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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Applications and Characteristics of Differential Relays (ANSI 87) _ EEP
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Go to www.iea.lth.se/eks/seqdemo.html and read the description. You can skip the rotating graphs and only look at the stationary phasors. Compare the following combinations with problems and solutions of Exercise 8.3: a) Single-line to ground fault: b) Line-line fault: Zr=10, Zs=1e60, Zt=1e60, Zn=10 Zr=10, Zs=10, Zt=1e60, Zn=1e60

c) Double-line to ground fault: Zr=10, Zs=10, Zt=1e60, Zn=100 Figure 5 has a tendency to appear outside the display area of the screen. If this is the case, maximize Figure 5. 5.2 Matlab: Unsymmetrical fault currents Exercise 8.1 a) gives the sequence fault currents for a zero impedance single-line to ground fault in phase A in the five-bus system used in Examples 7.5 and 9.8 in the textbook: I0=I1=I2=j4.71 p.u. Use matrix multiplication in Matlab to transform the fault currents to phase domain. 5.3 PowerWorld: Unsymmetrical fault currents, sequence domain Go to www.iea.lth.se/eks/download/gspowerworld and download the files named Example9_8a. Note that the files Example9_8 in Chapter9.zip are incorrect. Use PowerWorld and Example9_8a to calculate the fault currents for a zero impedance single-line to ground fault in phase A. Compare with the answer of 5.2 and with Table 9.4 p 424. 5.4 Matlab: Voltages during unsymmetrical faults, phase domain Exercise 8.2 gives the sequence bus voltages at buses 2 and 5 during an unsymmetrical fault at bus 2. Use matrix multiplication in Matlab to transform these results to phase domain. a) Zero impedance single-line to ground fault in phase A: Bus 2: V0=0.5131 p.u., V1=0.7818 p.u., V2=0.2682 p.u. Bus 5: V0=0.0528 p.u., V1=0.9296 p.u., V2=0.1204 p.u. b) Zero impedance line to line fault between phases B and C: Bus 2: V0=0, V1=0.5255 p.u., V2=0.5245 p.u. Bus 5: V0=0, V1=0.8145 p.u., V2=0.2355 p.u. c) Zero impedance double line to ground fault on phases B and C: Bus 2: V0=0.4161 p.u., V1=0.4167 p.u., V2=0.4157 p.u. Bus 5: V0=0.0428 p.u., V1=0.7657 p.u., V2=0.1867 p.u.

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Computer exercise 5

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5.5 PowerWorld: Voltages during unsymmetrical faults, phase domain Use PowerWorld and Example9_8a to calculate phase voltages at buses 2 and 5 during a fault at bus two in the five-bus system used in Examples 7.5 and 9.8 in the textbook. Do this for the cases below: a) Zero impedance single-line to ground fault in phase A. Compare the results with 5.4 a) and Table 9.5 p 425. b) Zero impedance line to line fault between phases B and C. Compare the results with 5.4 b). c) Zero impedance double line to ground fault on phases B and C. Compare the results with 5.4 c). 5.6 Type of grounding and effect on fault currents and voltages The network in Example 9.8 is solidly (zero impedance) grounded through the star points of the high voltage windings of the transformers between buses 1-5 and 3-4. Generators are also grounded, but since the low voltage windings of the transformers are of delta type, this does not affect the zero sequence network of the rest of the network. a) Apply a bolted single-line to ground fault at bus 2. Write down fault current (in phase A) and line to ground voltages of phases A, B and C. b) Make the system un-grounded: Open Line Information Dialog of the transformers. Go to Fault parameters and change Configuration from DeltaGrounded wye to Delta-Wye. Again apply a bolted single-line to ground fault at bus 2. Write down fault current (in phase A) and line to ground voltages of phases A, B and C. The fault is the first connection to ground, so the fault current will be zero. In reality, shunt capacitance makes the fault current greater than zero for an ungrounded system. c) When the fault occurs phase A is connected to ground. The neutral will therefore have the voltage VF relative to ground. The voltage between the phases is still 3 times VF. Since phase A is now on ground potential, the line to ground voltage of phases B and C will be 3 times VF. Check this numerically to see if it agrees with the value from PowerWorld in b). Solid grounding gives high fault current while no grouding gives high line to ground voltages of the healthy (unfaulted) phases. Designing the grounding system is a tradeoff between these two effects.

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