THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT
Angular In Elevation
and the material
herein are the property reproduced,
and may not be copied,
without written permission
of Carrier Corporation.
GENERAL GUIDELINES TO STUDENTS
This training unit consists of a video tape presentation with an accompanying workbook. The video program is
divided into sections. you will be directed an exercise
After each video tape section,
to the workbook where you complete
(answer questions and do readings).
This training program complete. The recommended (1)
two hours to
sequence is as follows: gives the introductory remarks,
After the administrator
the student reads the objectives. (2) The student briefly administrator (3) The videotape material. discusses the objectives with the
and other class members. is turned on and the student views the I, the tape reads
Upon completion of tape Section
is turned off. the questions workbook. questions,
The student opens the workbook, and writes the answers directly
When the group has completed the administrator just completed.
will review and discuss
the material (4)
~~en there is no further discussion, will start the videotape completed, Students
the administrator When this is
for Section 2.
the tape will be turned off and again the
return to the workbook.
Work through all sections A quiz covering
in this manner.
. (7) In the event that the program administered. administrator's is to be self-
the student will refer to the guide. in the entire unit after the
will be administered
by the instructor
unit has been completed.
2. Calculate the exact amount of equipment movement required to correct any given amount of shaft misalignment.
3 4. Align light or heavy equipment within the close tolerances specified here-in.
7. 5. Express an understanding of the tools of alignment. 9. the student should be able to: 1. Understand the difference between aligning couplings and aligning shafts. Dowel the equipment footings to the sole plates. Express an understanding of the effect of angular misalignment on Parallel Alignment Readings. Submit a Comprehensible Alignment Report.PROGRAM OBJECTIVES On completion of training on "The Four Easy Steps To Good Shaft Alignment". Understand the advantages of using alignment brackets. Calculate and compensate for the effect of Machine Thermal changes on Alignment.
#1 Explanation The Four Proper Angular Shaft of Elevation
& Plan Views
of Misalignment Steps
of Alignment Tolerance
Calculating Use of Dial Selecting Maintaining
Movement on Equipment pivot Point Footing
the Correct Shaft
#2 Instruments Advantages Checking
of Alignment Brackets Sag
#3 How To Use The Dial How To Use Alignment How To Check Parallel Angular Indicator Brackets Alignment Tolerance On Parallel Alignment
Effect of Angular Readings Screw Jack
vs Hydraulic Report
#4 Hot Alignment Calculating Alignment The Effect of Thermal Changes On Machine
How To Take Advantage How To Compensate Doweling Safety Correction Factors Machine
Tolerances or Distortion
For Coupling Footings
Set At Angle
"The Four Easy Steps To Good Shaft Alignment"is simple and straight-forward. Pre-aligning equipment to compensate for thermal changes. This procedure.
II-. Calculating for coupling face runout. Most make heavy use of algebraic calculations and graphs and are easily subject to error. Then.SECTION ONE THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT
Most Alignment procedures are very complicated and hard to follow. B. We'll begin by outlining the four easy steps and the simple calculations that are basic to the procedure. C.-
Blueprint drafting standards established long ago that an elevation view is seen when standing beside nn object looking straight ahead at the side or end of the object. Taking alignment readin~s. we'll cover the subjects that are
common to all alignment procedures such as: A. (See Fi~ure #1).
. These steps performed in sequence will eliminate
guess work and backtracking and will consistantly result in good shaft alignment.
attempt to correct all four positions of alignment with one set of readings and one move.
in the service
the terms "Elevation" could be used.Plan View
A "plan" view is seen when object. in elevation (Figure 83). This
must be corrected
If any of the other three
are corrected This
ahead of this one.
and building and "Plan" trades must be familiar with should be less confusing than
Since everyone blueprints.m on the
#2). as the other
shims and will not change
can exist between
Angular In Elevation
Position position #1 is angular misalignment first.
. (See Figure looking from above straight dot. they could be lost when correction is made with
this one is corrected.
some others which Following two pieces
are the four positions equipment.
The correction here is straight up or down. This move must come ahead of #4 because
#4 would definitely be lost in the process of correcting #3. The correction
here will be to slide the rear end of the movable equipment sideways on the sole plate to correct the angle.Paralleln I Elevation
Position #2 is parallel misalignment in elevation (Figure #4). If Position #3 or #4 is corrected ahead of #2.
Paralleln I Plan
Position #4 is parallel misalignment in plan (Figure #6).
one or both could be lost while correcting #2. This can be
corrected without losing the angular alignment of position #3 by using a dial indicator at the footings and sliding the equipment straight over an equal amount at each end. involving equal amounts of shim stock under each footing.
Angular In Plan
Position #3 is angular misalignment in plan (Figure #5).
the driver. taken
are four steps sequence shown
first. angular this in
We are aligning
shafts.003". it shall
This means not slope
that at a point away
the shaft than
coupling. of the coupling This hubs are also this at an angle is called keep to each other (See Figure is not the reason not couplings. there
are four positions to good to avoid
of possible shaft
from the other
such as a motor. These must be
The Misalignment because the shaft shown in Figure #7 is called angular misalignment to the shaft of
of the movable
runs off at an angle owners specify that per
the stationary not exceed along
of an inch) 10" along
inch of travel from the . turbine.As you
can see. unit is frequently a compressor
It should or pump. that the faces #8).
in the exact while
that the stationary unit is most often
The movable etc. and movable units
may be a gear between be aligned
As shown in Figure 09. assume readings have been taken across the face of the coupling hub.mind even when taking alignment readings off the face or O. the face of the coupling hub is always at a right angle (90°) to the bottom of the equipment footings. This will remain a
constant no matter how high. short or long the shaft may extend out of the unit and no matter what moves we make to the equipment.005" more than at the bottom. the pivot point becomes the front
It is obvious then that the distance between the rear footing
and the pivot point (front footing) is a factor in how much the coupling
. low. of the coupling hub. Lifting the rear footings of the movable unit would tend to close the coupling at the top.
. and it is open at the top ..D. footings. Now we will run through a hypothetical alignment using the four steps and show how to calculate the amount of each move. which is 4" diameter.
Starting with step Dl. To do this. angular in elevation (See Figure #10).
"How many times will the
coupling diameter go into the distance between the front and rear footings?" The answer obviously is 5 times. and the opening at the top of the coupling is . We make a simple calculation. "---_==----
12. if the distance between the front and rear footings was also 4".005" at the top. So five times .005"
The conditions shown in Figure #12 are more realistic.
As shown in Figure 1111. with a 4" diameter coupling. the ratio would become 2
to 1 and the rear footings would have to be raised . the distance between front and rear footings is 20".:_-~.005" larger than at the bottom.
---~_.faces will close at the top for any given amount of lift at the rear footings. We have assumed
the coupling is 4" diameter.005" would close the coupling .005" tells us
that a shim .010" to close the 4" diameter coupling . then it would be a 1 to 1 ratio and lifting the rear footing .005" at the top. If the distance was 8" between footings.025" thick placed under each rear footing will bring the coupling into good angular alignment in elevation.
. the indicator button could be placed closer to the shaft
center or further out from center if the coupling hub face is larger in diameter.
. Now. . It is actually the diameter of the circle through which the button of the dial indicator rotates that must be divided into the distance bet~een the front and rea~ footings of the movable unit. .
'\.. the dial would rotate through a circle much
larger than the coupling hubs. we assumed that the alignment check was made with a dial indicator with its button on the coupling hub face very close to the edge of the 4" diameter (See Figure #13).
The reading could even be taken off brackets attached to the shaft as shown in Figure #14..
.The distance between footings is measured from center to center of the hold-down bolts.
In our hypothetical measurements for Step #1.
always recheck to confirm that the correction was properly made. 16
Parallel In Elevation
Step 112.After adjusting misalignment. We will get into detailed use of the dial indicator later. step #1 can be used here.008" greater on one side than on the other side. Placing a . These were both obtained with shims so they
will not be lost while performing steps #3 and #4. Steps 1 & 2 are complete. check to see how high or low the shaft of the movable unit is in relation to the shaft of the stationary unit.
The calculation used in
Let's assume the distance between coupling faces Divide the coupling
is . is very simple.
Angular In Plan
Step #3 corrects anguldr misalignment in plan.012" below the shaft of the stationary unit. For now. "Parallel in Elevation". With a dial
let's assume the shaft of the movable unit is .012" thick shim under each of its footings
will bring the shafts into good parallel alignment in elevation.
Recheck angular misalignment. 5 x .
the pivot point to be slightly off the exact distance between the hold-down
.diameter (4") into the distance between the front and rear hold down bolts.040").
To do this..
Place a screw jack in position at the opposite rear footing to move the equipment toward the indicator.040". Turn the screw jack and move the rear end against the indicator until it registers .008" (20 .040". Tighten all hold-down bolts and recheck the indicator. It may be necessary to over-shoot or under-shoot the desired
reading to have it come out right when the bolts are tightened. This pivoting move (Step #3) can be Burrs may cause
influenced by burrs on the bottom of very large footings.
So the rear
end of the movable unit will have to be moved exactly . It must
Set the indicator on zero. (20") and multiply by .
PIVOT ON A FRONT FOOT. If it has
changed because of tightening the bolts.008" = . be exactly in line with the hold down bolt. place the dial indicator against the rear footing on the side which has the larger coupling opening as shown in Figure #17. Loosen both rear hold-down bolts and one front hold-down bolt.4
5. then loosen the same three bolts and readjust.
045" without disturbing the angular alignment made in step #3.
Parallel In Plan
Step #4 is to correct parallel misalignment in plan. .
But if this happens.
recalculate and make a second move.bolts. With a dial indicator attached to one shaft or coupling and the indicator button on the outside diameter of the other shaft coupling hub.045". Now the trick is to move the movable unit straight over .
The same percentage error on the
second move will bring the alignment well within tolerance. you can set up and make the move as shown in Figure G19. find how much the shafts are offset one from the other. Let's assume it's
If you have two dial indicators and two screw jacks. then use it and the screwjack ~t the footings the same way you did 18
. If there is only one indicator on
The difference would be very slight.
and that angular alignment has not been disturbed. . This completes the Hypothetical Alignment.in step 13.
Move one end of the unit against the indicator until it shows
Tighten the hold down bolts and move the indicator and screwjack to Loosen three of the hold down bolts and move
the other end of the unit.
. pivoting on the front foot on the open side will lengthen this distance.045". then decide how to make the adjustment. the distance between the ends of the shaft will always be affected.045".
The pivot point must be on the same side of the equipment
for each of these moves.002". As shown in Figure #20.
Check the distance between the shaft ends.
When making angular adjustments in plan. this end . Recheck to be sure parallel alignment is within . whereas. This distance is important and recommendation
should be held very close to the coupling manufacturer's which is usually stamped on high speed coupling hubs. If the distance between shaft ends must remain as is then pivot half the required movement on one front footing and half on the other. pivoting on the front foot on the closed side of the coupling will shorten the distance between the shaft ends.
0015" .009".005" .
Readings taken across a 8" diameter coupling show it is open at the top . Shims Step #1 Step #2 Step #3 Step #4 Dial Indicator & Screw Jack
.009 more than the bottom.
Check the method by which each of the four steps are corrected.020"
.. Circle the amount of shim you would put under the rear footings to close the top opening .003
Circle the Angular Alignment Readings which would be acceptable if taken on a 12" Diameter Circle • . The distance between front and rear footings is 28".
There are 4 steps to good alignment.SECTION WRITTEN
Identify the following by
tight side of the coupling.
To shorten the distance between shaft ends. which side of the movable unit would you pivot on? DThe DThe side with the greater coupling opening.
Write in the correct number for the fo 11 ow.5.ng: Step # Step # Step # Step #
_ _ _ _
Angular in Plan Parallel in Elevation Parallel in Plan Angular in Elevation
Working with incorrect readings results let's review the
This is extremely
in waste of time and poor alignment.
gauge (Figure 22) can be used where coupling
hub ends are
close together and obstructions alignment brackets.SECTION TWO THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT
Now that we know what to do about misalignment.
Instruments used in checking alignment include a straight edge (Figure
#21) which is used mostly for rough alignment and to verify that the misalignment is within the range of the dial indicator. readings. procedures for taking alignment important.
prevent the use of a dial indicator and
. measurements telescope gauge.
readout in thousandths
Inside micrometers (Figure #24) can be used when coupling hubs are inches
The outside micrometer (Figure #25) is necessary for chetking the made with the
total thickness when using thickness gauges.Taper Gauge
Taper gauges (Figure #23) can also be used to check close gaps between coupling hubs. They are faster than thickness gauges and give a direct of an inch. and to check shim stock thickness.
The telescope gauge (Figure #26) can be used to check the gap between It is rarely used above one inch because outside length. Because of its length.
. best instrument to use in taking alignment readings. micrometers
must be on hand to check the telescope
The Dial Caliper (Figure #27) may be used to check the gap between coupling hub faces. all alignment readings can be taken without even opening or disconnecting the coupling. there seldom is room to use it.
This brings us to the dial indicator (Figure #28). It is by far the
When used with
the coupling hub faces.
Rods can be
shafts with a square extension
attached to either or both brackets. with its button on the end of the rod. the dial
becomes. If it has to This way
be attached to a rod. Note that the dial indicator is attached to a bracket. The larger the circle.
Here you see alignment
brackets. the dial indicator is set to measure angular misalignment. in using alignment brackets. its weight will not affect the reading.
<. thousandths On a 15" diameter circle. There are several advantages 1. a dial reading of 4i
would meet the specs. to align the shaft to of an inch per inch). These are:
When taking angular alignment readings. the circle through which the dial indicator very large compared face of the coupling easier the alignment specifications button rotates as shown in the dotted line is to the circle it would make if it was on the hub. TS-170 (Figure #29) attached to the rod bridging the coupling.
reading on a 3" diameter coupling hub would have to be less than one-thousandth. the closer and For example.
As shown. put it as close as possible to the bracket.
does not have to be open. use on It to 4" Diameter
They were designed for
Shafts where there is very little space
between the coupling and the machine.
This is important
check alignment where the alignment machine 3. See Figure
They are 3/4" square. blocks TS-348 can also be used as brackets. Whatever amount
are used. check them for sag and record the for in readings of parallel alignment in
it can be accounted
elevation. starts to cool down.
rods or the dial indicator
This is the only reading where the weight of the extension can make a significant difference.
must be checked before the
Using the brackets over a closed coupling makes it easier to turn the shafts together.2.
But they can be used on 1 to 10" diameter
The TS-170 brackets are only 3/8" thick.
The pipe should be approximately
With the brackets on top. any change in the reading can be attributed looseness. the dial indicator should be set with its button on top of the extension rod.
. 2" in diameter.
If sag is indicated. assemble them on a piece of rigid pipe with the extension rods and dial indicator in place (See Figure #31). Set the dial at O~ are on the bottom.[9
To check the brackets. check for looseness and retest. Rotate the pipe 1800 so the brackets and dial Since the pipe is to sag or
Again. check the indicator.
.H. • ~ ~ :
. : : ---=_~ __i_~ • .--.ALIGNMENT
be to fit them to the machine
them for the sag test.
to the bracket the weight When turned
on the extension it to hang down
In the top position the pipe. In the 1800 position.004".
the indicator the indicator
will hang down
in a minus
As shown in sketch alignment check
#4 a minus
sag test reading the correct
must be added reading.
.001" shaft offset
the dial is
to the low shaft.002" away from the pipe.
the rod will hang down of the indicator sag is plus
.002" in reading
The brackets they were
must be assembled button
on the machine should
and the indicator
same amount.001" below position.001".004" for "sag" for
and the corrected when
of the rod causes
. the button has been
As shown by the length pushed in to show total
the dial indicator Each division
rod sag are scaled.002" reading
must be divided tape. the indicator .004" reading.
way to correct the indicator
for sag would
be to add or subtract
the sag when
dial in the top position
on the machine.
In the sketches bracket
on page ~.
by 2 as you will
see in the
of the video
In sketch #3 the sag test is made with extension resulting rod.
In the sag test in sketch with its button
#1 the indicator rod.002" toward
1800 to the bottom.
Transferring shaft "B" the bottom is minus attached
this set up to the machine Shaft Deduct
#2 with .
Our dial indicator bracket with
has a range
of 200 thousandths.
the shafts to O. it goes
it on the it
its button half
on the end of the extension Now
rod and compress up to
to approximately or .004". 37
Always repeat.100" minus.
it can register out. and recheck both
top and bottom.
At the top.
its range. one or both shafts
do not against
it may be because bearings.
are not being
1800 to the bottom at the bottom
and check . "Angular
for angular Rotate
TO GOOD SHAFT
set the dial and check
on a close
Angular In Elevation
We start with Mount alignment step
in the set up and when
readings. we will reciprocating
alignment and motor.100" plus
If the button
in the same direction. across
on the shaft with
a rod extending
to see if it consistently
If it still has been apart
the dial button are
reading. check. It will
the dial making
an 11" circle.004" at the So the
to be fooled.27 times 5\". dial
angular readings to
we have been
all hold down bolts. tolerance. that
the dial movement bottom. hold
into the distance is 14". With
at the top but is now as high as .
line to the center this is 11".
Put this amount
of shim stock
the rear motor
top to bottom.005". coupling bottom. bottom. It's easy it means
it is plus
and not minus shows plus
at the .001".27 times.004" further
at the top than at the
From the shaft measures indicator rear motor 1.
Parallel In Elevation
Step #2 is parallel measurements.
.004") footings. determine
in elevation using
(Figure the full required
33). the hold down bolts the job. this
line of the extension
So the circle
made by the dial between the front and so
the angular under
Before as tight
any alignment as you intend
them at the end of
The recheck .
the dial 34.
can be seen
The indicator adjustment when using
read the sum of A and B. button attach (Figure the dial 35). in elevation. but the required of this as shown at C.-SHAFT
Now getting parallel place the dial shafts check
-M-O-T-O. alignment With the brackets rod. reading must be divided by two.
-r----f fI~-: :
I --f----+_ -+-----T-ItIf--
COM. Rotate down
Compress the and
to the middle
of its range
for repeatability. indicator to measure on top. The dial
1800 to the bottom so use a mirror and
back to the machine..
on top of the extension and set it to zero.RESS:=rR -SHAFT
is only one-half the brackets.FIGURE 34
With parallel The reason measurements.
at the top and bottom..--A
up. It is possible and parallel to alignment when both angular
close parallel are very bad... obtained This before misalignment.
j_ c --...
Put a .
it is a plus it means the
to the compressor
to the other
take the dial
off the bracket
the machine. would
to coupling reasonably B with
on the rim of If the
good parallel its button
dial is attached
on the rim of coupling This would using the must be indicate
is .020" reading and the dial
__ FIGURE 36
you should be aware of. Pry the motor
no more in
than two hold-down and retighten
A dial indicator coupling B.010" shim under keep the motor
it straight loosen
It reads plus
. the sum of the distances gross parallel brackets. slip the shims footings.
The plus reading motor
from moving bolts
side to side or end to end. is another parallel
C and D would This reason
why good angular is attempted.
the dial now
. set the dial so its button See Figure 38.
Angular In Plan
Our next move
is step #3 "Angular
is only half
of this so it is well within which is .002" at the bottom. With is against the end of the extension position on the brackets in the horizontal
zero at the top.With
the friction.016" shows we must side of the coupling
the rear end of the motor
. build jumps
up pressure more than
they overcome movement.
set the dial at zero.
set the dial
its button coupling
the rear opening. so we can
is 2 15/16".
the hold-down times
Set the dial sure it
at zero and move returns to zero
in and out several good contact
the footing.27 times the open of
can also be used
You recall we previously is making
the dial button hold-down move
into the distance was 1. over
and rear motor
and the answer
The method misalignment misalignment the circle
of calculating in evaluation in plan.
the one at the pivot
should be fairly
the equipment It gives
over against a smooth
the indicator. side of the
This means coupling.
we must these
on a pivot hubs
Now loosen point snug.016" on the far side.
to correct to correct divided
angular this angular the diameter between So.27.968".
on the front
foot on the closed
loosening footing Point
to let it close we should
as w~ adjust
it is best Hydraulic then
to use a jacks
on the side of the motor it directly the button and that in toward
the larger bolt.
all the motor The other
bolts.020". front 1.
The recommended It measures
distance 2. opening
It reads plus is on this side. movement.
1800 and check
stop and tighten as the bolts
in the sole plates this setup.
centrifugal prong.0033" would which is
be good enough per inch.0003"
the dial closely.
to fit the to
mounting use your
If the job does not have
then you have
The Carrier Most
As the screwjack plus
It is now to meet
it gets the dial.
Recheck circle. tolerance
We have tack welded will use one-half
duty hex nuts to the base head set screws
on this machine
for screwjacks. have
Parallel In Plan
and final step
repeatability. with Now. side.
so the brackets
on the opposite
. install bar. its button rotate on the
top side of the extension until the brackets
the shafts Set the
are in a horizontal
on this side.
For this parallel reading. the indicator 41.
dial at zero.
we will move one end
Since we have only one dial indicator first and then the other.011" towards
To make an exact move.
is now plus
. again use the dial indicator the motor footings.022".
the four positions
it means the motor must be moved
With all four alignment record the results.
the pivot point must remain on the same side for each move.
If it repeats
after several this side.
steps completed.The dial reading checks.
4. 7. Shafts not held against thrust bearings. Loose mounting of indicator. 3.
. 2. Loose alignment bracket. Grasping alignment bracket to turn shaft. Damaged or sticky indicator. Button loose on indicator shaft threads. 1. 8.
The dial indicator should be removed from the coupling or brackets before making alignment adjustments to: Reset it Avoid damaging it Relocate it
3. Loose extension rod.
When checking parallel alignment in elevation. what tools are handy to read the dial when it is in the bottom position?
2. [ ] Plus [ ] Minus
Circle the numbers of the items which could cause lack of repeatability when taking dial indicator readings. Changing direction of shaft rotation.
When the dial indicator button is pressed in toward the dial. will the dial read plus or minus.
what is the most likely cause? [ ] Bent shaft.010" (MINUS)
. [ ] Indicator malfunction. [ ] Angular misalignment.r'---------------.cf.
How low is the low shaft?
. If parallel alignment readings are not the same when taken from shaft "A" to shaft "B" as they were when taken from shaft "B" to shaft "A".o
. which shaft is low?
[ ] Shaft "A" [ ] Shaft "B"
In the above sketch (elevation view).
HOT CHECK __ _
STEP #1 ANGULAR IN ELEVATION
STEP #3 ANGULAR IN PLAN
· " MORE THAN
" MORE THAN
READINGS TAKEN ON __
" CIRCLE. 2. SERIAL NO. READINGS TAKEN ON __
TOWARD DISCHARGE SIDE.ALIGNMENT REPORT
JOBNAME: JOB NUMBER: DATE: ALIGNED BY: __ __ __ __ MODELNO. PREPARE SEPARATE SHEET FOR EACH COMPLETE COUPLING ALIGNED.
INSTRUCTIONS: 1. THEN STRIKE OUT "TOWARD DISC~-iARGE SIDE". IN STEP #4. CHECK SQUARES TO INDICATE COMPONENTS BEING ALIGNED. 3. IF SHAFT "A" IS NOT COMPRESSOR SHAFT.
STEP #2 PARALLEL IN ELEVATION
STEP #4 PARALLEL IN PLAN
if the shaft's and the operating at which
is 20 inches
the bottom above the
is 50 degrees
was made. when the machine operating
however. of an inch.SECTION FOUR THE FOUR EASY STEPS TO GOOD SHAFT ALIGNMENT
Up to this point.000006"
x 50 x 20 and it shows that when the machine the shaft will have moved up approximately
comes up to temperature.
at very high temperatures recommended discussed.000006" per length. of the
in temperature center
per inch of material above
Most equipment until
can be aligned normal
to zero as possible Then
into good alignment
Cast iron and steel will degree fahrenheit change
the shafts as
is cold so they will move take over.
shut down and the
check the alignment machine before
You can try to realign temperature
it cools down too far from operating
and let it cool all the way to room temperature.
then you multiply
. possible we have talked about aligning the shafts as close as
to zero on the dial indicator. compensate for the changes you now know occur.
There will be occasions. by the
must be initially manufacturer
set out of alignment calculated
the amount as previously
or the amount
it will tend to move toward the cooler at the suction end and away from the condenser at the discharge end.From Cooler
Electric Motor Drive
Turbines. No machine is really aligned until you have checked
the alignment at operating temperature. made the necessary adjustments and rechecked again at operating temperature. If the compressor is close coupled to the cooler and
condenser. Centrifugal refrigeration
compressors (Figure 42) will move down on the suction end and up at the discharge end.
Estimates of machine changes caused by temperature changes are really just estimates.
. gears. electric motors. gas engines and water pumps will normally move straight up and down.
it will be within tolerance (Sketch tiC").000"
. you should take advantage of the allowable tolerances. Parallel tolerance is . it will be dead on (Sketch tiD"). If it expands four thousandths. (Sketch "A").002"
.002" If you know which piece of equipment will expand the If it
most and know this expansion is going to be at least two thousandths. it is still within tolerance (Sketch "E").~~
. as shown in Figure 43. you actually have six thousands to play with.002"
On all alignment. So
. If it expands six thousandths. then you can set its shaft four thousandths low (Sketch "B"). only expands two thousandths.004"
taking advantage of the tolerances and calculating for temperature changes. thickness gauges.FIGURE 44
The same reasoning applies to angular alignment. if you set the coupling By dead on. let's talk about what can happen when you have to take angular alignment readings off the face of the coupling hubs using inside micrometers (Figure 45). it will always operate open at the top. the suction end cools Bnd moves down while the Therefore. Coupling hub faces are seldom perfectly true and are frequently damaged by careless handling. taper gauges or telescope gauges. top to bottom and side to side and the coupling hubs should be marked so they can be rotated togethel always turning in the same direction. see Figure 44. with
centrifugal compressors. top to bottom.
Now. For example. the movement reqUired at the hot check will be very little and possibly none at all. Readings should be taken 1800 apart. so the initial alignment should be open at the bottom. discharge end heats and moves up. (THIS DOES NOT APPLY WHEN USING THE DIAL INDICATOR).
if the indicated
larger opening just changes sides.001" which is well within tolerance. the Therefore. so the actual misalignment in this instance would be seven thousandths. this indicates there is some This time deduct the So.
smaller amount from the larger amount and divide by two.
In this last example. but remains the identical amount. but the amount changes.FIGURE
angle to the shaft.
In Figure 46 the shafts are well aligned but one coupling face is at an By rotating the two shafts together 180°.
This means there is some This can be calculated out
In Figure 48 the larger opening remains on the same side as the shafts are rotated 180°. misalignment and some hub face distortion. the amount of misalignment remains the same and stays on the same side as the shafts are rotated 180° so we know this is all misalignment. then the shafts are in good alignment.
by adding the two amounts together and dividing by two. what
misalignment and some hub face distortion.
appeared to be serious misalignment was mostly hub face distortion. (Figure 49) the larger opening changes sides but Again.
it also changes amounts. The actual misalignment is only .
In this example (Figure 47).
misalignment changes from side to side.
if only one reading had been taken. idea to remove the fuses.
out the importance
of taking readings
1800 apart. be is it would also be a good
sure to lock out the main starter and tag it. for the . Always think safety. be sure to reinstall the coupling
guard before the machine
is operated. When alignment is completed. being worked on.008" opening hub and the shafts would have been left seriously out of
on one side of the
Before starting any work around the coupling.
As shown would
in Figure 45. the adjustment have been made to compensate coupling alignment. to show the equipment If it is a small starter.
Use a 13/32" Drill a drill bit and a size 8 tapered reamer with straight flutes. Doweling permits exact repositioning of components if they have to be moved. and final alignment completed. In the event of realignment.
. pilot hole then ream it to the final dimension. all machine components must be doweled to their sole plate or base. gear and drive. it is best to drill new holes rather than try to ream deeper into the old holes. Size 8 tapered dowel pins are usually furnished with the Carrier centrifugal refrigeration compressor.DOWELING
MACHINERY HOLD DOWN BOLT
After alignment has been checked at operating temperature (hot check). Fit the dowel pin so it extends through the sole plate and sufficient length is left above the equipment foot to accommodate removal.
coat then with
while lead or other anti sieze.Place the dowel pins as nearly vertical
Tap the dowel pins lightly hammer.
with the manufacturers
compound. A ringing
with a small machinist's seating. Dowel the gear and
sound will indicate end only of Carrier
Dowel the suction drive in accordance
the dowel pins into the reamed holes.
.THERMAL CHANGES IN ALIGNMENT
Turbine Centrifugal Refrigeration Compressor
EXAMPLE: LENGTH OF METAL OFTEMPERATURE CHANGE COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION
50° = .000006"
.CORRECTION FACTORS FOR DIAL INDICATOR SET AT ANGLE TO WORK PIECE
What advantage do alignment blocks TS-348 have over alignment brackets TS-170?
.0185" . how much higher will the shaft be? .
What advantage do alignment brackets TS-170 have over alignment blocks TS-348?
4.015".004" Circle one . what should the actual reading
. . and the average temperature of this 18" of metal is 35° higher with the machine operating than it was shut down.SECTION FOUR WRITTEN TEST 1.0129"
.0165" 3. If the distance from the bottom of the machine footing to the shaft centerline is 18".011" .0032" .010"
If the dial indicator is set at a 30° angle to the measurement being taken and it reads be? Circle one: .