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The Cell Cycle (Chapter Twelve)
Cell Division Distributes Identical Sets of Chromosomes to Daughter Cells A cell’s genome is its genetic information. This information must be copied so each daughter cell ends up with a complete genome. DNA molecules are packaged into chromosomes DNA coiled tightly around histones. chromosomes, Somatic cells are all body cells except the reproductive cells. Human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes. Gametes, Gametes reproductive cells, have 23 chromosomes (humans). The DNA-protein complex is chromatin organized into a long, thin fiber. Chromatin chromatin romatin, condenses to prepare for division. Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids They are identical copies of the chromatids. chromosome’s DNA molecule held together by proteins. At the centromere the chromosome has a narrow “waist” centromere, In mitosis, the nucleus is divided. mitosis In cytokinesis the cytoplasm is divided. cytokinesis, In meiosis gametes are produced. meiosis, THE MITOTIC CELL CYCLE Interphase: phase, Interphase consists of the G1 phase S phase. phase, and G 2 phase In the G phases, the cell is growing to a large enough size to be ready to divide in two. In S phase, the chromosomes are duplicated. Mitotic (M) phase: The cell goes through division of the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mitosis is broken down into prophase, anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. telophase
Mitotic Cell Division
Nucleus well-defined, bounded by nuclear envelope One or more nucleoli Two centrosomes formed by replication of a single centrosome Centrioles found in animal cells (microtubule asters)
2 UNIT TWO: THE CELL Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle (Text from Biology, 6th Edition, by Campbell and Reece) Chromatin
Distinct chromosomes observable No nucleoli Identical sister chromatids Beginnings of mitotic spindle
Nuclear envelope fragments Microtubules interact with chromosomes (more condensed) Microtubules extend toward middle of cell Kinetochore located in centromere rgion of chromosome Microtubules attaching to chromosomes
Chromosomes at opposite poles of cell Aligned on the metaphase plate – centromeres all on metaphase plate
Paired centromeres separate, sister chromatids pulled apart Chromosomes moving toward opposite parts of the cell, kinetochore microtubules disintegrating after them
3 UNIT TWO: THE CELL Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle (Text from Biology, 6th Edition, by Campbell and Reece)
Nonkinetochore microtubules elongate the cell. Daughter nuclei form Nuclear envelope begins to reform Chromosomes becoming less condensed
Cleavage furrow formed in animal cells Cell plate formed in plant cells
The Mitotic Spindle Distributes Chromosomes to Daughter Cells: A Closer Look The mitotic spindle begins to form in the cytoplasm during prophase, and is important throughout mitosis. The centrosome is an organelle that organizes the cell’s microtubules. Centrioles are located in the center of the centrosome in animal cells, but are not necessary for division. In interphase, the single centrosome replicates and forms two centrosomes. These are initially located near the nucleus, then move apart from each other during prophase and prometaphase. By the end of prometaphase, the two centrosomes are at opposite poles of the cell (now called spindle poles) Each of the two joined chromatids has a kinetochore a structure of proteins and specific sections of kinetochore, chromosomal DNA at the centromere. The chromosome’s two kinetochores face in opposite directions. In prometaphase, some of the spindle microtubules will attach to the kinetochores. When one of a chromosome’s kinetochores attaches to a microtubule, the chromosome begins to move
4 UNIT TWO: THE CELL Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle (Text from Biology, 6th Edition, by Campbell and Reece) toward the pole the microtubule originated at. The microtubules pulling in opposite directions will stop once the chromosome is centered between the two poles of the cell, at the metaphase plate plate. In anaphase, the proteins holding together the sister chromatids are inactivated, allowing the microtubules to pull the two halves toward opposite poles of the cell. Nonkinetochore microtubules are responsible for elongating the cell during anaphase. Cytokinesis Divides the Cytoplasm: A Closer Look In animals, the cleavage furrow begins as a shallow groove in the cell near the metaphase plate. Microfilaments work to pull the dividing cell apart. In plant cells, vesicles from the Golgi apparatus move to the middle of the cell, where they produce a cell plate plate. Mitosis in Eukaryotes May Have Evolved From Binary Fission in Bacteria In binary fission prokaryotes divide in half. Prokaryotes have a single chromosome, at which fission, replication begins at a single point, the origin of replication One copy of the origin will begin to move replication. toward the other end of the cell. Once replication is complete, the plasma membrane will grow inward. REGULATION OF THE CELL CYCLE A Molecular Control System Drives the Cell Cycle A cell cycle control system triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
A checkpoint in the cell cycle is a critical control point where the cycle is regulated. The cycle is halted until signals register whether processes have been carried out correctly. Internal and External Cues Help Regulate the Cell Cycle
Internal Signals: Messages from the Kinetochores
A signal delaying anaphase is sent from the kinetochores not yet attached to a spindle microtubule. This allows for all the chromosomes to be properly aligned at the metaphase plate before anaphase occurs.
External Signals: Growth Factors
A growth factor is a protein released by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide. The discovery of growth factors resulted in the understanding of density- dependent inhibition of cell densitydivision. This is when cells stop dividing after they form a single layer of cells. After reaching a certain density, cells will no longer continue dividing. Most animal cells also need to be anchored to a substratum – anchorage dependence dependence.
5 UNIT TWO: THE CELL Chapter Twelve: The Cell Cycle (Text from Biology, 6th Edition, by Campbell and Reece) Cancer Cells Have Escaped From Cell Cycle Controls Cancer cells do not pay any attention to the normal signals that regulate the cell cycle. They do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition and will continuously divide. The problem starts when a single cell in a tissue undergoes transformation the process that converts transformation, a normal cell into a cancer cell. The body’s immune system usually destroys such a cell. However, if this does not occur, the cell may proliferate and form a tumor a mass of abnormal cells. If these cells tumor, remain at the original site, it is a benign tumor A malignant tumor can impair the functions of one or tumor. more organs. Cells of malignant tumors may have unusual numbers of chromosomes and have many things wrong with them. Cancer cells can also enter blood and lymph vessels of the circulatory system and invade other parts of the body. The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site is called m et a st a s i s.