolutions. Hint: Use Problem 2 on Problem Set 6 to deal with the ψ-term. To deal with the φ term, note that ∂ sin(c|ξ|t) . cos(c|ξ|t) = ∂t c|ξ| Problem 4. Suppose that P = |α|≤m aα Dα on Rn . A fundamental solution for P is a distribution E such that P E = δ0 . E is also called a Green’s function with pole at 0.

∞ (i) Show that if E is a fundamental solution for P then for f ∈ Cc (Rn ), u = E ∗ f solves P u = f . 0 (ii) Show that the same holds even if f ∈ Cc (Rn ) (or indeed f ∈ D′ (Rn ) with compact support). You may assume that E ∈ S ′ (Rn ) to use your results from the previous problem set, if you wish (though this is not strictly necessary). −1 (iii) Show that the distribution E given by the function 4π|x| is a fundamental solution for ∆ in R3 in two diﬀerent ways: using the Fourier transform, and directly. Hint: For the direct calculation, to ﬁnd ∆E, recall that ∆E(φ) = E(∆φ), 1 and write the right hand side as − limǫ→0 |x|≥ǫ 4π|x| ∆φ(x) dx, and use the divergence theorem (integrate by parts in polar coordinates).

Problem 5. The goal of this problem is to show that if u ∈ D′ (R3 ) and ∆u = f satisﬁes x0 ∈ singsupp f , i.e. f is C ∞ near x0 , then u is C ∞ near x0 . This is called / elliptic regularity: ∆ is elliptic, and for an elliptic operator P if P u is C ∞ near some x0 then so is u. We achieve this as follows.

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Let φ ∈ Cc (R3 ) be identically 1 ∞ near x0 such that f is C on supp φ. note that if x is near x0 and y ∈ supp v then x = y. u ∈ S ′ (Rn ) and P u = f ∈ S(Rn ) then u ∈ C ∞ (Rn ). To analyze 1 v(y) dy 3 4π|x − y| R for x near x0 . (i) Show that ∆ + λ and ∆2 + λ are elliptic for any λ ∈ C. Problem 6. For the ﬁrst part just use that χF u is compactly supported. (ii) Show that if P is elliptic. φ∆u is C ∞ by assumption. Thus. and show that both parts are C ∞ near x0 . w=− 4π|x| convolution in the sense of distributions (so w is merely a distribution). On the other hand. writing 1 ∗ (∆(φu)). Then show that ∆(φu) = φ∆u + v. Write the corresponding part of the convolution as 1 φ(x − y)(∆u)(x − y) dy. 1 ∆y (φ(y)u(y)) dy. so |x − y|−1 is C ∞ . then u is C ∞ at x0 . and χ(ξ) = 0 if |ξ| ≥ 2R. p(ξ) = c > 0 and R > 0 such that aα ξ α satisﬁes the following: there are |ξ| ≥ R ⇒ |p(ξ)| ≥ c|ξ|m . This requires a little more work. Now decompose F u = χF u+(1−χ)F u. P = ∆2 . but the point is to get the main idea. One way to think about this is that the approximate Green’s function G = F −1 ((1 − χ)p−1 ) −1 satisﬁes that G is C ∞ away from 0. We start with a deﬁnition: P = |α|≤m aα D α |α|≤m is elliptic if its full symbol. (iii) Suppose now that u ∈ D′ . Now as w = φu is compactly supported. there are some technicalities. You do not have to be very careful in writing up this part. NOVEMBER 12. Proceed as above. 2009 ∞ (i) First suppose that u is a C 2 function. Note: The full result is as above: if u ∈ D′ (Rn ) and P u is C ∞ near x0 . ∞ Hint: Write pF u = F f ∈ S(Rn ).g. . Let χ ∈ Cc (Rn ) be such that χ(ξ) = 1 if |ξ| ≤ R. R3 4π|y| and deduce that it is C ∞ . w(x) = − 3 4π|x − y| R (ii) Expand ∆y (φ(y)u(y)) as above. e. and you don’t need to show this. much like 4π|x| was in the previous problem. where v is a compactly supported distribution that vanishes near x0 . p is a polynomial such that |p| has comparable upper and lower bounds near inﬁnity: c|ξ|m ≤ |p(ξ)| ≤ C|ξ|m . for the second use pF u = F f ∈ S(Rn ). We work out a version of elliptic regularity for general elliptic P here.2 MATH 220: PROBLEM SET 7 DUE THURSDAY.

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