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perltlfse Derived from the Latin word
aperitivus meaning open out e inltiore Aperitifs are aromatized low alcoholic drinks consumed before meal for the purpose of stimulating the appetite. May also be defined as fortified wines that have been infused or macerated with herbs, roots or flower
ountry of ori in: Turin - Italy, Marseilles France, Switzerland and Germany
ivi ed int three r ups: Vermouths, Bitters and Anis-seed
- Wine + Herbs 16_18 GL
Examples: Martini Red or White Cinzano Red orWhite
- Wine + Roots 17- 45 GL
Examples: Cam pari Bitters Fernet Branca, Angostura
- Ani seeds Wine + Aniseed 45-50 GL 0
The fruits are crushed and put in oak casks with appropriate amount of brandy.are flavoured with peels of citrus citrus fruits like lemon or orange.45° GL 2nd Group Alcohol 25 . Ingredients stirred from time to time. vanilla beans.oil and aroma are extracted from the ingredients.liqueurs Definition:Are spirits or Fine Alcohol which have been sweetened and flavoured with Herbs. nuts and fruit kernel Production Methods I. Plants or Flowers Country of Origin: Originated from France and now the production is World wide Can be put into 4 categories • Herb Liqueurs .ingredient immersed in Spirit for 1-2 days to extract flavouring elements. • Fruit Liqueurs .are flavoured with almost any kind of fruit other than citrus ones ·Beans and Kernel Liqueurs . Cold or maceration method .30° GL Creme de Menthe Creme de Cassis France Holland Aromatic Herbs (Mint) Blackcurrant .are made from cocoa beans.are flavoured with herbs ·Citrus Liqueurs . Name Countr~ France France France France UK Jamaica Kenya Flavour Herbs Aromatic Orange Orange Honey Coffee Coffee Herbs 1st Group Alcohol 35 .the spirit is usually Brandy at about normal drinking strength which is much weaker than the spirits used in the heat method. These casks are kept at a room temperature for months or years. Fruits. Heat or infusion method . Colouring matter is extracted from fruits naturally and finally is the filtration. 2.AIl flavours .35° GL Benedictine Chartreuse Grand Marnier Cointreau Drambuie Tia Maria Kenya Gold 3rd Group Alcohol 20 . the mixture then transferred to pot still and heated to boiling point.
bourbon. There they obtained whiskey by distilling malted barley and ather cereals. Canadian whisky (spelt without an e) is a blend of whiskies most commonly made in column stills from wheat. and thought to date back to ancient China. Only Bourbon whiskey regulations require that it be matured in a new charred. 4.. """'--"""""'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''--=91 " """""=co . it is likely that the first whisky was distilled not in Scotland but in Ireland.jack Daniels . Dewars. refined spirit that matures in the casks into a smooth whiskey.John Walker. Bourbon Whisl<ey:As people emigrated from Ireland and Scotland to the US and Canada they brought with them their distilling skills which were adapted according to the environment and raw materials available to them. Whisl<ey/Whisky Categories I.Spirits Spirits can be distilled from anything which can be induced to ferment.The Irish Whiskey Act of 1980 states thatThe spirits have to be distilled in the Republic of Ireland or in Northern Ireland and that the spirits have been matured in wooden casks in a warehouse in the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland for a period of no less than 3 years.. Bourbon is made from American corn and was originally produced in Bourbon County. Glefiddich..The Gaelic word for "Water of life" is "uisge baugh" (pronounced "lsh'ka'ba'ha"). Definition: It is a product of distilled cereals ( Barley. Chlvas Regal whisky . explains the history of 'whiskey' and 'whisky'. and must be aged for a minimum of three years in new wood. 3. Irish whiskey Eg John Jameson Canadian Bourbon Scotch Whisky Vat 69. Kentucky... "Uisge" soon changed to "Usky" until it finally became known as "Whisky" after several generations. 2. the French "Eau de Vie". The word "Scotch" in this definition is of geographical and not generic significance. sherry and brandy barrels.. and produces a clean. Maize and Rye).. barley and rye (either singly or combined). Famouse Grouse. Seagram'sV. For example the Scotch Whisky Order (1990) and the Scotch Whisky Act (1988) define Scotch whisky. The origins of the art of distilling potable spirits are somewhat obscure. corn.This is the meaning of the Scandinavian "Aquavit".Wheat. white oak barrel. which had been fermented with yeast. Irish whiskey is always spelt with an e.O Whiskey Four Roses.The potency of distilled spirits caused them to be known as the "Water of Ufe". one of Ireland's most famous and well-loved whiskey makers.Teachers. Much to the chagrin of the Scots. Ballantine._""""" Canadian Club.. This potable spirit dates back to the 12th century to the Irish monks in monasteries throughout Ireland. anything containing sugar which can be tu rn ed into alcohol Spirits WhiskylWhiskey Vodkas Brandy/Cognac Gin Rum Others Vv'hiskeys Origins of Whiskey ~John Cashman of Cooley Distillery. Dimple Haig. Irish whiskey is carefully distilled..They state that Scotch whisky must be produced at a distillery in Scotland. These immigrants produced the rye whiskey that became the first "American" whiskey in 1733 (spelt with an e just like Irish whiskey). the German "Lebens wasser" and the Spanish "aguardiente". Scotch Whisky: The principle types of whiskey I whisky are also characteristic of the particular geographical regions of the world..J&B Rare.""""""_".
And since water is the chief ingredient. Flavored with juniper berries and so-called botanicals These botanicals commonly include cardamom. bergamot and cocoa. beets. The first Russian "vodkas" were grain concoctions used medicinally. corn. Booth Gin . Gordon Gin. it's called a neutral grain spirit. barely. natural sugars and other carbohydrates. lastly. angelica. and very aromatic. it's called a neutral cane spirit. Origin: The name vodka comes from the diminutive form of the Russian word for water: voda. London Dry Gin is the dominant Gin style in the United Kingdom. Eg Gilbeys Gin. charcoal filtering gives vodka its characteristic purity. the evergreen juniper berry gives gin its signature flavor. As opposed to many other liquors. cereals. its quality and character can influence the flavor of the finished product. slightly fruity.The Swedes were employing a form of vodka in the 15th century for gunpowder production.As a style it lends itself particularly well to mixing. including rye. if made from a fermentable grain. caraway. licorice. ginger. OldTom Old Tom Gin ----I Plymouth --~ Eg. the United States. Old Tom Gin: is a lightly sweetened gin. cinnamon. and Spain. The name gin comes from the word for juniper (genievre). However. .Spirits Vodka continued Definition: Vodka may be made from many types of grain or vegetable matter that are suitable for fermentation. Smirnoff BL Definition: Gin is a distilled. orris (iris) root. Plymouth Gin: is relatively full-bodied (when compared to London Dry Gin). cassia bark. Flavoring may also be added." Origin: Gin was created in Holland in about 1650 to treat stomach complaints. ' Classifications of Gin London Dry Gin: is the dominant English style of Gin. Likewise. Flavoured Eg Smirnoff Green . If made from sugarcane.lemon Un-Flavoured Gin Smirnoff RL. It simply needs to be made from a neutral spirit ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and water. and was used as aftershave. It is clear. lemon and orange peel. neutral spirit made from grains (usually wheat or rye). sugarcane and potatoes. wheat.Plymouth Gin London Dry Gin -------. former British colonies. the Poles had vodka that was sometimes scented. there are no strict rules for classifying vodka. anise.
. Leroux. Fruit Brandy: Is the default term for all Brandies that are made from fermenting fruit other than grapes.:(very superior old pale) A minimum of four years cask aging for the youngest Cognac in the blend. each of which stores and ages Cognacs from different suppliers and then employs master blenders to draw from these disparate Brandies to create continuity in the house blends. very superior pale) A minimum of two years aging in a cask. a type of column still that is even more "Inefflclent" than a typical Cognac pot still. It is aged in oak casks (new or old) for at least two years. fermented. with documented references to distillation dating back to the early 15th century. .P. ("burnt wine").. V..As in Cognac. and somewhere between 3% . fruity aroma of the type of grape used. and Tenareze. St. with the average age running 20 years or older. Because there are no age statements on Cognacs.fThree Star: (V.. but brandy is not necessarily cognac. Luxury Cognacs are the very finest Cognacs of each individual Cognac house. and adds additional aromas and flavors.very superior... Beehive Cognac eg Hennessy. ( D .. Production The grape juice is extrac:ted. then double-distilled in the alembic over an open flame. 103 etite P Champagne. (X.about 98% of cognac is made from this last type.O. but unlike Cognac. cognac is always brandy.a. extra old) A minimum of six years aging for the youngest cognac in the blend.~." or boiled.-.The head is too strong and tail lacks balance. The origins of Brandy am be traced back to the expanding Moslem Mediterranean states in the 7th and 8th centuries.V. mellows the palate. skins. It must be twice distilled in a pot still called an alembic.p.. les Bois Ordinaires.-. delicate step. there are regional growing zones: Bas-Armagnac... They often tend to be rather raw.7% of the total volume of the cognac is lost due to evaporation.).. whic:h presents the following conditions: Cognac grapes must be of the following varieties: Folie Blanche. which is grape Brandy that has been navored with the extract of another fruit.S. •• . n Arrnagnac Armagnac is the oldest type of Brandy in France. although the industry average is four to five years.with grape Brandy produc:tion appearing in Spain and probably Ireland (vla missionary monks) by the end of the 8th century. and frequently.The primary grapes used in making Arrnagnac are likewise the Ugni Blanc. like French wines. In 1908.P~ XO~ etc. Their knowledge and techniques soon spread beyond the borders of Islam. But distillation takes place in the unique alarnblc Armagnacals. Courvoisier Arrnagnac ..After the second distillation.S. only the heart is used to make cognac.-l ~I uUF'.The Armagnac region is located in the heart of the ancient province of Gascony in the southwest corner of France. single vintages and single vineyard bottllngs can be found... It should nat be confused with FrultFlavored Brandy. and stems that remain after the grapes are crushed and pressed to extract most of the juice for wine.S..The bestArmagnacs are aged in casks made from the local Monlezun oak. but the locals claim it aids health and longeVity.MostArrnagnacs are blends. with the industry average being between I0 and 15 years. although they can offer a fresh. It must be grown in the designated cognac region. which are usually minimally aged and seldom see wood. Emilion Charente orTrebblano) .. X.les Rns Bois. . Haut Armagnac.Remy I"i<lrtin. r~·l~rrell. assertive character and aroma that requires additional cask aging to mellow it out.The oldest Cognacs are removed from their casks in time and stored in glass demijohns (large jugs) to prevent further loss from evaporation and to limit excessively woody and astringent flavors. It is important to note that these terms have no legal status. les Bons Bois. K\NY 3yrs. it gained an AOC "appellation d'origine contrclee. Blended Armagnacs frequendy have a greater percentage of older vintages in their mix than comparable Cognacs.ka. a characteristic that is lost in regular oak-aged Brandy. Pomace Brandy (Italian Grappa and French Marc:are the best-known examples): Is Brandy made from the pressed grape pulp.. ..S.. Pomace Brandies. are an acquired taste. as well as on -the walls of the cellars where they are aged.P. different growing zones..and Colombard. Colornbard and Ugni Blanc (a.The resulting brandy has a rustic.The evaporation encourages the growth of fungus on some of the buildings In the town of Cognac. In order to distill it...This spirit is aged in wooden casks (usually oak) which colors it. the industry has adopted some generally accepted terms to differentiate Cognacs.S.les Borderies..01Luxury. In rec:ent years Umousin and Troncais oak casks have been added to the mix of casks as suitable Moniezun oak becomes harder to find. making them a better value for the discerning buyer.Spirits Brandies continued Origin:The word Brandy comes from the Dutch word brandewijn. •.. In the last. Cognac must be made from certain varieties of grapes. in its broadest Definition: Is a spirit made from fruit juice or fruit pulp and skin . WI ~1+'Wl It is broken down into threQ basic groupings.o. Grape Brandy: Is Brandy distilled from fermented grape Juice or crushed but not pressed grape pulp and skin. and each Cognac shipper uses them according to his own criteria.The resulting "eaux de vie" from these different crus have different characters. Brandy eg ](\rvv IOYl"5.-.SN. V. which is how the straightforward Dutch traders who introduced it to Northern Europe (rom Southern France and Spain in the 16th century described wine that had been "burnt.The categories of Armagnac are generally the same as those of Cognac (V. All Cognac houses maintain inventories of old vintage Cognacs to use In blending these top of the line brands.. Folie Blanche. whic:h is dlvided into 6 crus: La Grande Champagne. only the "middle" is retained. EVenthose from single Vineyards or distilleries will be a mix of Brandies from different casks. Brandy.As in Champagne. the produc:tion of local vineyards is sold to Cognac houses. Cognac and Arrnagnac Cognac First. [Thatls roughly 20 1 27 million battles per year:) This lost portion is called the iangells sharei. a master blender combines numerous eaux-de-vie of different ages and crus (growth areas) to create a harmonious blend with great depth and complexity of flavor: Virtually all Cognacs are a blend of Brandies from different vintages.S~ V..While brandy may be made from any kind of fruit.Arab alchernlsts experimented with distilling grapes and other fruits in order to make medidnal spirits.~. or bonne chauffe. During maturation of the eau-de-vle the proof drops..
(a gin-based drink containing quinine and a secret mixture of herbs) as an aid to digestion. Production To produce rum. golden-brown color. Kenya Cane Golden Rums ~~~::: Myers RU'bark Rums . concentrated cane juice. the blue agave is harvested when its starch is ripe enough that it will convert to sugar. first the molasses is boiled down and left to ferment. which give them smooth. or dark Rums.Sp irits Rum continued Definition: Rum is created from fermented sugarcane by-products. have a naturally smooth palate.ime to add some character. mellow palates.a farmer's son from Kent who became the owner of an oyster bar in the City of London. If they are aged in oak casks to create a smooth palate they are then usually filtered to remove any color:White Rums are primarily used as mixers and blend particularly well with fruit flavors. which resemble pineapples) are roasted to create sugar.They are infused with spices or fruit flavors. It was developed from traditional Aztec brews after the Spanish brought the art distillation to Mexico. once fermented could be distilled into alcohol. near the Bank of England. Casks formerly holding cognac or brandy may be used. MoSt. Tequilais NOT made from cactus. The richest of these Rums are consumed straight up.the yeast converts the sugar into alcohol. Origin: It was man-about-town Christopher Columbus who first brought sugarcane via the Canary Islands to the island of Hispaniola. Golden Rums.usuallyat around 8.Malibu Other Spirits Tequila and Pimm's No. and sugar mills sprang up all around t. Rum punches (such as planters punch) are blends of Rum and fruit juices that are very popular In the Caribbean. silver. and in fact. Molasses is over 50% sugar. or molasses.while tequila is only made from the blue agave.rop thrived in the warm climate. which can contribute to the final flavor. primarily on Haiti and Martinique. It was eventually discovered that molasses (a by-product of sugar production).which allowed for the production of stronger liquor. and its fraternal twin. Rum. and anything labeled "aged tequila" or "100% agave" must be bottled in Mexico.a member of the lilyfamily. Mezcalis made t from many types of agave. but from the agave.1 Pimm's No. some aged rums are likened to fine cognacs. Classifications of Rum White Rums are generally light-bodied (although there are a few heavy-bodied White Rums in the French islands). The I. Spiced Rums can be white. For instance. I " = :=:: White Rums Bacardi. rich.fruit juices and spices. Rums made from cane juice. Pimm's was first produced in 1823. caramel-dominated Rums. Most Rum is made from molasses. Afiejo: Oak aged for at least a year.1 Tequila Tequilais a ~e of mezcal made only from the blue agave plant."Lambs Navy Rum Spiced Rums Eg. golden.The best are produced mostly from pot stills and frequently aged in oak casks for extended periods. To make tequila.The mixture is still a secret. Gold: Oak aged for 2+ months.or blanco: Ready for immediate sale after fermentation.)The dassifications of tequila are: White. It has a dark. sticky residue that remains after sugar cane juice is boiled and the crystallized sugar is extracted.I 0 years. are made by distilling fermented sugar and water: This sugar comes from the sugar cane and is fermented from cane juice. by lames Pimm. the Mexican NOM (Norma Ofidal Mexicana) sets some standards for tequilas. It is either served on the rocks or used in cocktails . only six people know exactly how it is made. but it also contains significant amounts of minerals and other trace elements. Darker rums often employ pot stills. Uke the French AOe for wine.AIIequila is me:zcalbut not all mezcal is tequila. tequila must be produced in a specific Mexican region. Pimm's No. are generally medium-bodied. armagnacs and single-malt scotches.(Most tequila today is 51 % agave. During fermentation.The aquamiel is extracted and put into pot stills with water and yeast. Reposado: Oak aged for up to I year. which lasts about 1-1/2 to 2-112 days. Most light rums are made in column stills and then charcoal filtering delivers a high level of purity and a neutral flavor. They may be Sipped from a snifter as an after-dinner drink. Dark Rums are traditionally full-bodied. which are common in cognac and Scotch production. Molasses is the sweet. Its long leaves are cut off and the cores (aka plfias. and then are aged to perfection.Pimm offered the tonlc. They are usually clear and have a very subtle flavor profile. cane spirit.Then the brew is twice distilled.he Caribbean. have spent several years aging in oak casks. Oak cask aging can be employed if only for a short t. also known as Amber Rums. I is a gin-based liquor made in Englandfrom dry gin liqueur. a medium body and a taste of citrus fruits and spice.