Phuong phap 16: Kl thuat phan tich, so sanh, ...

PHlfONG PHAp 16
/}¥Ut'dNfj

fluif
I. co

('''{)In alfi tu'~J''fftkt(-h /'{t/t
sa CVA PHU'ONG PHAp

Thong qua viec phan tich, so sanh, khai quat h6a d~ tim ra cac di~m chung vi cac diem d~c biet
cua bai toan, tir d6 tim ra duoc phuong phap hoac phoi h9P cac phuong phap giup giai nhanh bai toan

mot each t6i uu. II. cAc Dang 1: Dua vito
S\I'

D.-).NGBAI T~P THUONG G~P

khac bi~t ella phan ung ho~e hi~u ro ban ehftt, quy de phan ung:

Cau 1: C6HI2 c6 bao nhieu d6ng phan cAu t:,10, mach he tac dung voi HBr chi cho mot san pham duy nhat?
A.4

B.3

C.2

0.1

Giai: - C6HI2 c6 cAu t:,10 mach ho => la anken (olefin)
- Phan U11gcong hop vao anken chi tuan theo quy t~c maccopnhicop

khi anken vi tac nhan cong hop d~u

bat d6i. =>
f)~

C(,1-112ac dung voi I-IBr cho mot san pharn duy nhat => C61-112c6 cAu t:,10d6i xung: CH,CI-I7CH t
vi (CH3hC=C(CH3)2

CHCH2CH3

=> Dap an C Cau 2: CSHI20 c6 bao nhieu d6ng phan cAu t:,10tac dung voi CuO, dun n6ng t:,10san pharn (gil} nguyen cacbon) c6 phan irng trang guong ?
A.4 B.5 C.6

0.7

Giai: - Chi c6 cac ancol b~c mot moi oxi hoa t:,10andehit. - Viet cAu t:,1Omach cacbon, c6 xet yeu t6 d6i xung, nr d6 tim ra s6 IU'Q'ngcac d6ng phan ancol bac l'

C-C-C-C C--C-C C-C
1

C

C

C-C-C
1

.1

C 1 d6ng phan 2 dong phan 1 d6ng phan

=>Dap an A Cau 3: C6 bao nhieu d6ng phan cAu t:,10mach ho c6 cong thirc phan tLI'C;6H10tac dung voi 1-12 (Ni, to) du thu duoc san pham iso-hecxan
A.4 ? B.5 C.6

0.7

1

Phuong phap 16: Kl thu~t phan tich, so sanh, ...

Giai:
Ni,t"

=> C6H10 c6 cau

tao mach giong iso-hecxan
=

- C6H10 c6 mach ho va c6 do bat bao hoa

2, vi v~y chi dn vi~t cac d6ng phan

ankin va ankadien c6 cau tao cacbon giong iso-hecxan

C-9-C-C-C
C

C-9-C-C-C
C

2 d6ng ph an akin

5 d6ng phan ankadien

=> Dap an D
Cau 4: H6n hop khi X g6m mot ankin va H2 c6 ti kh6i hoi so voi CH4 la 0,5. Nung n6ng h6n hop X c6

xuc tac Ni d~ phan ung xay ra hoan toan, thu duoc h6n hop khi Y c6 ti kh6i hoi so voi CH4 la I. Cho h6n hop Y qua dung dich brom du thi kh6i IUQ'ng binh chua dung dich brom tang len la bao nhieu? A. Giai: Ankin c6 cong thirc tong quat CnH2n-2 (n ~ 2) Mat khac DY/H

°

gam

B. 8 gam

C. 16 gam

D. 24 gam

=> Phan nr kh6i cua akin> 24g/mol

=> Trong Y c6 H2 du. => trong Y chi c6 ankan va H2 du => Dap an A
nao phan irng voi dung djch Br2

Vi phan irng xay ra hoan toan

=> Khong c6 khi

Cau 5: H6n hop X g6m hai ancol no, don chirc, mach her 2,76 gam X tac dung voi Na du thu duoc

0,672 lit H2 (dktc), Mat khac, oxi hoa hoan toan 2,76 gam X bang CuO (t'') thu duoc h6n hop andehit. Cho toan bo IUQng andehit nay tac dung voi dung dich AgN03!NH3
Cong thuc cau tao cua hai nrou la: A. CH30H

du thu duoc 19,44 gam chat ket tua.

va C2H50H.
va

B. CH30H va CH3CH2CH20H. D. C2H50H

C. CH30H Giai:

CH3CH(CH3)OH.

va CH3CH2CH2CH20H

Vi oxi hoa hai rU'Q'U~ Vi hai rU'Q'U don chirc

h6n hop andehit

=> 2 rU'Q'U b~c 1 la
0,06 (mol)
'A'

=> nx

=

2 n H2

=

19,44 nAg = -= 0,18 > 2.nx = 0,12 108

=> co mot ..

nrou la CH,OH

,

-

+CuO.t" +AgN03/NH3 .r" CH30H -__:_::_::-"----~ CHO --'-'-"'-~----"-".~ H

4Ag 4a

a

2

Phuong phap 16: Ki thuat phan tich, so sanh, ...

_+---=C=uO:.:..:.,t'_' -+ R CI-I0

+AgNO,lNH"I" 2Ag 2b

a+b=0,6 4a + 2b= 0,18 32a+(R+31)=2,76
=?

(1) (2) (3)
=?

R

=

29

=?

R la C2I-1s--

Dap an B.

Dang 2: Dua vito quan h~ s5 mol cac chfit gifra cac phan tmg Cau 6: Nung nong hoan toan 27,3 gam h6n hop NaNO" CU(NO,)2' H6n hop khi thoat fa duoc d§n vao

nuoc du thi th~y co 1,12 lit khi (dktc) khong bi hap thu (luong O2 hoa tan khong dang k~). Kh6i IUQ'ng CU(NO,)2 trong h6n hop ban dfru la:
A. 18,8 gam Giiii:

B. 10,2 gam

C. 8,6 gam

0.4,4

gam

(1 ) 2Cu(NO,)2 ~
I"

2CuO + 4N02i --) 41-1N03

-+ 02i

(2)

4N02 + O2 + 2H20

(3)
=

Phan tich phuong trinh (2) va (3), ta thay n NO, : no, Nhu V?y khi thoat ra khoi binh la toan bQ O2 6" (1) n NaNO,
=?

4:1

= 2 no,

2'22-4

1,12
,
==

0, 1 (mol) 18,8 gam

=?

m

NaNO,

=

0,1. 85

=

8,5 gam

mCu(NO,), = 27,3 - 8,5

=?

Dap an A

Cfiu 7: H6n hop ch~t htru co' X co cong thuc tong quat CxHyOzNt• Thanh phan % kh6i IU'Q'ng cua N va 0 trong X Ifrn IUQt la 15,730% va 35,955%. hidrocacbon). Khi X tac dung voi HCI chi tao ra rnuoi R(Oz)NI-I3CI (R)a g6c

Bi~t X co trong thien nhien va tham gia phan ung trung ngung, Cong thirc cau tao cua X la: B. H2NCH2CH2COOH D. HO-[CH2kNH2

A. 1-12NCH2COOCH, C. H2NCII(CH3)COOH. Giiii:

X+ HCI--) R(Oz)NH3CI (%N
"I
=

=?

X chi chua mot nguyen tu nito
~c

=?

X: CxHyOzN

-~±_ =~
Mx 89

73

=?

M,

89

100

1,%0

=

I_?~= 35,9~_~

roo

=?

z

2

=?

Loai 0

3

Phuong phap 16: Kl thu~t phan tich, so sanh, ...

X c6 trong thien nhien va tham gia phan ling trung ngung Dang 3: Dua vao ban chAt phan rrng

=> Dap an C

va st,r phBi

hop gifra cac phirong phap:

Cau 8: D5t chay hoan toan 3,7 gam ch~t hiru co' X chi chua mdt nhorn chirc can dung vira du 3,92 lit O2

(dktc) thu duoc CO2 va H20 c6 ti I~ s5 mol la 1: 1. X tac dung voi KOH tao ra hai ch~t hfru phan cau t<:10 X thea man di6u kien tren la: CLIa A.l Giiii: - X tac dung voi KOH
B.2

CO'.

S5 d6ng

C.3

D.4

=> T<:1ora
2

2 chat hfru co

=> X co nh6m chirc este.

- Khi d5t chay X cho n cO

=

n H,O

=> X la este no, don chirc, mach ho

=> Cong thirc t6ng quat: CH2n02
Dua vao cac dCi'kien

=>

n

C~

3

=>

Cong thirc phan tLI'C3H602

=> C6 hai cong thirc cau t<:10 => Dap an B
Cau 9: Cho 0,2 mol h6n hop X gorn mot ankan va mot anken tac dung voi H2 du (Ni.t" )thu duoc h6n hop hai ankan la d6ng dang k€ tiep. M;Itt khac d5t chay hoan toan 0,2 mol X duoc 16,8 lit CO2 (dktc) va 14,4 gam H20. Cong thuc cua hai hidrocacbon
A. C3Hg, C4Hg

I~n IUQt la:

Giiii: nco, , 16,8 _22 ,4
=

07' "

nllo .,
-

= --=

14,4 18
=

08 '

Mat khac: nallkell n H,O =

nco,

0,1 mol

=> nallkell 0,2 - 0,1 =
0,7

=

0, I mol la CxHy

GQi cong thirc chung cua hai hidrocacbon

x=O"-i=3,5;y= ,

02=8 ,
la nhu nhau va s6 nguyen tir hidro trung binh bang 8 la C3HS va C4Hg

2.0,8

Do s6 mol 2 hidrocacbon

=> Cong thtrc cua hai hidrocacbon

=> Dap an A

Cau 10: D5t chay hoan to an m gam h6n hop X g6m hai andehit no, dun chirc, mach he, thu duoc 0,4 mol CO2• Mat khac, hidro hoan toan m gam X dn 0,2 mol H2 (Ni, to), sau phan irng thu duoc h6n hop hai ancol no, don chuc, D5t chay hoan to an h6n hQ'P hai ancol nay thi s5 mol H70 thu duoc la bao nhieu ? A. 0,3 mol Giiii: Andehit no, dun chirc, mach he khi d5t chay: n H,O
=

B. 0,4 mol

C. 0,6

mol

D. 0,8 mol

nco,

=

0,4 mol

4

Phuong phap 16: Kl thu~t phan tich, so sanh, ...

Ap dung djnh luat bao toan nguyen t6 : n H,O
=

n H,O (I~O thauh

nr andehit)

j-

n H,O

(1\10

rbanh nr H- cong vao I =

0,4 + 0,2

=

0,6 (mol)

=>

Dap an C.

Cau 11: Cho h6n hop X gom 0,2 mol axetilen va 0,35 mol H2 vao binh kin co xuc tac Ni nung nong. Sau

mot thoi gian thu duoc h6n hQ'P Y g6m 4 khi. Khi cho Y IOi qua dung djch brom du th~y co 4,48 lit (dktc) khi Z bay ra. TI khoi cua Z so voi H21a 4,5. DO tang khoi IU"Q"ngua binh brom la: c
A. 5,2 gam

B. 2,05 gam

C. 5,0 gam

D. 4,1 gam

Giai: n,
= _' -

448 22,4

=0,2 (mol);

-_.

Mz

-

=

4,5. 2

=

9

=> mz = 9. 0,2

=

1,8 (gam)

mx= 0,2.26 + 0,35.2 Theo DLBTKL:

= 5,9 gam

m; = my cua binh brom
=

=> DO tang khdi Iuong

5,9 - 1,8 = 4,1 gam

=> Dap an D.

Cau 12: X la mot este no dun chirc, co ti khdi hoi d6i voi CH4 la 5,5. Dun nong 2,2 gam este X voi dung dich NaOH (du) thi thu duoc 2,05 gam muoi. Cong thirc cau t(,10thu gon cua X la: A. HCOOCH2CH2CH3 C. HCOOCH3 B. C2HsCOOCH3

Giai: Vi este dun chuc va meSIC m < (Na)
lllu

6i

~

Mesle

< MmlJ(~i

~

phan nr cua g6c fUQ'Utrong este phai nho hun 23

=> LO(,1iphuong an
=

A, D
=

M~H khac: MesIc

16. 5,5

88

=>

Dap an B

Cau 13: Cho m gam Cu phan ung h~t voi dung dich HN03 thu duoc 8,96 lit khi 6" (dktc) h6n hop khi NO

va N02 co khci IUQ'ng 15,2 gam. Gill. tri cua m la:
A. 25,6 gam

B. 16 gam

C. 2,56 gam

D. 8 gam

Giai: - NMn thay M (khi )
=

52 10 '4 = 38 ,

=

MNO

+ MNO, => s6 mol hai khi bang nhau va co th~ quy d6i thanh
2

1 khi duy nhat co s6 mol la 0,4 va s6 oxi hoa la + 3 - Ap dung dinh luat bao toan electron, ta thay: s6 oxi hoa Cu tang
= nkhi = =

s6 oxi hoa cua N+s giarn = 2 ~

n-,

0,4 mol.
=

=> V?y m

0,4. 64 = 25,6

=> Dap an A.

5

Phuong phap 16: Kithu~t phan tich, so sanh, ...
-------------

III. BAI T ~P Tlj LUY~N
Cau 1: Dun nong isopren voi chAt xuc tac thich hop chi thu diroc mot phdn san pham X. Cho X tac dung

voi H2 (Ni, t") duoc h6n hop Y g6m cac hidrocacbon no chua trong Y la:
A.3 B.4

trong do co chAt metylxic1obutan.

S6 hidrocacbon

C.2

0.5

Cau 2: Co bao nhieu d6ng phan cAu tao, mach he co cong thtrc phan tir CsHs tac dung voi H2 dtr (Ni, to) thu diroc san pham iso-pentan A.3 ?
B.4 C.5 0.6

Cau 3: Tach nuoc hoan to an tir h6n hop X g6m 2 ancol d6ng d~ng ta duoc h6n hop Y g6m cac olefin.

D6t chay hoan toan X thi thu dUQ'C 1,76 gam CO2. Khi d6t chay hoan toan Y thi t6ng khoi IUQ'ng ruroc va CO2 tao ra la:
A. 2,94 gam

B. 2,48 gam

C. 1,76 gam

0.2,76

gam

Cau 4: H6n hop X g6m ancol metylic va mot ancol no, dun chirc M, mach ho, Cho 2,76 gam X tac dung voi Na dir thu duoc 0,672 lit H2 (dktc), M?t khac, oxi hoa hoan toan 2,76 gam X bang CuO (to) thu duoc h6n hop Y. Cho toan b9 luong Y tac dung voi dung djch AgNO}INH} dtr thu duoc 12,96 gam ket tua, Cong thirc cAu tao cua MIa: A. C2H50H
C. CH}CH(CH3)OH.

B. CH}CH2CH20H D. CH3CH2CH2CH20H

Cau 5: Nung nong hoan to an 28,9 gam h6n hop KN03 va CU(N03)2. H6n hop khi sinh ra duoc d~n vao ruroc lAy dir thi con 1,12 1ft khi (dktc) khong bi hfrp thu (coi oxi khong tan trong nuoc). % kh6i hrong KN03 trong h6n hop ban d~u la:
A. 92,53%

B. 65,05%

C. 34,95%

0.17,47%

Cau 6: H6n hop X co ti kh6i so voi H2 la 21,2 g6m propan, propen va propin. Khi d6t chay hoan to an 0,1 mol X, t6ng kh6i IUQ'ng cua CO2 va H20 thu duoc la: A. 20,40 gam B. 18,60 gam
C. 18,96 gam

D. 16,80 gam

Cfiu 7: Dun nong h6n hop khf g6m 0,06 mol C2H2 va 0,04 mol H2 voi xuc tac Ni, sau m9t thai gian thu

duoc khi Y. D~n toan b9 h6n hop Y 19i tir tir qua binh dung dung dich brom (du) thi con lai 0,448 lit h6n hop khi Z

o' (dktc)

co ti kh6i so voi O2 la 0,5. Kh6i IUQng binh dung dich brom tang la: B. 1,32 gam .
CO'

A. 1,04 gam

C. 1,64 gam

0.1,20

gam

Cau 8: Cho h6n hop X g6m hai chfrt hiru

co cung cong thirc phan tir C2H7N02 tac dung vira du voi

dung dich NaOH va dun nong, thu duoc dung djch Y va 4,48 1ft h6n hop Z (0' dktc) g6m hai khf (d~u lam xanh giAy quy Am). Ti kh6i hoi cua Z d6i voi H2 bang 13,75. Co can dung djch Y thu duoc kh6i IUQng muoi khan la:

6

Phurmg

phap 16: Ki thu~t phfin tieh, so sanh, ... "----"--"----------

-------------------"----"

A. 16,5 gam

B. 14,3 gam

e. 8,9 gam

D. 15,7 gam

Cau 9: £)6t chay h~t hai chat htru co chua C, H, 0 k~ ti~p nhau trong day dong d~ng phan nr chua mot loai nh6m chirc rbi cho san pham chay vao mroc voi trong dir thay kh6i luong binh tang 5,24 gam va c6 7 gam k~t tua, Hai chat do la: A. C2H4(OH)2

va C3H6(OHh

B. CH30H

va C2H50H.

e. HCHO va CH3CHO

D. HCOOH va CH3COOH

Cau 10: Este X tao boi axit don chirc va ancol dan clurc c6 ti kh6i hoi so voi CO2 bang 2. Khi dun n6ng X voi dung dich NaOH tao ra hrong muoi c6 kh6i luong 16"nhon luong este da phan irng. Ten goi cua X

la: A. metyl axetat C. metyl propionat.
Cau 11: H6n hop M

B. propyl axetat D. etyl axetat

gbm hai ancol dan chirc. Chi a 30,4 gam M thanh hai phan bang nhau. Cho phan 1
duoc 0,8 mol

tac dung voi Na du duoc 0,15 mol khf. Cho ph~n 2 phan irng hoan toan voi CuO diroc h6n hop M, chua

hai andehit (ancol chi bien thanh andehit). Toan bo Iuong M, phan irng h~t voi AgNOiNH3 Ag. Cong thirc cAu tao cua hai ancoi la: A. CH30H, C2H50H

Cau 12: Cho a gam h6n hop CH3COOH va C3H70H tac dung h~t voi Na thi th~ tich khi H2 (dktc) thu duoc 1£1 2,24 lit. Gia trj cua ala: A. 3 gam B. 6 gam e. 9 gam 0.12 gam

Cau 13: Cho h6n hop X gbm N2, H2 va NH3 di qua dung dich H2S04 d~c, du thi th~ tich khi con lai mot mra. Thanh phan phan tram thea th€ tich cua NH3 trong X la: A. 25,0% Cau 14: Mot hidrocacbon B. 50,0% C.75,0% 0.33,33%

X mach thang c6 cong thirc phan nr la C6H6. Khi cho X tac dung voi dung dich
CO'

AgN03 trong NH3 thi thu duoc hop chAt hflu A. CH==C-CHrCHrC==CH e. CHrCHrC == C-C == CH
CO'

Y c6 My - M,

=

214 dve. Cong thirc du tao cua X 1£1: B. CH3-C==C-CHrC==CH D. CH == C-CH(CH3)-C == CH

Cau 15: Chat hiru

X (chua C, H, 0) c6 phan ur kh6i bang 74 gam/mol. S6 luong cac dbng phan mach

ho cua X phan irng duoc voi NaOH 1£1:

A.2

B.3

e.4

0.5

Cau 16: Cho 100ml dung dich h6n hO'P CUS04 1M va Ah(S04)3

1,5M tac dung voi dung dich NH3 dir,

loc lfiy k~t tua dem nung d~n kh6i IUO'ng khong d6i thu duoc chAt r~n c6 kh6i luong la: A. 30,6 gam B. 8,0 gam e. 15,3 gam D. 23,3 gam

7

Phuong phap 16: Kl thu~t phan tich, so sanh, ...

Cfiu 17: Cho luong khi CO duo di qua 6ng str chua 0,05 mol Fe304, 0,05mol FeO, va 0,05 mol Fe203 6"
nhiet d9 eao d€n phan ung hoan toan. K€t thuc thi nghiem khoi luong ch~t r~n thu duoc la:

A. 5,6 gam

B. 11,2 gam

C. 22,4 gam

0.16,8

gam

Cau 18: Hoa tan 9,6 bot Cu bang 200ml dung dich h6n hop HN03

0,5M va H2S04 1,0 M. Sau khi phan

ung xay ra hoan toan thu duoc khf NO va dung dich X. Co muoi khan la: A. 28,2 gam
B. 25,4 gam

Ci;1I1

cAn than dung dich X duoc kh6i IU'Q'ng

C. 24,0 gam.

0.32,0

gam

Cau 19: Dien phan dung dich chua h6n hop muci CuC12 va FeCI2 voi cuong d9 dong khong dbi I = 2A

trong 48 phut 15 giay, 6" catot th~y thoat ra 1,752 gam kim loai. Kh6i luong cua Cu thoat ra la: A. 0,576 gam B. 0,408 gam
C. 1,344 gam.
'H,

0.1,176

gam

Ca u 20: f)61 chay hoan toan 2,24 Iit h6n hop X (clktc) gorn C31-1s, CoH(" C31-14 (D; b9 san pharn chay A. 4,2 gam
vao

=21), r6i d&n roan

binh dung dung dich nuoc voi trong thi d9 tang kh6i IUQ'ngcua binh la:
B. 5,4 gam C. 13,2 gam

0.18,6

gam

Cau 21: Nung h6n hop khi X g6m ankin Y va H2 trong blnh kin c6 Ni d€n phan img hoan toan duoc h6n

hop khi Y c6 tl khdi so voi H2 bang 8. D&n toan b9 h6n hop Y qua binh dung dung dich Br2 du thi: A. Kh6i luong binh brom tang bang khoi IU011gankin du
B. Kho] IU'O'ngbinh brom khong dbi C. Kh6i luong binh brom tang bang kho] luong ankin du va anken D. Kh6i luong binh brom tang chinh la h6n hop cua h6n hop Y.

DApAN IA lIB 21B 2A 120 3B 13B 4C 14A 5C 150 6C 16C 7B 170 8B 18C 9B 19A 10C 200

8

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