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!!JI!!'!!' :R'
THEORY OF VIBRATIONS
2.1 GENERAL
In order to understand the behaviour of a structure subjectedto dynamic load lucidly, one must study the
mechanics of vibrations 'caused by the dynamic load. The pattern of variation of a dynamic load with
respect to time may be either periodic or transient. The periodical motions can be resolved into sinusoi
dally varying components e.g. vibrations in the case of reciprocating machine foundations. Transient
vibrations may have very complicated nonperiodic time history e.g. vibrations due to earthquakes and
quarry blasts.
A structure subjected to a dynamic load (periodic or transient) may vibrate in one of the following four
ways of deformation or a combination thereof:
(i) Extensional (Fig. 2.1 a)
(iii) bending (Fig. 2.1 c)
(ii) Shearing (Fig. 2.1 b)
(iv) torsional (Fig. 2.1 d)
t ~ .
c:
~J
(a) Extenslonal
, .: ,
(b) Shearing
, : ,."
(c) Bending (d) Torsional
',:' "
Fig. 2.1 : Different types oCvlbratlons
. '1\";01 , ' ," ,.!
, . ,,{';',
"
" .H .
.
14
s.u /JyruuIfics & Machine Foundations
The forms of vibration mainly depend on the mass, stiffness distribution and end conditions of the
system.
To study the response of a vibratory system, in manycases it is satisfactory to reduce it to an idealized
system of lumped parameters. In this regard, the simplest model consists of mass, spring and dashpot
This chapter is framed to provide the basic concepts and dynamic analysis of such systems. Actual field
problems which can be idealized to massspringdashpot systems, have also been included.
2.2 DEFINITIONS
2.2.1 Vibrations: If the motion of the body is oscillatory in character, it is called vibration.
. , 
2.2.2 Degrees of Freedom: The number of independent coordinates which are required to define the
position of a system during vibration, is called degrees of freedom (Fig. 2.2).
~
D:
m
(a) One degree of freedom (b) Two degrees offreedom
Z2
. .~
KI
Z,
.
 ,
~ ¬C·
,, Z)
 J.., .
(c) Three degrees of freedom' . (d) Six degrees 'offreedon~ (e) Infinite degrees offreedom
' , , . .: .',n ,, t ~ "'_~
Fig. 2.2' :'Systems with different degrees of freedom
Theory of Vibrations
15
2.2.3 Periodic Motion: If motion repeats itself at regular intervals of time, it is called periodic motion.
2.2.4 Free Vibration: If a system vibrates without an external force, then it is said to undergo free
vibrations. Such vibrations can be caused by setting the systemin motion initially and allowing it to move
~~~~~. .
2.2.5 Natural Frequency: This is the property of the system and corresponds to the number of free
oscillations made by the system in unit time.
2.2.6 Forced Vibrations: Vibrations that are developed by externally applied exciting forces are called
forced vibrations. These vibrations occur at the frequency of the externally applied exciting force.
2.2.7 Forcing Frequency: This refers to the periodicity of the external forces which acts on the system
during forced vibrations. This is also termed as operating frequency.
2.2.8 Frequency Ratio: The ratio of the forcing frequency and natural frequency of the system is re
ferred as frequency ratio.
2.2.9 Amplitude of Motion: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from the mean position is
amplitudeof motion. . ,
2.2.10 Time Period: Time taken to complete one cycle of vibration is known as time period.
2.2.11 Resonance: A system having n degrees of freedomhas n natural frequencies. If the frequel}cyof
excitation coincides with anyone of the natural frequencies of the system, the condition of resonance
occurs. The amplitudes of motion are very excessive at resonance.
2.2.12 Damping: All vibration systems offer resistance to motion due to their own inherent properties.
This resistance is called damping force and it depends on the condition of vibration, material and type
of the system..If the force of damping is constant, it is t&med Coulomb damping. If the damping force
is proportional to the velocity, it is termed viscous damping. If the damping in a system is free from its
material property and is contributed by the geometry of the system, it is called geometrical or radiation
damping.
2.3 HARMONIC MOTION
Harmonic motion is the simplest form of vibratory motion. It may be described mathematically by the
following equation:
Z = A sin (rot  0) ...(2.1)
N
L T:2!!
r Go)
Timq.t
'. .,
c
Fig. 2.3 : Quantities describing harmonic motion
;. :'~f,t;,\r.j '~~!.
16
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
The Eq. (2.1) is plotted as function of time in Fig. 2.3. The various terms of this equation are as
follows:
Z =Displacement of the rotating mass at any time t
A = Displacement amplitude from the mean position, sometimes referred as single amplitude. The
distance 2 Arepresentsthepeaktopeak displacement amplitude, sometimesreferred to as double
amplitude, and is the quantity most often measured from vibration records.
ro = Circular frequency in radians per unit time. Because the motion repeats itself after 21tradians,
the' frequency of oscillation in terms of cycles per unit time will be ro/21t.It is denoted byf
8 = Phase angle. It is required to specify the time relationship between two quantities having the
same frequency when their peak values ha'ving like sign do not occur simultaneously. In Eq.
(2.1) the phase angle is a reference to the time origin.
More commonly, the phase angle is used as a reference to another quantity having the same fre
quency. For example, at some reference point in a harmonically vibrating system, the motion may be
expressedby
ZI =AI sin rot
Motion at any other point in the system might be expressed as
Z, =A, sin
(
rot'e,
)
I I I
1t ~ 8 ~  1t.
...(2.2)
...(2.3)
with
For positive values of 8 the motion at point i reaches its peak within one half cycle after the peak
motion occurs at point 1. The angle 8 is then called phase lag. For negative values of 8 the peak motion
at i occurs within one half cycle ahead of motion at 1, and 8 is called as phase lead.
The time period, T is given by
1 21t
T==
f ro
The velocity and acceleration of motion are obtained from the derivatives of Eq. (2.1.).
dZ .
Velocity =  = Z = roAcos (rot 8)
dt
= roAsin (rot  8 + ~)
2
d Z .. 2
Acceleration = r = Z = ro A sin (rot 8)
dt
= ro2A (sin rot  e + 1t)
Equations (2.5) and (2.6) show that both velocity and acceleration are also harmonic and can be
represented by vectors roAand ol A; which rotate at the same speed as A, i.e. rorad/unit time. These,
however, lead the displacement and acceleration vectors by 1tI2and 1t respectively. In Fig. 2.4 vector
representation of harmonic displacement, velocity and acceleration is presented considering the dis
placementas the referencequantity(8 = 0).
...(2.4)
...(2.5)
...(2.6)
, .J (.,..~4",tt
",C.. .,
.,~;<r'l!\"k. .
',", . ,~Ii<i"
Theory of Vibrations
N
z,z,z
..
+'
C
~
E
~
v
0
a.
UI
0
oN
...
>
+'
v
0
~
>
c
0

0
....
c:,I
c:,I
v
0
.et
Fig. 2.4: Vector representation of harmonic displacement. velocity and acceleration
17
TimtZ,t
Ti mtZ,t
Timcz,t
When two harmonic motions having little different frequencies are superimposed. a non harmonic
motion as shown in Fig. 2.5 occurs. It appears to be harmonic except for a gradual increase and decrease
in amplitude. The displacement of such a vibration is given by:
Z = AI sin (0011 91) + A2 sin (0021 92)
N D,

2A max 2Am\n
./ .,/
..
.,/

+'
C
c:,I
E
,~
v
0
a.
III
c
 """'
 ,
''"
.'J' ,.,
~T
, b
~
" :' 3! j,;I',: ','"
. ~~ 'i; 'P1>1Flg;'2.5':Motion containi.ng a beat
...(2.7)
TimtZ (t)
;;" C," 'i'j{':;,':::;;;~,.
18
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
The dashed curve (Fig. 2.5), representing the envelop of the vibration amplitudes oscillates at a
frequency, called the beat frequency, which corresponds to the difference in the two source frequencies:
I 1<01 <021
fb = Tb = 21t ...(2.8)
The frequency of the combined oscillations is the average of the frequencies of the two components
and is given by
f = i = (2~)(0) 1;1t0) 2 )
...(2.9)
The maximum and minimum amplitudes of motion are the sum and difference of the amplitudes of
the two sources respectively.
Zmax =AI + A2 ...(2.10a)
"Zmin = IAI  A21 ,...(2.10b)
If the drive systems of two machines designed to operate at the same speed are not synchronized, they
may result vibrations having the beat frequency.
2.4 VIBRATIONS OF A SINGLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEM
1
The simplest model to repre~ent a single degree of freedom system consisting of a rigid mass m supported
by a spring and dashpot is shown in Fig. 2. 6a. The motion of the mass m is specified by one coordinate
Z. Damping in this system is represented by the dashpot, and the resulting damping force is proportional
to the velocity. The system is sabject to an external time dependent force F (t).

Z  Dj splac(Zment
Z V(Zlocity
Z  Ac c(zl(Zration
c
KZ+ Cl +1
..
mz
L   '
Z
, 
m
m
f F(t)
(I) Springmlssdashpot system (b) Frccbody diagram
~c ~ Pl8 2.6, SI..,. ..,...' .,......
. ..:.., . . . .
~
, ,." ~ ,~.,_."..~'~"'"
>":, ,;;[; /, '1\", ", ;,., "',c,...'" "": ,,' ,.'r:,/'; ~:.: "'1~F"",';
. ,
Theory of Vibrations .
19
, ,
Figure 2.6 (b) shows the free body diagramoffue mass m at allYinstant dunng the course~fvibra'
tions. The forces acting on the mass m are:
(i) Exciting force, F (t): It is the externally applied force that causes the motion of the system.
(ii) Restoring force, F,.: It is the force exertedby the spring on the mass emutends to restore the mass
, to its original position. For a linear system,restoringforce is equiJ.' to K . Z, where Kis the
spring constant and indicates the stiffness. This force always acts towards the equilibrium posi
tion of the system.
(iii) Damping force, Fi The damping force is considered directly proportional to the velocity and
given by C . Z where C is called the coefficient of viscous damping; this force always opposes
the motion.
In some problems in which the damping is not viscous, the concept of viscous damping is still
used by defining an equivalent viscous damping which is obtained so that the total the energy
dissipated per cycle is same as for the actual damping during a steady state of motion.
(iv) Inertia force, F.: It is due to the acceleration of the mass and is given by mZ.According to De
l ,
Alemberfs principle, a body which is not in static equilibrium by virtue of some acceleration
which it possess, can be brought to static equilibriumby' introduculg on it an inertia force. This
force acts through the centre of gravity of the body in the direction opposite to that of accelera
tion. " '
The equilibrium of mass m gives
mZ + CZ + KZ = F (t)
which is the equation of motion of the system. ,
2.4.1 Undamped Free Vibrations. For undamped free vibrations, the damping force and the exciting
force are equal to zero. Therefore the'"equation of motion of the system becomes .."
mZ + KZ = 0: '
, .::(2.11)
...(2.12a)
or
..
(
K
)
Z+mZ=O
...(2.12b)
The solution of this equation can be obtained by substituting"
Z = AI cos con t + Az sin cont
where AI and Az are both constant~ and conis undamped natural frequency.
Substituting Eq. (2.13) in Eq. (2.12), we get? ,
(j)~ (AI cos (j)i + Az sin (j)nt j+(~)(AI ~os oont + Az sin:oo~t) = 0
"
~
'co =:1: 
, " n m
,,' , .
The values of constants A I and A2 are obtained by supstituting proper boundary conditions. We may
nave the following two boundary conditions: ' "' '
'" . ~
(i) At time t = 0, displacement Z = Zo' and
(ii) At time 1= '0, velocity Z = V0
Substituting the first boundary condition in Eq. (2.13)
...(2.B)
"
,,'
...(2.14)
or
Now,
. "/, ; "'"..',', "'
Z
:. """':.!'",I;'j,d",. ,',:'}.., :';"h' ,,',", , " :!':"'" '"
',,' ,"""".."Arr;"'O:iI'i),+.'nji;~:J}'i"..ql.d")Jiti..j}iJ'iI.J'!,';~"; >is:.:,,,, '
':,; 'z ,=: :' AI" 00,; si~ cont + A2 C1)n'~os cont "
C.
' ...
(
2.15
)
:; j
, ...(2.16)
20
Soil Dymunics & Machine Fo"ndations
Substituting the second boundary condition.in Eq. (2.16)
V.
A =2..
2 ~
n
...(2.17)
Hence
. Vo
2 = 20 cos oont +  sin oont
. con
...(2.18)
...(2.19)
Now let.
and
20 =Azcos 9
V
2.. =A sin 9
co Z
n
...(2.20)
where
Substitution of Eqs. (2.19) and (2.20) into Eq. (2.18) yields
2 = Az cos (oont  9)
9 =tanI
(
~
) con20
...(2.21 )
...(2.22)
( )
2
2 Vo
Az = ,/20 + 
. con
The displacement of mass given by Eq. (2.21) can be represented graphically as shown in
Fig. 2.7. It may be noted that
...(2.23)
c+)
~
One cycle
Acceleration /.0,
\ % .
" y, '
" 0'
1'," /. 3
e\ 2~\ TI.r
/
2 "IT.~, 9 2lT +9 /
\ / / '\ /
" / 0 '. 0 /
~/ , V
' .
, / ' '" "
 , A
Z 0
0 isplacement "
+Az
:N
..
oN
..
N Time,t
"
1'/
velocity
()
Fig, 2.7 : Plot of displacement. velocity and acceleration for the free vibration of a massspring system
I>
'reory ilf Jl"l6iatiOns
21
At time t equal to Displacement Z is ..
0
8
Az cos 8
Az
(J)n
1t +8
L
0
0)
n
1I+8
0)
3
1t+8
2 .
AZ
0
(J)n
21t + 8
O)n
AZ
It is evident from Fig. 2.7 that nature of foundation displacement is sinusoidal. The magnitude of
maximumdisplacement is Az. The time required for the motion to repeat itself is the period of vibration,
T and is therefore given by. .
T = 21t
O)n
...(2.24)
The natural frequency of oscillation, 1" is given by
J. =1 =~ =...!.. (K
n T 21t 21t v;;
...(2.25)
Now
mg W
 ==0
K K st .
Where g = Acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 mIs2
W = Weight of mass m
°st =staticdeflectionof the spring
Therefore
...(2.26)
 I rg
In  21t Vfut
Eq. (2.27) shows that the natural frequency is a function of static deflection. The relation ofIn and
Os!given by Eq. (2.27) gives a curve as shown in Fig. 2.8.
The nature of variation of the velocity and acceleration of the mass is also shown in Fig. 2.7.
...(2.27)
I,
 .
,.,.
...~ ~.~
.n
I
22 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundiuions . :~
40
30
0
0 2 4 6
. 6stat (mm)
8 10
Fig. 2.8 : Relationship between natural frequency and static deflection
2.4.2 Free Vibrations With Viscous Damping. For damped free vibration system (i.e., the excitation
force Fo sin (J)t on the system is zero), the differential equation of motion can be written as
mZ + Cl + KZ = 0 ...(2.28)
where C is the damping constant or force per unit velocity. The solution of Eq. (2.28) may be written as
'),.t . .
Z =A e ...(2.29)
where A and Aare arbitrary constants. By substituting the value of Z given by Eq. (2.29) in Eq. (2.28),
we get
m A A2it + C A AIt + K A it = 0
2
(
C
)
K
or A + ni A+ m = 0
By solving Eq. (2.30)
C
F
C
)
2 K
. A,1,2 =  2m :i: V~~) ;;
The completesolutionof Eq. (2.28) is givenby
.
Z

A
Alt
A
' A2t '
 le + 2e
The physical significance of this solution depends upon the relative magnitudes 'of
(K/m), which determines whether the exponents are real or complex quantities.
...(2.30)
...(2.31 )
...(2.32)
2
(C/2m) and
Case I :
(
~
)
2 > K
2m m
The roots AI and A2are real and negative. The motion of the system is not oscillatory but is an
exponential subsiden~~(Fig. 2. 9). Because.of the relatively large damping, so much energyis dissipated
'..

,....
N
20
:I:

c
.....
10
Theory of Vi!'rations ,
23
by the damping force that there is sufficient kinetic energy left t~ carry the mass and pass the equilibrium
position. Physically this means a relatively large damping and the system is said to be over damped,
z
2
C > 4 km
... "
Tim(l,t
Fig. 2.9 : Free vibrations ofviscously overdamped system
Case 11 :
(
~
)
2 = K
2m m
,
The roots Al and Az are equal and negative. Since the equality must be fulfilled, the solution is
given by
Z = (AI.+ Az t) le = (AI + Az t) eCt/Zm ...(2,33)
In this case also, there is no vibratory motion. It is similar to oyer damped case except that it is
possible for the sign to change once as shown in Fig. 2010.This,case is of little importance in itself; it
assumes greater significance as a measure of the damping capacity of the system. " '
z
c2=l"km
Time,t
.,
Fig. 2. to': Free vibrations of a vlscouslycritically damped system
(
~
)
= K. C= C
2m m' c
Then Cc "=,2 ~Km". ...(2.35)
The system in this conditioonis known as ~ritically damped system anaC ~is known as critical damp
ing constant.' The ratio of the actual damping constant to the critical damping constant. is. defined as
damping ratio:
When ...(2.34)
'Now
C
~=
Cc
C  C Cc  C 2JK"m_c:'fK
2m  Cc . 2m  Cc' 2m  Cc'Vm
By substitutingthis valueof' 2: ' as ~(On in Eq. (2.31), ~~ ~et"
..
,..(2.36)
...(2.37)
.
".~.
...
. ",
, 
.. ".' r , . [.',
24
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
AI, 2 =(_;:!:~;21) COn
...(2.38)
Case III :
(
~
)
2 < K
2m m
The roots Al and Al are complex and are given by .
AI,2 = [;:!:i~I;2 ]COn
The complete solution of Eq. (2.28) is given by
 (~+j~I~2 )O>i (~j~le )(J)"I
Z  A I e + Az e
r::2 r ,
or Z = e~o>"t A j"I~2 0>,,1+ A e;~I~ O),i'
the Eq. (2.41) can be written as I e z
...(2.39)
...(2.40)
...(2.41 )
Z = e~O)", [Cl sin( (J)n~ t)+Cz cos( (J)1I~t)]
...(2.42)
or
Z = e~O)II' [Cl sin(J)ndt+CZ COS(J)ndt]
...(2.43 )
where wild = (01/ ~ 1 ; z = Damped natural frequency.
The motion of the system is oscillatory (Fig. 2.11) and the amplitude of vibration goes on decreasing
in an exponential fashion.
z
2
C < 41<m
Fig. 2.11 : Free vibrations of a viscously underdamped system
As a convenient measure of damping, we may compute the ratio of amplitudes of the successive
cycles of vibration
or
0> f,1
Z e "
L = 0> f,(t+Zn/o>"cI)
Z2 e n
Z
I
0> f,.21t/o)ncl
 = en
Zz r:2
ZI Znl;!"lf,
 =e
Zz
ZI  21t;
loge 22. ~
...(2.44 a)
or
...(2.44 b)
or
...(2.44 c)
...(2.44 d)
~ }, ",inF1': j' /," " 't~.. ' .~t .o,~; ',.
Tlreory of Vtb",tiolU
,
:)
. . Natural logarithm of ratio of two successive peak amplitudes {i,e, log, (~)} is called as logarith
mk. ,decrement. .
1 Z\ r::2
or ~=2x loge~ ' As for small valuesof~, V1~ :: 1 ...(2.44 e)
tbus, damping of a system can be obtained from a free vibration record by knowing the successive
amplitudes which are one cycle apart. .'
If the damping is very small, it may be convenient to measure the differences in peak amplitudes for
a number of cycles, say n.
In such a case, if Z" is the peak amplitudes of the n,hcycle, then
Zo Zl Z2 ZnI 0
 =  =  = . . . =  =e where~=2x~
Z\ Z2 ZJ Zn
Zo, =
[
Zo
] [
~
] [
Z2
]
..
[
Z"I
]
= eno
Zn Z, Z2 Z) Z"
Therefore,
or
Z
1
I
0 ..
~ =  oge Z
n n
Z
1
I
0..
}: =  oge.z
~ 2xn n
Hence
...(2.441)
...(2.44 g)
Therefore, a system is
over damped if ~> 1;
critically damped if ~ = 1 and
under damped if ~< 1.
2.4.3 Forced Vibrations Of Single Degree Freedom Syst~m. In many cases of vibrations caused by
rotating parts of machines, th~ systems are subjected to periodic exciting forces. Let us consider the case
of a single degree freedom sys~.:mwhich is acted upon by a steady state sinusoidal exciting force having
magnitude F and frequency 0>(i.e. F(t) = Fosin rot). For this case the equation of motion (Eq. 2.11) can
be written as :
.. .
111Z + C Z + K Z = Fo Sin ro t ...(2.45)
Eq;(2.45) is a linear, nonhomogeneous, second order differential equation. The solution of this
equation consists of two parts namely (i) complementary function, and (ii) particular integral. The
complementary function is obtained by considering no forcing function. Therefore the equation of motion
in this case will be :
.. .
m Z, + C Z, + K Z, =0 ...(2.46)
The solution of Eq. (2.46) has already been obtained in the previous st?ctioIland is given by,
ZI = eO>/"(C\sinrondt+C2cosrondt) ...(2.47)
Here ZI represents the displacement of mass m at any instant t when vibrating without any forcing
function. .
The particular integral is obtained by rewriting Eq. (2.45) as
m 2:2+ C 22 + K Z2 = Fosin rot
where Z2 = displacement of mass m a~~nYinstant t when vibrating with forcing function.
~
.;Y,
...(2.48)
8111;1'
"
26
"H,' " "
Soil Dynamics & Mac/line Foundations
; The,solution of Eq. (2A8).,\~ gi'{en by'. " ,
,,', " . ~ ',", ,,' '" t,; "
, 22 = AI sin 00t + A2cos 00' t
where AI and A2 are two, arbitrary constants.
Substituting Eq. (2.49) in ~q. (2.48) ',' 
m ( At 002sin 00t  A2002cos (0t) + C (AI 00cos 00t  A2 ID;in 00t) + K (AI sin 00t + A2cos 00t) ,
,",,' ""'='Fosin'ro,t':. : , ,..'(2.50:
Considering .sine and Cosine functions in Eq. (2.50) separately, , ' ' , ,'.,
2 " " ,; , , ' (,. ' ',' ", ,"~ .
( m AI 00 + KAt  CA2 00) sin 00t = Fo sin 00t
( m A2 002+ KA2 + CA! 00).I::osffi t,~ O. 'J"
From Eg. (2.51 a), .,
Al(~  o})  A2(~
and from Eg. (2,51 b)
A{~W )+A2(~w2) =0
Solving Egs, (2,52 a) and (2.52 b), we get
(Kmoo2) Fo
At
 2
(K  mm2) +C2m2
and A2 =  CmFo
" ". '<c, "',, >, (K~~2)2+c"2m2,"."
By substitutingJhe values 'of Al and A~"inEq::2'.49;:'
" , ' """ , : ' ," ',' , "',.."
...(2.49)
"...~ ,'" . . .:'
, "
",'
. ...(2,51 a)
,..(2.? 1 b)
.
)
F. 0,
m = Q. 0
: ',n
",(2,52 a)
...{2.52 b)
0.. '.)2.53 a)
"
...(2,53 b)
.
t '
~, ':22
':°2" ~ 2 {(K'mm2)sinmicwcosmt}
(K mm ) + Cm"
'...(2.54)
let, ' tan e = 'C 0)
Kl~cd2

, '
.,.(2.55)
By substituting Eg. (2.55) in Eg. (2.54), one can obtain
22 = Fo . sin(mt  e)
~(K~';'m2t+'c2 cii1' :" :,., "
Eg. (2.56) may be written as t . . " , ,
22 = . '.ccFo!K , . 'sin{~t "'er
~(I:!12)+(2Tl~)~.. "I , "~; . '"
. W ,',
11 = Frequency ratio =; "',,;, ".,:.' ,
n
,' ':Ci"","'G'}""::"',',_:;,~'',
~ = Dam
p
in
g
ratio = 
c
.:;=
,
' ';JKi{i . '
.., 0"'2' 'Km '
c
...(2.56)
,,' ,
, ,'!
" ..~
. " ...(2.57)
Where
,,'
""""'~!i1I"1!",?' ~"" "".",..1d."" "~~",...""."..",""."""",."""""""",,,i""'~'
.
Theory of Vibrations
. . ,'..,
~J'(,,~\'k
27
The complete solution is obtained by adding the compJimentaryfunction and the particular integral.
Since the 'coriipliIne~tarYfti~l(!tioh:lsan'expJnenii~nf'decayin~ function,:iit'will die out'soon and the
motion will be des~ribed by only the p~uticula:rmtegral(Fig. 2:i 1)'.:The syStemwill vibrate harmonically
,with the same frequency as the forcing and the pe~ ap11'1!tu4~.,is,g~ven by
F. /K '.
Az = 0 " oi
. . ", ..., ~(l~ 1]2)2+(21]~)2 ",,"', ;;"
N
.., ,~ '~','' '
"I
+'
C
~
E
~
u
0
a.
UI
....
....
,.,..
Transi~nt
, ,
0
~
211"
(;)
~
N
N
..
+'
C
~
E
~
u
0
a.
UI
0
Time.t
. "
,
'h ..'
:'1 i
." ..
;.
. . /'
;
. ..i , , #" "
'.'. ' ,.;" ~,: ,~~#"st'~c;!:t>~tatcz
4;i;"':~~.~.",;..' , :~~.::
'' ~,'
"
"
N
\
'I
\
" .
+'
C
~
E
c:.I
u
0
a.
III
Time,t
.,
'. " .
q , ','" .),
0
< , "
"
. "! ".' '.', ,', .
Co mpl~t~ solu tion
Fig. 2.12 Superpos,ition of transient and steady state vibrations
i,  ~ rr"' "'T'1iiiiii['
...(2,58)
~
" .". ,( '. ;:
, ""
~>;;;<~i:«.~..,'
28 SoU Dyrul",ks & Maehi"e Foundlltions
The quantity FelKis equal to the static deflection of the mass under force Fo' Dynamic magnification
factor, f.1is derIDedas the ratio of the dynamic amplitude Az to the static deflection. and is given by
~ = ~ 1 .  ...(2.59) 
(1112)2 +(211~)2
The variation of f.1versus 11is shown in Fig. 2.13 for different values of damping ratio ~.It would be
seen that near 11= 1, the value of f.1is maximum. This is called resonance and the forcing frequencyJat
which it occurs is called the resonant frequency.
5
~=o
t.
0
0 1.5
Frc&quc&ncy
ratio. "\.
Fie. 1.13 : Macnlficatlon factor (J&) vcnus freqllcacy ratio (11)
"0 1
I 1 "0.1

...
3 0
u
I 11 0)
c
I
....
c
0
.
..
c
u
2
.
....
.
c
Cl
c
1
Theory of Vibrations
29
Differentiating Eq. (2.59) with respect to 11and equating to zero, it can be shown that resonance will
occur at a frequency ratio given by
11= ~12~2
which is approximately equal to unity for small values of ~.
or ffind = ffin ~12~2
...(2.60 a)
...(2.60 b)
where
ffind = Damped resonant frequency
°
30
~ = 05
180°
150°
<D
120°
c:.J
C'I
C
0
c:.J 90°' r =0.707
\11
0
.J:
a..
600
0
0 '1.0 2.0 3.0
FrczquQncy ratio# rz.
Fig. 2.14: Phase Jagversus frequency ratio for different amounts of damping
, . ' . , : " ..,' ~ .
;':J '
<'., ~ ,";~,'~',{f.(;"..
30
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
'By substituting Eq. (2.60) in Eq. (2.59), the maximum value of magnification factor is obtained. It
is given by ,
I
J.lmax = 2E,~IE/
I
 2E,
Assuming a damping of 5% in a structure, its amplitude at resonance will be 10 times the static
deflection. This indicates that systems will be subjected to very large amplitudes at resonance which
should be avoided.
...(2.61 )
(For small values of;) ...(2.62)
. '. 
 
The phase angle e given by Eq. (2.55) indicates the phase difference between the motion and the
exciting force: It can}e.writt~.n~s .
I
(
211E,
)
e = Tan _
1
 2
'" . T\
Variation of e with respect to 11is shown in Fig. 2.14
...(2.63 )
2.4.3.1 Rotating mass type excitation. Machines with unbalanced rotating masses develop alternating
force as shown in Fig. 2.15 a. Since horizontal forces on the foundation at any instant cancel, the net
vibrating force on the foundation is vertical and equal to 2 me ero2sin rot, where me is the mass of each
rotating element, placed at eccentricity e from the centre <,>f rotating shaft and ro is the angular frequency
of masses. Fig. 2.15b shows such a system mounted on elastic supports with dashpot representing viscous
damping. .
12m~. ~~
Forc~ gczn~rat~d
(a) Rotating mass type excitation (b) Massspringdas~ot system
Fig. 2.15 : Single degree freedom system with rotating mass type excitation
The equation of motion can be written as
. 2
m Z + C Z + K Z = 2 111ero sin rot .
. .  e. .
where m is the mass 'of foundation including 2 me' Equations (2.64) imd (2.48) are similar, except that
2 Ill" ero2appears in Eq. (2.64) in place of Fo' The solution of Eq. (2.64) may therefore be written as,
...(2.64)
'.'; :~,(i:', '.'),' '<'F '" ". ,." ',', , ". .(\~.tJi;"":
Theory of Vibrations
where
Since
or
..
';Iile
31
Z = A; sin (0)t + 0') .
(2mee/ m)'T}2
Az = I 2 2
(1T}2) +(2~T})
2
F=2m .eO)
0 e
F (J) 2 0)2
K = 2 me . e K = 2 me . e (mro~)
...(2.65)
..(2.66)
= (2 me :}T}2
e = TanI
(
2T}\
) 111
...(2.67)
3.0
0.10
2.0
5.0
1.0
0
0 4.0 1..0 ' ,2.0, '. 3.0
Frequency ratio. 1) .
(a) Az 1(2m~elm) versus Irequency rauo 11
0° 
0
4.0 5.0
1.0 2.0 3.0
Frqquqncy ratio.,  't
(b) Phase angle versus frequencYT&tio11
Fig. 2.16 : Response,oh system with rotating unbalance
180°.
0.05
'(D
I 0.25'
...
0.50 aI
C7I
c:
0
90°
aI
U\
0
.s::.
a..
32
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
The Eq. (2.66) can be expressed in nondimensional form as given below:
A~ 1"\2

/
= ~ ...(2.68)
(2mee m) (11"\2)2+(21"\1;)2
The value of A=/(2me elm) is plotted against frequency ratio 1"\in Fig. 2.16 a. The curves are similar
in shape to those in Fig. 2.13 except that these starts from origin. The variation of phase angle e with 11
is shown in Fig. 2.16 b. Differentiating Eq. (2.68) with respect to 11and equating to zero. it can be shown
that resonance will occur at a frequency ratio given by
1
1"\=
F2e
...(2.69 a)
0011
or ro =
nd .JI=21;2 .
By substituting Eq. (2.69 a) in Eq. (2.68), we get
(
Az
)
 l'
2meelm max  21;~11;2
~ 2\ for small damping
...(2.69 b)
...(2.70)
...(2.71 )
2.5 VIBRATION ISOLATION
In case a machine is rigidly fastened to the foundation, the force will be transmitted directly to the
foundation and may cause objectionable vibrations. It is desirable to isolate the machine from the foun
'dation through a suitably designed mounting system in such a way that the transmitted force is reduced.
For example, the inertial force developed in a reciprocating engine or unbalanced forces produced in any
other rotating machinery should be isolated from the foundation so that the adjoining structure is not set
into heavy vibrations. Another example may be the isolation of delicate instruments from their supports
which may be subjected to certain vibrations. In either case the effectiveness of isolation may be mea
sured in terms of the force or motion transmitted to the foundation. The first type is known as force
isolation and the second type as motion isolation.
2.5.1 Force Isolation. Figure 2.17 s~ows a machine of mass m supported on the foundationby means of
an isolator having an equivalent stiffness K and damping coefficient C. The machine is excited with
unbalanced vertical force of magnitude 2 me eci sin 00t . The equation .ofmotion of the ~achine can be
written as:
w~ere
... 2
mZ + CZ + KZ = 2 me eoo sin 00t
The steady state motion of the mass of machine can be worked out as
2
2m eoo / K .
Z = r e 2 .sm(oot8)
(1'12). +(21"\1;)2
8 =TanI
[
2'11;2
] 1.1"\
...(2.72)
...(2.73)
...(2.74)
':;0:"<\',:,;' '' ,'t "t" "',"',' '1
Theory of Jlibrlltions
;;::
33
'~, '
~~~
Ma chine
K
2'
c
K
2
Iso lata r
Foundation
Ground surfac~
Fig. 2.17 : Machineisolatorroundation systcm
The only force which can be applied to the foundation is the spring force KZ and the damping force
. '
CZ; hence the total force tqmsmitted to the foundation during steady state forced vibration is
Ft = KZ + CZ
Substituting Eq. (2.73) in Eq. (2.75), we get
2
2m em .
F = e .sm(mt e)+
t~ 2 2
(11l) +(211~) ,
..,(2.75)
C.2me em2 /K '00 cos(mte)
2 2
(1112) +(211~)
...(2.76)
Equation (2.76) can be written as:
2 Jl+(211~)2
F = 2me em , . sin(mt  P)
t 2 2
.(1112) +(211~)
where pis the phase difference between the exciting force and the force transmitted to the foundation and
is given by , ' i
 P ~e =~~~l
[
coo
] '" r K,
, ", J 
...(2.77)
...(2.78)
~
;"": ','"o/,,'n1.."n"
',' i J " ".
34
Soil Dynamics & Machine. Foundations
Since the force 2 m e ol is the force which would be transmitted if springs were infinitely rigid, a e .
measure of the effectiveness of the i~olation mounting system is given by
. ' Ft ~1+(211~)2
IlT =2 = ~ ...(2.79) 2 meem (1112)2 + (211~)2
IlT is called the transmissibility of the system. A plot of IlTversus 11for different values of ~is shown
in Fig. 2.18. It will be noted from the figure that for any frequency ratio greater than 12, the force
transmitted to the foundation will be less than the exciting force. However in this case, the presence of
damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system as the curves for damped case are above the
undamped ones for 11>12. A certain amount of damping, however, is essential to maintain stability
under transient conditions and to prevent excessive amplitudes when the vibrations pass through reso
nance during the starting or stopping of the machine. Therefore, for the vibration isolation system to be
effective 11should be greater than 12.
4.5
4.0
1.0
. ~ =0
f =0.125
~ =0
~ =0.125
0 
0
~ =0.5
~ =1.0
~ =2.0
~ : 0.125'
I ~=0
1.0 2.0 3.0
Frczquczncyr(:itio I 1'\.
Fig. 2.18: Transmissibility (J.1r) versus freqeuncy ratio (Tt>
1
3.0
=<.
»
....

.
oD
U\
U\
.
20
E
III
C
0
...
I
,f "c"'" f ','" ,,': ,r:,,<"f:' ';:£'4/ l',,' tt~~7T{~:,
:~";
';:s:",.:';
Theory of Vibrations
35
, . . : ';' , ' ' '
2.5.2. Motion Isolation. In many situations, it would be necessary to isolate structure or mechanical
systems from vibrations transmitted from the neighboring machines. Again we require a suitable mount
ing system so that least vibrations are transmitted to the system due to the vibrating base. We consider a
system mounted through a spring and dashpot and attached to the surface which vibrates harmonically
with frequency (I)and amplitude Y0 as shown in Fig. 2.19.
Machina
z
" .
Foundation
. , ,
Iso lator
v= Yo Sin GJt
Vi brating ground.
d u (l to n (l i9 h bo u r in 9
machines
Fig. 2.19: Motion isolation system
Let Z be the absolute displacement of mass; the equation of motion of the system can be written as:
m Z+ C (2  Y) + K (Z : Y) =0 ...(2.80)
or
m Z+ K 2 .+ K Z = C Y.+ K Y = C (I) Y0 cos (I) 1 .+ K Y0 sin (I) 1
m Z'+ C 2.+ KZ = Yo ~K2.+(Cro)2 sin (rol'+ ex) ...(2.81)
or
h T
I CO)
ere ex=, an K
l:he solution of Eq. (2.81) will give the maximum amplitude as:
Z  . ~1.+(21l~)2 ,
max  Vo'~
,. , " (l'1l2)2+(21l~l
", . ) ..,' '. ,~
...(2.8?)
...(2.83)
" " . ,,' ",
18E:.
36
SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations
The effectiveness of the mounting system (transmissibility) is given by
 Zmax ~ ~1 + (2T\~)2
~T y;  ~(1T\2)2+(2T\~)2
...(2.84)
Equation (2.84) is the same expression as Eq. (2.79) obtained earlier. Transmissibilityof such system
can also be studied from the response curves shown in fig. 2.18. It is again noted that for the vibration
isolation to be effective, it must be designed in such a way that T\> .fi.
2.5.3. Materials Used In Vibration Isolation. Materials used for vibration isolation are rubber, felt.
cork and metallic springs. The effectiveness of each depends on the operating conditions.
1.5.3.1. Rubber. Rubber is loaded in compression or in shear, the latter mode gives higher flexibility.
With loading greater than about 0.6 N per sq mm, it undergoes much faster deterioration. Its damping
and stiffness properties vary widely with applied load, temperature, shape factor, excitation frequency
and the amplitude of vibration. The maximum temperature upto which rubber can be used satisfactorily
is about 65°c. It must not be used in presence of oil which attacks rubber. It is found very s' ".,ble for high
frequency vibrations.
2.5.3.2.Felt. Felt is used in compressfun only and is capable of taking extremely high loads. It has very
high damping and so is suitable in the range of low frequency ratio. It is mainly used in conjunction with
metallic springs to reduce noise transmission.
2.5.3.3. Cork. Cork is very useful for accoustic isolation and is also used in small pads placed under
neath a large concrete block. For satisfactory working it must be loaded from 10 to 25 N/sq mm. It is not
affected by oil products or moderate temperature changes. However, its properties change with the fre
quency of excitation.
1.5.3.4. Metallic springs. Metallic springs are not affected by the operating conditions or the environ
ments. They are quite consistent in their behaviour and can be accurately designed for any desired
conditions. They have high sound transmissibility which can be reduced by loading felt in conjunction 
with it. It has negligible damping and so is suitable for working in the range of high frequency ratio.
2.6 THEORY OF VIBRATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
The purpose of a vibrationmeasuring instrument is to give an output signal which represents, as closely
as possible, the vibrationphenomenon. This phenomenon may be displaceme~t, velocity or acceleration
of the vibrating system and accordingly the instrument which reproduces signals proportional to these
are called vibrometers. velometers or accelerometers.
There are essentially two basic systems of vibration measurement. One method is known as the
directly connected system in which motions can be measured from a reference surface which is fixed.
More often such a referencesurface is not available. The second system, known as "Seismic system" does
not require a fixed reference surface and therefore is commonly used for vibration measurement.
Figure 2.20 shows a Vibration measuring instrument which is used to measure any of the vibration
phenomena. It consists of a frame in which the mass ~ is supported by means of a spring K and dashpot
C. The frame is mounted on a vibrating body and vibrates al~ng with it. The systemreduces to a spring
mass dashpot system having base on support excitation as discussed in Art. 2.5.2 illustrating motion
isolation.
. .(~
Thtory of VibratiOns 37
z
m
c
K
y = Yo Sin '>t
Fig. 2.20 : Vibration measuring instrument
Let the surface S of the structure be vibrating harmonically with an unknown amplitude Y0 and an
unknown frequency (0. The output of the instrument will depend upon the relative motion between the
mass and the structure, since it is this relative motion which is detected and amplified. let 2 be the
absolute displacement of the mass, then the output of the instrument will be proportional to X =2  Y.
The equation of motion of the system can be written as
m Z+ C (Z  Y) + K(2  Y) = 0
Subtracting m Yfrom both sides,
... .. 2
m X + C X + K X =  m Y = mY0(0 sin (0t
The solution can be written as
...(2.8S) ,
..:.(2.86)
where
2
X = ~ TJ Yo sin «(0t e) (1 TJ2)2+ (2TJ~)2
(0.
11 =  = frequency ratio
(On
~ =damping ,ratio
1
(
2 TJ~
)
and e = tan 1 TJ2
Equation(2.S7)ca~ be rewrittenas:
. ,
X =1)2.J! Y0 sin «(0 t  8)
...(2.S7)
(2.,SS)
where
;°1 ">;(1..;>' ,
J! = ~1 TJ2)2+ (2T1~l
ill
38.
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundlltions
 ." '" .' . . .
2.6.1. Displacement Pickup. The instrument will read the displacement of the structure directly if
1121.1= I and 8 =O.The variation o{Tl~ with~'aiid'~is shown in Fig.2.21. The variation of8 with 1'\
is already given in Fig. 2.14. It is seen"'tnatwneifff is" large, 1'\21.1is approximately equal to 1 and 8 is
approximately equal to 180°. Therefore to design a displacement pickup, 1'\should be large which means
that the natural frequency of the instrument itself'shou~d be low compared to the frequency to be mea
sured. Or in other words, the instrument should have a soft spring and heavy mass. The instrument is
sensitive, flimsy and can be used in a weak vibration environment. The instrument can not be used for
measurement of strong vibrations.
3.0
, t
I \
I \0
I
I
. .

. 

"
2 0
,
1 .0
0 
0 1.0 2.0
3.0
4.0 5.0
FrequClncy ratio, '1.
Fig. 2.21 : Response of a vibration measuring instrument to a vibrating base
2.6.2. Acceleration Pickup (Accelerometer). Equation (2.88) can be rewritten as
. I 2
X = 2 1.1Yoro sin (rot  8)
(J,)n . '
The output of the instrument will be proportional to the acceleration of the structure if J.1is constant.
Figure 2.13 shows the variation of J.1with 1'\ and;. It is seen that J.1is approximately equal to unity for
small values of 1'\.Therefore to design an acceleration pickt!p, 11should be small which means that th~'
...(2.89)
" ",.~'n'7""~:"'"""'"
.'1::' 'lr~r\f
.........
<~
Theory of Vibrations
39
natural frequency of the instrument itself should be high compared to the frequency to be measured. In
other words, the instrument should have a stiff spring and small mass. The instrument is less sensitive
and suitable for the measurement of strong motion. The instrument size is small.
2.6.3 Velocity Pickup. Equation (2.88) can be rewritten as
1
X =  TIJ!Y0(J)sin «(J)1 0)
COn
The output of the instrument will be proportional to velocity of the structure if ~ 111l is a constant.
O)n
At 11= 1, Eq. (2.90) can be written as
1 1 . .. .1
X = 
2
~ Yo(J) sm (0)1 0) .: atTl = 1, f.1=  ...(2.91)
con ':1 .. . . 2~
Since O)nand ~are constant, the instrument will measure the velocity at 11= 1.
It may be noted that the same instrument can be used to measure displacement, acceleration and
velocity in different frequency ranges. . ,
X a Y if TI» 1 Displacement pickup (Vibrometer~)
...(2.90)
..
X a Y if 11 « lAcceleration pickup (Accelerometers)
X a Y if 11= 1 Velocity pickup (Velometers) .
Displacement and velocity pickups have the disadvantage of having rather a large size if motions
having small frequency of vibration are to be measured. Calibration of these pickups is not simple. Fur
ther. corrections have to be made in the observations as the response is not flat in the starting regions.
From the point of view of small size, flat frequency response, sturdiness and ease of calibration, accelera
tion pickups are to be favoured. They are relatively less sensitive and this disadvantage can easily be
overcome by high gain electronic instrumentation..
. .
2.6.4. Design of Acceleration Pickup. The relative displacem~nt between, the mass an~ the support
would be a measure of the support acceleration ifTl is less than 0.75 an4 ~is of the order of 0.6 to 0.7.
Of the various methods of measurement of relative displacement, .electrical gauging,:in 'whIch {he me
chanical quantity is converted into an equivalent electrical quantity is best suited for a~.<;elerationpick
ups. Electrical gauging offers the possibility of high magnification of ~e signals which are usually weak
because the spring is stiff and the displacements are small. The mechanica,l quantity alters either the
resistance, or capacitance or the inductance of the circuit which consequently alters the current in the
circuit. '
2.7 VIBRATION OF MULTIPLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS
In the preceding sections, vibrations of systems having single degree of freedomhave been discussed. In
many engineering problems, one may come across the systems which may have more than one degree of
freedom. Two degrees freedom cases arise when the foundation of the system is yielding thus adding
another degree of freedomor a spring'mass systemis attached to the main systemto reduce its vibrations.
In systems when there are a number of masses con~ected with each other, even if each mass is con
strained to have one degree of freedom, the system as a whole h~s as many degrees of freedom as there
are masses. Such an idealization is done for carrying out dyn,!mic analysis of multistoreyed buildings.
, (
40
(a) Four storeyed
frame
(b) Idealisation (c) First mode
''i.
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
(d) Second mode (e) Third mode (t) Fourth mode
Fig. 2.22 : A four storeyed frame with mode shapes
Figure 2.22 a shows the frame work of a four storeyed. building. It is usual to lump the masses at the
floor levels and the lumped mass has a value corresponding to weight of the floor, part of the supporting
system (columns) above and below the floor and effective live load. The restoring forces are provided by
the supporting systems. Figure 2.22b shows such an idealization and it gives a four degrees of freedom
system. In free vibration a system having four degrees of freedom has four natural frequencies and the
vibration of the any point in the system, in general, is a combination of four harmonics of these four
natural frequencies respectively. Under certain conditions, any point in the system may execute har
monic vibrations at any of the four natural frequencies, and these are known as the principal modes of
vibration. Figure 2.22<.to 2.221' show the four modes of vibration. If all the masses vibrate in phase (Fig.
2.22c), the mode is termed the first or lowest or fundamental mode of vibration and the frequency asso
ciated with this mode would be the lowest in magnitude compared to other modes. If all adjacent masses
vibrate out of phase with each other (Fig. 2.22£), the mode is termed the highest mode of vibration and
the frequency associated with this mode would be highest in magnitude compared to other modes.
2.7.1. Two Degrees of Freedom Systems.
2.7.1.1. Undampedfree vibration: Figure 2.23 shows a massspring system with two degrees of free
dom. Let Z\ be the displaceuent of mass ml and Z2 the displacement of mass m2' The equations of motion
of the system can be written:
In t Z\ + Kt ZI + K2 (Z\  Z2) = 0
1nl Z2 + K3 Zl + K2 (Z2  Z,) = 0
The solution of Eqs. (2.92) and (2.93) will be of the following form:
ZI=A\sinro,,( .
Z2 = A2 sin ro" t
Substitution of Eqs. (2.94) and (2.95), into Eqs. (2.92) and (2.93), yields:
(KI + K2  ml C1)~) Al  K2A2 =0
 K2 Al + (~ + KJ  m2 C1);)A2 =0
...(2.92)
...(2.93)
...(2.94 )
...(2.9S)
...(2.96)
...(2.97)
, ,
I .
~heory of Vibrations
~!'\Wm
4I
ZI
,
K?(ZZZl)
Z2
Jz~
Fig. 2.23 : Free vibration of a two degrees freedom system
For nontrivial solutions of oon in Eqs. (2.96) and (2.97),
2
Kt +K2mt ron K2
21 = 0
 K2 K2 + K3  ~ ron
. f2 9;!)
00: _
[
Kt + K2 + K2 + K3
]
O)~+ K) K2 + K2 K3+ K3K)  =0
m) ~ ml~
Equation (2.99) is quadratic in ro2, and the roots of this equation are:
n
ro~= .!.
[(
K) +K2:t K2 ~K3
)
+
{(
KI +K2 K2 +K3
)
2 + 4 K~
}
1/2
]
2 m) "'2 m) ~ mj ~
...(2.100)
From Eq. (2.100), two valuesofnatura!~!!e9~~ncies oon)and oon2can be obtained. con)is correspond
ing to the fIrst mode and COn2 is of the second mode.
or
. ,
...(2.99)
 11iiii
42
..,
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatiofls
The general equation of motion of the two masses can now be written as
Z = A(I) sin (0 t + A(2) sin (0 t
I I nl I n2
and Z = A(I) sin (0 t + A(2) sin (0 t
2 2 nI 2 n2
The superscripts in A represent the mode.
The relative values of amplitudes AI and A2 for the two modes can be obtained using Eqs. (2.96) and
(2.97). Thus
(0 2
Al  K2  K2 +KJ "'2 ffinJ
(i) 2 K
A2 KI+K2mlffinl 2
(2)' 2
A I  K2  K2 + KJ  "'2 ffin2
(2)  2  K
A2 KJ + K2  m) ffin2 2
2.7.1.2. Undampedforced vibrations. Consider the system shown in Fig. 2.24 with excitation force F
t
sin (0 t acting on mass ml. In this case, equations of motion will be:
ml Zt + Kt Zt + K2 (Zl  Z2) = Fo sin (0 t
1n2 Z2 + KJ Z2 + K2 (Z2  Z\) = 0
F0 sin G.)tl
...(2.101)
...(2.102)
...(2.103j
...(2.10{
(2.105)
...(2.106
21
22
.
Fig. 2.24 : Forced vibration of a two degrees freedom system
.. ',",y
leory of Vibrations 43
For steady state, the solutions will be as
21 =Al sin 00t
2z = Az sin 00t
Substituting Eqs. (2.107) and (2.108) in Eqs. (2.105) and (2.106), we get
Z
(KI + Kz  ml 00) AI  Kz Az = Fo
z
 Kz AI + (Kz + K3 mz 00) Az = 0
Solving for AI and Az from the above two equations, we get
z
(Kz +K3 rnz co ) Fo
A =
I
[
4
(
KI+Kz Kz+K3
)
z KIKz+KzK3+K3KI
]
ml rnz co  + co +
ml rnz mlrnz
K3Fo 
A =
z
[
4
(
KI+Kz Kz+K3
)
Z' KIKz+KzK3+K3KI
¦
mlrnz co  + co +
ml rnz m\rnz
The above t\VOequations give steady state amplitude of vibration of the ~womasses respectively, as
a function of 00. The denominator of the two equations is same. It may be noted that:
(i) The expression inside the bracket of the denominator of Eqs. (2.1110) and (2.111b) IS of the
same type as the expression of natural frequency given by Eq. (2,99). Therefore at 00= oolll and
Cl) =Cl)nZ values of A laud Az will be infinite as the denominator will become zero.
(ii) The numerator of the expression for Al becomes zero when
/K2 +KJ) Cl) = rnz ...(2.112)
Thus it makes the mass ml motionless at this frequency. No such stationary condition exists for
0 mass ml' The fact that the mass which is being excited can have zero amplitude of vibration under
certain conditions by coupling it to another spring mass system forms the principle of dynamic vibration
absorbers which will be discussed in Art. 2.8. '
...(2.107)
...(2.108)
...(2.109)
...(2.110)
...(2.111 a)
and
...(2.11Ib)
2.7.2. System With n Degrees of Freedom.
2.7.2.1. Undamped free vibrations: Consider a system shown in Fig. 2.25 having ndegree of freedom.
If Z\' 2z, Z3 ... 2n are the displacements of the respective masses at any instant, then equations of motion
are:
rn, 2( + K( Z\ + Kz (ZI  Zz) = 0
mz 2z  Kz(Z(  2z) + K3 (2z  23) = 0
...(2.113)
...(2.114)
m3 23  K3 (2z  23) + K4 (23  24) ;: 0
...(2.115)
'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mn 2n  Kn (2n  I ' 2n) = 0 ...(2.116)
".,'~'.,..~,,
",'" "' . ,c"" '; '; . "', ..; . :'; co,,,  ... n
181:.J
44
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
Z1
Z2
Z3
Kn 1
Zn1
Zn
Fig. 2.25: Undamped free vibrations of a multidegree freedom system
"'.'~..2,,~,.."t;,~.>, :"""',;,n rA';".!n~";'F."'" "'.,.,
Theory of Vibrations
The solution of Eqs. (2.113) to (2.116) will be of the follow:"'~ IO':n:
ZI = Al sin cont
Z2 = A2 sin cont
Z) = AJ sin cont
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zn =An sin cont
Substitution of Eqs. (2.117) to (2.120) into Eqs. (2.113) to (2.116), yields:
[(KI+K2)mIID~] AIK2~ =0
K2A1 + [(K2+K))~ID~] A2KJAJ =0
 KJ Az + [(KJ + K4)  mJ ID~] A)  K4 A4 = 0
, . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 Kn An  I + (Kn mnID~) An =0
For nontrivial solutions of oonin Eqs. (2.121) to (2.124),
[ (KI + Kz)  ml ID;]
K2
0
Kz
[(Kz+KJ)~ID;] '"
K)
0
0
0
0
0
0
=0
0
2
'" Kn (KnmnIDn)
0

~
45
...(2.117)
...(2.118)
...(2.119)
...(2.120)
...(2.121)
...(2.122)
...(2.123)
...(2.124)
(2.125) .
Equations (2.125) is of nthdegree in CI);and therefore gives n values of con correspondington natural
frequencies. The mode shapes can be obtained fromEq. (2.121) to (2.124) by using, at one time, one of
the various values of conas obt1incd from Eq. (2.125).
When the numht.'Tvi degreeSof freedom exceeds three, the problem of forming the frequency equa
tion and s01";~jgit for determ41ation of frequencies and mode sh<1pesbecomes tedius. Numerical tech
. J'iG.~esare invariably resorted to in such cases.
. ,
Holzer's numerical technique is a convenient method of solving the problem for the system idealized
as sho~ in Fig. 2.26. By sUI11II1iPgJfotces at free end, .
', . .
'O".::.,:=C°':"~",_, ;: "
~::===.::.~ ~:==E'~,'::.._~
If
46
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
..
m1 Z1
m2 Zz
m3 Z3
.
K.
J
m.
1 1
~_1
. Kj1(ZjZi1)
K.
1 1
m.
I
m
i+1
Fig. 2.26: An idealised multidegree freedom system
Inertia force at a level below mass mi  I
;1 ..
= ".
I
m. Z.
L...J= } }
Spring force at that level corresponding to the difference of adjoining masses
= K.
I
(
Z.  z.
1) 1 1 1
Equating Eqs. (2.126) and (2.127) .
iI ..
Lj=lmjZi = KiI (Zi ZiI)
Putting Zi = Ai sin (()t in Eq. (2.128), we get
...(2.126)
...(2.127)
...(2.128)
I'i~'t mi ( Ai U)~ sin U)n t) =Ki  I (Ai sin (Unt  Ai  I sin (Unt)
.'
'2
U)n "iI A
Ai =AiI  K £...j=lmj j
iI
Equation (2.129) gives a relationship b~tween any two succ~sive amplitudes. Starting with any
arbitraryvalueof AI' amplitudeof all othermassescanbe deterinined. Aplot of An+ 1 versus (0~ would
have the shape as shown in Fig. 2.27. Finally An + I should worked out to zero' ~ue to fIXityat the base.
The intersection of the curve with (0~ axis would give various val~~s.pfQ);.~ode $ape.can be obtained
.. .. . .
by substituting the correct value of (O~in Eq. (2.129).
...(2.129)
or
iI
m1
.J
K1
I
ml
K2
Theory of Vibrations
47
1.0
~
t
' ..
J +
J c:
~«
~
1:
0
(..)2
n.
1.0
2
wn1
2
""nz

Fig.~7: Residual a~a flinction of frequency in Holzer method
2.7.2.2. Forced vibration. Let an undamped n degree of freedom systembe subjectedto forced vibration,
and Fj (t) represents the for~e on mass mr The equation of motion for the mass mj will be
n
m. Z. + I K.. Z. = F.
( t)
I I =1 IJ ) ,
where i = 1,2,3, , n
...(2.130)
The amplitude of vibration of a mass is the algebraic sum of the amplitudes of vibration in various
modes. The individual modal response would be some fraction of the total response with the sum of
fractions being equal to unity. If the factors by which the modes of vibration are multiplied are repre
sented by the coordinates d, then for mass mj'
 (1) (2) (r) (n)
Z.  A. d
1
+ A. d
2
+ ... + A. d +... + A. d
'" 1 r ,n
Equation (2.131) can be written as
...(2.131 )
n
Z. = I A~r) d
' r=l ' r
Substituting Eq. (2.132) in Eq. (2.130)
...(2.132)
n (r) .. n n (r)
Im. A. d + I I K.. A. d  F. (
t
)
I ,r 'I 1 r ,
r=1 r=1 j=l . .
Under free vibrations, it can be shown
n (r)  2 (r)
~ Kij Aj  oonr mj Aj
1=1
...(2.133)
...(2.134)
Substituting Eq. (2.134) in Eq. (2.133), we get
n (r) .. n 2 (r) 
ImjAj dr + I oonrmjAj dr  Fj(t)
r=1 r=l
..(2.135)
or
n (r)'. 2 
ImjAj (dr+oonr.dr) Fj(t)
r=l
...(2.136)
l' .'T .~ ""}' ")J'!!I~'
~,
48 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
Since the left hand side is a summation involving different modes of vibration, the right hand side
should also be expressed as a summation of equivalent force contribution in corresponding modes.
Let F; (t) be expanded as:
Fj (t) = i mj A~r) fr (t)
r=1
where fr (t) is the modal force and given by
...(2.137 a)

"J
n
Ili (t) .A~r)
fr(t) = i~1 Z
Lm[(A~r»)]
;=1
Substituting Eq. (2.137 a) in Eq. (2.136), we get
.. z
dr + O}nrd,. =fr (t)
Equation (2.138) is a single degree freedom equation and its solution can be written as
1 I
dr =  J fr Ct) sinO}nr(t 1:) dt where 0 < 1:< I
0}nr 0
It is observed that the coordinate d, uncouples the n degree of freedom system into n systems of
single degree of freedom. The d's are termed as normal coordinates and this approach is known as
normal mode theory. Therefore the total solution is expressed as a sum of contribution of individual
modes.
(2.137 b)
(2.138)
..(2.139)
2.8 UNDAMPED DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBER
A system on which a steady oscillatory force is acting may vibrate excessively, especiallywhen close to
resonance. Such excessive vibrations can be eliminated by coupling a properly designed spring mass
sytem to the main system. This forms the principle of undamped dynamic vibration absorber where the
excitation is finally transmitted to the auxiliary system, bringing the main system to rest.
Let the combination of K and M be the schematic representation of the main systemunder consid
eration with the force F0 sin CJ}t acting on it. A spring  mass (auxiliary) absorber system is attached to the
main system as shown in Fig. 2.28. The equations of motion of the complete system can be written as:
MZ1 + KZI + Ko (ZIZZ) = Fa sin rot
...(2.140)
...(2.141)
moZZ+Ka(ZIZZ) =0
The forced vibration solution will be of the form
ZI =Al sin rot
~ = Azsin rot
Substitution of Eqs. (2.142) and (2.143) in Eqs. (2.140) and (2.141) yields
Al (M0}2 + K+ Ka)KaAZ = Fa
KnAI + Az (mnO}Z+ Kn) =0
...(2.142)
...(2.143)
...(2.144)
(2.145)
"

" """'.".
Theory of Vibrations
Subtituting:
Z2
ma
Absor ber
syst <zm
Ka
Z1
M
Main
syst<zm
Fig. 2.28 : Vibration absorber
F
ZSl = 2... = Staticdeflectionof main system
K
2 Ka
ro =  =Natural freqeuncy of the absorber
na ma
K .
ro~ = M = Natural frequency of mam system
m
Ilm = .Jl.. = Mass ratio = Absorber massIMain mass
M
The Eqs. (2.144) and (2.145) can be written as
(1
K{/ <i
)
K{/
A
I
+ A
2
 =Z
K <.02 K SI
n
A2 =
(
1:~:
) $*
and
Solving Eqs. (2.146) and (2.147) for At and A2' we get
Cil
1
2
~t. =
(
L 2
)
'
(
; ro
K
' no  2
)
'
K
Si ro ro'
, <, n' " ", ~ ~
, " .,".. ld"2. 1+ K" 2 K'
 rona ron
, J
.
.49
...(2.146)
...(2.147)
...(2.148)
I ".
i
, "..",., "~t'u'",.'."',,
50
SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundlltions
~~ ~ ( ro')( ~..~' )
K
1 OO~a 1+ i  oo~ ~
lithe natural frequency oonaof the absorber is chosen equal to 00 i.e. frequency of the excitatipnforce,
it is evident from Eq. (2.148) that Al = 0 indicating that the main mass does not vibrate at all. Further
Eq. (2.149) gives
...(2.149)
Az  K
Zst  Ka
or Az Ka =  K Zst ...(2.150)
Thus the absorber system vibrate in such a way that its spring force at all instmts is equal and
opposite to F0 sin 00 t. Hence, there is no net force acting on main mass M and the same therefore does
not vibrate.
The addition of a vibration absorber to a main system is not much meaningful unless the main
system is operating at resonance or at least near it. Under these conditions, 00= oon'But for the absorber
to be effective, 00should be e
q
ual to 00 .
na
Therefore, for the effectiveness of the absorber at the operating frequency corresponding to the natu
ral frequency of the main system alone, we have
or
oona = ,oon ...(2.151 a)
Ko = K
ma M
...(2.151 b)
K m
or !L=!!..=Ii ...(2.151 e)
K M t"'m
When the condition enumerated in Eqs. (2.151) is fulfilled, the absorber is known as a tuned
absorber. .
For a tuned absorber, Eqs. (2.148) and (2.149) become:
(
002
J
1 
~,: ~ ( 00') ( OO~a00' J
1 y 1+Jlm y  Jlm
OOna OOna
...(2.152)
~: = ( 00') ( I 00' )
1 y 1+Jlm y  Jlm
OO"a OOna
The denominators of Eqs. (2.152) and (2.153) are identical. At a value of 00when these denomina
tors are zero the two masses have infinite amplitudes of vibration. Let when00= oonl' the denominators
becomes zero. For this condition the expression for the denominators can be written as
..(2.153)
 .. .~ ..., ~ ..
~.
Theory of Vibrations
51
(
OOnt
)
4<2+llm)
(
OOnt
)
2 +1 =0
OOna <Ona
...{2.154)
The Eq. (2.154) is quadratic in <0;1' and therefore there are two values of oonl for which the denomi
nators ofEqs. (2.152) and (2.153) become zero. These two frequencies are the natural frequencies of the
3ystem. Solution of Eq. (2.154) gives:
(:J ~ (1+~2m)~J~m+~4~
1.6
...(2.155)
1.2
_1.4
_
1
°
c c
33
1.0
0.8
0.6
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Mass ratio }.Im
Fig. 2.29: Natural frequency ratio versus mass ratio
The relationships of Eq. (2.155) is plotted in Fig. 2.29. From this plot, it is evident that greater the
mass ratio, greater is the spread between the two resonant frequencies. The frequencyresponse curve for
themainsystemisshowninFig. 2.30fora valueof ~'"=0.2. The dotted curves shown actually mean that
the amplitude is negative or its phase difference with respect to the exciting force is 1800. It can be
noticed from this figure that by attaching a vibration absorber {oona= (On)to the main system vibrating
at resonance reduces its vibration to zero. Now if the exciting frequency is absolutely constant, the
system will work efficiently. Any change in the exciting frequency will shift the operating point from the
optimum point and the main system response will no longer be zero. It may be noted that by adding the
vibration absorber, we have introduced two resonant points instead of one in the original system. Now
I :::w;' Hr.
52
!IIZ~
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
if the variation of the exciting frequency is such that the operating point shifts near one of the new
resonant points, then amplitudes will be excessive. Thus depending upon the variation of the exciting
frequencies the spread between the two resonant frequencies has to be decided to remain reasonably away
from the resonant points. After deciding the spread between the resonant frequencies, a proper value of
!J.mcan be chosen from the curve of Fig. 2.29. Undamped dynamic vibration absorbers are not suitable for
varying forcing frequency excitation. To make the vibration absorber effective over an extended range of
frequencies of the disturbing force, it is advantageous to introduce a damping device in the absorber
system. Such an absorber system is called a damped dynamic vibration absorber.
8
6
...
<I~ 4,
z
1.0
0
0
}Jm=0.20
\
'
2.0 2.5 1.5
0.5 1.0
G.)nl
(.Una
The Eq. (2.154) can also be written as
Fig. 2.30 : Response versus frequency of a vibration absorber
~m J~)lr
( )
2
(J) nl
(J) //(/
...(2.156)
Theory of Vibrations
53
t ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLEs!
Example 2.1
The motionof a particle is representedby the equationz =20 sin rot. Show the relative positions and
magnitudes of the displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors at time t = 0, and ro= 2.0 rad/s and
0.5 rad/s.
Solution:
Z =20 sin rot
Z = 20 ro cos rot = 20 ro sin lrot + ~ )
 2 2
Z = 20 ro sin rot =20 ro sin (w t + 1t)
The magnitudes of displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors are 10, 10 ro and 10 ro2 respec
tively. The phase difference is such that the velocity vector leads the displacement vector by 1t /2 and the
acceleration vector leads the velocity vector by another 1t/2. Figures 2.31 a and 2.31b show the three
vectors for ro=2.0 and O.?Orad/s respectively. I 20 (Vel.)
40 (Accln.)
10(oispl.)
(a) G..)= 2.0 rod/sec
s(Vel.)
. ~/z ".
2.S(Acc!n.) 10(OlspL)
( b) CV= 0.5 rod I se c
Fig. 2.31: Vector diagram (Example 2.1)
21t 21t
Time period =  = =1t s
ill 2
for ro= 2.0 rad/s
21t 21t
Time perIod =  = =41ts
ill (0.5)
for ro = 0.5 rad/s
Example 2.2
A bodyperforms,simultaneously,the motions
Zl (mm) = 20 sin 8.0 t
Z2 (mm) = 21 sin 8.5 t
Determine the maximwn an~ minimum)~1itude of the combuled motion, and the time period of the
periodic motion.
~~tm~f~dJ "T'f:ifrir" """"";"~'.'.<f:;:F;;':.;;,:Jijj~ .
,.,'!.,!,,~,~~
'111""
54
Soil Dynamics & Machine 'Foundations
Solution:
Z = 21 + 20 = 41 mm
max
Z . = 21  20 = 1 mm
mm
The beat frequency is given by
8.58.0 0.5
1= 21t = 21t = 0.0795 Hz, and
T = 2..  21t
I  0.5 = 41t = 12.57 s
Example 2.3
A mass of 20 kg when suspended from a spring, causes a static deflection of 20 mm. Find the natural
frequency of the system.
Solution:
Stiffness of the spring, K = W
~\t
20 x 9.81 ::::104 N/m
K = 20xl0J
1[K
Natural frequency,In = 21t V;
~ 1 ~1O4 21t 20 = 3.6 Hz.
KZ
Example 2.4
For the system shown in Fig. 2.32, determine the natural
frequency of the systemif
K1
Kt = 1000 N/m
Kz = 500 N/m
KJ = 2000 N/m
K4 = Ks = 750 N/m
Mass of the body = 5 kg
Solution:
Let Ket and Ke2represent respectively the effective stiffnesses
of the top three springs and the lower two springs, then
K3
1 1 1 1
 = ++
Kel Kt Kz KJ
K4,
KS
=~+~+~ .
1000 500 2000 0.0035 ". 'Fig. 2.32:"MuHpriags system
~
.....
~_'".,~._.........__....
. .....
...

Theory of Vibratimrs
55
Kel = 285.7 N/m
Ke2 = K4 + Ks = 750 + 750 = 1500N/m
Now Kel and Ke2are two springs in parallel, therefore effective stiffness,
Ke =Kel + Ke2:;:: 285.7 + 1500 = 1785.7 N/m
f. ~ ~. /K = ~~1785.7 = 3.0Hz n 21tV;; 21t 5.0
Example 2.5
A vibrating system consists of a mass of 5 kg, a spring stiffness of 5 N/mm and a dashpot with a damping
coefficient of 0.1 Ns/m. Determine (i) damping ratio and (ii) logarithmic decrement.
Solution:
(i)
Cc = 2 ~km = 2J5x 103 x 5 = 0.319 Ns/m
J: C 0.1
~=C=0.319=0.313
c
(in
27t~  27t.x0.313 = 2.07
Lograthimic decrement = ~1 ~2  ~ 1 0.3132
, ,
Z
log ::,..l =2.07
eZ
2
~ =7.92
Z2
Therefore the free amplitude in the next cycle decreases by 7.92 times.
Example 2.6
A mass attached to a spring of stiffness of 5 N/mm has a viscous damping device. When the mass was
displaced and released, the period of vibration was found to be 2.0 s, and the ratio 01 the consecutive
amplitudes was 10/3. Determine the amplitude and phase angle when a force F = 3 sin 4 t acts on the
system. The unit of the force is Newton. .
Solution:
i.e.
or,
(ii)
. 27t~ ZI 10 .
1 ~2 =loge Z2 = loge 3 = 1.2
~ =0.195
TII = 2.0S
21t 21t
(lJ n = T = '2 = 3.14 radls
(lJ = 4.0 rad/s
T1 ='~'= 4.0 = 1.273
. ID 3.14
n
.' i.:' F 3.0
, Fo = 3.0N; AsI= 9..=  = 0.6mm.
. '.' .,', .;..",fi..,;'! "."K. 5.0 t:<,'..'""
(i)
..
'.
.
, =., ,.;".,'~ ""'~.~ ~~,,~, ..'>,:;<..."". ","..;g""~,,;,;~,,,,:.u ,.~~
56
Soil Dynamics & Machine' Foundations
From Eq. (2.58),
A
Az = ~ 2 t . 2; Asl = Static Deflection ; (111) +(2~11) . " . . , '
= '. 0.6 , ~Q.755llll11
~(11.2732)2 +(2 x.0.195 x 1.273)2
T
I
(
211~
)
T
1'
(
2 x 1.273 x 0.195
)
e = an r = an 2 = 141.4°
111 11.273
Example 2.7
Show that, in frequency  dependent excitation the damping factor ~is given by the followingexpres
S1On:
): .: ..!.
(
12~ 11
J ~  2 2/n
Where 11 and12 frequencies at which the amplitUdeis 1/.J2times the peak amplitude.
Solution:
In a forced vibration test, the system is excited with constant force of excitation and varying frequencies.
A response curve as shown in Fig. 2.33 is obtained.
0.09
0.05
Amox = 0.084
0.08
E
E 0.07
"
C:I
"'0
::J

c. 0.06
E
et
0.04
10
. . n, ,
Fig. 2.33: Determination of viscous damping in forced vibrations by Bandwidth method
.
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
f1 I fn Ifl
14 18 22 24
F r (Zq u (Zn c y .,0f (Zxci to t ion, Hz
"
Th~o,.,of v~,!s
57
At resonance, 11= 1 ana A~I Zst = 1/2~(for small values of ~). If the frequency ratio is T\when
amplitude of motion is 1/..[i times the peak amplitude, then fr~m Eq. 2.59, we get
I 1 1
.J2' 2~ = 4(1 :"112)2+4~2 ~2
or 1142112(1 2~2) + (1 8~J) = 0
or 11~,2= ~[2(12~2):t~4(12~2)2_4(18~2)]
;, (1  2~2):f:2~~1+ ~2
11~11i = 4~~1~2 =4~
1  2 = Il 112=
(
1211
) (
12+I.
) 112 111 In2 In In
(
I  J;
)
1 + f
=2 2 . since 2 . =2
In In
Now
[for small values of~]
Also
~ = !
(
Iz  11
) 2 In
This methodfor determiningviscousdamping is knownas the band width method.
Example 2.8 .
A machine of mass 100 kg is supported on springs of total stiffness of 784 N/mm. The machine produces
an unbalanced disturbing force of 392 N at a speed 50 c/s. Assuming a damping factor of 0.20, determine
(i) the amplitude of motion due to unbalance,
(ii) the transmissibility, and
(iii) the transmitted force.
Therefore
'Solution:
( i)
, 184 x 103
(J)II = ~KI m = ..'/ " ==87.7 rad/s
, V 100
, 00= 21t x 50 =314 rad/s
Now
00  ,314 = 3.58
,'n =;., ~ 87.7" '
UJln; ,
, Fi) ' 392 '= 0.5 'innl
" ~st ~ ~  ,;784,
, , ' ;. : :'?it .
'.  2
.Az ==4(~.~2l'+(2T\~)

= ,0.5
'~(1'3582)2 +(2 x 3.58x 0.2)2 = 0.042 mm
" " .'
~'\, ",', ',','. ':;' cc:
, .
..  
.~
"'; ~~~,~"F.

58
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foulldations
~1+(211~)2
(ii) Transmissibility JlT = ~(1n2)2 +(211~)2
 ~1+(2X3.58XO.2)2
 ~(13.582)2 +(2 x 3.58 x 0.2)2
==0.1467
(hi) Force transmitted = 392 x 0.1467 = 57.5 N.
Example 2.9
The rotor of a motor having mass 2 kg was running at a constant speed of 30 c/s with an eccentricity of
160 mm. The motor was mounted on an isolatorwith damping factor of 0.25. Determine the stiffness of
the isolator spring such that 15%of the unbalanced force is transmitted to the foundation. Also ~etermine
the magnitude of the transmitted force. '.
Solution:
(i) Maximum force generated by the motOi
= 2 me eo:? = 7. x 2.0 x 0.16 x (21t x 30/ = 22716 N
= 22.72 kN
:ii)
Force transmitted
Jl = = 0 15
T unbalancedforce .
. ~1 +4112~2 .
I.e. ~ . = 0.15 (1 112)2+ (211~)2
or 1 + 4112 x (0.25)2 = (0.15)2 [(1 r 112)2+ (211 x 0.25)2]
or 114  12.84112  43.44 = 0
It gives
(0
11= 3.95 i.e. ; = 3.95
"
(0 601t
(0" = .JK/ m = 3.95 = 3.95 = 47.7 rad/s
K = m (47.7)2 =:=2.0 x (47.7)2 = 4639 N/m
(iii) Force transmitted to the foundation
Therefore
= 0.15 x 22.72 = 3.4 kN.
Example 2.10
A seismic instrument with a natural frequency of 6Hz is used tomeasure the vibration of a machine
running at 12.9rpm. The in~trumentgives the reading for th~r~lative displacement of the seismic mass
as 0.05 mm. Determine the amplitudes of displacement: velo'city and acceleration of the vibrating ma
chine. Neglect damping.
~;,:,~ .;,~
'/reory 01 v.ibrations
59
';olution :
(i)
CJJ = 6 Hz = 37.7 rad/s
n
120 x 21t
(J) = 120 rpm = =' 12 57 rad/s
60 .
'1 = 12.57 = 0.333
37.7
1
~ =  for ~=0
1 ,,2 ,
1
= = 1.125
1 (0.333)2
(ii) For displacement pickup, Eq. (2.88) gives
2
X=,,~yo
0.05 = (0.333)2 x 1.125 x Yo
or Yo = 0.40 mm
(iii) For velocity pickup, Eqo (2.91) gives'
or
1
X =  11~ (Y 00)
00 0
n
0.333 x 1.125x (Yo 00)
0.05 = (37.7)
or o. 0 (Y 000) = velocity = 5.03 ,mm/s
(iv) For acceleration pickup, Eq. (2.89) gives
X ='4 (YOOO2)
, OOn ' ,
I.e,
0.05 = 1.125 (Y 002)
(37.7)2 0
(Y() 002) = Acceleration = (37.7)2 x 0.05 = 63.17 mm/S2
1.125
or
Example 2.11
Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system represented by a mathematical mod~1
shown in Fig. 2.34 a.
,/
. , co:" '1,,';
, ~:::."'O'~,""""", ,~>=j"~
, i
J
60 Soil Dynamics & Machi'Je FOUlrilatiolls
j
+1
+ 1
(a) Two degrees freedom system (b) First mode (c) Second mode
Fig. 2.34 : Two degrees freedom system with mode shapes
Solution:
(i) The system shown in Fig. 2.34a is a two degree freedom system. The solution of such a system
has already been described in Art. 2.7. '
(ii) The two natural frequencies of the system can be obtained using Eq. (2.100) by putting KI = K,
Kz = 2 K and KJ = K, and mI = m2 = m. By doing this, we get
(02 = .!.
[(
3K + 3K
)
_
{
4 ~ (2 K)2
}
\l2
)
= K
III 2 m m ,m2 m
(02 = .!.r
l
6K + 4K
]
= 5.K
112 2 m, m , m,
Hence, COni= .JK/ m and CiJ~2?:, [sK/.m , " .,' '
(iii) The relative values of amplitudes Al and ~ 'for the two modes can be obtainedusing Eqs.
(2.103) and (2.104). . . '
,}~~r .
,,"
;, ,:;. ..
' '''
. ~."
eory of Vtbtalions_/
6i
A(1) K . 2K
1= 2 = =+1
A(l) K +K m o:l K+2Km x K/m
2 1 2 1 nl
A~2) 2K
A (2) = K + 2 K m x 5K / m = 1
2
. The mode shapes are shown in Fig. 2.34 band 2.34 c.
B:xample2.12
Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the systemrepresented by the mathematical moqel
shown in Fie. 2.35 a.
0.761
1.0
(a) Three degree freedom system
(b) First mode
(c) Second mode
(d) Third mode
Fig. 2.35 : Three degrees freedom system with mode shapes
Solution:
(i) Equations of motion for the three masses can be written as
m 21 + K 21 + 2 K (21  22) =0
m 7..2 + 2 K (22  21) + K (22  Z3) = 0
m 23'+ K (23  22) =0
For steadystate, the solutionswit be as
2t =At sin ront
~ =~ sin ron t
23 =A3 sin ront
...(2.157 a)
.~:(2.157 b)
...(2.157 c)
'
,
."
";". ;:
.
...(2.158 a)
...(2.158 b)
...(2.1"58 c)
.1'
~;.
'~""~"~=' ~ :::."'::::""'c.:: .:"
_._
~
.~ ~ 
'W;;i'i~!~:t'jj
'11
,"
62
Soil Dynamics & Machine Follndations
substituting Eqs. (2.158) in Eqs. (2.157), we get
., .
(3 K  111oo~) Al  2 K A2 = 0
?KA( +(3Kmoo~)A2KA3'=O
 K A2 + (K  111 co;) A3 = 0
For nontrivial solutions of 00/1in Eqs. (2.159)
...(2.159a),
...(2.159 b)
...(2.159 c)
...(2.160)
.,
" . IIIW
Pllttll1~ A = !l E
g. (2.160) become as
~ K
or
...(2.161 a)
...(2.161 b)
Eg. (2.161 b) is cubic in A. The values of A are worked out as
A( = 0.238; A2= 1.637; and A) = 5.129
00/1( = .J0.238Kl m; CO/l2=.J1.637 Kl m; and 00/13 =~5.129 Kl m
Therefore,
(ii) Egs. (2.159) in terms of A can be written as
(3  A) Al  2 A2 = 0
 2 AI + (3  A) A2  A) = 0
 A2 + (1  A) A3 =0
A = 0.238
...(2.162a)
...(2.162 b)
...(2.162 c)
For r mode:
Eg. (2.162 a) gives
" AI
(3  0.238) AI  2 A2 = 0 or A =0.724
2
Eg. (2,162 h) gives
 2 x 0.724 A2 t(3  0.238) Az  AJ =0
A2 '
A = 0.761
3
, ,
.'
or

"
,'.1 "iI; ' ", (..'
.,
0
3K11l00 2K
/I
2K "'K 2
K 1=0
' moo/l
0 K
2
Kmcon
3A 2 0
2 3A
1 I
=0
0 1 IA
3 2
f.  7 A + lOA  2 = 0
:," 'h, , .\
Theory of Vibrations
63
Assuming Al = a, A2 = 1.381 a and A) = 1.815 a
:. Al : A2 : A) = a : 1.381 a : 1.815 a
= 1: 1.381: 1.815
;::;0.551 : 0.761 : 1
Similarly,
For II mode; A. = 1.637
Al : A2 : A) =  0.933:  0.635 : 1, and
For III mode: A.= 5.129
Al : A2 : A) = 3.891 :  4.14 : 1
The mode shapes are plotted in Figs. 2.35 b, 2.35 c and 2.35 d,
Example 2.13
A small reciprocating machine weighs 50 kg and runs at a constant sp~~d of 6000 rpm. After it was
installed, it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to th~}latural frequency of the system.
What dynamic absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least
20 percent from the forcing frequency.
Solution:
(i)
21t N 2Tt x 6000 = 628 rad/s
ill = W "" 60
At the time of installation of machine,
Forcing frequency ==Natural frequency of system
~= 628
2
K = m x 628
= 50 x 6282 = 201 x 105 N/m
Therefore,
or
(ii) Aner adding the vibration absorber to the system, the natural frequency becomes (1 :i:0.2) 628
i.e. 753.6 rad/s or 502.4 rad/s
For tuned absorber:
ma Ka
M = K = JIM
Now from Eq. (2.156)
J(:,:JIf
JInl ~
) l;;:)
illnl = 0.8
0)//(/
.
64
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
2
}
2
{(0.8) 1 = 0.2025
 2
Jlm 0.8
and when (Onl = 1.2
(Ona
{(1.2)2 1}2
Jl = 2 = 0.134
m 1.2
Adopting the higher value of Jlm
Ka = 0.2025 x 201 x 105 = 40.7 x 105 N/m
ma = 0.2025 x 50 = 10.12 kg
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
2.1 A single degree (massspringdashpot) system is subjected to a frequency dependent oscillatory
force (m eo (02sin (0f). Proceeding from fundamentals, derive the expression of the amplitude
of the system.
2.2 'Presence of damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system'. Is this statement true?
If yes, explain with neat sketches. .
2.3 Give two methods of determining 'damping factor' of, a single degree freedomsystem.
2.4 Starting from fundamentals~explain the principles involved in the design of (i) Displacement
pickup, (if) Velocitypickup,and (iif) Accelerationpickup. Illustrateyour answerwithneatsketches.
2.5 Describe the principles involved in a 'tuned dynamic vibration absorber'. Illustrate your answer
with neat sketches. Discuss clearly its limitations.
2.6 A mass of 25 kg when suspended from a spring, causes a static deflection of 25 mm. Find the
natural frequency of the system. Ans. (20 rad/s)
2.7 A spring mas system (K\, m) has a natural frequency of f\. ~fa second spring of stiffness K2 is
attached in series with the first spring, the natural frequency becomes f\/2. Determine K2 in
terms ofK\. Ans. (K/3)
2.8 A mass of 5 kg is attached to the lower end of a spring whose upper end is fixed. The nawral
period of this system is 0.40s. Determine the natural period when a mass of 2.5 kg is attached
to the mid point of this spring with the upper and lower ends fixed. Ans. (0.14 sec)
2.9 Determine the differential equation of motion of the system shown in Fig. 2.36. The moment of
inertia of weight W about the point 0 is Jo' Show that th~ system becomes unstable when:
K.a
b
>
 W
..
.'1
14
s.u
/JyruuIfics & Machine Foundations
The forms of vibration mainly depend on the mass, stiffness distribution and end conditions of the system. To study the response of a vibratory system, in many cases it is satisfactory to reduce it to an idealized system of lumped parameters. In this regard, the simplest model consists of mass, spring and dashpot This chapter is framed to provide the basic concepts and dynamic analysis of such systems. Actual field problems which can be idealized to massspringdashpot systems, have also been included.
2.2 DEFINITIONS 2.2.1 Vibrations: If the motion of the body is oscillatory in character, it is called vibration.
. ,

2.2.2 Degrees of Freedom: The number of independent coordinates which are required to define the position of a system during vibration, is called degrees of freedom (Fig. 2.2).
m
~
KI
D:
(a) One degree of freedom
(b) Two degrees offreedom
Z,
Z2
.
 ,
. .~
Z)
~ PBBP P@;J

 J.., . (c) Three degrees of freedom' . (d) Six degrees 'offreedon~ (e) Infinite degrees offreedom ' , , . .: .',n ,, t ~ "'_~ Fig. 2.2' :'Systems with different degrees of freedom
Theory of Vibrations
15
2.2.3 Periodic Motion: If motion repeats itself at regular intervals of time, it is called periodic motion. 2.2.4 Free Vibration: If a system vibrates without an external force, then it is said to undergo free vibrations. Such vibrations can be caused by setting the system in motion initially and allowing it to move ~~~~~. . 2.2.5 Natural Frequency: This is the property of the system and corresponds to the number of free oscillations made by the system in unit time. 2.2.6 Forced Vibrations: Vibrations that are developed by externally applied exciting forces are called forced vibrations. These vibrations occur at the frequency of the externally applied exciting force. 2.2.7 Forcing Frequency: This refers to the periodicity of the external forces which acts on the system during forced vibrations. This is also termed as operating frequency. 2.2.8 Frequency Ratio: The ratio of the forcing frequency and natural frequency of the system is referred as frequency ratio. 2.2.9 Amplitude of Motion: The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from the mean position is
amplitudeof motion.
.
,
2.2.10 Time Period: Time taken to complete one cycle of vibration is known as time period. 2.2.11 Resonance: A system having n degrees of freedom has n natural frequencies. If the frequel}cyof excitation coincides with anyone of the natural frequencies of the system, the condition of resonance occurs. The amplitudes of motion are very excessive at resonance. 2.2.12 Damping: All vibration systems offer resistance to motion due to their own inherent properties. This resistance is called damping force and it depends on the condition of vibration, material and type of the system..If the force of damping is constant, it is t&med Coulomb damping. If the damping force is proportional to the velocity, it is termed viscous damping. If the damping in a system is free from its material property and is contributed by the geometry of the system, it is called geometrical or radiation damping. 2.3 HARMONIC MOTION Harmonic motion is the simplest form of vibratory motion. It may be described mathematically by the following equation: ...(2.1) Z = A sin (rot  0)
N
L r
T:2!!Go)
Timq.t
'. .,
c
Fig. 2.3 : Quantities describing harmonic motion
;.
:'~f,t;,\r.j '~~!.
16
Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations
The Eq. (2.1) is plotted as function of time in Fig. 2.3. The various terms of this equation are as follows: Z = Displacement of the rotating mass at any time t A = Displacement amplitude from the mean position, sometimes referred as single amplitude. The distance 2 A represents the peaktopeak displacementamplitude,sometimesreferred to as double amplitude, and is the quantity most often measured from vibration records. ro = Circular frequency in radians per unit time. Because the motion repeats itself after 21tradians, the' frequency of oscillation in terms of cycles per unit time will be ro/21t.It is denoted by f 8 = Phase angle. It is required to specify the time relationship between two quantities having the same frequency when their peak values ha'ving like sign do not occur simultaneously. In Eq. (2.1) the phase angle is a reference to the time origin. More commonly, the phase angle is used as a reference to another quantity having the same frequency. For example, at some reference point in a harmonically vibrating system, the motion may be expressed by ...(2.2) ZI = AI sin rot Motion at any other point in the system might be expressed as Z,I = A,I sin ( rot'e, I) ...(2.3 ) with 1t ~ 8 ~  1t. For positive values of 8 the motion at point i reaches its peak within one half cycle after the peak motion occurs at point 1. The angle 8 is then called phase lag. For negative values of 8 the peak motion at i occurs within one half cycle ahead of motion at 1, and 8 is called as phase lead. The time period, T is given by 1 21t T==f ro The velocity and acceleration of motion are obtained from the derivatives of Eq. (2.1.). dZ . Velocity =  = Z = roA cos (rot 8) dt = roA sin (rot 8 + ~) 2 2 d Z .. = r = Z = ro A sin (rot 8) dt
...(2.4)
...(2.5)
Acceleration
...(2.6)
= ro2 (sin rot  e + 1t) A Equations (2.5) and (2.6) show that both velocity and acceleration are also harmonic and can be represented by vectors roA and ol A; which rotate at the same speed as A, i.e. ro rad/unit time. These, however, lead the displacement and acceleration vectors by 1tI2and 1trespectively. In Fig. 2.4 vector representation of harmonic displacement, velocity and acceleration is presented considering the displacementas the referencequantity(8 = 0).
, .J
(.,..~4",tt
",C.. ., .,~;< r'l!\"k. . ',", . ,~Ii<i"
Theory of Vibrations
N
17
z,z,z
+' C ~
..
E
~
v 0
0
TimtZ,t
a. UI
oN
... >+'
>
v 0 ~
Ti mtZ,t
0
.... c:,I c:,I
c 0
Timcz,t
.et
Fig. 2.4: Vector representation of harmonic displacement. velocity and acceleration
v 0
When two harmonic motions having little different frequencies are superimposed. a non harmonic motion as shown in Fig. 2.5 occurs. It appears to be harmonic except for a gradual increase and decrease in amplitude. The displacement of such a vibration is given by: Z = AI sin (0011 91) + A2 sin (0021 92) ...(2.7)
N
..
+' C c:,I .,/
D,

2Am\n
.,/
2A max
./
E
,~
TimtZ (t)
v 0
a.
III
c
,.'J'
''" ,.,
~T , b

"""'
3! j,;I',: ','"

~
"
:'
. ~~ 'i; 'P1>1Flg;'2.5':Motion containi.ng a beat
Dj splac(Zment ZZc V(Zlocity Ac c(z l(Zration KZ+ Cl +1 .10b) "Zmin = IAI .~. which corresponds to the difference in the two source frequencies: I 1<01 <021 fb = Tb = 21t .1t0) 2 ) . The system is sabject to an external time dependent force F (t). The motion of the mass m is specified by one coordinate Z..(2.. .. .(2.. (b) Frccbody diagram .5). 2.9) The maximum and minimum amplitudes of motion are the sum and difference of the amplitudes of the two sources respectively.~'~"'" .. ..A21 If the drive systems of two machines designed to operate at the same speed are not synchronized.. Damping in this system is represented by the dashpot.. SI.." ~ . Z .':::. representing the envelop of the vibration amplitudes oscillates at a frequency. 18 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations The dashed curve (Fig." C. 2.." 'i'j{':.. 2..6. ' f F(t) (I) Springmlssdashpot system ~c ~ Pl8."..... 6a.. ..... and the resulting damping force is proportional to the velocity...' .. . Zmax = AI ._..4 VIBRATIONS OF A SINGLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEM 1 The simplest model to repre~ent a single degree of freedom system consisting of a rigid mass m supported by a spring and dashpot is shown in Fig... they may result vibrations having the beat frequency.(2..(2. ~ .8) The frequency of the combined oscillations is the average of the frequencies of the two components and is given by f = i = (2~)( + A2 0) 1. called the beat frequency......  L Z m ....2..10a) .:.~.. mz m ..
c.. ( 2.'. the concept of viscous damping is still used by defining an equivalent viscous damping which is obtained so that the total the energy dissipated per cycle is same as for the actual damping during a steady state of motion.ql. The forces acting on the mass m are: (i) Exciting force. 'z ."""". F. ". where Kis the t spring constant and indicates the stiffness. Z where C is called the coefficient of viscous damping.6 (b) shows the free body diagram offue mass m at allYinstant dunng the course~fvibra' tions.(2. "'".' ...B) where AI and Az are both constant~ and conis undamped natural frequency. .15 ) j Now.4.' o K . (i) At time t ' "' ' ~ = 0.. (2. tion. ' :.. (2..I.. (iii) Damping force./'. si~ cont + A2 C1)n '~os cont . :'.'. " ' C .::(2.' .' . m .:."Arr. '1\". a body which is not in static equilibrium by virtue of some acceleration which it possess.~:J}'i". Substituting Eq.j}iJ'iI.'. """':. 2. . F.According to Del Alemberfs principle. (2. .. ':..13) in Eq. F (t): It is the externally applied force that causes the motion of the system.'nji...restoringforce is equiJ. ~:.~". velocity . Therefore the'" equation of motion of the system becomes m Z + KZ = 0: or K Z+mZ=O ( ..(2.."h' ..'j. Theory of Vibrations .' .'" "": . .:'}. '. .. " :!':"'" '" Substituting the first boundary condition in Eq.1 Undamped Free Vibrations.'r:. ... " ' The equilibrium of mass m gives mZ + CZ + KZ = F (t) .>":. Fi The damping force is considered directly proportional to the velocity and given by C .. . /...".'. displacement Z = Zo' and (ii) At time 1 = '0. "/. 19 Figure 2.. "' Z = V0 Z :. . For undamped free vibrations.: It is the force exerted by the spring on the mass emutends to restore the mass .11) which is the equation of motion of the system. the damping force and the exciting .For a linear system. .13) .'. >is:. " ..12a) ... (ii) Restoring force.16) . This force acts through the centre of gravity of the body in the direction opposite to that of accelera.. we get? (j)~ (AI cos (j) i + Az sin (j)nt " j+(~) (AI ~os oont + Az sin:oo~t) " =0 =:1: or ..... this force always opposes the motion.J'!. Z.d")Jiti.(2. In some problems in which the damping is not viscous. .d".. This force always acts towards the equilibrium position of the system. "'." ' force are equal to zero....: It is due to the acceleration of the mass and is given by m Z.!'"..(2. (iv) Inertia force. can be brought to static equilibrium by' introduculg on it an inertia force..=: :' AI" 00...: "'1~F"".12).. We may nave the following two boundary conditions: '" ... . 'co n ~.+.[. to its originalposition. .'."'O:iI'i).(2.14) The values of constants A I and A2 are obtained by supstituting proper boundary conditions.12b) ) Z = A I cos con The solution of this equation can be obtained by substituting" t + Az sin con t . ...
./ TI.t . ~n ... and 2 = 20 cos oont + .(2. ' '" V " / 0 / 0 isplacement " velocity () Fig.. . oN . 2..." \ /... N One cycle Acceleration "" 1'. ...(2.20 Soil Dymunics & Machine Fo"ndations Substituting the second boundary condition.18) .(2. ' /.21 ) .9) where .. 9 2lT +9 / 0 Time. (2.. 2.0.23) as shown in The displacement of mass given by Eq. V..(2.7 : Plot of displacement.r A Z / 2 "IT.19) .7.20) Substitution of Eqs.20) into Eq..18) yields t 2 = Az cos (oon .(2.17) Hence Now let. (2./20 + . (2. 0' % y. (2. velocity and acceleration for the free vibration of a massspring system I> ." 2~\ 1'/ / / 0 .22) 9 = tanI 2 ( con20) 2 ~  Az = .(2.19) and (2. = AZ sin 9 co n con Vo sin oont . Vo ( con ) graphically .~...(2...21) can be represented Fig. . It may be noted that c+) ~ +Az :N . 20 = Az cos 9 V 2. '\'.16) A 2 =2.in Eq. 3 ' \ e\  "~/ / .
7.... ~.=~ n is given by 21t v. (K .25) . The time required for the motion to repeat itself is the period of vibration.(2. J. 0 8 (J)n 1t +8 0) n 1I+8 0) L 3 1t+8 2 (J)n .==0 K K W = Weight of mass m °st = Acceleration due to gravity. The nature of variation of the velocity and acceleration of the mass is also shown in Fig.81 mIs2 = staticdeflectionof the spring I 21t Therefore In  Vfut rg . .. .(2..27) gives a curve as shown in Fig.n I .. (2. 2. T and is therefore given by. 9.8.'reory ilf Jl"l6iatiOns 21 At time t equal to Displacement Z is Az cos 8 Az 0 AZ . T 21t st =. 0 21t +8 AZ O)n It is evident from Fig.27) Eq. I.(2..(2. 2.. T = 21t O)n 1" ...26) Now Where g mg W . .. =1. The magnitude of maximum displacement is Az..24) The natural frequency of oscillation.. 2.!.7 that nature of foundation displacement is sinusoidal.. (2.. .27) shows that the natural frequency is a function of static deflection..~ .~ . The relation ofIn and Os!given by Eq...
. For damped free vibration system (i. we get m A A2it + C A AIt + K A it = 0 C K 2 or A + By solving Eq.31 ) .2m :i: V~~) .. (2. . 2. (2. the excitation force Fo sin (J)t on the system is zero)...29) in Eq.. 4 6stat 00 6 (mm) 8 10 Fig.. The motion of the system is not oscillatory but is an exponential subsiden~~(Fig. By substituting the value of Z given by Eq.2 Free Vibrations With Viscous Damping..28) is givenby A. 2 ..8 : Relationship between natural frequency and static deflection 2. = .. ' Z ... F) C ' 2 K .(2. which determines whether the exponents are real or complex quantities.(2..28). The solution of Eq.30) C .2 . 9).(2.22 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundiuions .. the differential equation of motion can be written as mZ + Cl + KZ = 0 . 2. so much energy is dissipated . :~ 40 30 .1. t . Because...(2.(2. (2.. (2.32) 2 The physical significance of this solution depends upon the relative magnitudes 'of (C/2m) and (K/m).of the relatively large damping. .4...28) where C is the damping constant or force per unit velocity.e. N :I: 20 c 10 '.30) () ni A + m = 0 .28) may be written as ').(2. The completesolutionof Eq...A le Alt + A 2e A2t Case I : 2m m (~ ) > K 2 The roots AI and A2 are real and negative.29) where A and A are arbitrary constants.. Z =A e ..
. there is no vibratory motion. .9 : Free vibrations ofviscously overdamped system Case 11 : (~ ) = K 2 2m m . the solution is given by Z = (AI. Physically this means a relatively large damping and the system is said to be over damped..~. 2.. it assumes greater significance as a measure of the damping capacity of the system..case is of little importance in itself.(2.t .36) .2 ~Km".This. " ' z c2=l"km Time.Theory of Vi!'rations 23 .t Fig. ". z 2 C > 4 km .31)..C Cc . 2010. by the damping force that there is sufficient kinetic energy left t~ carry the mass and pass the equilibrium position.... " Tim(l. 2m (~ ) = m' C = C c . 2m . 2...34) Then Cc "=.. Since the equality must be fulfilled. .Cc'Vm ' By substitutingthis valueof' 2: as ~(On in Eq.Cc' 2m .33) In this case also.C 2JK"m_c:'fK 2m .37) Cc 'Now C .' The ratio of the actual damping constant to the critical damping constant..35) The system in this conditioon is known as ~ritically damped system anaC ~ is known as critical damping constant. (2.(2.. to': Free vibrations of a vlscouslycritically damped system When K..Cc .. The roots Al and Az are equal and negative. Fig.(2..(2. C ~= .(2. defined as damping ratio: .. It is similar to oyer damped case except that it is possible for the sign to change once as shown in Fig.". ~~ ~et" .+ Az t) le = (AI + Az t) eCt/Zm . .. is.
43 ) = (01/ ~ 1.44 d) ZI loge 22.'. r . we may compute the ratio of amplitudes of the successive cycles of vibration Z L Z2 e0> "f. z = Damped natural frequency.ZI =e Znl. Z = e~o>"t A j"I~2 0>.44 a) or or or 0> = en f..1 = e0>n f.28) is given by (~+j~I~2 )O>i (~j~le )(J)"I Z . [Cl sin( (J)n~ or where Z = e~O)II' [Cl sin(J)ndt+CZ wild ..21t/o)ncl Zz r:2 lf.42) .' 24 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations AI. .40) .1 A e.44 b) .(2.~I~..(2... [... (2.i' + . 2.. = [..39) .(2....41 ) or the Eq. The motion of the system is oscillatory (Fig.(t+Zn/o>"cI) ..41) can be written as I e z t)+Cz cos( (J)1I~t)] COS(J)ndt] Z = e~O)".38) Case III : (~ ) 2m AI. "...AI e + Az e r::2 r . .(2..44 c) .(2. .(2. (2...(2.:!:i~I.21) COn ..O). 2. 2 =(_..11 : Free vibrations of a viscously underdamped system As a convenient measure of damping....!" Zz Z I . ~ 21t.(2.(2.(2..:!:~.11) and the amplitude of vibration goes on decreasing in an exponential fashion..2 2 < K m The roots Al and Al are complex and are given by .2 ]COn The complete solution of Eq. z C < 41<m 2 Fig.
. nonhomogeneous. Z"I = eno [ Z.. a system is over damped if ~ > 1. + C Z. If the damping is very small. . log.44 g) =2xn 1 I oge.46) The solution of Eq. .11) can be written as : ...(2. and (ii) particular integral.=..=.o.Y. Therefore the equation of motion in this case will be : . Zn Z2 = Zo ~ ..(2.e." " 't~.3 Forced Vibrations Of Single Degree Freedom Syst~m.~. damping of a system can be obtained from a free vibration record by knowing the successive amplitudes which are one cycle apart. of ratio of two successive peak amplitudes {i. ". . :: or ~= 2x loge ~ ' As for small valuesof~.47) Here ZI represents the displacement of mass m at any instant t when vibrating without any forcing function. m Z. Let us consider the case of a single degree freedom sys~... .. second order differential equation. ' .441) .(2..(2..e..45) Eq.' 1 Z\ r::2 1 .(2. = 0 .46) has already been obtained in the previous st?ctioIland is given by.. 2. if Z" is the peak amplitudes of the n.. The complementary function is obtained by considering no forcing function.48) .h cycle. For this case the equation of motion (Eq..~t .== e where~ = 2x ~ Z\ Z2 ZJ Zn Therefore. (2.. .:mwhich is acted upon by a steady state sinusoidal exciting force having magnitude F and frequency 0>(i.45) as m 2:2+ C 22 + K Z2 = Fo sin rot where Z2 = displacement of mass m a~~nYinstant t when vibrating with forcing function. In many cases of vibrations caused by rotating parts of machines. 2. . V1...z n Therefore.4. then Zo Zl Z2 ZnI 0 ..decrement. critically damped if ~ = 1 and under damped if ~ < 1. Tlreory of Vtb".. Hence or Zo..(2. F(t) = Fosin rot).:) . (~)} is called as logarith. + K Z. The solution of this equation consists of two parts namely (i) complementary function. The particular integral is obtained by rewriting Eq.45) is a linear.. In such a case. Z0..~..~ }.inF1': j'/. ZI = eO>/"(C\sinrondt+C2cosrondt) .= . it may be convenient to measure the differences in peak amplitudes for a number of cycles.tiolU . ~ . ] [ Z2 ] [ Z) ] [ Z" ] 1 ~=n }: ~ I Z 0 oge Zn .44 e) tbus..(2. say n. '. 111 + C Z + K Z = Fo Sin ro t Z .(2. (2. Natural logarithm mk. th~ systems are subjected to periodic exciting forces.
56) may be written as 22 = Where t Fo ~(K~'.: ~.m m ) + Cm" let.'. . we get At.(2....' ""'='Fosin'ro.n "..' ' """"'~!i1I"1!". " 22 = AI sin 00t + A2cos 00' t where AI and A2 are two.A2 002 (0t) + C (AI 00cos 00t ...".."".t':. ' c c .". gi'{en by'.~ . .' . ..:' .54).. 'J" From Eg. ' Kl~cd2 .(2.". Al(~ . ~ = Dam p ing ratio =  ':Ci"". '.{2. " ." ' .. one can obtain 22 = Eg. ':22 (K .53 b) t ..e) .'! " ..52 a) and (2. .52 b) Solving Egs.... Q. : .. """ .51 a) .A2(~ and from Eg.(2..(2.mm2) + C2m2 " A2 = '<c.55) in Eg. cii1' " ... . By substitutingJhe values 'of Al and A~"inEq::2'.. .CmFo (K~~2)2+c"2m2. . ' ':°2" ~ 2 {(K'mm2)sinmicwcosmt}  '.(2.(2.49) "..'. ...At 002 00t . . (2...51 a)..8111.i""'~' . '.='.52 b). (2.(2.._:. . :" :."'G'}""::"'.' '" " .48) '. (2. " . ..55) By substituting Eg.. m (."" "~~". Considering .' . >. ."""""""". sin(mt .(2.'  . of Eq.49) in ~q. . ' (. .56) .in 00t) + K (AI sin 00t + A2 cos 00t) sin cos .. "~. .)2. arbitrary constants. '.:.. ' (Kmoo2) Fo 2 0..~ O. 'sin{~t "'er "I .... (2. ' "'.CA2 00) sin 00t = Fo sin 00t ".1' " 26 "H. . 0. (2.sine and Cosine functions in Eq. t.~''."""".o}) .. " .. . (2.:' ."..~ .".."~ . "'.'..' ".. ) F. (2.1d.solution . (2A8).50) separately. ( m AI 00 + KAt .. . W ..' n "'.? 1 b) (.' .'" .I::osffi t.. .\~ " ..and " ".ccFo!K ..51 b) A{~W )+A2(~w2) m = : . 0 '.53 a) (K .(2.' " " Soil Dynamics & Mac/line Foundations The. (2. ' ' ' '.m A2 002+ KA2 + CA! 00)..."". '" 11 = Frequency ratio =..57) ..54) tan e = 'C 0) .JKi{i 0"'2' 'Km . .49... ..'(2.'m2t+'c2 .?' ~"" "".". ". .' ~(I:!12)+(2Tl~)~.52 a) =0 ...'. ~ .. ." '..50: .." " .A2 ID.' .:. Substituting Eq. (2. 2 " " ..
" .... /K 0 '.I u 0 a. Since the 'coriipliIne~tarYfti~l(!tioh:lsan'expJnenii~nf'decayin~ function. 0 .. Transi~nt ...'..t ~ u 0 0 E a. F. '.with the same frequency as the forcing and the pe~ ap11'1!tu4~.' '..)..#" " :'1 .' ''~.~. Co mpl~t~ solu tion Fig. '.: .g~ven by Az = ..t q E c:.. UI 0 . .~\'k Theory of Vibrations . " oi . 27 . 2. ~(l~ 1]2)2 (21]~)2 ".. " .."'." ':~~." ~..) ~ Time. . . . ...".. /' ..~~#"st'~c. 'h . .ition of transient and steady state vibrations i. .. III .. :~~.'" .58) ". "! ".:iit'will die out'soon and the motion will be des~ribed by only the p~uticula:rmtegral(Fig.'.. Time.(2. .:: N +' C ~ \ 'I \ " . 2:i 1)'..'. .. UI . .12 Superpos.' .is..i ..: he syStemwill vibrate harmonically T .~J'(.. .'. ' .i. .." " . . .. 211" ~ N N .'' ' ~ u 0 E a.... +' C ~ (.  ~ rr"' "'T'1iiiiii[' ~ .. < ." i " " '.!:t>~tatcz 4." N "I +' C ~ . ...' . The complete solution is obtained by adding the compJimentary function and the particular integral.~ '~'. + .
(2.<~i:«.1 . 1. . . the value of f..13 for different values of damping ratio ~.. "\.59)  The variation of f. .( '....1 maximum.: .. "" ~>...' 28 SoU Dyrul". 2. c 0 c I I 11 0) u . 0 u I 3 1 "0.c 2 c Cl 1 0 0 Frc&quc&ncy 1.5 ratio.It would be seen that near 11= 1.. Fie.  ..13 : Macnlficatlon factor (J&) vcnus freqllcacy ratio (11) "0 1 .1 versus 11is shown in Fig.~.1 derIDedas the ratio of the dynamic amplitude Az to the static deflection... and is given by is ~ = ~(1112)2 1+(211~)2 . 5 ~=o t.. . This is called resonance and the forcing frequency J at is which it occurs is called the resonant frequency.." . c .ks & Maehi"e Foundlltions The quantity FelK is equal to the static deflection of the mass under force Fo' Dynamic magnification factor. f..."..
(2....0 FrczquQncy ratio# 2. : " ~ .707 ~ = 05 0 .Theory of Vibrations 29 Differentiating Eq.' different amounts of damping .. . (2.0 rz..14: Phase Jagversus frequency ratio for .J \11 90°' r =0. ' .0 Fig. it can be shown that resonance will occur at a frequency ratio given by 11 = ~12~2 .. . or ffind = ffin ~12~2 = Damped resonant frequency .60 b) where ffind 180° 150° <D c:.60 a) which is approximately equal to unity for small values of ~..(2.':J ' .. 2. 3.J C'I C 0 120° c:. 600 30 ° 0 0 '1.J: a.59) with respect to 11and equating to zero.
. 2.15 : Single degree freedom system with rotating mass type excitation The equation of motion can be written as . 2 m Z + C. ..(. (2. (2.~.15b shows such a system mounted on elastic supports with dashpot representing viscous damping. (2.n~s .55) indicates the phase difference between the motion and the exciting force: It can}e. ..'~'.) . ..".. placed at eccentricity e from the centre <.64) may therefore be written as. e = TanI 1. e. where me is the mass of each rotating element. ~ .3.14 2. '. _ 211E.>f rotating shaft and ro is the angular frequency of masses. the net vibrating force on the foundation is vertical and equal to 2 me ero2sin rot. 2... Z + K Z = 2 111ero sin rot . .48) are similar. (2. 30 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations 'By substituting Eq.(2.60) in Eq. .lmax = 2E. its amplitude at resonance will be 10 times the static deflection.{f.writt~. 12m~.(2. I .59).61 ) J..64) imd (2.".  The phase angle e given by Eq..64) where m is the mass 'of foundation including 2 me' Equations (2.62) Assuming a damping of 5% in a structure.4. the maximum value of magnification factor is obtained. 2. Fig.<'. .64) in place of Fo' The solution of Eq.2E. ~~ Forc~ gczn~rat~d (a) Rotating mass type excitation (b) Massspringdas~ot system Fig.2 ( T\ ) '" .63 ) Variation of e with respect to 11is shown in Fig.1 Rotating mass type excitation. This indicates that systems will be subjected to very large amplitudes at resonance which should be avoided. except that 2 Ill" ero2 appears in Eq.. Since horizontal forces on the foundation at any instant cancel. It is given by . Machines with unbalanced rotating masses develop alternating force as shown in Fig.(2. (2. .(2.~IE/ I .15 a. (For small values of. 2.
oh system with rotating unbalance . 4... . .'.0.2. :~.eO) +(2~T}) 2 2 0)2 F (J) K = 2 me .50 0..65) .' '<'F '" ".0 4.'t (b) Phase angle versus frequencYT&tio11 Fig. '(D ..0 ratio. 2."": Theory of Vibrations 31 Z = A. Frequency '.05 I 0.'..0 . ".(2.0 0.10 2..25' a.tJi.s::. .0 5.(i:'. sin (0)t + 0') .16 : Response.0 3.(2.0 Frqquqncy ratio.0 . . '. 3.. where Az (2mee/ m)'T}2 2 2 = I (1T}2) Since or F=2m 0 e .'. aI C7I c: 0 90° aI 0 U\ .0 ' .').0 2. '..(\~..Iile 1.67) e = TanI 2T}\ 111 ( 3.. 0.0 00 1." '..0 1) 5. 0° 0 1. e K = 2 me . e ) (mro~) = (2 me :}T}2 .. (a) Az 1(2m~elm) versus Irequency rauo 11 180°.(2.66) .
we get Az  l' 21.73) (1'12). It is desirable to isolate the machine from the foun'dation through a suitably designed mounting system in such a way that the transmitted force is reduced.69 a) in Eq. the inertial force developed in a reciprocating engine or unbalanced forces produced in any other rotating machinery should be isolated from the foundation so that the adjoining structure is not set into heavy vibrations.. (2. The equation .2 .5 VIBRATION ISOLATION In case a machine is rigidly fastened to the foundation.68) The value of A=/(2me elm) is plotted against frequency ratio 1"\ n Fig.69 a) 1"\= F2e or ro = 0011 . The variation of phase angle e with 11 is shown in Fig. Another example may be the isolation of delicate instruments from their supports which may be subjected to certain vibrations..~11.(2.(2.. 2.. Figure 2..1"\ ] 2'11. The curves are similar i in shape to those in Fig..66) can be expressed in nondimensional form as given below: A~1"\2 (2mee m) / = ~ (11"\2)2+(21"\1.32 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations The Eq. (2. the force will be transmitted directly to the foundation and may cause objectionable vibrations.72) 2 /K .1 Force Isolation.. 2 m Z + C Z + KZ = 2 me eoo sin 00t The steady state motion of the mass of machine can be worked out as 2m eoo .16 b.(2..68) with respect to 11and equating to zero. (2. 2.17 s~ows a machine of mass m supported on the foundation by means of an isolator having an equivalent stiffness K and damping coefficient C. it can be shown that resonance will occur at a frequency ratio given by 1 ..70) 2\ for small damping .)2 w~ere 8 = TanI [ 1.sm(oot8) Z = r e2 .(2.. (2.ofmotion of the ~achine can be written as: .)2 .. .(2. In either case the effectiveness of isolation may be measured in terms of the force or motion transmitted to the foundation.16 a.2 ( 2meelm ) max ~ .(2.69 b) nd .... 2... 2. . +(21"\1. Differentiating Eq.. The machine is excited with unbalanced vertical force of magnitude 2 me eci sin 00t .JI=21.13 except that these starts from origin. For example..68).(2.2 By substituting Eq.71 ) 2.(2.5. The first type is known as force isolation and the second type as motion isolation.74) .
"": '. ' +(211~) p is the phase difference between the exciting force and the force transmitted to the foundation and i  P ~e =~~~l '" .'t "t" "'. Jl+(211~)2 2 2 . sm(mt.75). ] . sin(mt .77) . r".(2. C Z. (2. ...17 : Machineisolatorroundation ' systcm The only force which can be applied to the foundation is the spring force KZ and the damping force . t~ (11l) 2 +(211~)2 (1112) C..75) Substituting Eq. we get F = . (1112) is given by .e)+ .'"o/..:: 33 '~."n" coo J K....73) in Eq.76) can be written as: F t = 2me em where 2 .P) . .78) ~ '. (2.'n1.':..' '1 Theory of Jlibrlltions .[ .0:"<\'."'.(2. 2. hence the total force tqmsmitted to the foundation during steady state forced vibration is Ft = KZ + CZ 2m em e 2 .(2.' '' ..(2..:.76) Equation (2.' i J " ".2me em2 /K '00 cos(mte) 2 2 +(211~) .. ' ~~~ Ma chine K 2' c K 2 Iso lata r Foundation Ground surfac~ Fig..
' Ft ~1+(211~)2 IlT =2 2 meem = ~ (1112)2 + (211~)2 ..5 ~ =1.18: Transmissibility (J.3.0 1'\. .125' I  ~ =0 2. I ~ =0.0 ~ =2. 2. 4. for the vibration isolation system to be effective 11should be greater than 12.5 4.18. A plot of IlTversus 11for different values of ~is shown in Fig.79) IlT is called the transmissibility of the system. 2. is essential to maintain stability under transient conditions and to prevent excessive amplitudes when the vibrations pass through resonance during the starting or stopping of the machine. ~ =0 =0.. the presence of damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system as the curves for damped case are above the undamped ones for 11>12. However in this case.. however. .0 1.0 =<. It will be noted from the figure that for any frequency ratio greater than 12.125 ~ =0 ~ =0. Frczquczncyr(:itio Fig. oD U\ U\ .34 Soil Dynamics & Machine. A certain amount of damping.0 ~ 0 : 0.. Therefore. » .(2.0 I 0 1. Foundations Since the force 2 m e e ol is the force which would be transmitted if springs were infinitely rigid. the force transmitted to the foundation will be less than the exciting force.125 f 1...0 .E 20 III C 0 .0 3.1r) ersus freqeuncy ratio (Tt> v . a measure of the effectiveness of the i~olation mounting system is given by ..
81) .:s:". .... : '.. it would be necessary to isolate structure or mechanical systems from vibrations transmitted from the neighboring machines.(2.. Foundation . 2.~ . We consider a system mounted through a spring and dashpot and attached to the surface which vibrates harmonically with frequency (I)and amplitude Y0 as shown in Fig..' . .Y) = 0 m .. '..:£'4/ l'.81) will give the maximum amplitude as: Z . :~". max ...19.+ K Y = C (I) Y0 cos 1 .5. Iso lator v = Yo Sin GJt Vi brating ground..+(Cro)2 sin (rol'+ ex) ..+ K Z = C Y ..': . Machina z " .+ K Y0 sin (I) 1 or h ere m Z'+ C 2.(2. .80) (I) Z + K 2 .' tt~~7T{~:..+ KZ = Yo ~K2.<"f:' '. 2.' '. ) ..19: Motion isolation system Let Z be the absolute displacement of mass. Vo'~ (l'1l2)2+(21l~l " ". Theory of Vibrations .8?) T I CO) ex =.f "c"'" f '. (2. the equation of motion of the system can be written as: m or Z + C (2 .2.(2.. In many situations.. ' ' ' 35 2.+(21l~)2 . Again we require a suitable mounting system so that least vibrations are transmitted to the system due to the vibrating base.. . d u (l to n (l i9 h bo u r in 9 machines Fig. . an K l:he solution of Eq.:'.Y) + K (Z :.(2. .. ~1.' ".r:. Motion Isolation. .'" ..83) " " .
2. They have high sound transmissibility which can be reduced by loading felt in conjunction with it. 1.5.5.Zmax ~ ~1 + (2T\~)2 . For satisfactory working it must be loaded from 10 to 25 N/sq mm. the vibration phenomenon.y. 2. The second system.84) is the same expression as Eq. cork and metallic springs.18E:. temperature. . It is again noted that for the vibration isolation to be effective. 2.3. It has very high damping and so is suitable in the range of low frequency ratio. velometers or accelerometers. it undergoes much faster deterioration. It is not affected by oil products or moderate temperature changes. They are quite consistent in their behaviour and can be accurately designed for any desired conditions. Cork is very useful for accoustic isolation and is also used in small pads placed underneath a large concrete block. One method is known as the directly connected system in which motions can be measured from a reference surface which is fixed. It is mainly used in conjunction with metallic springs to reduce noise transmission.fi. Transmissibilityof such system can also be studied from the response curves shown in fig. it must be designed in such a way that T\> . Rubber. However. Metallic springs.4. Cork. This phenomenon may be displaceme~t. With loading greater than about 0.3. Figure 2.3. It has negligible damping and so is suitable for working in the range of high frequency ratio. velocity or acceleration of the vibrating system and accordingly the instrument which reproduces signals proportional to these are called vibrometers. Rubber is loaded in compression or in shear.6 THEORY OF VIBRATION MEASURING INSTRUMENTS The purpose of a vibration measuring instrument is to give an output signal which represents. There are essentially two basic systems of vibration measurement. its properties change with the frequency of excitation.~(1T\2)2+(2T\~)2 Equation (2..3.ble for high frequency vibrations.(2. 1. It must not be used in presence of oil which attacks rubber.. More often such a reference surface is not available. Materials Used In Vibration Isolation.79) obtained earlier. Felt is used in compressfun only and is capable of taking extremely high loads. Its damping and stiffness properties vary widely with applied load. It consists of a frame in which the mass ~ is supported by means of a spring K and dashpot C. Metallic springs are not affected by the operating conditions or the environments. It is found very s' ". . The maximum temperature upto which rubber can be used satisfactorily is about 65°c.5.5.84) ~T .1. felt. 2.5. excitation frequency and the amplitude of vibration. 2. 2.20 shows a Vibration measuring instrument which is used to measure any of the vibration phenomena.5. shape factor. 36 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundations The effectiveness of the mounting system (transmissibility) is given by .Felt. The effectiveness of each depends on the operating conditions. the latter mode gives higher flexibility. as closely as possible. (2.18.. known as "Seismic system" does not require a fixed reference surface and therefore is commonly used for vibration measurement.3.2 illustrating motion isolation. Materials used for vibration isolation are rubber. The frame is mounted on a vibrating body and vibrates al~ng with it. The system reduces to a spring mass dashpot system having base on support excitation as discussed in Art.2.6 N per sq mm.3.
J! Y0 sin .. let 2 be the absolute displacement of the mass... then the output of the instrument will be proportional to X = 2 .m Y = m Y0(0 sin (0 t The solution can be written as 2 X = ~ (1. The output of the instrument will depend upon the relative motion between the mass and the structure.°1 ">.. 11 = = frequency ratio (On e) .(1.ratio 2 TJ~ and e = tanEquation(2. Thtory of VibratiOns 37 .SS) ..S7) where  ~ = damping 1 . = 1)2.8) (2.(2.Y) + K (2 .(2.(2.86) . 2.20 : Vibration measuring instrument Let the surface S of the structure be vibrating harmonically with an unknown amplitude Y 0 and an unknown frequency (0. X where ( 1.TJ2 ) . m X + C X + K X = . The equation of motion of the system can be written as m Z + C (Z . «(0 t .:.TJ2)2+ (2TJ~)2 Yo sin «(0 tTJ (0.. Subtracting m Y from both sides.>' J! = ~1. 2 ..S7)ca~ be rewrittenas: . since it is this relative motion which is detected and amplified...(~ z m K c y = Yo Sin '>t Fig..8S) .. .Y) = 0 ..TJ2)2 (2T1~l + ill .Y.
'1.6.6.  3. 2. 4.1 with 1'\and.89) The output of the instrument will be proportional to the acceleration of the structure if J.~'n'7""~:"'"""'" ...14. It is seen"'tnatwneifff is" large.1 approximately equal to unity for is small values of 1'\. The instrument will read the displacement of the structure directly if I and 8 = O.0 Fig. 2. the instrument should have a soft spring and heavy mass.2.1 = Pickup. The instrument is sensitive. 11should be small which means that th~' " ". Or in other words.1. .I t \ \0 .The variation o{Tl~ with~'aiid'~is shown in Fig. .. . .. .21. 1 0 .2. Acceleration Pickup (Accelerometer). 1'\21.Therefore to design an acceleration pickt!p..88) can be rewritten as .' . I X =2 (J. Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundlltions .(2. The variation of8 with 1'\ is already given in Fig. It is seen that J.21 : Response of a vibration measuring instrument to a vibrating base 2.1 constant.13 shows the variation of J..." '" .1 Yoro sin (rot .'1::' 'lr~r\f . ' 2 ..0 5.0 FrequClncy 3. The instrument can not be used for measurement of strong vibrations.. is Figure 2.0 ratio.. 0 0 1. .)n 1. Displacement 1121.1s approximately equal to 1 and 8 is i approximately equal to 180°. flimsy and can be used in a weak vibration environment.0 I I I  " 2 0 .8) . Therefore to design a displacement pickup..0 2.. 1'\should be large which means that the natural frequency of the instrument itself'shou~d be low compared to the frequency to be measured.38. Equation (2. 2..
f.7 VIBRATION OF MULTIPLE DEGREE FREEDOM SYSTEMS In the preceding sections. The instrument is less sensitive and suitable for the measurement of strong motion.(2. .. X a Y if TI» 1 Displacement pickup (Vibrometer~) . X a Y if 11= 1 Velocity pickup (Velometers) Displacement and velocity pickups have the disadvantage of having rather a large size if motions having small frequency of vibration are to be measured. the mass an~ the support would be a measure of the support acceleration ifTl is less than 0. The output of the instrument will be proportional to velocity of the structure if ~ At 11 = 1.. They are relatively less sensitive and this disadvantage can easily be overcome by high gain electronic instrumentation.6 to 0. . Of the various methods of measurement of relative displacement. (2. flat frequency response.88) can be rewritten as 1 X = . The mechanica. even if each mass is constrained to have one degree of freedom.. The instrument size is small.. .elerationpickups.. .. Further. 2.. acceleration and velocity in different frequency ranges.<~ Theory of Vibrations 39 natural frequency of the instrument itself should be high compared to the frequency to be measured. acceleration pickups are to be favoured.!mic analysis of multistoreyed buildings.<. X = 1 It may be noted that the same instrument can be used to measure displacement.1= . 2. .0) 1 COn . X a Y if 11 « lAcceleration pickup (Accelerometers) .: atTl = 1. ~ Yo(J) sm (0)1. . sturdiness and ease of calibration.electrical gauging. one may come across the systems which may have more than one degree of freedom.1 1 . Two degrees freedom cases arise when the foundation of the system is yielding thus adding another degree of freedom or a spring'mass system is attached to the main system to reduce its vibrations. the instrument will measure the velocity at 11= 1.6. In systems when there are a number of masses con~ected with each other. Calibration of these pickups is not simple.l quantity alters either the resistance. In many engineering problems. Design of Acceleration Pickup. Equation (2. the instrument should have a stiff spring and small mass. In other words.. 2~ Since O)nand ~are constant. Such an idealization is done for carrying out dyn. ' 2.:in 'whIch {he mechanical quantity is converted into an equivalent electrical quantity is best suited for a~. the system as a whole h~s as many degrees of freedom as there are masses.90) 111l is a constant. . Eq.(2. vibrations of systems having single degree of freedom have been discussed.75 an4 ~ is of the order of 0.91) con 2 ':1 . corrections have to be made in the observations as the response is not flat in the starting regions.7. Electrical gauging offers the possibility of high magnification of ~e signals which are usually weak because the spring is stiff and the displacements are small. From the point of view of small size.90) can be written as O)n . The relative displacem~nt between. Q T .6..TIJ!Y0 (J)sin «(J) .3 Velocity Pickup.0) . or capacitance or the inductance of the circuit which consequently alters the current in the circuit.4.
building.93 ) .7.''i. In free vibration a system having four degrees of freedom has four natural frequencies and the vibration of the any point in the system. Under certain conditions.1.94 ) . Two Degrees of Freedom Systems.) = 0 The solution of Eqs. (2.221'show the four modes of vibration. If all the masses vibrate in phase (Fig. 2. = A2 sin ro" t Substitution of Eqs. (2. It is usual to lump the masses at the floor levels and the lumped mass has a value corresponding to weight of the floor.22£).95). the mode is termed the first or lowest or fundamental mode of vibration and the frequency associated with this mode would be the lowest in magnitude compared to other modes.22 a shows the frame work of a four storeyed..m2 C1).7.92) and (2.97) . 2. Figure 2. into Eqs.93) will be of the following form: ZI=A\sinro.94) and (2.1. 2..22<.22c).22 : A four storeyed frame with mode shapes Figure 2. If all adjacent masses vibrate out of phase with each other (Fig. any point in the system may execute harmonic vibrations at any of the four natural frequencies. 40 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations . 2..1.96) .92) and (2.23 shows a massspring system with two degrees of freedom. (a) Four storeyed frame ..K2A2 Al =0  K2 Al + (~ + KJ .. Figure 2...to 2.. Let Z\ be the displaceuent of mass ml and Z2 the displacement of mass m2' The equations of motion of the system can be written: In t Z\ + Kt ZI + K2 (Z\ 1nl Z2 + K3 Zl + K2 (Z2  Z2) =0 .93). 2. the mode is termed the highest mode of vibration and the frequency associated with this mode would be highest in magnitude compared to other modes.(2.(2.9S) . (b) Idealisation (c) First mode (d) Second mode (e) Third mode (t) Fourth mode Fig..Z.(2. yields: (KI + K2 .ml C1)~) . is a combination of four harmonics of these four natural frequencies respectively.)A2 = 0 .(2. part of the supporting system (columns) above and below the floor and effective live load.(2.(2..92) .... (2. The restoring forces are provided by the supporting systems. Undampedfree vibration: Figure 2. and these are known as the principal modes of vibration.( Z2 . in general.22b shows such an idealization and it gives a four degrees of freedom system.
.!) 00: _ Kt + K2 + K2 + K3 O)~+ K) K2 + K2 K3 + K3 K) .  11 iiii .99) is quadratic in ro2..(2.(2. %L 3KT%%P%S Jz~Z2 Fig. (2. (2.K2 ~K3 + 2 KI +K2 m) K2 +K3 2 + 4 K~ [( m) "'2 ) {( ~ ) mj ~ } ] . and the roots of this equation are: n 1/2 ro~= .100). is . con)is correspondcan ing to the fIrst mode and COn2 of the second mode. 2...100) From Eq.97).!. IL ~!'\Wm ~heory of Vibrations .96) and (2.. two valuesofnatura!~!!e9~~ncies oon)and oon2 be obtained.. 2 Kt + K2 mt ron K2 .23 : Free vibration of a two degrees freedom system For nontrivial solutions of oon in Eqs.99) Equation (2.~ ro n 21 =0 . K) +K2:t.K2 or K2 + K3 .I .= 0 [ m) ~ ] ml~ .f2 9.
.10{ 2.102) 2 2 The superscripts in A represent the mode.2. '. Thus and (0 2 Al K2 .101) Z 2 = A(I) sin (0n I t + A(2) sin (0n2 t ...K2 +KJ "'2 ffinJ (i)2K A2 KI+K2mlffinl 2 (2)' 2 AI K2 .(2.y .1..Z2) = Fo sin (0 t 1n2 Z2 + KJ Z2 + K2 (Z2 . Consider the system shown in Fig..7."'2 ffin2 (2) 2 K A2 KJ + K2 .m) ffin2 2 . 2.. Undamped forced vibrations.96) and (2.Z\) (2. In this case..(2.106 = 0 F0 sin G.. 42 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundatiofls The general equation of motion of the two masses can now be written as Z I = A (I) sin (0nl t + A (2) sin (0n2 t I I . (2. Fig. 2.(2..103j ."..)tl 21 22 .K2 + KJ .. The relative values of amplitudes AI and A2 for the two modes can be obtained using Eqs. equations of motion will be: ml Zt + Kt Zt + K2 (Zl ..24 : Forced vibration of a two degrees freedom system .97)..105) ..24 with excitation force Ft sin (0 t acting on mass ml.(2.(2.
ml 00) AI .. c "..11Ib) " and Az = mlrnz K3Fo 4 co [  KI+Kz ( ml + Kz+K3 rnz ) co + Z' KIKz+KzK3+K3KI m\rnz The above t\VOequations give steady state amplitude of vibration of the ~wo masses respectively. (ii) The numerator of the expression for Al becomes zero when Cl) = /K2 rnz +KJ) .c"" '.25 having ndegree of freedom.. . as a function of 00.. It may be noted that: (i) The expression inside the bracket of the denominator of Eqs. . .2z) + K3 (2z .2n) =0 .108) in Eqs. ..106).115) '.... .. .leory of Vibrations 43 For steady state.. 2.. .(2.(2. ..(2.~..'" "' ...Kz AI + (Kz + K3 ..107) ..23) = 0 m3 23 .2. .Zz) =0 .(2. Therefore at 00 = oolll and Cl) = Cl)nZ values of A laud Az will be infinite as the denominator will become zero. .8. .'~'.....108) 2z = Az sin 00t Substituting Eqs. .114) mz 2z . . . .. . (2. n ....112) 0 Thus it makes the mass ml motionless at this frequency. . ..(2.116) ".. .111b) IS of the same type as the expression of natural frequency given by Eq...113) ..(2.Kz Az = Fo z . (2.. System With n Degrees of Freedom. then equations of motion are: rn.. .1.2.. 2.. 2n are the displacements of the respective masses at any instant. .23) + K4 (23 . .. If Z \' 2z.. ..mz 00) Az = 0 Solving for AI and Az from the above two equations.111 a) ] .7. No such stationary condition exists for mass ml' The fact that the mass which is being excited can have zero amplitude of vibration under certain conditions by coupling it to another spring mass system forms the principle of dynamic vibration absorbers which will be discussed in Art. '.... .(2. o... mn 2n ..(2. . .: 0 . ...1110) and (2.107) and (2.99).. . Z3 ..(2. we get Z (KI + Kz .. .. "'. . .Kn (2n  I '. .105) and (2.(2....24) . ...109) . Undamped free vibrations: Consider a system shown in Fig.K3 (2z . 2( + K( Z\ + Kz (ZI ... .. .Kz(Z( . (2. 2. . . The denominator of the two equations is same. (2...110) = ml rnz co 4 (Kz +K3 rnz co ) Fo + Kz+K3 rnz KI+Kz [ ( ml ) co + z KIKz+KzK3+K3KI mlrnz  . we get z AI ..(2. ' 2. the solutions will be as 21 = Al sin 00t . . :'..7.
181:. 2.25: Undamped free vibrations of a multidegree freedom system .J 44 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Z1 Z2 Z3 Kn 1 Zn1 Zn Fig.
.."'.. as sho~ in Fig. ..125)..mJ ID A) .. ...."'" "'.. Holzer's numerical technique is a convenient method of solving the problem for the system idealized .117) ..~jgit for determ41ation of frequencies and mode sh<1pes becomes tedius.26.. 0 '" (KnmnIDn) Equations (2....'F....113) to (2.. the problem of forming the frequency equavi tion and s01".(2.... ...n rA'.:=C°':"~".... at '.._~ .....!n~"... (2.118) ..... (2.::. Kz [(Kz+KJ)~ID......... ....] K2 0 0 0 0 Kn 0 0 0 2 =0 (2.>."t.123) ... Zn = An sin cont .. .113) to (2. . ._.120) Substitution of Eqs.~es re invariably resorted to in such cases..] K) 0 '" [ (KI + Kz) .(2.121) .....'~..124) by using....... .121) to (2. (2..~.. a ......117) to (2. When the numht.... . Kn An .: " ~::===. The mode shapes can be obtained from Eq.(2..121) to (2....'T degreeS of freedom exceeds three.(2. . ....119) ~ Theory of Vibrations The solution of Eqs..2. yields: [(KI+K2)mIID~] AIK2~ K2A1 + [(K2+K))~ID~] A2KJAJ =0 =0 .(2.".~ ~:==E'~.~.. ...K4 A4 = 0 ~] .. 'O".. one of the various values of conas obt1incd from Eq..I + (Kn mnID~) An = 0 ..ml ID.'::.125) ..125) is of nthdegree in CI).. .120) into Eqs. . nd therefore gives n values of con corresponding n natural a to frequencies. ... .KJ Az + [(KJ + K4) . (2..124) For nontrivial solutions of oonin Eqs.. 45 . ... (2.. .(2..116) will be of the follow:"'~ IO':n: ZI = Al sin cont Z2 = A2 sin cont Z) = AJ sin cont . at one time. By sUI11II1iPgJfotces free end.::. (2.......(2....124). 2. Numerical techJ'iG..116).(2. :"""'.122) ..
Lj=lmjZi = KiI (Zi.. plot of An + 1 versus A have the shape as shown in Fig.129) gives a relationship b~tween any two succ~sive arbitraryvalueof AI' amplitudeof all othermassescanbe deterinined. .129)..126) and (2.pfQ)..(2. 2.127) . by substituting the correct value of (O~in Eq.....111 1) Equating Eqs.26 : An idealised multidegree freedom system Inertia force at a level below mass mi .. (2.127) iI . 2. iI .ZiI) Putting Zi = Ai sin (()t in Eq.126) . The intersection of the curve with (0~ axis would give various val~~s.(2. K.128) Spring force at that level corresponding to the difference of adjoining masses = K. 1 11 m.. Kj1(ZjZi1) Fig.. L.can be obtained ..129) amplitudes.128).. (2. .. m..I ..z. 1K. I ( Z.' ( U)~ sin U)n t) = Ki  I (Ai sin (Unt .27.(2.Ai or . ..(2.j=lmj j .Ai .. Starting with any (0~ would Equation (2.I sin (Unt) '2 Ai = AiI  K U) "iI n A iI £. Finally An + I should worked out to zero' ~ue to fIXityat the base. .J=I } } . Z.~ode $ape. ..1 m. = ".J K1 m1 m1 Z1 I ml m2 Zz K2 m3 Z3 . J m i+1 I ~_1 . . (2..If 46 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations . we get I'i~'t mi .
. it can be shown ~ Kij A j 1=1 r=1 n (r)  2 (r) oonr mj Aj . then for mass mj' Z. J c: ~« ~ 1: J + (... + I I I =1 K... If the factors by which the modes of vibration are multiplied are represented by the coordinates d...A.(2. (2.~7: 2 ""nz Residual a~a flinction of frequency in Holzer method 2..2.F.1 d r . The individual modal response would be some fraction of the total response with the sum of fractions being equal to unity..(2) d2 (r) (n) + .132) Substituting Eq. 2 ImjAj (dr+oonr. ..(2. d 1 .. The amplitude of vibration of a mass is the algebraic sum of the amplitudes of vibration in various modes.133) Under free vibrations..130) Im. n (r) ..2. (2. Let an undamped n degree of freedom system be subjected to forced vibration. Z.. (2...n IJ ) = F.. ' = I r=l A~r) ' d r ..131 ) Equation (2.3...Theory of Vibrations 47 1. + A. n 2 (r) dr + I oonrmjAj dr r=l .131) can be written as n Z... + A. t 0 1. ( t) 'I .0 2 wn1 Fig. Forced vibration.2. . A.(2..134) Substituting Eq. we get ImjAj n (r) . ( t) . Z.~ ""}' ")J'!!I~' .136) l' .)2 n.130) where i = 1.(1) d 1 + A.(2.132) in Eq. n r=1 r=1 j=l I K..(2. dr +.134) in Eq.133).135) or n (r)'.(2. (2.dr) r=l . .7.(2.'" . and Fj (t) represents the for~e on mass mr The equation of motion for the mass mj will be n m..'T .r d + I n (r) .Fj(t) Fj(t) .0 ' ~ . I A.n .
140) .(2. (2. (2. 2.139) 0}nr 0 It is observed that the coordinate d. 48 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations Since the left hand side is a summation involving different modes of vibration.8 UNDAMPED DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBER A system on which a steady oscillatory force is acting may vibrate excessively.143) . especially when close to resonance.(2.142) . (2.141) ... we get .. bringing the main system to rest.138) is a single degree freedom equation and its solution can be written as 1 dr I (2..(2.(2. the right hand side should also be expressed as a summation of equivalent force contribution in corresponding modes..=1 Substituting Eq. The d's are termed as normal coordinates and this approach is known as normal mode theory. (t) be expanded as: Fj (t) = r=1mj A~r) fr n i (t) .137 a) in Eq.137 b) Lm[(A~r»)] .(2.~. The equations of motion of the complete system can be written as: MZ1 + KZI + Ko (ZIZZ) = Fa sin rot =0 .143) in Eqs. Therefore the total solution is expressed as a sum of contribution of individual modes.mass (auxiliary) absorber system is attached to the main system as shown in Fig.140) and (2. Let the combination of K and M be the schematic representation of the main system under consideration with the force F0 sin CJ}t acting on it. Let F. A spring . =fr (t) Equation (2.137 a) "J  where fr (t) is the modal force and given by Ili fr(t) = i~1 (t) . (2. uncouples the n degree of freedom system into n systems of single degree of freedom..144) (2....136). Such excessive vibrations can be eliminated by coupling a properly designed spring mass sytem to the main system. This forms the principle of undamped dynamic vibration absorber where the excitation is finally transmitted to the auxiliary system..(2.142) and (2..(2.. z dr + O}nrd..138) = J fr Ct) sinO}nr(t 1:) dt where 0 < 1:< I .A~r) Z (2.141) yields R 3 R Ka)KaAZ KnAI + Az (mnO}Z+ Kn) =0 PPV P V VVPVUOPVPO . 2.28..145) moZZ+Ka(ZIZZ) The forced vibration solution will be of the form ZI = Al sin rot ~ Al (M0}2 = Az sin rot = Fa Substitution of Eqs..
. ro~ = M = Natural frequency of mam system m Ilm = .49 Z2 ma Absor ber syst <z m Ka Z1 M Main syst<zm Fig. 2. = Staticdeflectionof main system K Ka = ...28 : Vibration absorber Subtituting: F ZSl 2 na = 2.(2....147) and = ( 1:~: $*.= Natural freqeuncy of the absorber ma ro K .Theory of Vibrations .(2.Jl..146) .02 n) K{/ A 2  K A2 =Z SI .144) and (2. (2. = Mass ratio = Absorber massIMain mass M The Eqs.145) can be written as AI (1 K{/ +<i K <.
147) for At and A2' we get Cil ' .".2 . <. i ... ."'.. ".(2. (2. 2 ro ro no ' ~ K  ro' 2 ron 2 ' K ~ . Solving Eqs. "~t'u'".. rona )( 1+ K" ) K' . = Si n' L " ". ..'."...148) . ~t..146) and (2.. ) 1.  ( ld"2. " .J I ".
: 1. (2. For a tuned absorber.151 e) When the condition enumerated in Eqs.. . Eqs. there is no net force acting on main mass M and the same therefore does not vibrate..148) and (2. (2..Jlm OOna OO~a00' J .150) Thus the absorber system vibrate in such a way that its spring force at all instmts is equal and opposite to F0 sin 00 t.(2..151 b) K m !L=!!.(2. frequency of the excitatipn force.. . the absorber is known as a tuned absorber.OO~a 1+ ~.153) are identical..y.149) become: 1. for the effectiveness of the absorber at the operating frequency corresponding to the natural frequency of the main system alone. (2. Hence. (2... ~.oon Ko =K M t"'m ma or . 00= oon'But for the absorber to be effective.152) ( OOna 00') ( 1+ Jlm..151 a) oona = ...K Zst .. The addition of a vibration absorber to a main system is not much meaningful unless the main system is operating at resonance or at least near it. At a value of 00when these denominators are zero the two masses have infinite amplitudes of vibration.Ka or Az Ka = .y. (2..y OO"a 00') ( 1+ Jlm.151) is fulfilled.(2.K Zst ..~ .~' ) ~ ro')( i . ~.(2...(2.y~ J .(2.=Ii K M .50 SoU Dynamics & Machine Foundlltions K ~~ ~ .e.. Under these conditions.149) (1. Further Eq. Let when00= oonl' he denominators t becomes zero. na Therefore.002 ( ~. it is evident from Eq. 00should be equal to 00 .Jlm OOna I ) 00' The denominators of Eqs.. .(2.152) and (2.oo~ lithe natural frequency oonaof the absorber is chosen equal to 00 i..148) that Al = 0 indicating that the main mass does not vibrate at all.. we have or . For this condition the expression for the denominators can be written as  ..149) gives Az ..153) ~: = ( 1..
Theory of Vibrations 51 OOnt ( OOna) 4<2+llm) OOnt ( <Ona) 2 +1 =0 . we have introduced two resonant points instead of one in the original system.8 0.6 0 0.154) The Eq.153) become zero. the system will work efficiently.155) is plotted in Fig...155) 1. From this plot.(2.4 ratio 0. (2.{2.154) gives: (:J 1. Now if the exciting frequency is absolutely constant. greater is the spread between the two resonant frequencies.' Hr.. Solution of Eq. 2.2 Mass 0. 2.2.154) is quadratic in <0. The dotted curves shown actually mean that the amplitude is negative or its phase difference with respect to the exciting force is 1800.8 Fig. Now I :::w. it is evident that greater the mass ratio.30 fora valueof ~'" = 0.6 _1. The frequency response curve for the mainsystemis shownin Fig. These two frequencies are the natural frequencies of the 3ystem.1' nd therefore there are two values of oonl or which the denomia f nators ofEqs. .Im 0. It may be noted that by adding the vibration absorber.0 0. (2.29: Natural frequency ratio versus mass ratio The relationships of Eq. Any change in the exciting frequency will shift the operating point from the optimum point and the main system response will no longer be zero. It can be noticed from this figure that by attaching a vibration absorber {oona= (On)to the main system vibrating at resonance reduces its vibration to zero.29. (2. (2.2 _ 33 1 c c ° 1.152) and (2.6 }..2.4 ~ )~J~m+~4~ (1+~2m .
!IIZ~ 52 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations if the variation of the exciting frequency is such that the operating point shifts near one of the new resonant points.0 2. 2.154) can also be written as ~m J~)lr 2 (J) .5 Fig. Such an absorber system is called a damped dynamic vibration absorber.. 2. }Jm=0.)n l TO) \ '1... a proper value of !J.0 G. (2.5 1.m be chosen from the curve of Fig. 8 6 .20 z 1. After deciding the spread between the resonant frequencies. then amplitudes will be excessive.29. it is advantageous to introduce a damping device in the absorber system. To make the vibration absorber effective over an extended range of frequencies of the disturbing force..0 0 0 0. <I~ 4. Undamped dynamic vibration absorbers are not suitable for can varying forcing frequency excitation.5 2.30 : Response versus frequency of a vibration absorber The Eq.156) nl ( (J) //(/ ) .(2. Thus depending upon the variation of the exciting frequencies the spread between the two resonant frequencies has to be decided to remain reasonably away from the resonant points.
5 t Determine the maximwn an~ minimum )~1itude periodic motion. 10 ro and 10 ro2 respectively..) 10(oispl. velocity and acceleration vectors are 10.) ". Solution: Z = 20 sin rot Z = 20 ro cos rot = ro rot + ) .. . and the time period of the Z2 (mm) = 21 sin 8.5) 21t 21t = 0..5 rad/s..= 2 = 1t s ill for ro = 2.) 40 (Accln.'!. 10(OlspL) ( b) CV= 0.0 and O.Theory of Vibrations 53 t ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLEs! Example 2. ~/z 2.5 rod I se c Fig.1 The motion of a particle is representedby the equationz = 20 sin rot.0 t of the combuled motion. Show the relative positions and magnitudes of the displacement.31 b show the three vectors for ro = 2. ~~tm~f~dJ "T'f:ifrir" """"".~.."~'.!.20 ro2 sin rot20 20sin2 sin (w ~ + 1t) Z = ro t l The magnitudes of displacement. and ro = 2.:Jijj~ .?Orad/s respectively.<f:.=. Figures 2.2 A body performs.0 rad/s for ro = 41ts = .S(Acc!n.31 a and 2. 2.simultaneously..:F.=ill (0. The phase difference is such that the velocity vector leads the displacement vector by 1t/2 and the acceleration vector leads the velocity vector by another 1t/2.0 = rod/sec s(Vel.) (a) G.~~ '111"" . I 20 (V el..':. he motions t Zl (mm) = 20 sin 8.'.0 rad/s and 0.1) 21t 21t Time period Time perIod = .5 rad/s Example 2..) 2.31 : Vector diagram (Example 2..) . velocity and acceleration vectors at time t = 0.
.5 = 41t = 12... . then K1 KZ K3 1 Kel = ++Kt 1 1 1 KJ K4.54 Soil Dynamics & Machine 'Foundations Solution: Z max = 21 + 20 = 41 mm Z mm = 21 .32:"MuHpriags system ~ . 2.32. ~ 21t ~1O4 1 20 Example 2.. ~_'".....0.. and T = 2..3 A mass of 20 kg when suspended from a spring..~..0035 ".81 ::::104 N/m K = 20xl0J 1[K Natural frequency. = 3.0 1= 21t 21t 0.  I . KS Kz =~+~+~. 'Fig.0795 Hz.57 s Example 2. determine the natural frequency of the system if Kt = 1000 N/m Kz = 500 N/m KJ = 2000 N/m K4 = Ks = 750 N/m Mass of the body = 5 kg Solution: Let Ket and Ke2represent respectively the effective stiffnesses of the top three springs and the lower two springs.... causes a static deflection of 20 mm. The beat frequency is given by 8.In = 21t V.. 2. Solution: Stiffness of the spring.. K = W ~\t 20 x 9.6 Hz._. Find the natural frequency of the system.__. 1000 500 2000 0.58.20 = 1 mm .4 For the system shown in Fig.5 = 21t = 0.
3.0 S 21t 21t (lJ n (lJ = T = '2 = 3..07 eZ 2 = 7.6 A mass attached to a spring of stiffness of 5 N/mm has a viscous damping device.' .~.. . .2 ~ = 0.~ ~~.= 0..e. and the ratio 01 the consecutive amplitudes was 10/3..92 Z2 Therefore the free amplitude in the next cycle decreases by 7. 27t~ ZI 10 ..92 times..".". When the mass was displaced and released.0 rad/s ID n i.7 N/m Ke2 = K4 + Ks = 750 + 750 = 1500 N/m  Theory of Vibratimrs Now Kel and Ke2are two springs in parallel...... 4. The unit of the force is Newton. V. . a spring stiffness of 5 N/mm and a dashpot with a damping coefficient of 0.. Example 2. 55 Kel = 285..1 Ns/m.AsI= 5.7 + 1500 = 1785. Ke = Kel + Ke2:..1 ~=C=0.0 t:<.:: 285... .u .l = 2.27t.~~ . (i) .= .. .:. Determine the amplitude and phase angle when a force F = 3 sin 4 t acts on the system. = ~~1785.g""~.9.'! ".."".' . Z log ::.. the period of vibration was found to be 2.<. Solution: i.0 Example 2.......313 c (in Lograthimic decrement 27t~ = ~ 1 ~2 . n ~ ~. (ii) = loge Z2 = loge 3 = 1. =....:.5 A vibrating system consists of a mass of 5 kg.".x0.6mm...:' radls T1 ='~'= .'. . ~ 1.313 = 2... .~ 1.3132 ...'"" '..'.7 N/m f.319 Ns/m J: C 0.~2 or.~.0 s.319=0.0 3.195 TII = 2. ".7 = 3. '.."K.0 . therefore effective stiffness. Determine (i) damping ratio and (ii) logarithmic decrement.14 = 1.0Hz 21t /K 21t 5.'>..fi.273 F 3.0N.07 .14 = 4.... Fo =.0. Solution: (i) Cc = 2 ~km = 2J5x 103 x 5 = 0.'~ ""'~. ..
dependent excitation the damping ): . Solution: In a forced vibration test.. in frequency 211~ 1' 2 x 1. the system is excited with constant force of excitation and varying frequencies.0.195 x 1.273)2 e = T an ( r ) = Tan ( 111 Example 2. .06 E et 0.2732)2 +(2 x.58). q n xci Fig. 0. ' = I . A Soil Dynamics & Machine' Foundations Az =. 0. A response curve as shown in Fig.. I I f1 I 14 fn 18 Ifl 22 . (2.273 x 0.33 is obtained.273 2 ) = 141.!.6 . 2. 2.05 I I I I I I I I I I 0.7 S1On: Show that.0f (Z to t ion.195 11..755llll11 ~(11.09 Amox = 0. 12 ~ 11 ~ 2 ( 2/n J factor ~ is given by the followingexpres  Where 11 and 12 frequencies at which the amplitUdeis 1/. ~ (111) 2 t+(2~11) '. 2. Asl = Static Deflection " .08 C:I "'0 E E 0.4° . 0.56 From Eq.04 10 . n.07 " ::J  c. . ~Q. 24 Hz F r (Z u (Z c y . .33: Determination of viscous damping in forced vibrations by Bandwidth method .J2 times the peak amplitude.084 0. .: .
59.. 11 = 1 ana A~I Zst 57 = 1/2 ~ (for small values of ~).20.8 . 00= = ~KI m = . . 'Solution: ( i) .'n . .. Example 2. = 2 Therefore ~=! Iz .11 In2 . Now ~ ~ .5 'innl  '. determine (i) the amplitude of motion due to unbalance. : :'?it . '.11 2 ( In ) This methodfor determiningviscous damping is knownas the band width method. 184 x 103 100 (J)II .~"F.  2 = .'. (1 . A machine of mass 100 kg is supported on springs of total stiffness of 784 N/mm..58 x 0.. ' '= 0.112 = 12. ~ 87. In 112 111 ( In since )( In ) ( In ) 12 + f .of ~.2)2 = 0.. UJln..J2' 2~ = 4(1 :"112)2 +4~2 ~2 or 1142112 2~2) + (1. [for small values of~] 12+ I. then fr~m Eq. The machine produces an unbalanced disturbing force of 392 N at a speed 50 c/s..58 '.~ "'. ~~~.[i times the peak amplitude. Assuming a damping factor of 0.J..784 . (ii) the transmissibility.7 rad/s x 50 = 314 rad/s = 3.. 2. = 2 I 2 . " " ".8~J) = 0 (1 or 11~.2= ~[2(12~2):t~4(12~2)2_4(18~2)] .. . and (iii) the transmitted force.Az ==4(~. we get I 1 .' cc:  . " 00 .!s v At resonance.' ':. V 21t " ==87. . .314 =.'/ .. . .'.2~2):f:2~~1 + ~2 Now Also 11~11i 12 = 4~~1~2 = 4~ = Il. If the frequency ratio is T\when 1 amplitude of motion is 1/.0.5 '~(1'3582)2 +(2 x 3..7" Fi) '392 ~st . ." Th~o.~2l'+(2T\~) .042 mm ~'\..'.
15 x 22. or ~ (1 112)2+ (211~)2 . The motor was mounted on an isolatorwith damping factor of 0.~(13.e.43.58XO.72 = 3. = 22716 N :ii) . Also ~etermine the magnitude of the transmitted force. Determine the amplitudes of displacement: velo'city and acceleration of the vibrating machine.95 = 47.16 x (21t x 30/ = 22.72 kN '.2)2 .15 1 + 4112 x (0.1467 (hi) Force transmitted = 392 x 0.582)2 +(2 x 3. .95 (0 601t (0" = . The in~trumentgives the reading for th~r~lative displacement of the seismic mass as 0.95 i.7 rad/s K = m (47. Example 2. I.9 The rotor of a motor having mass 2 kg was running at a constant speed of 30 c/s with an eccentricity of 160 mm.25)2] or 114  12.58 x 0.58 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foulldations ~1+(211~)2 (ii) Transmissibility JlT =  ~(1n2)2 +(211~)2 ~1+(2X3. Determine the stiffness of the isolator spring such that 15% of the unbalanced force is transmitted to the foundation." = 3.JK/ m = 3.0 x 0.4 kN. .95 = 3. x 2.e.25.7)2 = 4639 N/m 2. Solution: (i) Maximum force generated by the motOi = 2 me eo:? = 7.2)2 ==0.5 N.05 mm. Example 2.25)2 = (0.0 (iii) Force transmitted to the foundation = 0. ~1 +4112~2 Jl = T Force transmitted unbalanced force = 0.15 .44 = 0 (0 It gives Therefore 11= 3.15)2 [(1 r 112)2+ (211 x 0.84112 .10 A seismic instrument with a natural frequency of 6Hz is used tomeasure the vibration of a machine running at 12.9rpm. Neglect damping.1467 = 57. = 0.7)2 =:= x (47..
91) gives' 1 X = 00 11~ (Y 0 00) n 0./ .7)2 0 I.~ .:.7) or o.17 mm/S2 Example 2.125 = 63.40 mm pickup.7 = 120 rpm = rad/s (J) 120 x 21t =' 12...~yo 0. (Y() 002) = Acceleration = (37.333 x 1. .34 a. . OOn or 0.e.~ '/reory 01 v.333 37.7)2 x 0.05 = 1.125 x Yo or or (iii) For velocity Yo = 0.89) gives (iv) For acceleration X ='4 . Eq.olution : (i) CJJ n = 6 Hz = 37. 0 (Y 000) = velocity = 5. (YOOO2) ' ..57 = 0..05 = (0. ~:::. (2.57 rad/s 60 '1 = 12.125 (Y 002) (37.333)2 x 1.2 ~ == for ~= 0 . .125x (Yo 00) 0.05 1.'.mm/s pickup.125 1.333)2 (ii) For displacement pickup. Eqo (2. .. co:" '1.7 1 1 1. (2...~>=j"~ . 2.11 Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system represented by a mathematical mod~1 shown in Fig.88) gives 2 X=.~.ibrations 59 '.""""".(0."'O'~. Eq. = 1.05 = (37.03 .
(2..34a is a two degree freedom system. By doing this.m2 } =K ) m (02 112 = . . [sK/.34 : Two degrees freedom system with mode shapes Solution: (i) The system shown in Fig. .103) and (2. The solution of such a system has already been described in Art. " . and m I = m2 = m.100) by putting KI = K.m ? .}~~r ... 2 III [( 3K + 3K _ 4 ~ (2 K)2 m m) { . 2. . we get \l2 (02 = . COni= .K ." . ''' . = 5.104).. ~.." .. 2. i J 60 Soil Dynamics & Machi'Je FOUlrilatiolls j +1 + 1 (a) Two degrees freedom system (b) First mode (c) Second mode Fig.!. Kz = 2 K and KJ = K. ' (ii) The two natural frequencies of the system can be obtained using Eq.JK/ m and CiJ~2:. ' . m.7. .!. ' .r6K + 4K m ] 2 l m.:.' ' (iii) The relative values of amplitudes Al and (2. ~ 'for the two modes can be obtainedusing Eqs. 2. Hence.
.35 : Three degrees freedom system with mode shapes Solution: (i) Equations of motion for the three masses can be written as m 21 + K 21 + 2 K (21 .158 b) m 7..:~.. B:xample2...12 Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system represented by the mathematical moqel shown in Fie._ .eory of Vtbtalions_/ 6i A (1) K ..~:(2.35 a.1"58 c) .m x 5 K / m 2 .(2.157 c) . 2.Z3) = 0 m 23'+ K (23 2t 23 .21) + K (22 .157 a) .. 2. .157 b) . the solutionswit be as = At sin ront ~ =~ .761 1.(2. .:: _.. 2K 1= A(l) 2 A~2) 2 = =+1 K1+ K2 m 1 o:l K+2Km x K/m nl 2K A (2) = K + 2 K .i'i~!~:t'jj .2 + 2 K (22 .(2.. 2.0 (a) Three degree freedom system (b) First mode (c) Second mode (d) Third mode Fig. ." sin ron t ront = A3 sin .158 a) .:" . 0.(2..(2.~ ~ ~  'W. '~""~"~=' ~ :::..".22) =0 ."'::::""'c..".22) = 0 For steady state.1' '.. = 1 The mode shapes are shown in Fig.34 band 2.34 c.
.3  2 7 A + lOA . .238 (3 . (2.2 . ...637 Kl m.637.(2. IIIWPllttll1~ A = !l ~ .2 A2 = 0 .2 A I + (3 ..AJ =0 .K A2 + (K  111 co.(2. we get .159) in 3K11l00 ..0. 00/1 ( (ii) Egs.159) in terms of A can be written as (3 .(2.. (.724 AI .A) A2 .159a). (3 K .238. ' " "..A) Al .162 h) gives = 0 or A2 = 0..162 b) ." 62 Soil Dynamics & Machine Follndations substituting Eqs..0. Eg .158) in Eqs..157).160) " .' or x 0.129 Kl m = = .(2.162a) .A) A3 For r mode: Eg.238Kl m.A2 + (1 .J1.) A3 =0 .761 .(2.159 b) PK3=T +(3Kmoo~)A2KA3'=O . K (2.'.238) Az . (2.. (2.(2..'11 .238) AI . /I 2K "'K 2 ' moo/l K 0 2K 0 K 2 1=0 Kmcon . ' A3 A2 = 0.111 o~) Al .161 b) Eg. (2..2 A2 Eg.(2.(2.161 b) is cubic in A.. (2. CO/l2 ..... and 00/13 ~5.2 K A2 = 0 o .J0.2 = 0 . and A) = 5.' ..724 A2 t(3 ..162 c) Therefore.159 c) For nontrivial solutions of 00/1 Eqs.A) = 0 ..161 a) f.160) become as 3A 2 0 or 2 3A 1 0 IA 1 I =0 ..1 "iI. (2.. The values of A are worked out as A( = 0.129 = .(2.162 a) gives " =0 A = 0. (2. A2= 1.
the natural frequency becomes (1 :i:0.e.8 .:) ) illnl 0)//(/ = 0.\ Theory of Vibrations 63 Assuming Al :.0. or ~ ma M = 628 K = m x 628 2 = 50 x 6282 = 201 x 105 N/m (ii) Aner adding the vibration absorber to the system. Forcing frequency == Natural frequency of system Therefore.= 5.891 : . Example 2.381: 1.635 : 1. ." 'h.933: .381 a : 1. What dynamic absorber should be added if the nearest natural frequency of the system should be at least 20 percent from the forcing frequency.13 A small reciprocating machine weighs 50 kg and runs at a constant sp~~d of 6000 rpm.0.:J If JInl ~ l. 2.:. = a.6 rad/s or 502.0.815 a Al : A2 : A) = a : 1.. For II mode.35 b. 753.815 .4 rad/s For tuned absorber: = K = JIM Ka Now from Eq. . 2. Solution: (i) ill =W 21t N "" 2 Tt x 6000 = 628 rad/s 60 At the time of installation of machine.35 c and 2.156) J(:.637 Al : A2 : A) = .35 d. = 1. it was found that the forcing frequency is very close to th~}latural frequency of the system.4.2) 628 i. (2. A.129 Al : A2 : A) = 3.381 a and A) = 1.815 a = 1: 1. After it was installed.551 : 0. and For III mode: A.14 : 1 The mode shapes are plotted in Figs. A2 = 1.::.761 : 1 Similarly.
(20 rad/s) 2.4 Starting from fundamentals~explain the principles involved in the design of (i) Displacement pickup. Determine K2 in terms ofK\. Ans. Proceeding from fundamentals.36.. Is this statement true? If yes. 2. 2. Discuss clearly its limitations. Ans..8 = 0. derive the expression of the amplitude of the system.2 'Presence of damping reduces the effectiveness of the isolation system'.40s.a b >.3 Give two methods of determining 'damping factor' of.8 A mass of 5 kg is attached to the lower end of a spring whose upper end is fixed. causes a static deflection of 25 mm. 2. Ans. The moment of inertia of weight W about the point 0 is Jo' Show that th~ system becomes unstable when: K. Illustrateyour answerwithneatsketches.12 kg PRACTICE PROBLEMS 2.1 A single degree (massspringdashpot) system is subjected to a frequency dependent oscillatory force (m eo (02sin (0f). explain with neat sketches.6 A mass of 25 kg when suspended from a spring. Find the natural frequency of the system. Illustrate your answer with neat sketches.14 sec) 2. (if) Velocitypickup.7 A spring mas system (K\.2025 x 50 = 10. the natural frequency becomes f\/2. 2.W .134 = 40.2)2 1}2 Jl m 1.5 kg is attached to the mid point of this spring with the upper and lower ends fixed. (0.9 Determine the differential equation of motion of the system shown in Fig. m) has a natural frequency of f\.and (iif) Accelerationpickup. 64 2 2 Soil Dynamics & Machine Foundations } Jlmand when (Onl (Ona 1 . ~fa second spring of stiffness K2 is attached in series with the first spring. .5 Describe the principles involved in a 'tuned dynamic vibration absorber'.2025 x 201 x 105 ma = 0.7 x 105 N/m Adopting the higher value of Jlm Ka = 0. 2.2 = {(1.2 2 = 0.'1 .8) 2 0.2025 = 1.a single degree freedom system. (K/3) 2. 2.{(0. The nawral period of this system is 0. Determine the natural period when a mass of 2. .
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