SHRI CHINAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS ANDHERI (E

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Submitted by: Group 9

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TOPIC VENTURE CAPITAL

GROUP: 9

MEMBERS OF THE GROUP:
Roll No. 38 40 44 48 Name SINGH RASHMI. VIRA URVI. ZAVERI MOHIT. JAIN ABHISHEK.

Submitted to: prof. Nikhil

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Nikhil for giving us such a great opportunity and guiding us in completing our project on topic BAJAJ ALLIANZ. Praveen Akolkar and also our project guide Prof. 3 . We would also like to thank our librarian for the help in securing books.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to take this opportunity to thanks our principle Dr (Ms) Malini Johri and our academic co coordinator Prof.

CONTENTS       INTRODUCTION FEATURES OF VENTURE CAPITAL TYPES OF VENTURE CAPITAL ADVANTAGES OF VENTURE CAPITAL DISADVANTAGES OF VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDING PROCESS IN VENTURE CAPITAL 4 .

Risk capital is invested as shares (equity) rather than as a loan and the investor requires a higher “rate of return" to compensate him for his risk. venture capital is attractive for new companies with limited operating history that are too small to raise capital in the public markets and have not reached the point where they are able to secure a bank loan or complete a debt offering. and used as a proxy measure of innovation within an economic sector or geography. Venture capital is also associated with job creation (accounting for 21% of US GDP). growth startup companies.a business) where there is a substantial element of risk relating to the future creation of profits and cash flows. such as biotechnology. in addition to a significant portion of the company's ownership (and consequently value). In exchange for the high risk that venture capitalists assume by investing in smaller and less mature companies. Venture capital (VC) is financial capital provided to early-stage. In addition to angel investing and other seed funding options. high-potential. IT. The venture capital fund makes money by owning equity in the companies it invests in. capital that is invested in a project (in this case . which usually have a novel technology or business model in high technology industries.VENTURE CAPITAL INTODUCTION: Venture Capital is a form of "risk capital". In other words. software etc. The typical venture capital investment occurs after the seed funding round as growth funding round (also referred as series a round) in the interest of generating a return through an eventual realization event. 5 . such as an IPO or trade sale of the company. venture capitalists usually get significant control over company decisions. the knowledge economy.

to help unquoted companies grow and succeed. expand. This informal method of financing became an industry in the late 1970s and early 1980s when a number of venture capital firms were founded. which provide several billion pounds each year to unquoted companies mostly located in the UK DEFINITION: Venture capital is defined as long term funds in equity or semi-equity form to finance hi-tech projects involving high risk and yet having strong potential of high profitability. turnaround or revitalize a company. If an entrepreneur is looking to start-up. This return is generally earned when the venture capitalist "exits" by selling its shareholding when the business is sold to another owner. irrespective of the success or failure of a business. when entrepreneurs found wealthy individuals to back their projects on an ad hoc basis.WHAT IS VENTURE CAPITAL? Venture capital provides long-term. buy-out a business in which he works. Venture capital in the UK originated in the late 18th century. There are now over 100 active venture capital firms in the UK. venture capital could help do this. Venture capital is invested in exchange for an equity stake in the business. As a shareholder. Obtaining venture capital is substantially different from raising debt or a loan from a lender. 6 . committed share capital. Lenders have a legal right to interest on a loan and repayment of the capital. buy-into a business. the venture capitalists return is dependent on the growth and profitability of the business.

either by providing loans or managerial skills or any other support. It is long term investment in growth-oriented small/medium firm. In addition. and regular return on debt financing.FEATURES OF VENTURE CAPITAL New Ventures: Venture capital investment is generally made in new enterprises that use new technology to produce new products. mostly from the start up stage. Mode of Investments: Venture capital is basically an equity financing method. spectacular returns. The rationale for the extension of hands-on management is that venture capital investments tend to be highly non-liquid. the investment being made in relatively new companies when it is too early to go to the capital market to raise funds. in expectation of high gains or sometimes. They do not interfere in the management of the firms nor do they acquire a majority/controlling interest in the investee firms. 7 . etc to investee firms. It is a long term capital that is injected to enable the business to grow at a rapid pace. Objective: The basic objective of a venture capitalist is to make a capital gain on equity investment at the time of exit. financing also takes the form of loan finance/convertible debt to ensure a running yield on the portfolio of the venture capitalists. Continuous involvement: Venture capitalists continuously involve themselves with the client’s investments. Hands on Approach: Venture capital institutions take active part in providing value added services such as providing business skills.

compounded at an expected annual growth rate for a certain holding period. high technology oriented companies. venture capitalists take into account the time at which the investee companies start the venture and the time at which such companies exit their investments. there will be higher liquidity where the new ventures are highly successful. The exit takes place in the form of sale to public/ third party and so on. Accordingly.High Risk return Ventures: Venture capitalists finance high risk return ventures. Methods of Evaluation: The evaluation of venture capital investments are generally idea based and growth based. Venture capitalists employ the following methods in order to evaluate their investments: Conventional Method: Under this method of valuation. Many of these firms are new. Liquidity: Liquidity of venture capital investment depends on the success or otherwise of the new venture or product. Venture capitalists usually make huge capital gains at the time of exit. Some of the ventures yield very high return in order to compensate for the heavy risks related to the ventures. Nature of Firms: Venture capitalists usually finance small and medium sized firms during the early stages of their development. until they are established and are able to raise finance from the conventional industrial finance market. The value of the venture for the purpose of investment involves the following computations: 1) Annual revenue: The annual revenue at the time of liquidation of the investments is calculated as follows: Present annual revenue in the beginning. which are asset based. in contrast with the conventional investments. 8 .

2) Expected earnings level: The expected level is computed as follows: Future earning level x after tax margin percentage at the time of liquidation. 5) Minimum percentage of ownership: The minimum percentage of ownership required is calculated as follows: = Finance sought x 100 / Calculated present value of the venture capitalists 9 . 3) Future market valuation: The future market valuation of the venture capitalists is ascertained as follows: Earnings levels x Expected P/E ratio on the date of liquidation 4) Present values of VC: The present value of the venture capital using a suitable discount factor is determined.

bridge financing and third stage financing or mezzanine financing. The various types of venture capital are classified as per their applications at various stages of a business. Seed financing is basically a small amount that an entrepreneur receives for the purpose of being eligible for a start up loan. Companies that have spent all their starting capital and need finance for beginning business activities at the full-scale are the major beneficiaries of the First Stage Financing. expansion financing and acquisition or buyout financing. start up financing and first stage financing. Acquisition or Buyout Financing Acquisition or buyout financing is categorized into acquisition finance and management or leveraged buyout financing. It may be provided as a short term interest only finance option as well as a form of monetary assistance to companies that employ the Initial Public Offers as a major business strategy. These distinctions refer to the timing of the investment or its specific purpose within the life of the target company. There are three major types of venture capital–early stage financing. Expansion Financing Expansion financing may be categorized into second-stage financing. this type of venture capital may also be used for initial marketing as well. Start up financing is given to companies for the purpose of finishing the development of products and services. Second-stage financing is provided to companies for the purpose of beginning their expansion.TYPES OF VENTURE CAPITAL There are several different types of venture capital. Second-stage financing is also known as mezzanine financing. Bridge financing is useful in many ways. It is provided basically for the purpose of assisting a particular company to expand in a major way. However. Early Stage financing Early stage financing has three sub divisions – seed financing. Acquisition financing assists a 10 . but the need for a high return in exchange for the risk remains constant.

payroll matters. It is not unusual for a venture capital firm to take an interest in providing these resources since they have a vested interest in the success of the company. In general.company to acquire certain parts or an entire company. Since venture capital firms almost always require a percentage of equity in the start-up firm. and tax issues. they likely will have a say in how the firm is managed. In many cases. Human Resources In terms of finding the best talent for startup firms. not all entrepreneurs are good business managers. ADVANTAGES OF VENTURE CAPITAL There are some benefits to venture capital funding. Management or leveraged buyout financing helps a particular management group to obtain a particular product of another company. This can help a start up firm avoid the pitfalls of hiring the wrong people for their company. Additional Resources Starting a new business is fraught with concerns about legal matters. 11 . For the non-management expert. Many starts up firms that are able to secure venture capital are able to thrive and become giants in their industries. Management Consultations Unfortunately. This can help a start up firm avoid many of the pitfalls that are often associated with start-up business ventures. venture capital firms often provide consultants who are specialists in hiring. the company that is able to secure venture capital funds can receive services that may include: Business Consultations Many venture capital firms have consultants on their staffs that are well versed in specific markets. this can be a significant benefit. business resources that are provided by venture capital firm who have taken an equity position in a startup company can be invaluable to the success of the company.

Business Plans When a business plan is written and submitted for financing considerations. This can put ideas from an entrepreneur at risk.DISADVANTAGES OF VENTURE CAPITAL Securing venture capital typically means that you have to give up something in exchange. most finance companies will agree to sign a non-disclosure agreement. This is not the case in most venture capital firms. This amount is not small. Venture capital firms will nearly always refuse to sign a non-disclosure agreement due to the legal ramifications of doing so. 12 . there are some things that venture capital firms may ask for that may surprise you. Equity Position Most venture capital firms require that the company give up an equity position to them in return for their funding. it is being controlled by the venture capital firm. In fact. though this can also create internal problems. a venture capital firm will want to add a member of their team to the start up company's management team. Decision Making One of the biggest problems that many entrepreneurs face when they agree to accept venture capital is that they often are giving up many key decisions in how their company will operate. in many cases it can be as much as 60% of the equity in the company. In effect. Most venture capital firms are not interested in merely receiving the capital that they have invested along with a standard interest rate. This is generally to ensure that the company can be successful. Venture capital firms that have taken an equity position want a "seat at the table" when any major decision is made and they often have the power to override decisions. this means that the entrepreneur is not controlling their business. These include: Management Position In many cases.

It is important that they carefully review all agreements and have them reviewed by an attorney as well.Funding Plan If an entrepreneur writes their business plan and determines that they need $500. This is simply not the case. These are only a few of the possible problems that an entrepreneur could face when they secure venture capital funding. Venture capital firms almost always set goals and milestones for releasing funds. they may be lulled into thinking that these funds will come up front. 13 .000 to get the business launched. Funding from venture capital firms is typically done in stages with an eye on the expansion of the business.

This is done when the venture did not perform as the VC-firm expected. The Seed Stage This is where the seed funding takes place. It is considered as the setup stage where a person or a venture approaches an angel investor or an investor in a VCfirm for funding for their idea/product. there is some sort of prototype of the idea/product that is not fully developed or tested. All activities that find place in the venture capital financing process are displayed at the left side of the model. The investor will investigate into the technical and the economical feasibility (Feasibility Study) of the idea. During this stage. which is done in practice all the time. The following schematics shown here are called the process data models.FINANCING PROCESS IN VENTURE CAPITAL There are several ways to attract funding. there are concepts. 2. the person or venture has to convince the investor why the idea/product is worthwhile. 4. and the investor does not see any potential in the idea/product. The next paragraphs will go into more details about each stage. This diagram is according to the modeling technique founded by Professor Sjaak Brinkkemper of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. 1. 3. Each box stands for a stage of the process and each stage has a number of activities. but part of the idea is worth for more 14 . the venture capital financing process can be distinguished into five stages. 5. However in general. However if the idea/product is not directly feasible. The Seed stage The Start-up stage The Second stage The Third stage The Bridge/Pre-public stage Of course the stages can be extended by as many stages as the VC-firm thinks it should be needed. In some cases. If the idea is not feasible at this stage. At the right side. Concepts are visible products/data gathered at each activity. This is generally caused by bad management or because the market collapsed or a bit of both (see: Dot com boom). the investor will not consider financing the idea.

we know that the risk of losing the investment for the VC-firm is around the 66. the idea/product gets its form. If the company has a board of directors. From research. The bank also decides to provide a small team of marketers and market researchers and a supervisor. a person from the VC-firms will take seats at the board of directors. This is done to help the venture with the realization of their idea and to monitor the activities in the venture.F. A business plan is presented by the attendant of the venture to the VC-firm. wants to develop a portal which allows companies to order lunch. the process will go to the second stage. The Start-up Stage If the idea/product/process is qualified for further investigation and/or investment. After a few meetings. the bank decides to invest. The prototype is being developed and fully tested. they also need marketers and market researchers to investigate whether there is a market for their idea. the venture needs some financial resources. Risk At this stage. the executives of the venture decide to approach ABN AMRO Bank to see if the bank is interested in their idea. After two weeks time. In some cases. because there are so many uncertain factors. To attract these financial and non-financial resources. the risk of losing the investment is tremendously high. ABN AMRO decides to put a few experts for investigation. J. Example A Dutch venture named High 5 Business Solution V. To open this portal. At this point many exciting things happen.E. the executives are successful in convincing the bank to take a look in the feasibility of the idea. While the organization is being set up. this is also called the start-up stage. clients are being 15 .2% and the causation of major risk by stage of development is 72%. A management team is being formed to run the venture. These percentages are based on the research done by Ruhnka. J. the investor may invest some time and money in it for further investigation. and Young. They come to an agreement of investigate a small amount of money into the venture.C.investigation.O.

the VC-firm wants to see result of market research to see whether the market size is big enough. They also want to create a realistic forecast of the investment needed to push the venture into the next stage. because the uncertainty is becoming clearer. the VC-firm may stop their funding and the venture will have to search for another investor(s). After reading the business plan and consulting the person who monitors the venture activities. From market research. If at this stage. But there are no providers of lunches yet. the risk of losing the investment is shrinking.attracted for initial sales. They have to find out who are the potential clients and if the market is big enough to realise the idea. Example Now the venture has attracted an investor. To do that. the venture has to determine how big the market is in their region. When the cause relies on handling of the management in charge. the cost of developing and maintaining the site and the profit the venture will earn in the following five years. of course with a lucrative return. Risk At this stage. To convince these providers. The VC-firm monitors the feasibility of the product and the capability of the management-team from the Board of directors. the venture can finish their business plan and determine a pretty good forecast of the revenue. the VC-firm is not satisfied about the progress or result from market research. if there are enough consumers to buy their product. The risk of losing the investment for the VC-firm is dropped 16 . provided by the investor. the venture decided to do interviews with providers and try to convince them to join. the venture comes to know that there are enough potential clients for their portal site. Together with the market researchers. they will recommend replacing (parts of) the management team. With this knowledge. The management-team establishes a feasible production line to produce the product. the investor decides that the idea is worth for further development. To prove that the assumptions of the investors are correct about the investment. the venture needs to provide the investor a clear business plan how to realise their idea and how the venture is planning to earn back the investment that is put into the venture. the venture need to satisfy the investor for further investment.

Another important point is the cost. If not. the venture needs to find a reliable designer to develop the site. we presume that the idea has been transformed into a product and is being produced and sold.) Developing the site in house is not possible. Example The portal site needs to be developed. The investor also has given the venture a deadline when the portal should be operational. the venture does not have this knowledge in house. The venture is trying to minimize their losses in order to reach the break-even. The venture is trying to squeeze between the rest and it tries to get some market share from the competitors. The deadline is in 3 months. which is 75. This is the first encounter with the rest of the market. The Second Stage At this stage. the investor decides to provide the venture a small team of web-designers. the venture will cut the funding. And the VC-firm has underestimated the risk involved. This consists of how the management-team manages the development process of the product and how they react to competition.0%. the competitors.to 53.8%. After a few meetings. This is one of the main goals at this stage. In case the venture is doing tremendously bad whether it is caused by the management team or from competition. if the management team lacks in managing the company or does not succeed in competing with the competitors. Or it could be that the product and the purpose of the product have been changed during the development. The VC-firm monitors the management capability of the team. the VC-firm may suggest for restructuring of the management team and extend the stage by redoing the stage again. (If possible. 17 . the VC-firm will probably give a go for the next stage. The venture decides to consult this with the investor. However. the development should be taken place in house. but the causation of major risk by stage of development becomes higher. The management-team has to handle very decisively. If at this stage the management-team is proven their capability of standing hold against the competition. This can be explained by the fact because the prototype was not fully developed and tested at the seed stage.

8% to 53.0% to 33.7%. because the venture is capable to estimate the risk. Also. They even have 2 weeks left before the second deadline ends. The Third Stage This stage is seen as the expansion/maturity phase of the previous stage. This can be done by selling more amount of the product and having a good marketing campaign. The venture is given another 3 months to come up with an operational portal site. The venture also needs to come to an agreement how these providers are being promoted at the portal site and against what price. After 3 months. Luckily for the venture. this is caused by the lack of decisiveness by the venture and the lack of skills of the designers. they have to find another investor. 18 . It is used to figure out the strength. opportunity and the threat the venture is facing and how to deal with it. who will provide their menu at the launch of the portal site. and the causation of major risk by stage of development also drops at this stage. The investor decides to cut back their financial investment after a long meeting.In the meantime. from 75. Unfortunately for the venture. This can be explained by the fact that there is not much developing going on at this stage. The risk of losing the investment for the VC-firm drops from 53. with the core of the new designer and the consultant. the risk of losing the investment still drops. Risk At this stage. Three designers are being replaced by a new designer and a consultant is attracted to support the executives’ decisions. The venture is concentrated in promoting and selling the product. the venture will have to see whether it is possible to cut down their production cost or restructure the internal process. the venture succeeds in making the deadline. the venture needs to produce a client-portfolio. The venture tries to expand the market share they gained in the previous stage. If the venture does not make this deadline in time. That is why the risk decreases. According to the one who is monitoring the activities. The venture did not make the deadline. This can become more visible by doing a SWOT analysis. the development did not go as planned. the investor requests the status of development. weakness.0%.

However at this stage it happens often that new followup products are being developed. and the causation of major risk by stage of development drops almost by half from 53. In the meanwhile. Risk At this stage. the venture expects to fulfil the target in the next quarter or the next half year. The portal is getting more orders from the working class every day. The VC-firm will evaluate if the management-team has made the expected reduction cost. 19 .6% to 20. This way the venture also works on expanding their market. This may because the venture rely its income on the existing product. Example Finally the portal site is operational. The new developed follow-up product will be evaluated to see if there is any potential. That is why the percentage continuous drop. In some cases.0%. Because of the delay at the previous stage. The venture has already suggested to stabilize the existing market the venture already owns and to decrease the promotion by 20% of what the venture is spending at the moment. To keep this going. the venture also starts to investigate followup products and services. the venture needs to promote their portal site. the risk of losing the investment for the VC-firm drops with 13.0% to 37.1%. At this stage the VC-firm monitors the objectives already mentioned in the second stage and also the new objective mentioned at this stage.Except that the venture is expanding. any eating-places in other cities/region to join the portal site. requested by the investor. the venture did not fulfil the expected target. The risk of losing the investment is still decreasing. This is approved by the investor. They also want to know how the venture competes against the competitors. From a new forecast. a small team is being assembled for sales. This is caused by external issues the venture does not have control of it. The venture decides to advertise by distributing flyers at each office in their region to attract new clients. the venture also investigates how to expand the life-cycle of the existing product/service. which will be responsible for getting new lunchrooms/bakeries.

Eliminate competitors. As we already mentioned. With the take-over of a competitor. because it may cost a lot of the ventures’ capital. the venture requested an external party to investigate into the case. After reading the investigation. this is the final stage of the process. However there are limited circumstances known where investors made a very successful initial market impact might be able to move from the third stage directly to the exit stage. there will be an additional continuation stage involved between the third stage and the Bridge/pre-public stage.The Bridge/Pre-public Stage In general this stage is the last stage of the venture capital financing process. Most of the time the venture fails to achieves some of the important benchmarks the VC-firms aimed.nl is being taken over by the venture. This is also the phase to introduce the follow-up product/services to attract new clients and markets. The main goal of this stage is to achieve an exit vehicle for the investors and for the venture to go public. The result of the investigation was a take-over. Keeping away new competitors from approaching the market. At this stage the venture achieves a certain amount of the market share. Internally. The site is promoting restaurants and is also doing business in online ordering food. the venture has expanded its’ services. This gives the venture some opportunities like for example:     Hostile take over Merger with other companies. the venture has to reposition the product and see where the product is positioned and if it is possible to attract new Market segmentation. the investor agrees to it and happen.nl. The investor suggests a merge instead. But most of the time. This proposal is being protested by the investor. the venture is thinking about taking over the competitors’ website happen. Example Now the site is running smoothly. 20 . To settle down their differences.

the risk of losing the investment still exists.9%. not to mention that the VC-firm is faced with a dilemma of whether to continuously invest or not. Risk At this final stage. The risk of losing the investment the final stage is a little higher at 20. but seeing how the business is progressing. This is caused by the number of times the VC-firms may want to expand the financing cycle. This is caused by the follow-up product that is introduced. The causation of major risk by this stage of development is 33%.Seeing the ventures’ result. 21 . the investor decides to extend its’ investment for another year. the investor comes to the conclusion that the venture still have not reach the target that was expected. compared with the numbers mentioned at the seed-stage it is far lower. However.

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