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2, May 1997
Understanding Transients: A Conceptual Interpretation *Zhang Wang *Ji-Yuan Fan, Senior Member *Yu-Huai Shao
*Electrical Engineering Dept. *Advanced Control Systems Inc. Atlanta, Georgia Taiyuan University of Technology USA Taiyuan, China ABSTRACT: This paper provides a conceptual interpretation and a complementary understanding about power system transients through qualitative analysis. It introduces a few intuitive concepts by analyzing the transients of a two-winding transformer and a synchronous generator under a short circuit condition. A 90"lagging rule of thumb is also introduced to describe the d- and qaxes voltage equations of a synchronous generator. Using the introduced concepts, the transient mechanism can be well understood with clear physical meanings of every term, including the various time constants, in the solution formulas. Key Words: Transient Analysis, Conceptual Method, Component Decomposition
analyzing the transient behavior of a two-winding transformer and a synchronous generator under short circuit condition. Based upon these concepts, the exact analytical solution formulae for a transformer and a synchronous generator can be directly derived with every term in the formulae being explained with clear physical meanings, providing the power system engineers and advanced students with an alternative insight into the transient mechanism in a conceptual manner. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the concept of component decomposition by analyzing the transient behavior of a two-winding transformer under short circuit condition. Section 3 continues to use the concept of component decomposition to analyze the transients of a synchronous generator. Section 4 introduces the 90O-lagging rule of thumb to describe the d- and q-axis voltage equations of a synchronous generator via conceptual analysis. Lastly, a conclusion is reached in section 5 .
2. Transients in Transforms
Understanding transients has been a very important and challenging task for power system engineers and advanced students who are interested in system dynamics. Power system transients involve the dynamics of all individual network components, electric loads and generating units. For performing system wide transient analysis, it is always necessary to have a rigid understanding of the transient behavior of the individual system equipment, especially the synchronous generators and transformers which generally dominate the system transient behavior. The dynamics of a synchronous generator or a transformer can be mathematically described by differential equations (i .e., mathematical models). Conventionally, the transient behavior is strictly analyzed by solving these differential equations through rigid mathematical procedures, lacking conceptual interpretation about the mechanism of transients. This paper provides a conceptual interpretation and a complementary understanding about the transients by introducing a few intuitive concepts originating from the authors many years of teaching experience. These intuitive concepts are introduced by
96 SM 375-6 PWRS A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Power Engineering Education Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the 1996 IEEUPES Summer Meeting, July 28 - August 1, 1996, in Denver, Colorado. Manuscript submitted December 29, 1995; made available for printing April 23, 1996.
Consider a single-phase two-winding transformer with its primary side connected to a constant voltage busbar and the secondary side in short circuit. Its equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 1:
Fig. 1 Equivalent Circuit of A Two-winding Transformer
0885-8950/97/$10.00 0 1996 IEEE
2.i ... With respect to a two-winding transformer. (4) are determined by: The hypothetical components of i.These two induced currents are physically the transient components decaying exponentially with time. corresponding to i2s0. component and Fig. with the same magnitude but opposite sign as ilso.i ' (5) - itzfl where At the instant of time zero (i. + m.m ~ = o + ~ dt r i + I ' . il'.. and . The steady state component exists forever with a constant magnitude while the transient component. 2. appears at the primary side and an induced current. It can be seen from Fig.. when the transformer is initially connected to the busbar).e. (1). the time constant dominating the transient behavior can be easily given as T = L/R. an induced current.as schematically and shown in the vector diagram of Fig. (l). as shown in Fig. in . the transient characteristics of the two-winding transformer can be analyzed mathematically by solving the coupled differential equations of Eq. appears at the secondary side. The conceptual method assumes that the current at either the primary or the secondary side of the transformer is composed of two components: a steady state component and a transient component. Use of the conceptual methos.. i (3) . =iIo i.. ifl. decays exponentially with time. = lo. instead. where Fig. Sin (or + 4) Without question. 3 (a) presents the i.. . the steady state currents at both sides will present instantaneous values of ils0 i2so. They can be represented by two hypothetical components through a simple transformation.. lacking sufficient conceptual insights into the physical mechanism. + i2. in the primary winding has the opposite direction to the flux associated with the current component i. It can also be analyzed alternatively using the conceptual method of component decomposition. 2 Vector diagram of current at t = 0 As is well known.i component in both the primary and secondary sides of the transformer. as given in Eq.. the time constants are determined from the eigenvalues of the state model of Eq. = V. + A (4 (b) Fig. v. l2 = lo2 + m. in a simple R-L circuit. however.522 The transient characteristics can be described as: 1 ( ' d t dt r 2 i z di ~ 2 di . which is induced at the instant when the transformer is initially energized.. In the rigid mathematical method. can easily find the exact solutions with clear physical insights... 3 (b) presents the . This transformation can be schematically shown in Fig. 2 that if20 generally of different value is from z f l o . The steady state currents at both sides can be directly given in complex values as: Fig. (4): il10 = = i. i. if.m . 3 Decomposed transient components in both sides It can be seen from Fig. To meet the initial condition of zero current.= v di di2 ' where I. 3.. this simplicity no longer exists because of the mutual coupling between the inductances. 3 (a) that the flux associated with current component i.
+ It can be seen that Eq. Transients in Synchronous Generators At a permanent three-phase short circuit condition. Therefore. Zd=Z. just as though it were produced by a real winding rotating with the rotor. i.. and i.. however.. it can be found from Fig. the magnitude of no-load voltage of a stator phase winding.i in the secondary winding. 4 depicts a time profile of the transient component of i f l o in the primary side. making the mutual coupling inductance be doubly effective. e. the inductance that is effective to current i. + 2m.. on the component. making the mutual coupling inductance ineffective. Fig. as depicted in Fig. T I . is only the leakage inductance of I . (8) obtained by the conceptual method illustrates the same formulae as that by the rigid mathematical method. without oscillation. if. Zf=Zf. therefore. corresponding to the terms of i2 and l2 of the secondary winding of a transformer.i in the primary winding has the same direction as the flux associated with current component . = lo three-phase stator windings. from which it can be seen that i r l 0 decays very fast at the beginning due to the smaller time constant. the concepts used to analyze the transients of a transformer can also be applied to analyzing a synchronous generator. i20. T2. 4 Time Profile of Transient Current 3. Thus. Because of the DC excitation current of if. the current in each side of the transformer can be written as: Fig. phase A. the steady state short circuit current can be written as (short circuit current lags the voltage by 90 degrees while the stator resistance is omitted): A synchronous generator is apparently different from a transformer and. 5 . and then slows down due to the larger time constant. The physical meanings of each term are clearly described. 3 (b) that the flux associated with current .. resulting in an equivalent simple R-L circuit. can be viewed as those corresponding to the terms of i. generally presents very different transient behavior. its composite stator flux rotates synchronously with the rotor. of the primary winding of a transformer. and the stator inductance. m. Thus.523 the secondary winding. rl = r2 = r in per unit value). the rotor current. with the time constant given as: T. the stator current. will decay. will decay with the time constant: lo + 2m T2 = r (7) In total. the effective inductance to current i2.g. 5 Schematic Diagram of a Synchronous Generator In Fig. a synchronous generator can be assumed similar to a transformer. 5: r On the other hand. Similarly. is given by The instantaneous voltage of phase A at time t can be given as (assume the instantaneous voltage value is zero at the instant of t = 0): v = Ego sin (of) Fig. and 1. in the rotor winding. Because of the geometric symmetry of its . i. i.. Obviously. the resistance faced by il0 at either side will be r. As a result. (because virtually I. = 1.. = I. In this sense. on the component. it Consider that the generator operates in a no-load condition prior to a three-phase short circuit fault occurring at time t = 0. + m. and the rotor inductance. is I.
is associated with the main stream of the stator flux which reaches the rotor by crossing the air gap (represented by the mutual inductance of m) and is then squeezed to take the magnetic path of the rotor flux leakage (represented by the rotor leakage inductance of 9. This induced current will also decay with time. Fig. the inductance corresponding to the flux of induced rotor current of Ai. as shown in Fig. (11): Similar to the inductance of l’d.. is...e.appears at the instant o f t = 0. 7.). however. as indicated in Fig. Because of the magnetic unsymmetry of the rotor. i A Moreover. the periodic component of the short circuit current will correspondingly change from i’. in each cycle. E. Eq.lwZq. is associated with the stator winding flux leakage and the second term. the reduced inductance is due to the appearance of the induced current of Ai. therefore. an average DC component.524 When the short circuit fault suddenly occurs at the instant o f t = 0. As a result. the time constant at which Aif decays is defined by: T’ = 1’ r Tf With Ai. rather than Eq. decaying. a composite rotating flux due to the short circuit currents in the three-phase windings appears. (13). resulting in a very different form from the corresponding component of a transformer given by Eq. causing the induced current to fluctuate in a double frequency with a maximum value.. with the same instantaneous value but an opposite sign. This current will decay with time because of the resistance of rf in the rotor winding. i . 7 Induced Stator Current (without considering decaying) This induced varying current can be decomposed into two components. the inductance corresponding to current is. inducing a current of Aif in the rotor winding to resist its entering. in a frequency two times the rotor speed (I’d and I. as given by: As indicated above. Hence. (3): I where the first term. 6.).. is given as: (14) Fig. which is represented by Eq. mi&/$ (m //$. most of the composite stator flux. as shown in Fig. is restricted to the path of the air gap represented by the leakage inductances of the stator and rotor windings. (16). and a minimum value. . I. is initially determined by Eq.lwZfd. an induced DC current. as well as the additional rotor flux due to Aif. to is.. This flux attempts to enter the magnetic path of the rotor winding. resulting in a reduced inductance to the short circuit current. 6 Effective Magnetic Path during Transient The periodic component of the short circuit current is. will fluctuate between I‘d and I. appears in the stator winding to meet the initial condition of zero current.. 5 . alternatively become effective twice in each rotating cycle). when the periodic current component. i t s .
and produce the d. 8 Park's d-q coordinate system dQ I". While the rotating flux ll/. several different d-q coordinate systems have been used in different applications. as: Fig. (19). u. the three-phase windings (without neutral grounding) can be electrically represented by two hypothetical windings. an inductive potential with an opposite sign against the flux change is produced at the winding. this induced current will decay with time./dt (-dGqldt). (19) in different d-q coordinates. just as though there were a d-axis winding and a q-axis winding in the generator. resulting in many different forms of the d. in uq. it is a common practice to use a d-q coordinate system to equivalently represent the three-phase stator windings of a synchronous generator.. respectively.= d dt wQ. one on the d-axis and the other on the q-axis. the composite short circuit current can be written as (for phase A): where Ud. and w is the generator speed in rad/s (angular velocity).. which will not be covered in this paper.e. Because of the geometrical and electrical symmetry.525 0 uq l q *q Because of the stator resistance. in Eq. The time constant is determined by the equivalent inductance. (19). I/) sweeps the stator windings. In total. However. 1. While the magnitude of flux Gd (Gq) varies.and q-axis windings can be rigidly derived via mathematical transformation. 4. 2Z'dZq/(Z'd Zq). the negative/positive signs associated with these terms often cause confusion and difficulty in practical applications. (18) presents the exact current formula as obtained by rigid mathematical procedures. $d on the d-axis and $q on the q-axis. r. a resistive voltage drop results. the d. id. (C. In this case. Gq are voltages. It can be found by comparing Eq. a rotating potential with a magnitude of w $ ~ and a phase angle of 90" lagging the flux is generated.' and lJ. Moreover. -w$.and q-axes windings are just hypothetical windings to equaivlently represent the three-phase stator windings which do not physically rotate with the rotor. r. the authors propose a rule of thumb to establish Eq. use of Park's transformation [1. (19) via qualitative analysis. as represented by the term. Voltage Equations of Synchronous Generators I In the analysis of power system transients. (a geometric average of 1. the composite rotating flux linkage in a synchronous generator produced by the currents in the rotor windings and the three-phase stator windings can be decomposed into two components. i.2] can convert the three-phase quantities into d. The analytical concepts discussed above can also be easily applied to analyzing the transients under load condition. (19) with the voltage equation of an ordinary electric winding that each component in Eq. i.and q-axes voltage equations (with different signs on the two special terms). According to the fundamentals of electric machinery. 8.). and Gd. the initial stator currents are no longer zero and more transient terms appear. - + rid 21.. currents and fluxes of the d. and the stator resistance. (19) includes an special term. While a current flows through the winding.and q-axes quantities in the d-q coordinate system of Fig. To provide a rigid understanding of the two special terms of Eq.and q-axes windings.and q-axes voltage equations as given by Equation (19): . in Eq. -rid (-fi. as represented by the term. This rotating Eq. -d$. in ud and w$. In the existing literature. For instance. The voltage equations of both d.
all in Electric Power Engineering.and q-axes can be immediately written as: where the generator potential term of w. 1977. 1933.S..E degree (1982) from the Electric Power Research Institute. degree (1988) from Taiyuan University of Technology. From 1982 to 1985. while wqd on uq takes a negative sign because it is of the opposite direction against uq by 90"-lagging flux &. in Electrical Engineering. Potsdam. H. the voltage equations in d. Since 1950. Vol. Biography Zhang Wang graduated (1949) from Shanxi University. China. he was an instructor of power system analysis in Taiyuan University of Technology. he has been on the faculty at Taiyuan University of Technology and is a Professor in Electrical Engineering Department. Park "Two-Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines. he worked as a post-doctoral researcher at Texas A&M University.526 [l] K. 6.E." The Iowa State University Press.E. References . She joined the faculty at Taiyuan University of Technology in 1976 and is now an Associate Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department.bq on Ud takes a positive sign because it is of the same direction as ud by 90"-lagging flux Gq. Using the introduced concepts. AIEE Trans.E. 48. Beijing. he has been with Advanced Control Systems. Yu-Huai Shao received the diplomaof undergraduate (1975) and the M. No confusion or difficulty has been involved while determining the signs of the generator potential terms using the 90"-lagging rule of thumb. '7.q-axes voltage equations of a synchronous generator through conceptual analysis. His research interest has been in Power System Dynamics and Stability Analysis. M. Since 1990. Park "Two-Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines. China. 52. 5. Vol.730.. China and the Ph." Part I." Part 11. A. Anderson. New York. " " " Pd id ud 4' $l l G % P. According to the 90"-lagging rule of thumb. Taiyuan. the M. Fouad. "Power System Control and Stability. Her research interests include Power System Relay Protection and Transient Analysis. A 90"-lagging rule of thumb was introduced to describe the d. China. Taiyuan.S. USA. The transient behavior of a transformer and a synchronous generator were studied using the new concepts. 1929. AIEE Trans. where he is a Senior R&D Engineer responsible for the development and implementation of the advanced real-time application software in Energy Management Systems and Distribution Automation Systems.  Ji-YuanFan (S'88-M'90-SM'95) received the diplomas of undergraduate (1979) and graduate (1982) from Taiyuan University of Technology. pp 716 .  K. degree (1989) from Clarkson University. the transient mechanism can be well understood with every term in the solution formulae being explained with clear physical meanings.D. pp 352 355. Conclusion A few intuitive concepts were introduced to provide a useful complementary tool for understanding the power system transients. Taiyuan. In 1989. A. TX. Inc. H.