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Chemistry Final Study Guide


Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond are a. transferred from one atom to another. c. valence electrons. b. found only in the s-orbitals. d. in filled orbitals. 2. A covalent bond forms when the attraction between two atoms is balanced by repulsion and the potential energy is a. at a maximum. c. at a minimum. b. zero. d. equal to the kinetic energy. 3. A nonpolar covalent bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of a. 0.1. c. 3.0. b. 1.5. d. Both (a) and (b) 4. An ionic bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of a. 0.1. c. 3.0. b. 1.5. d. Both (a) and (b) 5. A polar covalent bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of a. 0.1. c. 3.0. b. 1.5. d. Both (a) and (b) 6. The correct Lewis structure for the oxygen atom has a. one pair of valence electrons and one single valence electron. b. two pairs of valence electrons and one single valence electron. c. two pairs of valence electrons and two single valence electrons. d. three pairs of valence electrons. 7. The correct Lewis structure for a Group 18 atom has a. one pair of valence electrons and one single valence electron. b. two pairs of valence electrons and one single valence electron. c. three pairs of valence electrons and one single valence electron. d. four pairs of valence electrons. 8. The correct Lewis structure for a fluorine atom in a molecule of F 2 shows a. three unshared pairs of electrons. c. one shared pair of electrons. b. an octet of valence electrons. d. All of the above 9. In a double bond, two atoms share a total of _____ electrons. a. two c. four b. three d. six 10. The correct Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound C 2H2 contains a. three single bonds. c. three double bonds. b. two double bonds. d. one triple bond. 11. To indicate resonance, a _____ is placed between a molecules resonance structures. a. single-headed arrow c. long dash b. series of three raised dots d. double-headed arrow

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____ 12. According to VSEPR theory, which of the following shapes is possible for a molecule with the molecular formula of AB3? a. linear c. trigonal pyramidal b. trigonal planar d. Both (b) and (c) ____ 13. According to VSEPR theory, the molecular shape of H 2O is classified as a. linear. c. trigonal planar. b. bent. d. trigonal pyramidal. ____ 14. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance is called a. its atomic number. c. its mass number. b. Avogadros number. d. its gram-atomic number. ____ 15. What can be said about 1 mol Ag and 1 mol Au? a. They are equal in mass. b. They contain the same number of atoms. c. Their molar masses are equal. d. They have the same atomic mass. ____ 16. An Avogadros number of any element is equivalent to a. the atomic number of that element. c. 6.022 1023 particles. b. the mass number of that element. d. 12 g of that element. ____ 17. Using a periodic table, what is the average atomic mass of zinc? a. 69.723 amu c. 63.546 amu b. 58.693 amu d. 65.39 amu ____ 18. The atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.008 amu. The reason that this value is not a whole number is that a. hydrogen only exists as a diatomic molecule. b. the mass of hydrogen is the sum of the masses of the protons and electrons in the atom. c. the mass of a proton is not exactly equal to 1 amu. d. hydrogen has more than one isotope. ____ 19. Changing a subscript in a correctly written chemical formula a. changes the number of moles represented by the formula. b. changes the charges on the other ions in the compound. c. changes the formula so that it no longer represents that compound. d. has no effect on the formula. ____ 20. A formula that shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a compound is the a. molecular formula. c. structural formula. b. ideal formula. d. empirical formula. ____ 21. The molar mass of an element is the mass of one a. atom of the element. c. gram of the element. b. liter of the element. d. mole of the element. ____ 22. To determine the molar mass of an element, one must know the elements a. Avogadro number. c. number of isotopes. b. atomic number. d. average atomic mass. ____ 23. What is the molar mass of magnesium? a. 12.00 g c. 24.305 g b. 26.982 g d. 22.990 g ____ 24. What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 43.6% phosphorus and 56.4% oxygen? a. P3O7 c. P2O3 b. PO3 d. P2O5

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____ 25. A compound contains 27.3 g of C and 72.7 g of O. What is the empirical formula for this compound? a. CO c. C2O d. C2O4 b. CO2 ____ 26. What is the percentage composition of CF4? a. 20% C, 80% F c. 16.8% C, 83.2% F b. 13.6% C, 86.4% F d. 81% C, 19% F ____ 27. Knowledge about what products are produced in a chemical reaction is obtained by a. inspecting the chemical equation. c. laboratory analysis. b. balancing the chemical equation. d. writing a word equation. ____ 28. A chemical reaction has NOT occurred if the products have a. the same mass as the reactants. b. more energy than the reactants. c. less energy than the reactants. d. the same chemical properties as the reactants. ____ 29. The word equation solid carbon + oxygen gas carbon dioxide gas + energy, represents a chemical reaction because a. the reaction releases energy. b. CO2 has chemical properties that differ from those of C and O. c. the reaction absorbs energy. d. CO2 is a gas and carbon is a crystal. ____ 30. The state of matter for a reactant or a product in a chemical equation is indicated by a a. coefficient before the formula. c. symbol after the formula. b. subscript after the formula. d. superscript after the formula.
heat ____ 31. The reaction, C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O, will occur most rapidly if c. CO2 is a gas and H2O is a liquid. a. C2H5OH is a liquid and O2 is a liquid. b. C2H5OH and O2 are in close contact. d. CO2 is a gas and H2O is a gas. ____ 32. An insoluble solid produced by a chemical reaction in solution is called a. a precipitate. c. a molecule. b. a reactant. d. the mass of the product. ____ 33. The products of the reaction, C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O have the same _____ as the reactants. a. atoms. c. molecules. b. coefficients. d. subscripts. ____ 34. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation CaCO 3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)? a. 1, 1, 1 c. 2, 6, 3 b. 1, 3, 1 d. 3, 1, 2 ____ 35. Which equation is NOT balanced? c. H2 + H2 + O2 H2O + H2O a. 2H2 + O2 2H2O b. 4H2 + 2O2 4H2O d. 2H2 + O2 H2O

____ 36. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation NH 4NO2 N2 + H2O? a. 1, 2, 2 c. 2, 1, 1 b. 1, 1, 2 d. 2, 2, 2 ____ 37. A reaction of a hydrocarbon, in which carbon dioxide and water are produced, is classified as a a. decomposition reaction. c. double-displacement reaction. b. combustion reaction. d. synthesis reaction.

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____ 38. In what kind of reaction do two or more substances combine to form a new compound? a. decomposition reaction c. double-displacement reaction b. ionic reaction d. synthesis reaction ____ 39. In what kind of reaction does a single compound produce two or more simpler substances? a. decomposition reaction c. displacement reaction b. synthesis reaction d. ionic reaction ____ 40. The reaction 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) is a(n) a. synthesis reaction. c. combustion reaction. b. decomposition reaction. d. ionic reaction. ____ 41. In what kind of reaction does one element replace a similar element in a compound? a. displacement reaction c. decomposition reaction b. combustion d. ionic reaction ____ 42. The reaction Cl2(g) + 2KBr(aq) 2KCl(aq) + Br2(l) is a(n) a. synthesis reaction. c. displacement reaction. b. ionic reaction. d. combustion reaction. ____ 43. What is the name of a list of elements arranged according to the ease with which they undergo certain chemical reactions? a. reactivity list c. activity series b. reaction sequence d. periodic list ____ 44. An element in the activity series can replace any element a. in the periodic table. c. above it on the list. b. below it on the list. d. in its group. ____ 45. What can be predicted by using an activity series? a. whether a certain chemical reaction will occur b. the amount of energy released by a chemical reaction c. the electronegativity values of elements d. the melting points of elements ____ 46. A precipitate forms in a double-displacement reaction when a. hydrogen gas reacts with a metal. b. positive ions combine with negative ions. c. water boils out of the solution. d. a gas escapes. ____ 47. If 0.500 mol of Na+ combines with 0.500 mol of Cl to form NaCl, how many formula units of NaCl are present? a. 3.01 1023 c. 6.02 1024 23 b. 6.02 10 d. 1.00 ____ 48. How many atoms of fluorine are in a molecule of carbon tetrafluoride, CF 4? a. 1 c. 4 b. 2 d. 5 ____ 49. What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 53.3% O and 46.7% Si? a. SiO c. Si2O d. Si2O3 b. SiO2 ____ 50. A compound contains 259.2 g of F and 40.8 g of C. What is the empirical formula for this compound? a. CF4 c. CF d. CF2 b. C4F

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____ 51. A compound contains 64 g of O and 4 g of H. What is the empirical formula for this compound? a. H2O c. H4O4 b. H2O2 d. HO ____ 52. What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 36.1% Ca and 63.9% Cl? a. CaCl c. CaCl2 b. Ca2Cl d. Ca2Cl2 ____ 53. To find the molecular formula from the empirical formula, one must determine the compounds a. density. c. structural formula. b. formula mass. d. crystal lattice. ____ 54. A molecular compound has the empirical formula XY3. Which of the following is a possible molecular formula? c. X2Y5 a. X2Y3 b. XY4 d. X2Y6 ____ 55. The molecular formula for vitamin C is C6H8O6. What is the empirical formula? a. CHO c. C3H4O3 b. CH2O d. C2H4O2 ____ 56. A compounds empirical formula is NO2. If the formula mass is 92 amu, what is the molecular formula? a. NO c. NO2 b. N2O2 d. N2O4 ____ 57. What is the percentage composition of CuCl 2? a. 33% Cu, 66% Cl c. 65.50% Cu, 34.50% Cl b. 50% Cu, 50% Cl d. 47.267% Cu, 52.733% Cl ____ 58. The percentage of sulfur in SO2 is about 50%. What is the percentage of oxygen in this compound? a. 25% c. 75% b. 50% d. 90% ____ 59. What is the percentage of OH in Ca(OH)2? a. 45.9% c. 75% b. 66.6% d. 90.1% ____ 60. Which observation does NOT indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred? a. formation of a precipitate c. evolution of energy b. production of a gas d. change in total mass of substances ____ 61. In the unbalanced formula equation CO + O 2 CO2 + energy, energy a. is absorbed. c. is released. b. can be considered a reactant. d. Both (a) and (b) ____ 62. The word equation for the formula equation shown is C2H5OH + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy a. carbon dioxide + water ethanol + oxygen + energy. b. ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy. c. ethanol + oxygen + energy carbon dioxide + water. d. ethanol + oxygen + energy carbon dioxide + water + energy. ____ 63. How would oxygen be represented in the formula equation for the reaction of methane and oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water? a. oxygen c. O2 b. O d. O3

Name: ________________________ ____ 64. After the correct formula for a reactant in an equation has been written, the a. subscripts are adjusted to balance the equation. b. formula should not be changed. c. same formula must appear as the product. d. symbols in the formula must not appear on the product side of the equation. ____ 65. To balance a chemical equation, it may be necessary to adjust the a. coefficients. c. formulas of the products. b. subscripts. d. number of products. ____ 66. A chemical equation is balanced when the a. coefficients of the reactants equal the coefficients of the products. b. same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products. c. products and reactants are the same chemicals. d. subscripts of the reactants equal the subscripts of the products. ____ 67. After the first steps in writing an equation, the equation is balanced by a. adjusting subscripts to the formula(s). b. adjusting coefficients to the smallest whole-number ratio. c. changing the products formed. d. making the number of reactants equal to the number of products. ____ 68. What is the balanced equation when aluminum reacts with copper(II) sulfate? c. Al + CuSO4 AlSO4 + Cu a. Al + Cu2S Al2S + Cu b. 2Al + 3CuSO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3Cu d. 2Al + Cu2SO4 Al2SO4 + 2Cu ____ 69. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation CaO + H 2O Ca(OH)2? a. 2, 1, 2 c. 1, 2, 1 b. 1, 2, 3 d. 1, 1, 1 ____ 70. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation Zn(OH)2 + CH3COOH Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2O? a. 1, 2, 1, 1 c. 1, 2, 1, 2 b. 2, 1, 2, 1 d. 2, 1, 1, 2 ____ 71. The equation A + X AX is the general equation for a(n) a. combustion reaction. c. synthesis reaction. b. ionic reaction. d. double-displacement reaction. ____ 72. The equation A + BX AX + B is the general equation for a a. double-displacement reaction. c. displacement reaction. b. decomposition reaction. d. combustion reaction. ____ 73. If metal X is lower than metal Y in the activity series, then metal X a. replaces ions of metal Y in a solution. b. is more active than metal Y. c. is less active than metal Y. d. forms positive ions more readily than does metal Y. ____ 74. A balanced chemical equation allows one to determine the a. mole ratio of any two substances in the reaction. b. energy released in the reaction. c. electron configuration of all elements in the reaction. d. mechanism involved in the reaction.

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____ 75. The coefficients in a chemical equation represent the a. masses, in grams, of all reactants and products. b. relative numbers of moles of reactants and products. c. number of atoms in each compound in a reaction. d. number of valence electrons involved in the reaction. ____ 76. How many mole ratios can be correctly obtained from the chemical equation 2NO N2 + O2? a. 1 c. 4 b. 3 d. 6 ____ 77. In the reaction Ca + Cl2 CaCl2, what is the mole ratio of chlorine to calcium chloride? a. 2:3 c. 1:2 b. 2:1 d. 1:1 ____ 78. In the reaction N2 + 3H2 2NH3, what is the mole ratio of nitrogen to ammonia? a. 1:1 c. 1:3 b. 1:2 d. 2:3 ____ 79. In the reaction 2H2 + O2 2H2O, what is the mole ratio of oxygen to water? a. 1:2 c. 8:1 b. 2:1 d. 1:4 ____ 80. What is the mole ratio of oxygen to phosphorus(V) oxide in the reaction P 4(s) + 5O2(g) P4O10(s)? a. 1:1 c. 5:1 b. 1:5 d. 4:10 ____ 81. In the chemical equation wA + xB yC + zD, if one knows the mass of A and the molar masses of A, B, C, and D, one can determine a. the mass of any of the reactants or products. b. the mass of B only. c. the total mass of C and D only. d. the total mass of A and B only. ____ 82. If one knows the mass and molar mass of reactant A and the molar mass of product D in a chemical reaction, one can determine the mass of product D produced by using the a. mole ratio of D to A from the chemical equation. b. group numbers of the elements of A and D in the periodic table. c. estimating bond energies involved in the reaction. d. electron configurations of the atoms in A and D. ____ 83. What is needed to calculate the mass of ammonia gas produced from 2.0 L of nitrogen gas in excess hydrogen gas in the reaction below? N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) a. one molar mass and one mole ratio b. one molar masses and two mole ratios c. two molar masses, one density, and one mole ratio d. two densities, two molar masses, and two mole ratios ____ 84. A chemical reaction involving substances A and B stops when B is completely used. B is the a. excess reactant. c. primary reactant. b. limiting reactant. d. primary product. ____ 85. The substance that restricts the participation of other reactants in a chemical reaction is known as the a. limiting reactant. c. excess reactant. b. limiting product. d. excess product.

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____ 86. To determine the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction, one must know the a. available amount of one of the reactants. b. amount of product formed. c. available amount of each reactant. d. speed of the reaction. ____ 87. What is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%? a. mole ratio c. molar yield b. percentage yield d. excess yield ____ 88. What is the measured amount of a product obtained from a chemical reaction? a. mole ratio c. theoretical yield b. percentage yield d. actual yield ____ 89. The actual yield of a chemical reaction is a. less than the theoretical yield. c. equal to the percentage yield. b. greater than the theoretical yield. d. greater than the percentage yield. ____ 90. For the reaction SO3 + H2O H2SO4, calculate the percentage yield if 500. g of sulfur trioxide react with excess water to produce 575 g of sulfuric acid. a. 82.7% c. 91.2% b. 88.3% d. 93.9% ____ 91. For the reaction Cl2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br2, calculate the percentage yield if 200. g of chlorine react with excess potassium bromide to produce 410. g of bromine. a. 73.4% c. 90.9% b. 82.1% d. 98.9% ____ 92. For the reaction 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2, calculate the percentage yield if 80. g of water react with excess sodium to produce 4.14 g of hydrogen. a. 87% c. 92% b. 89% d. 98% ____ 93. For the reaction 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl, calculate the percentage yield if 200. g of chlorine react with excess sodium to produce 240. g of sodium chloride. a. 61.2% c. 83.4% b. 72.8% d. 88.4% ____ 94. In the chemical equation wA + xB yC + zD, how many correct mole ratios can be obtained that relate only the products? a. 1 c. 4 b. 2 d. 6 ____ 95. In the chemical equation wA + xB yC + zD, a comparison of the number of moles of A to the number of moles of C would be a a. mass ratio. c. electron ratio. b. mole ratio. d. energy proportion. ____ 96. To determine the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction involving known masses of the two reactants, A and B, which of the following calculations would be the most useful? a. determining the masses of 100 mol A and 100 mol B b. finding the masses of the products c. calculating bond energies d. calculating the mass of a single product formed from each reactant

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Completion Complete each statement. 97. In a covalent bond, shared electrons move within a space called a(n) ____________________ orbital. 98. In the compound HF, the atom of the element ____________________ carries a partial negative charge. 99. Bonds that result in the attraction between the electrons in the outermost energy level of each metal atom in a solid substance and all of the other atoms in the metal are classified as ____________________ bonds. 100. A covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons is called a ____________________ bond. 101. In a Lewis structure of a molecule, a(n) ____________________ bond is correctly represented by a long dash. 102. A covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons is called a(n) ____________________ bond. 103. In a Lewis structure of a molecule, a pair of long, parallel dashes correctly represents a(n) ____________________ bond. 104. VSEPR theory is short for valence-shell electron pair ____________________ theory. 105. Because the boiling point of H2O is much higher than that of C2H2, you can conclude that ____________________ is composed of a more polar molecule. 106. If you have 1.204 1024 atoms of nickel, you have ____________________ as the amount of nickel. 107. The element that has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu is ____________________. 108. The average atomic mass of cobalt is ____________________. 109. Comparing the average atomic masses of copper and zinc, the average atomic mass of ____________________ is larger. 110. In one mole of acetic acid, CH3COOH, there are ____________________ moles of hydrogen atoms. 111. Two moles of carbon atoms are present in ____________________ of C 6H6. 112. The unit used for molar mass is ____________________. 113. A compounds empirical formula is N2O5. If the formula mass is 108 amu, its molecular formula is ____________________. 114. The percentage of oxygen in NaOH is ____________________. 115. A solid produced by a chemical reaction that then separates from the solution is called a(n) ____________________. 116. In writing a formula equation for a reaction that produces hydrogen gas, the correct representation of hydrogen gas is ____________________. 117. When balancing a chemical equation, insert coefficients to make the number of atoms of each of the ____________________ in the products equal to that of the reactants. 118. When the formula equation CuSO4(aq) + Fe(s) Fe2(SO4)3(aq) + Cu(s) is correctly balanced, the coefficient of CuSO4(aq) is ____________________. 119. The reaction 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O2(g) is classified as a(n) ____________________ reaction. 9

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120. When placed in water, a metal more active than hydrogen will form two substances, a metal hydroxide and ____________________ gas. 121. In a(n) _________________________ reaction, ions of two compounds exchange places in aqueous solution to form new compounds. 122. A catalyst for a reaction is indicated by a ____________________ written over the arrow in a chemical equation. 123. The mass of the products of the reaction C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O equals the mass of the reactants because the products are made up of the same ____________________ as the reactants. 124. In an equation, the symbol for a substance in water solution is ____________________. 125. In the chemical equation 2AlCl3(aq) + 3Pb(NO3)2 (aq) 3PbCl2(s) + 2Al(NO3)3(aq), the state of PbCl2 is a(n) ____________________. 126. The small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation is called a(n) ____________________. 127. The branch of chemistry that deals with the numerical relationship of elements and compounds as reactants and products in a chemical reaction is known as ____________________. 128. The unit of the following expression is ____________________.

100 g H 2 O

mol H 2 O 18.02 g H 2 O

129. The unit of the following expression is ____________________.

100 g H 2 O

1 molar mass H 2 O

130. The expression below converts the quantity, mass HCl, to the quantity, ____________________.

mass HCl
131. The conversion factor mass.

1 mol Cl2 1 molar mass Cl2 molar mass HCl 2 mol HCl

1 can be used to find the ____________________ of water if you know its density H 2 O

132. The expression below converts the quantity, volume C 5H12, to the quantity, ____________________.

volume C 5 H 12 density C 5 H 12

2 mol H 2 1 molar mass H 2 molar mass C 5 H 12 1 mol C 5 H 12

133. The substance that controls the quantity of product than can be formed in a chemical reaction is the ____________________. 134. The substance that is not used up completely in a chemical reaction is the ____________________. 135. The measured amount of a product of a reaction is called the ____________________. 136. Almost all of the gas inside an inflated automobile safety air bag is molecular ____________________. 10

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137. The function of the carburetor in a small internal combustion engine is to control the ratio of ____________________ to oxygen. 138. One of the functions of a(n) _________________________ is to increase the rate of the decomposition of NO(g) and NO2(g) found in the exhaust gases of a car into N 2(g) and O2(g). 139. The unit g/km is often used to express measurements of air ____________________ found in the exhaust gases of automobiles. 140. In the equation N2 + 3H2 2NH3, the ratio 2:1 relates mol NH3 to mol ____________________. 141. In the equation N2 + 3H2 2NH3, the mole ratio of NH3 to N2 is ____________________. 142. The expression below converts the quantity, mass HCl, to the quantity, ____________________.

mass HCl

1 mol Cl2 1 molar mass HCl 2 mol HCl

143. Unwanted reactions that can use up reactants without making the desired products are called ____________________ reactions 144. Reactions that are started by the suns ultraviolet light and involve nitrogen oxides emitted from car engines form ____________________ smog. Short Answer 145. Explain why the conversion factor 3Mg(OH)2(aq) + 2NH3(g). 146. Why must a chemical equation be balanced to solve stoichiometry problems? 147. Why should you use moles in stoichiometry problems? 148. Explain the difference between a limiting reactant and an excess reactant. 149. What factor could most affect the choice of a limiting reactant for a production process? 150. How does the actual yield of a chemical reaction compare to the theoretical yield? 151. How is density used in stoichiometry?

3 g Mg (OH) 2 cannot be used for the reaction Mg 3N2(s) + 6H2O(l) 6 g H2 O

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152. Comparing limiting and excess reactants, explain why the flame would go out in the Bunsen burner if the indicated valves were tightened too much. Problem 153. How many grams of ammonium sulfate can be produced if 30.0 mol of H2SO4 react with excess NH3 according to the equation 2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)? 154. What mass in grams of sodium hydroxide is produced if 20.0 g of sodium metal react with excess water according to the chemical equation 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)? 155. What volume of hydrogen gas is produced if 20.0 mol of Zn are added to excess hydrochloric acid according to the equation Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)? (Assume the density of H2 is 0.0899 g/L) 156. How many silver atoms can be produced if 0.00350 g of Cu are reacted with excess AgNO 3 according to the equation Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) 2Ag(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq)? 157. The reaction of 100. g of salicylic acid, C 7H6O8, with excess acetic anhydride produces 50.0 g of aspirin, C9H8O4, according to the equation. What is the percentage yield for this reaction? C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 C9H8O4 + C2H4O2 158. In the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the percentage yield of oxygen is 93.0%. What is the actual yield in grams of oxygen if you start with 100. g of H 2O2? The reaction proceeds according to the equation 2H2O2(l) 2H2O(l) + O2(g).

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Chemistry Final Study Guide Answer Section


MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: C C A C B C D D C D D D B B B C D D C D D D C D B B C D B C B A A A D B B D A B PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: 1 I I I II II I I I I II I II I I I I I I I I I II III III III III I I I I I I I I II II I I I I OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.3 6.1.3 6.2.1 6.2.1 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3.1 6.3.1 7.1.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.2.1 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.3.1 7.2.3 7.2.3 7.2.3 7.3.1 7.3.1 7.3.3 8.1.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.3 8.1.3 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.3

ID: A 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: A C C B A B A C B A D C B D C D D B A D C B C B A B B B D C C C C A B D D B A C A A C B A C PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: 2 I II I I II I III II III III II III III II III III III II III I I I I I I I II II II III II II II I I II I I I I I I II II I II OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: 8.3.4 8.3.4 8.3.4 8.3.4 8.3.4 8.3.5 7.1.2 7.2.2 7.3.1 7.3.1 7.3.1 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.2 7.3.2 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.3 7.3.3 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.2.2 8.3.2 8.3.4 8.3.4 9.1.1 9.1.1 9.1.1 9.1.1 9.1.1 9.1.1 9.1.1 9.1.3 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.2.1 9.2.1 9.2.1

ID: A 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: B D A D C C B B A D PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: DIF: I I I II II II II II I I OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: OBJ: 9.2.2 9.2.2 9.2.2 9.2.2 9.2.2 9.2.2 9.2.2 9.1.1 9.1.1 9.2.1

COMPLETION 97. ANS: molecular PTS: 1 98. ANS: fluorine PTS: 1 99. ANS: metallic PTS: 1 100. ANS: single PTS: 1 101. ANS: single PTS: 1 102. ANS: double PTS: 1 103. ANS: double PTS: 1 104. ANS: repulsion PTS: 1 105. ANS: H2O PTS: 1 106. ANS: two moles PTS: 1 107. ANS: Ca PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: 6.1.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.1.3

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.1.3

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.2.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.2.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.2.2

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.2.2

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.3.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 6.3.2

DIF: II

OBJ: 7.1.2

DIF: I

OBJ: 7.2.1

ID: A 108. ANS: 58.93 amu PTS: 1 109. ANS: copper PTS: 1 110. ANS: four PTS: 1 111. ANS: 0.33 mol one-third mole PTS: 1 112. ANS: g/mol PTS: 1 113. ANS: N2O5 PTS: 1 114. ANS: 40.00% PTS: 1 115. ANS: precipitate PTS: 1 116. ANS: H2(g) PTS: 1 117. ANS: elements PTS: 1 118. ANS: 3 DIF: I OBJ: 7.2.1

DIF: II

OBJ: 7.2.1

DIF: II

OBJ: 7.2.2

DIF: II

OBJ: 7.2.2

OBJ: 7.2.3

DIF: III

OBJ: 7.3.2

DIF: II

OBJ: 7.3.3

DIF: I

OBJ: 8.1.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 8.1.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 8.2.2

PTS: 1 DIF: II 119. ANS: decomposition PTS: 1 120. ANS: hydrogen DIF: II

OBJ: 8.2.2

OBJ: 8.3.3

PTS: 1 DIF: I 121. ANS: double-displacement PTS: 1 DIF: I 122. ANS: chemical formula PTS: 1 DIF: I

OBJ: 8.3.4

OBJ: 8.3.5

OBJ: 8.1.3

ID: A 123. ANS: atoms PTS: 1 124. ANS: (aq) PTS: 1 125. ANS: solid PTS: 1 126. ANS: coefficient DIF: I OBJ: 8.2.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 8.1.3

DIF: I

OBJ: 8.1.3

PTS: 1 DIF: I 127. ANS: stoichiometry PTS: 1 128. ANS: mol H2O PTS: 1 129. ANS: mol H2O PTS: 1 130. ANS: mass Cl2 PTS: 1 131. ANS: volume PTS: 1 132. ANS: mass H2 DIF: I

OBJ: 8.2.2

OBJ: 9.1.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 9.1.3

DIF: II

OBJ: 9.1.3

DIF: I

OBJ: 9.1.3

DIF: I

OBJ: 9.1.4

PTS: 1 DIF: II 133. ANS: limiting reactant PTS: 1 DIF: I 134. ANS: excess reactant PTS: 1 135. ANS: actual yield PTS: 1 136. ANS: nitrogen PTS: 1 137. ANS: fuel DIF: I

OBJ: 9.1.4

OBJ: 9.2.1

OBJ: 9.2.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 9.2.2

DIF: I

OBJ: 9.3.1

PTS: 1 DIF: I 138. ANS: catalytic converter PTS: 1 DIF: I

OBJ: 9.3.2

OBJ: 9.3.3 5

ID: A 139. ANS: pollutants PTS: 1 140. ANS: N2 PTS: 1 141. ANS: 2:1 PTS: 1 142. ANS: mol Cl2 PTS: 1 143. ANS: side DIF: II OBJ: 9.3.3

DIF: I

OBJ: 9.1.1

DIF: I

OBJ: 9.1.1

DIF: II

OBJ: 9.1.3

PTS: 1 DIF: I 144. ANS: photochemical PTS: 1 SHORT ANSWER DIF: I

OBJ: 9.2.1

OBJ: 9.3.3

145. ANS: This conversion factor uses coefficients to compare masses directly. Ratios of moles must be used to solve stoichiometry problems. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: 9.1.1 146. ANS: Only a balanced equation reveals the correct mole ratios of the reacting substances. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: 9.1.1 147. ANS: The mole is used because the coefficients in the balanced equation show the number of moles of reactants and products in the chemical reaction. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: 9.1.2 148. ANS: In a reaction that goes to completion, a limiting reactant is used up, and an excess reactant is not used up. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: 9.2.1 149. ANS: The most expensive chemical would probably be the limiting reactant, so it will be used up in the reaction with no excess as waste. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: 9.2.1 150. ANS: The actual yield is always less than the theoretical yield. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: 9.2.2 6

ID: A 151. ANS: Density is used to make conversions between mass and volume. This is often important when a gas or liquid is a product or reactant. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: 9.1.4 152. ANS: If air is restricted, oxygen becomes the limiting reactant. If the gas is restricted, it becomes the limiting reactant. Either way, the removal of any reactant will cause the reaction to cease. PTS: 1 PROBLEM 153. ANS: DIF: II OBJ: 9.2.2

30.0 mol H 2 SO 4
PTS: 1 154. ANS:

1 mol (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 132.17 g (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 = 3960 g (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 1 mol H 2 SO 4 1 mol (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4


DIF: III OBJ: 9.1.3

20.0 g Na
PTS: 1 155. ANS:

1 mol Na 2 mol NaOH 40.00 g NaOH = 34.8 g NaOH 1 mol NaOH 22.99 g Na 2 Mol Na
DIF: II OBJ: 9.1.3

20.0 mol Zn
PTS: 1 156. ANS:

1 mol H 2 2.02 g H 2 1L H 2 = 449L H 2 1 mol Zn 1 mol H 2 0.0899 g H 2


DIF: II OBJ: 9.1.4

0.00350 g Cu
PTS: 1 157. ANS:

2 mol Ag 6.022 10 23 atoms Ag 1 mol Cu = 6.63 10 19 atoms Ag 1 mol Ag 63.55 g Cu 1 mol Cu


DIF: II OBJ: 9.1.5

100 g salicylic acid percentage yield =


PTS: 1

1 mol salicylic acid 1 mol aspirin 180.17 g aspirin = 130 g aspirin 138.13 salicylic acid 1 mol salicylic acid 1 mol aspirin

50.0 g 100 = 38.5% 130. g


DIF: II OBJ: 9.2.2

ID: A 158. ANS:

100 g H 2 O 2 47.0 g O 2
PTS: 1

1 mol H 2 O 2 1 mol O 2 32.00 g O 2 = 47.0 g O 2 34.02 g H 2 O 2 2 mol H 2 O 2 1 mol O 2

93.0 g O 2 = 43.7 g O 2 100. g O 2


DIF: II OBJ: 9.2.2

Chemistry Final Study Guide [Answer Strip]


D _____ 12. B _____ 25. D _____ 38. D _____ 51.

ID: A

B _____ 26. B _____ 13. C _____ 1. C _____ 27. B _____ 14. C _____ 2. D _____ 28. B _____ 15. A _____ 3. B _____ 29. C _____ 16. C _____ 4. D _____ 17.

A _____ 39.

C _____ 52.

B _____ 40.

B _____ 53.

A _____ 41.

D _____ 54.

C _____ 42. C _____ 55. C _____ 43. D _____ 56. B _____ 44.

B _____ 5. D _____ 18.

C _____ 30. A _____ 45. B _____ 31.

D _____ 57.

B _____ 58.

C _____ 6. C _____ 19. A _____ 32. A _____ 59. B _____ 46. D _____ 60.

D _____ 7. D _____ 20.

A _____ 33. A _____ 47. A _____ 34.

C _____ 61.

D _____ 8.

D _____ 21. B _____ 62. D _____ 35. C _____ 48.

C _____ 9.

D _____ 22. B _____ 36. B _____ 49. C _____ 63.

D _____ 10.

C _____ 23.

D _____ 11.

D _____ 24.

B _____ 37.

A _____ 50.

Chemistry Final Study Guide [Answer Strip]


B _____ 64. B _____ 75. C _____ 86.

ID: A

A _____ 65.

D _____ 76.

B _____ 87.

B _____ 66.

D _____ 77.

D _____ 88.

B _____ 78. B _____ 67. A _____ 79.

A _____ 89.

D _____ 90.

B _____ 68.

C _____ 80.

C _____ 91.

D _____ 69.

A _____ 81. C _____ 92.

C _____ 70. A _____ 82. C _____ 71. B _____ 94. C _____ 72. C _____ 83. C _____ 73. A _____ 95. B _____ 93.

D _____ 96. A _____ 74. B _____ 84.

A _____ 85.