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Cng ty T vn u t xy dng v Pht trin nh H Ni - HACID

S tnh ton dm mng KS. Nguyn Tun Trung - Phng KHKT


I/ t vn :

Hin nay vic m hnh ho dm mng v tnh ton trong cc cng trnh dn dng s dng mng cc ang l mt vn gy nhiu tranh lun v trong cc thuyt minh tnh ton cng thng b qua vic tnh ton ny dn n cn c kim tra thit k h dm mng, trong thc t nhiu bi ton nu b qua tnh ton h dm mng v s dn n mt an ton hoc qu lng ph cho cng trnh. V d i cc lch tm trong cc cng trnh xy chen, i cc li cng thang my... gii quyt bi ton chng ti xin xut mt s kin v s tnh ton mang tnh thc hnh cc bn tham kho v cng gp kin.
II/ Tc dng ca dm mng :

1- H dm mng ni cc chn ct theo 2 phng to h khng gian cng, gi n nh chn ct trong mt phng i mng, phn phi mt phn ti trng ngang gia cc i cc thng qua lc dc trong dm. 2- Chu phn phi m men t ct v khi i cc lch tm. 3- Phn phi ti trng t ct vo cc cc trong i cc mm. 4- Cng vi i cc to nn din gy p lc t khi cng trnh chu ti trng ngang. p lc t ny c tc dng ngn cn chuyn v cng trnh ti ct 0.00 cho php tnh ton cc theo s cc i thp. 5- cc tng xy tng 1.

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Cng ty T vn u t xy dng v Pht trin nh H Ni - HACID

k h i p l c t b n g

Q q q q q

H h 1 a : P h n l c c a t n n l n h m n g k h i c h u t i tr n g n g a n g n

III/ xy dng S tnh ton:

c th tnh ton dm mng cn m hnh ho h cc v mng theo mt trong hai s sau: S 1 - M hnh ho cc l cc phn t thanh lin kt vi nn thng qua cc lin kt n hi ti mi cc v dc thn cc. i cc dm mng c cc lin kt n hi ngn cn chuyn v ngang nh hnh v 1. C th s dng m hnh cc chiu su mt ngm qui i, s ngm trt theo hnh v 2.

h ng t i tr

ng

ng

ng a

s 1
ng d m

i tr

ng

ng

s 1
a ng

ct

ng

EJ

M,N,Q

m m
k4

ng

J E

n g

ct

EJ
M,N,Q

dm

ng

J E

cc i

cc i

k 4

cc EJ , l

cc EJ , l

dm

ng

EJ

k 3

d m m
cc EJ , l

ng

cc EJ , l

EJ

dm k1- hs hi m cc n i k2- hs hi ngang th n cc n k3- hs hi ngang cc n i k4- hs hi ngang dm m n ng

ng

EJ

k3

ng

EJ

k2 cc EJ , l

L chi d cc u i

L d= -1 b q 10 2 b -b r ng cc

cc EJ , l

Ngmt t r k 1 k1

H 1 nh

Hnh 2

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Cng ty T vn u t xy dng v Pht trin nh H Ni - HACID

S 2- M hnh ho cc thnh cc gi n hi theo phng Z, h s cng gi theo phng ngang bng v cng - thay th bng cc lin kt ngn cn chuyn v ngang ti ct i cc nh hnh v 3.

s 2
d m

k=v c ng
n g
ct

EJ
M,N,Q

dm

mn

g EJ

k= c ng v
c c i

k1 k= c ng v k1

k1

dm

ng m

k1 EJ
k1

k1 k1 k1

k1
m ng

k1- h s hi 01 cc n
EJ

H 3 nh

Nhn xt: + M hnh ho theo cch 1 l mt m hnh kh hon chnh khi tnh ton ng thi cng trnh + mng + cc. Tuy nhin s ny i hi khi lng tnh ton v s l s liu kh ln v phc tp c bit khi tnh ton h s n hi theo phng ngang dc theo thn cc v i + dm mng, do ch nn s dng khi c nhng yu cu c bit hoc nghin cu l thuyt. + M hnh ho theo cch 2 l vic n gin ho m hnh 1 da theo mt s cn c v gi thit sau: - Trong cc cng trnh dn dng thng tnh ton h cc theo s cc i thp tc l mng khng c chuyn v ngang theo phng X,Y ( cng n hi theo phng ngang k = h) Gi thit ny hon ton c th chp nhn c khi chn chiu su mng thch hp v so snh tng ti trng ngang tc ng ln cng trnh (Q) vi tng p lc t b ng (Pbd) ca t tc dng ln cc i cc + h dm mng vung gc vi phng lc ngang tc dng. Tnh ton trong mt s cng trnh c th cho thy Pbd >> Q. Vi lu do thin v an ton nn kim tra p lc t theo cng thc p lc t tnh v Pt < Pbd . - H s n hi cc cc trong mng nh nhau nu cng mt mt ct a cht v cu to cc. H s n hi cc c th xc nh theo biu nn tnh cc hoc xc nh s b theo cc cng thc l thuyt, c th iu chnh theo kinh nghim ngi thit k trong mt phm vi nht nh m khng nh hng n kt qu tnh ton. Ghi ch: Cng nh vic xc nh sc chu ti cc, khng c chnh xc tuyt i khi xc nh h s n hi cc d tnh ton theo bt k cng thc l thuyt no, cn kim chng
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Cng ty T vn u t xy dng v Pht trin nh H Ni - HACID

li khi c kt qu nn tnh. Vic xc nh h s n hi cc theo kt qu nn tnh s tip tc trnh by c th sau.


IV/ Tnh ton dm mng:

Sau khi m hnh ho ton b s kt cu cng trnh cng vi h dm mng, i cc , cc( cc gi n hi), vo cc gi tr ti trng sau s dng cc chng trnh tnh ton kt cu quen thuc nh SAP, ETABS, STAAD.PRO tnh ra ni lc trong cc dm mng, kim tra thit k tit din dm mng nh cc phn t dm.
V/ Mt s S c th:

Khi s dng s 2 m hnh ho tu theo tng bi ton c th v yu cu ca s liu u ra ta c th s dng mt s dng m hnh sau: 1- Mng cc nhi: Do mng cc nhi c s lng cc hn ch nn ta m phng tng cc nhi thnh cc gi n hi ring bit theo ng nh cch 2. H gm cc gi n hi(spring), i cc(thick plate), dm mng (frame). 2- Mng cc ng: Do s lng cc nhiu nn nu xy dng m hnh y nh cc nhi s tn rt nhiu thi gian v cng sc nn chng ti a ra mt s m hnh c th sau: - Vi i cc cng gm nhiu cc (n) , thay th nhm cc bng 1 gi n hi c h s n hi tng cng K i=n.kcc v tri gi n hi trng vi trng tm nhm cc c th trng vi nt ct hoc c lch d - Xem hnh v 4 v 5. Trong m hnh ny b qua vic m t i cc s dn n ton b m men chn ct s c phn phi vo cc dm mng (m men ny ln hn trn thc t) s thin v an ton.

c t EJ

ct EJ

m d

g n m

EJ

d m m K= 1 nk ng EJ n-s cc trong i

m d

d m m K nk = 1 ng EJ n-s cc tr ong i dy - l trng t nhm cc v ct ch m

g n m

EJ

dy

H 4 nh

H 5 nh

-Vi cng trnh cc di cc dm mng c xy dng theo m hnh sau


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Cng ty T vn u t xy dng v Pht trin nh H Ni - HACID

Vi h s cng ca gi K=mk1 (trong hnh v m=3) l s cc trn 1 hng vung gc vi trc dm mng - xem hnh 6.

k1

k1

k1

x1
ct EJ

x2

x2

x2

x2

x3
ct EJ

M,N,Q dm mng EJ K= 3k1 K= 3k1 K= 3k1 K= 3k1

M,N,Q

K= 3k1

H 6 nh

C th m hnh ho nhm cc thnh 1 hoc nhiu gi n hi tu theo s tnh v yu cu s liu u ra, kinh nghim ngi thit k, vic m hnh ho theo quan im chp nhn sai s thin v an ton cho cu kin cn kim tra. 3- S tnh ton i cc, dm mng v cc trong i cc thang my: Khi tnh ton i cc thang my theo s c in coi i cc tuyt i cng, cc cc l cc gi lin kt khp c nh, ton b ti trng (M,N,Q) ca vch qui v t ti 1 im trng tm vch thng dn n kt qu tnh l khng bo m an ton do ti trng tc dng ln cc cc bin qu ln vt qu sc chu ti tnh ton, cc b nh cho d c tng s lng cc ln rt nhiu, c khi cng tng li thy cng khng t. m hnh ho i cc st vi s lm vic thc t cn s dng y s 2 vi vic m phng i cc bng h dm giao thoa (beam), hoc tm (thick plate), hoc phn t khi (solid), ti cc nt l cc gi n hi (cc), cc dm mng lin kt i thang my v cc i cc khc - xem hnh 7. C th m hnh ho ton b h dm mng hoc m hnh ho cc b vng i thang my v cc i ln cn . Vi s ny chng ta c th xc nh c chnh xc cc lc tc dng ln tng cc, mmen , lc ct phn phi vo cc dm mng t co th thit k kt cu mt cch an ton v tit kim.

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Cng ty T vn u t xy dng v Pht trin nh H Ni - HACID

M ,N,Q

M ,N,Q

Ki
d m d m m n g EJ m n g

M,N,Q

dm

g mn

EJ

Ki

EJ

d
M,N,Q

Ki
d m

m n g

EJ
g mn EJ

M,N,Q

Ki

n g

EJ

dm

Ki

k1 k1
M,N,Q M,N,Q

k1 k1
M ,N,Q

Ki

Ki

k1

M,N,Q

g mn dm

EJ

Ki

M,N,Q

Ki

Ki

H 7: M h t to n c c thang m y nh nh nh i

V/ Kt lun:

Do thi gian v trnh cn nhiu hn ch nn ca bi tiu lun cn s si, nhiu vn rt gn v cha c l gii l thuyt c th. Mc ch bi vit nhm a ra mt cch gii quyt s tnh ton dm mng mang tnh ng dng trong thc hnh mi ngi tham kho v cng tip tc trao i.

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