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THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF

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THE AMERICAN NOVEL

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LEONARD CASSUTO Associate Editrns CLRE VIRGINIA EBY and BENJAMIN REISS

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Singapore. I. and the seduction novel in the early IfS 37 ‘ 83 ANNA MAE DUANE C 3 ‘A ‘A .camhridge. Tokyo. UK . 1. associate editor. 960— II. ZBORAY AND MARY SARACINO ZBORAY v K I . ens. Cambridge CR2 sri 8Ru. Madrid.org Information on this title: www. Cape Town. First published 201 PART ONE 3. or will remain. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements.org/ 9780521899079 © Cambridge University Press 2055 List of illustrations page xii List of tables xiii List of contributors xiv Acknowledgments xxiv Note on the text xxvi ft ‘I . Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinhorgh Building. Cassuto.xi W1 ‘S I sri 4 Contents I . New York.5 Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press. A ‘1 The novel in the antebellum book market RONALD 67 A ‘5 ‘A 55 ‘5 J. Charles Brockden Brown and the novels of the early republic BRYAN WATERMAN yi Hardback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URL5 fAr extemai or third-party Intemet svehsites referred to in this publication. associate editor : Benjamin Reiss.cambridge.5 CAMBRIDGE UNIvERSITY PRESS Cambridge. Leonard. Melbourne. Delhi. Title.0o9—dc22 2010030376 I5BN 9780-52I-899O7-9 2 Susanna Rowson. New York www.5 General introduction LEONARD CASSUTO i This publication is in copyright. and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is. ISBN 978O52t-899079 (hardback) American fiction History and criticism. Cambridge ‘5 A catalogue record fir this publication is available thorn the British Lihriny Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data I Transatlantic currents and the invention of the American novel PAUL GILES 22 The Cambridge history of the American novel Leonard Cassuto. Hannah Webster Foster.C36 7 PS3 son 8x’ . accurate or appropriate. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.5 INVENTING THE AMERICAN NOVEL introduction: inventing the American novel BENJAMIN REISS ip Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press. São Paulo. p. general editor : Clare Virginia Ehy.

and the realist ideal CARRIE TIRADO BRAMEN 304 9 Melville and the novel of the sea HESTER BLUM 151 19 Theories of the American novel in the age of realism LAWRENCE BUELL 322 so Religion and the nineteenth-century American novel 167 20 The novel in postbellum print culture NANCY GLAZENER 33 GREGORY S. PROTEST. LEVINE 267 26- Cather and the regional imagination TOM LUTZ 437 27 Wharton. and the Gilded Age ANDREW LAWSON 365 12 Sentimentalism CINDY WEINSTEIN 209 22 Dreiser and the city JUDE DAVIES 13 • Supernatural novels EL IZA BETH TO U NC 221 23 Novels of civic protest 39 CECELIA rICHI 14 - Imagining the South 236 24 Novels of American business. FLEISSNER Woman 452 Vi Vii . accommodation CLARE VIRGINIA FEY 285 SANDRA M. industry. American landscape. class.Contents Contents 88 PART TWO 5 American land. pragmatism. and the antebellum American novel JOHN ERNEST 252 3 25 New Americans and the immigrant novel 426 TIM PRCHAL • The early African American novel ROBERT S. marriage. American novels TIMOTHY SWEET REALISM. and the New JENNIFER L. race. protest. JACKSON Manhood and the early American novel MILETTE SHAMIR 192 21 • Twain. ELLIOTT 289 WINFRIEI) FLUCK S Hawthorne and the aesthetics of American romance JONATHAN ARAC iS James. GUSTAFSON • The nineteenth-century histurical novel r 17 Realism and radicalism: the school of 1-lowells MICHAEL A. and consumerism - 409 JENNIFER RAE GREESON // DAVID A. ACCOMMODATION 103 6 Cooper and the idea of the Indian Introduction: realism. ZIMMERMAN 15 Stowe.

SEAN MCANN and suspense 798 MODERNISM AND BEYOND Introduction: modernism and beyond CLARE VIRGINIA EBY 617 49 US novels and US wars 813 JOHN CARLOS ROWE 37 Stein. and American modernisms PETER NICHOLLS 622 Science fiction PRISCILLA WALD 832 38 The Great Gatsby and the KIRK CURNUTT 59205 639 I Female genre fiction in the twentieth century 847 PAMELA REGIS Viii 1X -A 55 ii . mystery.i Wright. REID-PHARR 29 The African American novel after Reconstruction BARBARA McCASKILL 484 I 4. and empire RUSS CASTRONOVO 537 Ellison and Baldwin: aesthetics. Hurston. mass culture. WALD 671 30 The rise of naturalism 41 The novel.Contents 28 Contents 470 The postbellum race novel ROBERT F.y 44 Religion and the twentieth-century American novel AMY HUNGERFORD 732 GRETCHEN MURPHY 34 The 55 woman’s novel beyond sentimentalism ELIZABETH NOLAN 571 F 45 Faulkner and the Southem novel CANDACE WAID 750 35 Dime novels and the rise of massmarket genres 586 SHELLEY STREEBY 55 46 Law and the American novel 767 55 600 47 Twentieth-century GREGG CRANE 36 Readers and reading groups BARBARA HOCHMAN publishing and the JAMES L. 55 hf 39 Philosophy and the American novel ROBERT CHODAT 653 40 Steinbeck and the proletarian novel ALAN M. mass media MARK MeGURL 686 DONNA CAMPBELL 35 Imagining the frontier . and the direction of the African American novel VALERIE BABB 700 STEPHANiE LB MENAGER 32 Imperialism. Hemingway. activism. and the social order LOVALERIE KING 718 33 The hemispheric novel in the postrevolutionary era . Orientalism. W rise of the paperback 781 WEST III PART THREE 48 The novel of crime.

first centuls lite i irs eoniITiuflities 1154 DENEL REKBIiRE SEDO 58 Postmodern novels URSULA K. MITCHELL AND SHARON L. HMID ho Disabih and the American nosel 1002 DAVID T.q The nonfiction nos ci S6 l tk tt nblwg1a. SNYDER Sf 1016 6i Model mmorities and the minority model the neoliberal novel WALTER BENN MICH SFLS Sf 62 The American borderlands novel RAM0NSA1DIVSR 1031 xi . mispheric mc nc in nose is 1084 RODR1( 0 L iSO 55 The Beats and the 196os ROBERT FA(CEN 909 ot The isorldmg of the ‘irnericin noici BRUCE ROBBINS io6 / 56 Literary femimsms MARIA FARLAND 925 67 Thc Native American fradition SEAN KICUMMAH TLUTON 1107 11 941 57 Reimagining genders and sexuahties ELIZABL1 H FREEMSN I 1 68 Contemporary ecofiction JONATHAN LEV1N 1122 PART FOUR 69 Graphic novels JSN BALIINS II) CONTEMPORARY FORM TIONS Introduction ontenipoI in formations BENJAMIN REISS 9)0 —o Tis cnticth and tss mt’.Contents I 861 63 Contents 52 Children s novels JULIA MICKENBLRG The use of the Asian American novel SLSSN KOSHY 1046 The American noel and the rise of the suburbs CTHERINE i R( A 8c I om Moirison and the post cnil rights Jncan rnerican nosel MICK EL HILL 1064 4 The Jewish great American novel \DREV HOBLREK 893 6. In IlidtS 106 ji DiSID Si. HEISE (164 ‘I \ histor of thc furuit of nii run i ROBERr COOVER 1165 . Hi.

2 Painters and sculptors similarly turned away from modernist high-cultural autonomy and abstraction toward popular culture (as in the works of Andy \A’arhoi or Claes Oldenburg>. ii. in the ssidest sense. According to Bertens.i tonS einent It niodei nov. It is nndouhiedls bec . and pop-cultural elements of the kind described by Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown emerged as a new formal idiom radically different from the functionalism of Bauhaus and intemational-Style architecture. the implications of the postmodem moment difffr wtdelv in different artistic practices.li\ 11)111 P°’ I IIh. it is that of a in teplesenlation: a deeply felt loss offai h in our ability to represent the real. 55110 si iiiosi (liless ltiljIoitlfli ltt LIII ii t clii ill 1 (01 lii pet teised to lie ut the t cliii tilt Ii Lentut htu ii tIft it’ hi :h 00111(0 ndointcd ‘. and i . or pohncal In nature. In architecture.i i( 1 5 till h 1 Ill Ill ‘‘5 fl iii I 1 1110111k 111(1 tnt SI liii 1it \ ni LI ill the List ss is 55 s .iuse ii did pois ide . ‘.lrwI 51 o tht Its etttteth c ntUl\ tihoui qut ‘lii in lw most ‘Iti0i t. accessed.ets ot poineal. while other art forms such as film.Iiu’siloTts ‘hIll Is sthti i 1’ IIi’(IIIII. Ln’ st lcdt St cii.tIlUlii SI 11)1 ii. and communicated in contemporary society. But hetion and photography. its ii pl ic.I5 m.I11IOL.llilt 1 JiIIii’ Potniodi . . No matter svhethei they are aesthetic. d ((I dt bites hoot ‘till iiip liFt 1 bolei 1(111 oi sIts’US\lOliS iii ii .idemit tsm md is otheis a ‘sill ns in tot h Ipelt ss nitehec tua betuddietni ni Ii the toncept nosed to has e considl’r. But.ntt itt iorV br a ‘nodern cieR nd eullu re As a \I.klss Ir’tTLiues. the representations that we used to rely on can no longer he taken br granted. nd st hai oh ‘tienee and tet hit Ilo\ h mid pLi of it a pluralist .11111 11(501 lIHjlttt’d (. and figuration surface consistently across debates that in very differ ent ways engage with the question of how “reality” and “facts” are defined.(llV Hit . began to prefer anti realist and anti-narrative styles. dismisjis. and tci a ss ide vfl’.tIihttt’t’tui’C.i I OCt00 iL In 1111115. i’:’s . narrative and its fragmentation.ie. ‘ This sense of a representational crisis explains why concerns about language. local. narrative. Historical Ii Ills liel (lot lleies%. theater.tacles tO ‘it UL. ridiculed lis some d’ tilt epoonle ol p lintlessit it i’ane intl ns 0111k d .tiafli oiscts (lion’ thin’ Iiiei. vernacular. Many of the most important theortes of the postmodern engage with concepts of discourse.(iUIC 1th all the 55 15 to 001 iii ills it 1w ii 101 ((Ti 11 (kit lIt’ 111115 p 1 ii IlijI I Ill (011. or toward the reintroduction of narrative structures and historical elements (as in many of Robert Rauschenberg’s patntnlgs}. IlItlilti.id iii 1. tlti 51511.ini. sshi:hei ‘1111111 tInts i-. Oils 0 St. and ijhlt iii the 00115.ls 0th n ((((Lit the pill 1(151 iphiiai. social. HI iSI (111 Ut’S )unnt (it p1 )sttl1( (dcliii sm .li ietaes iii ittit\ . if there is a common denominator to all these postmodernisms. Steven Connor. as the playful Chippendale finish atop Philip Johnson’s AT&T Building (1984) in New York demonstrated. pastiche also formed part of this new style. . the n nil pt ol thi post 0. as theorists such as Hans Bertens.Inti colonial mdt pendi nec.Postmodern novels Postmodern novels I liSt I Is. cnsts refeiTed to the aesthetic modernisms of the early twentieth century as much as they did to the broader philosophical issues of Enlightenment modernity.(liut.(nt 4 a. and Steven Izenour have lucidly demonstrated. epistemo loical.ittd (loss tultul al ti Inte\t 01 ( oitt0eilni thi outs nd pi ii Ott ultu.S h some nt lot Ills Inc il 1k anmi II as s es \\l 0 I tilgh’t ‘t:tle’tt hi’ as ol l11 5 IilJt\’ 1 LII Otis wJ si’: stiii li Is’s 551 1 LI tdi I III (lIe eIltcttl\ (Ii tOnti ill i’55.ttn’I ‘ccLini 10 ii dii tand hi I thu nit s hi htt td tin Ii mdii Ii lit ml otto n (lions hat .t\ ll1 iuI\\ e’ It Slote ot ski Ii (ti. rhetoric.dehau d 5 s iss acadenuc 51 001 [lie ‘ liii idci n itiipltiit Iii I ‘nell tlehales \\. and scientific encepts and institutions: jean-l-rancois Lvotard’s outlme of a crisis of the “metanarrative” templates that had shaped Western thought since the Enlightenment: Jean Baudrillard’s postulation of a shift into a “hyperreal” culture of simulation in which apparent copies or imitations have lost their ties to authentic originals: Andreas Huyssen’s and FredricJameson’s descriptions of a weakening sense of historicity both among artists and in ‘Western cultures at large: Michel Foueault’s and Jacques Laean’s theories of selves constructed through .I( . p ht— louts \\ele al.itt”ed 0(111 111111 (sopit\ LIOCII (CI nd iIWT.ntd ni_es. ahi nfl titi Ii iJL sh’ (tilt iiid 101 tt ide ijiioiio dehati ti’ \\Oild\\’d( pie.(hlt 1. at the same moment. dance.11 1(15. metaphorization and performance to explain fundamental struc tures of contemporary societies: jtirgen Habermas’s theory eif a ‘crisis of legitimation’ that affects modern political. and poetry included both realism and anti-realism. moral. I ih iIohtii/fl I’: III till iil.

To name only a few of the most influential. poi’ I )w’u’ii’ thm later urns .iI i’cfetents.isilitltls ttarm’atot’s ainhigiu ius: mosaics of’ tim oat in.vkl. see Priscilla \\‘afd.ul no UIS ut’thtng concerned ss ith Out 5 histories fom’goticn oT’ ignoted h\ mainstream culture.itic.mml till 10505. Discussions about transnationalism. Instead.ard sshose identitim’s remain of principles of psych iloCicai p]. HE1SP Postmodern novels dtsc lurse: and Judith lutk i’s appri ach to endcred identity as a kind pci ii irmanee. and cultural forms of modernity in the contemporary world. chapter 50.n’a. and racial or ethnic mtttortties. the renewed importatAce of nationalisms and religious beliefs. national. internationalism. economic.ltc\tli. oc or dilinieni caiegoi’ie’ Durino the i postniodei’it nos cl’ fill liltO at least associated ss itli an c\treme intl r is. In the i99os and early aooos. us: hut lv’iss ‘uil tin isli s and mlii c ath ssent\ list ci uturs.mndiu of nam Urns e and historicus. 967 . loss L’\ei. In th more spi cilic context of des cli ipntents in the late t\s mlii th centurs Ni irth \merican nosel. ohs n those of’ women. addiuonal compit \ttles arise. concepnon ot the human buds. . authors such as William Gibson.tqgos onward. silO sIt Ilin. 0111 55 oitid 11(101 . Iaiue nunibii of 1t1uoductiun’.URSULA K. en thimc: espft it i 1 crimes to processes of ss i’nmfl. these tiovels nevertheless came to be perceived as quintessentially postmodern in their explorations of new virtual spaces and technologically reconfigured bodies. pmibhsliui and ‘cad me tug: iogicalk coiuradicuirs piotimnes: ch. If postmi idernism mdi. and in the humanities from the mid. social.lnls. continue to address ftindanuetttal questions about the political. ‘ SitU and cult in’es A iii net ii. to name onfs a few of the most tnflucnual appn aches. pc s of nosc’ls atid short stories As I ss ill sitoss to null-c’ dctai below.iIIs c \pm ci it to tr. Combining their fascination with the cutting edge of digital technology with a deep investment in the oppositional socio-cultural stance of punk rockers. ti take precedence 05cr the 005 ci’s is la:ion to us ( \tl’. But their focus on issues of geopolitics. they carve out new fictional territory in between histories of oppression and the complex socio-cultural conditions of narrative and textua]itv. post’iiodei nism ssas most c no’ifl iki i Intl ie ilmst is pe of on i atise 51 If ri ft i’cntial and oftc n openf rnetahcuofl. In a third wave of postmodernist novels. But c en motif that reappears acmss otherwisi \s ideix s ars ing bodies of them’s cailins1 such pcispc ctiscs pOstifl()JeiflIsi hthliltts one of the idditionai contpiications of ih tcrtii \t one cs ci. postmodci u Eu iii In . and Pat Cadigan reirnagined the near future under the rule of global computer networks.u hi hasc’ Si.intholousdedici1id otiosiniodern 1 sot hasc explot’d these issues in detail.irissorks not iiecessariJ associ ued ‘a itii this period.a Their persistent portrayals of a thoroughly globalized world in the economic and technological spheres prepared the way for the fourth wave of postmodcrnust novels. Bruce Sterling.’tei’s ci iui’ci md in 5 is Jisi’ce.ui ks lot the most pitt cleated iltet’ toue 10 1 5 Jflct\ of countries.mnsloi itt the shape of’ fictional 0. Bitt philosophical per 5 tflOther level certain sets of postmodern’si theories and itsuai]\ hut 1101 amass. immti. \letaflcuonal nosels tend to inSolsi arhttiar formal constounts stich as the omission of cit’iUn Ic’tk i’s : Jabot’ue tc’twii eOibt ddniss md (uli. Christopher f-ni a history of ihe genre in its Science fiction. as ss if such issueS constitute . an increasing number of svrtters theniatized globalization and its relation to modernity and postmod ernity in novels that combine elements of the earlier waves of postmodern narrative.IIsii began to include less c\let’lml utt. By and large conventionally realist in their narrative idiom. and the definition of cultural identities in a global field of medta connections also marks shifts of emphasis that may well imply the obsolescence of the idea of the postmodern” in the sense of the i97os and i98os. and globalization. ilie desiinatton postmodei’nist can refr to a characteristic of at ii tv. Crmtucism since the 198os has proposed a variety of useful perspectives on postmodern fictmon. racial. But the deepening interest in hosv to t’epresent global scenarios by means of innovative fictional tbrms also points to the weakening hold that the concept of’ postmodernisrn has on analyses of contemporary culture. pat’uds jotI pastiche of other te\ts slime limes to the point of dow might pi ictiai’ts:n : lmguistic patchssorks of different iphies 5 styles: md m’spci tittcfli ii 0. Some of these novelists show an intense awareness of the constructedness of history and the blurry boundaries between history and fiction. from metafictional elements and the foregrounding of different gendered. hot they are far less committed to an anti-realist agenda. winch justifies a title And finall postmimdernisi has often tin such as Pct. cd ins oh t’s fundamental changes in tin undc i’st.iih html lot malls quite difh’rcnt 0. the rusk society. influenced 1w one of’ veial strain’ of spccti\c s I i’ench p islstrtlctui ahsm could md ssci’c hi ouflhi to bear on te\Is and . the n1eal1mns of the plu’ase p isinO dliii hciu in repeat dis simtftc ml urounds as It was Lised tO refer to thc’rn. which took on increasing importance in the social sciences from the early lm)9os. environmental crisis. science fiction texts associated with the “cvberpunk” movement of the 1980s came to add another layer of’ resonance to the term.i’isfi Iflislli t wc no e ut cc’nt ci rs si leteti es he en ii sed as a term desert hi n pn ipe tAilS of I CII. it hich iltc’ conditions and iruculauomts of testuahts it.. and ethnic communities to the emphasis on new technologies.

how textual worlds are made and unmade. This shift of emphasis from the author or artist to the text also makes itself felt in the recurring concern of postmodernist artworks in general and novels — Butler and Brian McHale have analyzed the transformations of highmodernist aesthetic templates in postmodern narrative. forges had imagined the entire universe consisting of a library that contains books with all possible words in all possible combina tions. is no longer the representation of the world refracted through a human mind and again through language. and the novelist Raymond Federman have theorized their forms of parody. is to understand its narrative innovations as varying attempts to resituate print narrative in a changing media landscape increasingly dominated by the moving image and by digitization.” One way of understanding the continuity of postmodern fiction across its very different articulations during the last halfcentury. uses bits and pieces of previous texts (his own as well as other authors’) cut up and reassembled into a new textual whole whose fractures and seams remain clearly visible and define the fictional text as a portal to other texts rather than a self-contained whole. just as French novelist Georges Perec’s novel La disparition (1969 entirely omits the letter c. media-theoretical approach to postmodern fiction that surfaces in the work of Joseph Tabbi. Allan Thiher has linked postmodern narrative experiments to currents in twentieth-century language philosophy: Fredric Jameson. the first wave of postrnodernist fiction was accompanied by a host of publications pronouncing dire warnings about the death of the novel and the demise of reading in the age of film and especially television: Leslie Fiedler. Gilbert Sorrentino’s Mulligan Stew (1978). but ontological questions about the nature of textuality. in one of his most famous short stories. the whole preceded. they force readers to consider what constitutes the reality or plausibility of a narrative universe. Ford Madox Ford. Metafiction and its transformations In the 196os and 1970s. Modernist fiction such as that of Joseph Conrad. and by extension. going one better than Joyce’s Finnegans Wake (1939).” In this context of conscious self-scrutiny. the first wave of postmodernist fiction shifts from what Brian McHale has called the “epistemological dominant” of high-modernist fiction to an “ontological” orientation designed to explore the nature of textuality and the cognitive making and unmaking of narrative worlds. consists of a patchwork of different generic and historical styles in a narrative with only marginal plot coherence. Linda Hutcheon and Amy lilias have foregrounded the connections and disjunctures between postmodern fiction and the writing of history. “La libreria de Babel” [The Library of Babel. anticipations. in a self-deprecatory gesture. and the novels of Vladimir Nabokov. orJames Joyce had already begun to transform. in the process displaying a new awareness of the materiality of print and its functions. Virginia Woolf or William Faulkner. James Joyce. memories. the iwiiveaux ronians of French novelists such as Alain Robbe-Grillet and Narhalie Sarraute. by constraining selection and combination. gave rise to new novelistic forms. Walter Abish’s Alphabetical Africa (1974) follows strict rules as to which letters of the alphabet can appear in which book chapters. all declared themselves pessimistic about the novels possibilities for cultural survival.” \Villiam Burroughs. McHale suggests. the different perspectives share enough material to make it clear that all the characters do in fact experience the same basic reality. pastiche. and the real. Michael Wutz.”' The emphasis on the figure of the artist and his (mostly his) development in novels by Thomas Mann. will have occasion to refer to many of these theories here. Susan Sontag. The underlying concern shaping narrative experimentation. The resulting juxtaposition of different perspectives highlights how realit is refracted through individual minds without completely destabilizing its facwality: in most modernist 968 969 . In this vein. Marcel Proust. in other words. and Mark McGurl has approached post-196os fiction (somewhat 7 more broadly understood) in its growing associations with the academy. by contrast. and intertextual quotation. and Nova Express 1964). I will argue. in the 01405 and 195os. for example. Postmodernist writers took up this challenge of imagining the world as a game of linguistic and textual recomhinat-ions by adopting furmalist gener ative procedures that. by reproductions of a whole set of publishers’ rejection letters. coherence. fur example. or by violating conventions of narrative logic and causality. postmodernist fiction meant above all the highly selfreferential and “metafictional” work of writers who took to their logical extreme modernist and avant-garde techniques of literary experimentation.URSULA K. Katherine 1—layles. and Kathleen Fitzpatrick. how we construe the reality of the extratextual world. Postmodernist narrative strategies. inference. but particularly in The Sofi MacJune (1965). and John Barth. Louis Rubin. N. Margaret Rose. and translations into story by a variety of characters. observation. work to undermine the sense of a shared and coherent fictional universe in a variety of ways by exposing their own constructedness. in Naked Lunch (1959). but will focus them through a somewhat different. into more radical reconsiderations of the conditions of textuality and the materiality of print in the short stories of the Argentinian writerJorge Luis Borges. HErSE Postmodern novels novels. Indeed. in so doing. 5941 [. seeks to explore the real through its varied perceptions. The Ticket That Exploded (1962).

enters a monastery. and Ishmael Reed’s MumboJumho (1972( revolves around the search for a fragmented and dispersed piece of scripture that is definitively lost by the end. or indeterminate in metaflction. Foucault. “Plagiarism as Imagination. humorously retells the well-known fairy tale as a i96os counterculture story of a woman who routinely has sex in the shower with the seven dwarves. and quotation. one of three novellas by John Barth that reappropriate some of the most time-honored myths in the Western canon. In novels such as these. as Raymond Federman programmatically declared in his essay. Fictional characters become similarly modular. In a somewhat different vein. it turns out. 1986( and Charles Dickens (in her Great Expectations. the protagonist of Nabokov’s Pale Fire (1962). Charles Kinbote. for example. a twist that locks the two authors into a circuit of transmission in which no originality is possible. and travels around the world before setting up an elaborate surveillance system for Snow White and finally drinking the poison destined for her. in the meantime. IIEISE Postmodern novels bibliography. Mosaic Man (1998). -- 970 97’ .tRSIJLA K. and even gender from chapter to chapter. Federman’s Double or Nothing: A Real Fictitious Discourse (1971) tells the story of a writer who locks himself up to write a novel. Her “prince. but at the same time allude to some of the classics ofWestern literature. retells the iooi Nights from the viewpoint of Sheherazade’s younger sister. in particular with issues of originality. for example.” some postmodernist novels are in fact texts about other texts which the reader may or may not get to see. 1983) to her contemporary \Villiam Gibson. William Faulkner. change their names. chapter 3. ‘The parallax juxtapositions of different memories or perceptions of reality in the novels of such authors as Joseph Conrad. Gravity’s Rainbow 1973). Novels such as these translate into fictional form concerns about the coherence and construct edness of human identity that have been articulated in different ways by theorists such as Lacan. not only goes through a series of disgtuses and assumed identities but gradually becomes unrecogniz able to his friends and in the end simply disperses into the landscape. composite. In a similar vein. the authors themselves appear as characters called up or written into existence by other characters. imitation. Tyrone Slothrop.” Paul. Donald Barthelme’s novel Snow White (1967). and thereby form part of the dialogue between the American novel and continental philosophy explored in greater detail by Robert Chodat in this volume. Dunyazade Sheherazade. (i96) and The Crying of Lot (1965) are constituted and arranged in pattems of correspondence and contradiction with each other that seem to obey an underlying structural principle more than any imperative of psychological realism. In another variant of texts that open out on other texts rather than on references to the “real world. The characters of Ronald Sukenick’s Out (1973). the attention to the development of the artist is replaced by the metafictional focus on the text itself with the author just another one of the fictions produced by the text: in Barth’s “Dunyazadiad” and Coleman Dowell’s Island People (1976). engages in an extended experiment of reading when he appends to the long poem “Pale Fire’ a critical and interpretive apparatus that recasts it as the story of his own life. Other characters in Gravity’s Rainbow as well as in Pynchon’s earlier novels V. appearance. quickly runs out of stories and is incapable of making up any others until she succeeds. “Philosophy and thern . many of Kathy Acker’s novels reappropriate male pomographic discourse frr feminist pur poses. the narrative voice loses much of the authority and central structural function it still possessed in the architecture of high-modernist novels. meditates self-consciously on his blue blood and the role he is expected to take. in texts that are either patchworks of narrative styles or obvious rewritings of earlier texts. with every page of the resulting metanovel typographically configured in a different way. but the creative reappropriation of already existing texts and discourses. and Butler. Quite obviously. from Miguel de Cervantes (in her Don Quixote. whose cyberpunk novel Neuromancer (1984) she quite ostentatiously rewrites at the beginning of The Empire of the Senseless (1988).b The same skepticism toward what is usually conceived to be the real makes itself felt in some kinds of postmodem plots. and a . In texts such as these. The implausible names and even more implausible psychologies of many of Thomas Pynchon’s characters have been commented on in detail. in a novel supplemented with photos. to the point where it is difficult to say whether they are indeed the same characters: and even in Sukenick’s late and most autobiographical novel. In a very different narrative idiom. the protagonist. in one of the most influential novels in the postmodernist canon.” the point is precisely not any pretense of authorial originality (for many postmodernists a post-Romantic myth in the first place). or Virginia Woolf give way in many postmodernist texts of the 196os and 19705 to juxtapositions of plotlines so h Robert Chodai. “Dunyazadiad” (1972).nerean novel. the first-person protagonist turns out to be more of a patchwork of different literary prototypes and discourses (as the title with its double allusion to the form of the mosaic and to the protagonist’s Jewish origins already suggests) than a realistically conceived character. in conjuring up a genie from the twentieth century transparently Barth himself f-Ic is only too delighted to report to her what stories she is supposed to tell according to the text of the iow Nights. handwritten letters. by pure chance.

in his argument. along with the high-modernist interest in the workings of memory and temporality. revisiting the Cold War. at a thematic level. and Nixon’s gradual ascent to power. l9oos. and handwritten letters into the narrative. literature more broadly might become obsolete in the age of film.URSULA K. American novels from the 19T05 onward have at times reflected on their relationship to television and the mass culture it represents. in that history is questioned in terms of its textual construct edness even as its facts are invoked.” is. their political and journalistic transformations. and historicity. “the novel.’ One of the characters in Barth’s epistolary novel LETTERS (5979) remarks that [njowadays the [novel] is so fallen into obscure pretension on the one hand and cynical commercialism on the other. mass media. for example. and the integration of visual material such as photographs. paintings. quixotic. and the Nixon era through a combination of facts and fictional events and characters. Pynchon situates Gravity’s Rainbow in a post. typographical configurations. and so undermined at its popular base by television. Reed reflects on the Civil Rights Movement through a narrative ostensibly set in the 1920S. In addition.World War II Germany that at times resembles the 1960S USA more than 1940s Europe so as to consider whether the counterculture really did open up any new paths fur American culture or simpiy reconfirmed already existing political tendencies. novelists after 1960 increasingly translate this engagement into novelistic form itselE While it would no doubt be reductive to explain the many facets of first-wave postmodernism exclusively by reference to the altered media ecology that begins to unfold with the rise of television in the 1950s. Almost all of the protagonists of Philip K. as well as the presence of television sets. less relevant for a historical account of postmodem fiction than the fact that Barth invokes pressure fi’om other media as one significant cause for changes in the structure of fiction: metafiction. The Policeman Said (1974) and VALES (5980). from Martian Time Slip (1964) and The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch (1965) to I-low My Tears. If as Mark 5 McGurl argues in this volume. is fbund murdered in her apartment in Harlem. but in the end remain inexplicable both to them and the reader. films. and a profusion of plots and narrative modes whose satirical edge can never be quite disentangled from their realism. it is obvious that a new consciousness of the novel as printed text does inform many fictional experiments that involve novels-within-novels. or the Rembrandt of the stereopticon. 0 If such metafictional experiments respond to broad cultural changes in the experience of temporality. as a number of studies have suggested. they also reflect on the altered status of literary narrative in the changing mediascape of the I96os. Borges had anticipated such fictions in his short story “FijardIn de senderos que se hifurcan” [The Garden of Forking Paths. and computers often form a crucial part of — — incompatible with each other that they can no longer be construed as forming part of a consistent narrative universe. a dirigible pilot. and the role fiction might play in representing them. Coover. Live Voice (1968). Dick’s science fiction novels. Reed’s Mumbo jumbo. 972 973 . as who should aspire in i’369 to be a Barnum & Bailey acrobat. television. causality. mass culture. arises out of an awareness of the altered status of the novel. all reflect on the politics of the T950s. but ends up rewriting all of Western history from Ancient Egypt to the Middle Ages and twentieth-century America as a recurring conflict between factions that are ultimately distinct mainly by virtue of their race. HEISE Postmodern novels adopts a partly allegorical and partly satirical mode to explore the complex relationship between facts. take such reflections on coherence and the real. Print. One of the characters in Clarence Major’s Reflex and Bone Structure (1975). 1941. The fear that the novel and perhaps. in a contradiction the novel leaves deliberately unresolved. Pvnchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow and Robert Coover’s The Public Burning (1977). which proposed a labyrinthine vision of real and textual temporalities constantly bifurcating into alternative universes. one step further by reflecting in a highly self-referential fashion on American history. the 1958 execution ofJulius and Ethel Rosenberg. but later dies in a plane crash on her way to a concert in Russia. Linda Hutcheon has coined the term “historiographic metafiction” to describe such novelistic engage ments with history that do not fit easily into the established genre of the historical novel. which is palpable in these as well as many other statements surrounding the alleged “death of the novel. the predicament of novel writers and readers. But the idea that narrative plots might no longer add up to any coherent presentation of reality also haunts postmodernist texts in other forms. especially from the 19705. and the computer. as did French novelist Alain Robbe-Grillet in a whole range of novels published in the 1960s and 1970S that revolve around repeated scenes just dissimilar enough from each other that they might in fact not be repeti tions but different scenes. suffer from serious ruptures in their experience of reality that seem at first induced by schizophrenia or drugs.’ chapter i. Some postmodernist texts. that to hear a young person declare that his or her ambition is to be a capital-W’ Writer strikes me as anachronistical. Again. Barth took up this vision in his seminal essay “The Literature of Exhaustion” (T967) and the title story of his collection Lost in the Funhouse: Fiction for Tape. for example. c Mark McCurl. however.

middle-class and First-World feminism. decolonization and 197os difficult to square with the playful. In quite a few accounts of the contemporary novel. and an eagerness to convey predsely the facts and realities of lives not earlier considered worthy of literature. and Elizabeth Freeman Reinsaglning genders and sexualities. But to accept such a dichotomy would be to ignore the important con tinuities between first. does not require reliance on conventionally understood realism. just as academic postmodemism gradually shifted from textually dominated poststructuralism to the psycho analytically and historically inflected postsrrucruralisms of Jacques Lacan and . many of them the great social issues of the IQ6os seemed women s emancipation. an interest in oral storytelling rather than the materialities of print. its episodic - novels from the 1950S onward. . In a letter to the author-in-the-text. Barbara Guest’s Seeking Air (1977).p6os postmodernisni with experimental anti-realisms and the literary identity politics of the 197os and ip8os with a return to realism also misstates the case from a narratological perspective. Sandra Cisneros. Clarence Major. The most innovative fictions in this second wave seemed to oppose metafictional seif-referentiality in that they return to more or less realist modes of nairatson. these writers come to represent a highly political. and the work of women writers outside the USA Christine Brooke-Rose’s Between (1968). strains conventional genre definitions through its eclectic mix of prose and poetry. and lshmael Reed had already demonstrated in the first wave of postmodernist fiction that an interest in questions of racial equality and in the real living conditions of blacks in the United States. precisely because they mistrust dominant forms of narrative. For these reasons. Susan Koshy ‘The rise of the Asian American novel. .” chapter 621. mostly white. for example. Many of the novels frequently classified as postmodern from the 19705 and I9Sos. postmodernism in the novel seemed to shift from metafiction to identity politics. from the B-movies in William Burroughss Naked Lunch and Jerzy Kosinski’s illiterate. Maxine Hong Kingston. Toni Morrison. Marguerite Youngs monumental Miss MacIntosh. Mv Darling i1965). fragmented narrative structures and discontinuous characters can forcefully highlight the contradictions and para doxes of discrimination and disenfranchisement and foreground the con structed and shifting nature of racial and ethnic distinctions. therefore.” While in Barth. HEISE Postrnodern novels Michel Foucault. Alice Walker. but instead selectively integrate some of the metafic tional and anti-representational strategies of earlier postmodemists. chapter i Ranión Saldivar The American Borderlands novel. it assumes a different shape in many of the novels by women and minority writers who came to be associated with the label of “postrnodemism” from the 1970S onward. On the contrary. and Gloria Anzaldtla highlight histories that the dominant culture had forgotten or deliberately ignored stories of women. oppositional postmodemism dominated by women and minority writers that contrasts with the textual self-absorptions of the mostly white and male writers of first-wave postmodemism. you exploit that apocalyptic climate reinspect the origins of narrative fiction in the oral tradition. and Richard Powers. 1969) had pointed the way toward articulations of feminism in distinctly anti-realist narrative idioms. the early work of Kathy Acker. text-oriented and self-referential techniques of postmodemist novels of the 196os and 1970s. or Monique Wittig’s Les guerrilleres (Women Warriors. The seriousness and urgency of the political issues involved. of colonized peoples. That so many of the thinkers and writers involved in this debate were women of color was not accidental. . Similarly. civil rights. TV-watching protagonist in Being There (1970) all the way to the televisions and computers that figure prom inently in the novels of Pynchon. ‘ “Identity pol itics” formed part of the postmodernist project insofar as it sought to rethink and renarrativize Enlightenment notions of selL individuality.and second-wave postmodem fiction. and subjecthood that had implicitly been based on white. Don DeLillo. In important ways. Brigid Brophy’s In Lransit (s9o). wellformed if often open-ended plots. . of racial and ethnic minorities.” chapter 57). you do take seriously the climate to that takes such questions seriously. Leslie Marmon Silko. Leslie Marmon Silko’s The Storyteller (1981). 198os women and minority novelists who view the novel as a medium for articulating alternative identities and histories. and of the gay underground. by such authors as Bharati Mukhetjee. Equating . — —- d The modalities of these stones are explored in more detail in essays by \Valter Elenn Michacis Model minorities and the minority model —-the neoliberal novel.URSULA K. with an emphasis on narrative voice and plausible character construction. this turn to the oral tradition manifests itself in rewritings of Greek myth and Homeric epic. one of the characters of Barth’s LETTERS suggests to him that “you do not yourself take with much seriousness those Death-of-the-Novel or End-of-Letters chaps. since their particular critique of patriarchy often highlighted at the same time sonic of the limitations of first-wave.” chapter Es). the cutting-edge novelists of the 19805 participated in and continued the postmodemist critique of Enlightenment modernity even when they adopted realist narrative idioms despised by the earlier generation of postmodemists. Amy Tan. heterosexual European mascu linity. 974 975 . fur example. of immigrants. therefore. African American writers such as William Demby. often do not return to realism in either its nineteenth-century or its high-moderrnst guise.

and from Western film. liii. and her integration of novelistic. cinematographic. her mix of French and English text with Chinese characters. and media that have come to replace any immediate access to the real. consumer commodities. Gloria Anzaldüa’s Borderlands/La Frontera (1987) similarly defies genre expectations as it blends historiography with autobiography and poetry. The Native American Tradition. face-to-face storytelling as a means of re-estahhshing community and the connection with the past. Where they live and their TV set. interactive modes of computer games and immersive virtual realities. as a way of regrounding the novel as a medium for perpetuating oral narratives that might otherwise be lost. and lyrical idioms raise many of the same questions about individual identity. Some second-wave novels push questions about orality and print toward a more complex media-theoretical engagement that clearly draws on the self referentiality of first-wave postmodern fiction. in this volume. But some dimensions of postmodern fiction suggest that the novel explorations of Laguna Pueblo myth and present-day Native American encounters with racial discrimination. The rise of identity politics as a dominant concern of American novels. her organization of the narra tive by means of Eastern and Western myths as structuring devices. chapter 67. inciting the reader to reflect on the very nature of realism. in its e Sean Kicurnmah Teuton. media theory-inflected nar rative strategies destabilize any firm foundation for such histories and identies no less radically than many of the historiographic metafictions of the T96os and 19705. While texts such as these undoubtedly differ fundamentally from the elabo rate textual games of Reed or Pynchon. at the same time. But Cha’s use of dictation as a device of transition from orality to writing. national. they nevertheless share with them a deep-seated wariness of established historical narratives and a high degree of self-referentiality in their attempts to create new templates. and ethnic histories. the prominence of oral storytelling in many of the postmodernist novels of the 19 and 198os os 1 might also be understood as an alternative way of resituating the novel in a visually dominated media context. and its inclusion of photographs whose function is often something other than documentary. John Barth. some of the ig8os texts usually perceived as paradigmatically postmodermst are not as anti-realist as the texts of William Burroughs. may well continue to invent new uses for itself Robert Coover.Such tensions between oral and printed storytelling and the cultural conventions that surround them inform a wide range of Native American. Vvhat Ct over calls monomedia may in this context be less dated than they appear. and Asian American novels. links the story of a Korean woman’s emigration to the United States with her mother’s displace ment to Japanese-occupied Manchuria decades earlier. Oral storytelling and oral traditions figure prom inently in Native American and Asian American novels of the 19705 and 198os most obviously as a way of laying claim to ignored and oppressed cultural legacies.’ one of the characters sums up a social landscape shaped by media as much as by lived experience. in an exploration of superimposed oppressions and estrangements that become quite common in novels of the 198os and IQQOS. this ambition leads to media-theoretical paradoxes and textual play in many ways similar to those of the metafictionalists. for example. Korean American writer Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s Dictée (1982). for example. film. and storytelling in cultural oppression and liberation that the novels of many Asian American and other minority writers raise. many of these texts seek to engage with ‘colonialism and the power of oral traditions to resist it.’ ‘c The tension between oral and written narrative that often surfaces in this context suggests that the novel. therefure. Toni Morrison’s Beloved (1987) and Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior (1976) include important elements of the supernatural whose relation to the “real” histories these novels tell invites questions about the foundations of historical storytelling. As hinted in the earlier quotation from Barth’s LETTERS. sees fiction being inexorably pulled toward the new. Yet with the exception of DeLillo’s skillful deployment of satirical 976 977 . and the computer dominate. the novel stages more unmedi ated. “For most people there are only two places in the world. the role of language(s. her inclusion of photos drawn from her autobiography. inauthentic and deeply invested in sirnulacra. its roots in familial. from Korean history. Don DeLillo’s W’hite Noise (1985) is the most famous example of a novel that is often understood as a portrait of the quintessentially postmodern society of the late twentieth-century United States. or Kathy Picker. The experimental. When omnipresent visual media such as television. by no means implies any simple return to narrative realism. might also function as the space in which older communication modalities are represented and remembered. Chicano. but also. Without question. the university-educated Native American narrator encounters an old storyteller of his tribe who shares some of her oral traditions with him on the condition that he never put them in print a condition the narrator violates by publishing the short story we read .URSULA K. As Sean Kicummah Teuton suggests in his chapter on the Native American novel in this volume. I would argue. HEISE Postmodern novels confrontation with other media. In a short story by Anishinaabe novelist Gerald Vizenor entitled “Shadows’ (1992.

with its realistic portrayals of science and technology. The concept of the “cborg. signal an 979 978 . and sophisticated psychological portrayals. film. and appeared as the logical human counterpart to the “cyberspace” first named by novelist William Gibson in 1982.se of Leaves (2000). portrays by mostly realist means the kind of hyperreal world theorized by Jean Baudrillard without translating the critique of realism into its narrative form. While Wallace makes ample use of game structures in organizing a narrative world in which enter tainment in various forms predominates. science fiction had exploded into a whole range of difftrent subgenres and styles of writing ranging from “hard” science fiction. — — elements that leave the reader in doubt as to how seriously to take some elements of this social portrait. chapter 50. Rejecting a futuristic version of multisensory television called “SimStim. replaced television as the alternate imaginary space humans inhabit. Implicitly or explicitly. their “distanceless home. and the plot has a good deal more coherence and resolution than a novel by. the postmodern novel shifted into yet another dimension: its association with science fiction and its portrayal of emergent tech nologies in the biological and above all the digital realms. Danielewski takes to new extremes the postmodemist strategies of embedded narrative.. the question of the relationship between literature and other media surfaces as a recurrent concern in these novels: ‘teleputers.20 The new medium of the computer. they are not implausible. Gilbert Sorrentino or Harry Mathews. like other first19 wave postmodernists. The 1990S and early’ 2000S saw continuations and transformations of all the different modes of postniodem narrative. say. Priscilla Wald. White Noise proceeds by and large in realist fashion: its humor.URSULA K. had taken a deep interest in film and television as part of a changed media landscape in which the novel had to redefine itself. transparent 3D chessboard extending to infinity. in Gibson’s novels as well as those of other cyberpunk writers. and second-wave postmodern fictions were re-introducing oral forms of storytelling as a means of capturing alternate histories.” Gibson’s hackers in Neuromancer (1984) instead reside in cyber space. Hvperself-aware though the characters may be. Writers such as Philip K. from metafiction to ethnic writing and technologically intlected visions. 844. Dick and Thomas Pynchon had succeeded in blurring the boundaries between mainstream literary fiction and science fiction in part because they. self-referentiality. and experimental typography in a novel in which print. [their] country. a brand of science fiction that was intensely concerned with . its philosophical depth. This consciousness of the crucial influence exerted on literature by rapidly changing mediascapes took a new shape in the emergence of cyberpunk. HEISE Postmodern novels computers and international digital networks as potential new spaces and new forms of community. The legacies of metafiction are most obvious in monumental novels such as David Foster Wallace’s Infinite Jest (1995) and Mark Danielewski’s I-lon. This movement introduced greater attention to social and cultural issues. therefore. and architecture all play against each other. to fiminist novels and fantasy. and the ensuing “posthumanism” the reimagination of the human as a hybrid of biology and technology rather than the organic whole envisioned during the Enlightenment now became an integral part of postmodernism. it turns out that some of the white males are not as. Long reliant on conventional narrative techniques. In the I)Sos. comments on the “generic promiscuity [that] blurs the distinction between science fiction and experimental postmodern writing in the 196os. If reality and textuality had informed first-wave postmod ernism as the opposing poles implicit in multiple novelistic games and negotiations. White Noise. increased character depth. By the 198os.•antirealist and some of the minority writers not as realist as is commonly alleged.” combinations of television and computers. cyberpunk novels in the third wave of postmodern fiction shifted to a media-based dialectic of reality and virtuality constituting each other in the emergence of new spaces and bodies. as well as narrative techniques borrowed from high-modernist novels and the nou veau roman to a once formally traditional genre. somewhat differently articulated in Britain and the US.” an intimately fused combination of biological and technological body parts that had first appeared in the early 1960S. in this volume. Contrary to the simplistic oppositions that are often drawn in accounts of 59705 and 198os fiction between a predominantly white male postmodemism and a return to realism in the writings of women and minority’ novelists.” Human bodies and the environments they’ inhabit emerge as irreversibly reconfigured by both digital and biotechnologies in these visions. was gwen wide publicity’ by Donna Haraway’s “Cyborg Manifesto” (1984i as a figure with utopian potential.. and its biting social critique all rely on the reader by and large believing in the narrative world she is shown. From postmodernism to globalization I Priscilla \Vald. science fiction had already under gone fundamental changes in the 196os through the so-called New Wave.

an intricately layered narrative of embedded texts and readings revolves centrally around an imaginary film.” Cayce Pollard reflects on her virtual travels.2 (5995) and Plowing the Dark (2000). Asian Americans. media emerge as virtual spaces that at the turn of the millennium define identities as much as geographical places do: her multiracial characters include an avid radio listener. then. HEIS Postmodern novels virtual space in which he finds himself at that moment. is momentarily surprised to encounter a receptionist with the same racial make-up only to discover that in the g Bruce Robbins. suffice develops further the 198os vision of a world dominated and divided by corporations and their franchises more than by nation-states. In one scene. “It is a way. it turns out that this fan community has emerged around fragments of alluring but mysterious film footage that periodically appear on the web and seem for a time to hold out the promise of a realm of pure creativity and true art dissociated from the world of commodities and advertising. and Pattern Recognition is an open question. and architecture in novels such as Galatea 2. an international cool hunter for the advertising industry. political implications.and third-wave postmodern novels with a new awareness of a rapidly globalizing world. Paul Auster’s intensely media-aware novel The Book of Ilh4slons (2002) portrays a Comparative Literature professor’s discovery of the films of Hector Mann. discovers he is still alive. Tokyo. Moscow. Bruce Robbins’s chapter in this volume explores in more detail the narrative plots.URSIJL A K. William Gibson himself completed this picture in one of his most recent novels. But in a multi-medial twist. and eventual death. ofbeing at home. Whether the term “postmodern” adequately describes novels such as Snow Crash. in a realist style more reminiscent of DeLillo than Barth. Set in a thoroughly multicultural Los Angeles populated not only by African Americans. The Navidson Record. work. 980 981 . Stephenson foregrounds the ethnic. and a Chicano print journalist who by the end of the novel turns into a cyberspace-based private eye. poems. Both Stephenson and Yarnashita. races. painting. Yamashita redeploys magical realism to portray the emergence of global spaces that no longer seem representable by realist means. More than his predecessors. Stephenson’s main character. whose protagonist. Pattern Recognition seems less anxious about the possible competition between different media than fascinated by their new synergies. approximately. The [on-linel forum has become one of the most consistent places in her life. software automatically produces receptionists who are ethnically and racially identical to the arriving customer. Pattern Recognition (2003). while Stephenson draws on science fiction. the aptly named Hiro Protagonist. and media interchanges. explores the relation ship of computers and virtual reality to legacies of literature. other novelists combine some of the dimensions of second. now. and Paris. in his cyberpunk novel Snow Crash (1992). and Latinos but also immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Richard Powers. chapter 66. a TV reporter. so a few examples of texts that clearly build on various dimensions of the postmodernist legacy may Neal Stephenson. and cultural multiplicity of this world. film noir. and imaginative shortfalls of such “worldly” novels. which the reader comes to know about through a mosaic of letters. Danielewski. he gives detailed shot-by-shot descriptions and interpre tations of several of Mann’s films. Tropic of Orange. As the professor researches Mann’s fIlms. “The woriding of the American novel. even as he also suggests that this multiplicity is itself endlessly reproducible and commodifiable. Yamashita turns the postmodem metropolis into a node in a global network of economic. and Auster redeploy the strategies of first-wave postmodem fiction. outline panoramas of global identities in which media become as crucial as nations. Similarly. and other written materials. interviews. While authors such as Wallace. acknowl edging the central importance of the moving image but also through his exclusive engagement with the obsolete medium of’ silent film the ways in which verbal narrative might still be film’s necessary complement and mouth 21 piece. As she tells a story inflected by Latin American magical realism as much as by North American ethnic writing. but comple mented by a virtual world in which the power of hackers supercedes that of executives. racial. considering that the term “postmodernism” itself has begun to be replaced by other onmipresent entertainment industry and culture in the lives of Wallace’s characters. and in Danielewski’s plot. Japanese American novelist Karen Tei Yamashita rewrites Stephenson’s fictional equation from the other end in her novel Tropic of Orange (1998). but feels most at home in an internetbased fan community. or ethnicities in shaping individuals and communities. a silent-film actor and director who mysteriously disappeared decades before the onset of the narrative. As the film is disseminated through the internet and both media are rendered verbally in Gibson’s novel. like a familiar café that exists somehow outside of geography and beyond time zones. and delves ever more deeply into his life. and techno-postmodernism. a “neuromancer of the dark. Auster here goes even further than Danielewski in turning the novel into a verbal transliteration of film. travels around the globe from New York to London. and perhaps its means of perpetuating itself into the future. cultural.” as he calls himself in a direct allusion to Gibson’s cyberpunk classic. an American of mixed Asian and African extraction.

Brian McHale. Postmoderni. Learning from Las Vegas: The Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Horns (Cambridge. Modern.ouisiana State University Press. Leslie Fiedler. But undeniably. Rose. TN: Vanderbilt University Press. Foucault’s and Lacan’s theories of self are articulated across a variety of texts.inda Hutcheon.. chapters 2—5. Steven Best and Douglas Kellner. Idea of the Postniodern 3.IiRSL LI K. Postmodernist Fiction.cm Across tite Ages: Essays Jhr a Postmodernitv that Wasn’t Born Yesterday (Syracuse. 1993). Le miroir de la production: Ou. Postmodernism. 7. eds. The Parameters of Postmodernism (Carbondale: Southern Illinois L(niversity Press. 1985:: Alvin Kernan. chapters i and 6—so. Steven Connor. in Against Interpretation (New York: Anchor Books. 1992). 23—25. The Talking Cure: Essays in Psychoanalysis and Language. 8. For discussions of postmodemism as it manifested itself in different artfornis. 1967).lean Baudrillard. 983 . Close the Gap. even as geopolitical and economic dimensions tend to assume greater centrality in these debates than in those about postmodern culture. 2001): Mark McGurl. 1986). Postmodernism: A Reader (London: E Arnold. NC: Duke University Press. many of the same concerns persist about the legacies of modernity that shaped debates about postmodernisrn. Post modern ism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1982). (London: 6. “The Literature of Exhaustion. (New York: Blackweil. Theory.acan. Questions about the ties of modernity to its European and North Amencan origins. A Poetics of Postmodernisju: History. 1993): Raymond Federman. l’lllusion cntiqt{e do niatFrialissne historique. I1:461—485. NY: Cornell University’ Press. Allan Thiher.. Poetics Today 25. 1971).1 (Spring 2004): 67—90: Kathleen Fitzpatrick. Finding appropriate narrative forms for articulating these questions about the legacy of the modern in a thoroughly global and media-connected world is the challenge that recent novels have begun to address by drawing eclectically on modernist and postmodernist narrative strategies from Europe. Against Interpretation. iqqr. and Simulation et siniulacres (Paris: Galilee. 2004. chapters 3—6: Steven Connor. Fredric Jameson. 1993). Christopher Butler.” The Atlantic (August 1967): 29 -34. trans. Mass Culture. as representative esam pies. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of’ Identity (New York: Routledge. 5. and Steven Izenour. 1990). 1972). After the Great Divide: Modernism. Cntifiction: Postmodern Essays (Albany: State University of New York Press. Routledge. The Posrmodern Turn (New York: Guilford. 3 -14: Louis Rubin. Butler. Legitintationsproblenii’ tin Späthapitahsnins Suhrkamp. 1993). John Barth. about the ongoing relevance or the demise of its central philosophical assumptions and social institutions. 1997). Concerns about the fate of print culture have persisted over the 19805 and i99os: see Neil Postman. jean-Francois Lyotard. in both these novels and the new discussions around the interrelation of globalization and culture. Reading Matters: Narrative in the New Media Ecology (Ithaca. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (New York: Viking. 2nd edn. Hans Bertens. 1990). ed. see also Christopher Butler.. 2nd edn. 1997). The Postniodern Reader (Albany: State University of New York Press. 1981) and Jacqueline Rose’s introduction to Feminine Sexuality: Jacques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne. 1993). The Program Era: Postwar Fiction and the Rise of Creative Writing (Cambridge. r6 i: Margaret A. 1984). Nicholas Zurbrugg. Bill Readings and Bennet Schaher. Print Is Flat.. Or. Mitchell andjacqueline Rose. about the spread of modernity and/or its exhaustion inform discussions about globalization. (New York: Stein and Day. Casterman. N. 2009). Frankfurt: 4.irgen Habernias. Andreas Huyssen. 1992): 1. 1995. iry . 2nd edit (Paris-.. the Americas. Juliet Judith Butler. I993 . ii. and other parts of the world. eds. 3. it was renamed Sons’ Tower. Words in Reflection: Modern Language Theory and Posttnodeni Fiction (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 001Sf Postrnodern novels concepts such as “transnationalisrn” and “globalization” since the mid-199os. 1988): Amy Elias. [980). Postmoderuism. 181). La condition postmoderne: Rapport sur le savoir (Paris: Minuit. Postmodernist Culture: An Introduction to Theories of the Gonternporarv. The Cambndge Companion to Post moderinsm Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Postniodernisni: A Reader (New York: Columbia University Press. Thomas Dochertv.” New York Times Book Review (June 21. Cohn MaeCabe (London: Macmillan. The Cantiirtdge Companion to Posttnodernism. Notes Robert Venturi. Joseph Tabbi and Michael Wutz.ogic of Late apitalisin (Durham.’ in The Collected Essays of Leslie Fiedler. See Steven Best and Douglas Kellner. 5. The Curious Death of the Novel: Essays in American Literature (Baton Rouge: L. Robert Coover. . ccl. NY: Syracuse University Press. 2 vols. and PostModern (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. see Michel Foucault. 1991). “The End of Books. Code is Deep: The Importance of Nedia-Specific Analysis..csav on the Contemporary AvantGarde (Oxford: Clarendon. 1973). The Idea of the Postmodern: A I—Iisrorv London: Routledge. Linda Hutcheon. The Death of Literature (New Haven: Yale University Press. ed. eds. MA: MIT Press. After the Wake: An F. Siiri’eiller et pninr: yaissance de Ia prison Paris: Gallimard. Bertens. 1991): Patricia Waugh. Jacqueline Rose (London: Macmillan. 2002): Connor. Denise Scott Brown. 1991). 2. The A nxiety of Obsolescence: The American Novel in the . After the Wake. 1975): jacques I. Parody: Ancient. The Cultural I.iarneson. 2006). N-IA: Harvard University Press. Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations (New York: Guilford. ed. Ji. ed. After AT&T sold the building to Sony in 2002.4ge of Television (Nashville. Postmodernism: A terv Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press.Susan Sontag. Fiction (London: Routledge. t979):. 1990).loseph Natohi and [. ‘Cross the Border. Sul’litne I)esire: History and Post-i960s Fiction Baltnnore: Johns I hopkins University Press. 9. Katherine I-Iavles.i8.

3 (Spring 1976): 563—578. vu.” chapter in this volume. ri8o. 425—538. 19. “Science Fiction and Postmodemism.” American Literary History 20. NC: Duke University Press. 167—169. forcing them to simulate monomediatic forms of reading. HEISE Postmodern novels Sony c-Reader and Amazon’s Kindle reinstate conventional print appearance çwith some modifications such as adjustable font size on a digital basis. temporality. Sequel to History: Postmodernism and the Crises of Representational Time (Princeton: Princeton University Press.” in Storming the Reality Studio: A Casebook of C’yberpunk and Postmodern Science Fiction. At the same time. 7. i49—81. which allows for easy’ download of even extremely long novels read aloud in their unabridged versions (from nineteenth-century novels. 1997). 5991). 1997): Ursula K. “A history of the future of narrative. chapter Burges also discusses the fact that. “Plagiarism as Imagination [An Unfinished Paper New Literary Histor 7. Heise. i8. so. fur example. Narrative.” chapter 71. On the connections between mainstream fiction and science fiction. and Ursula K. and SocialistFeminism in the Late Twentieth Century. the question of media in 15. cd. “Toxic Events: Postmodernism and Don DeLillos White Noise. 14.” PhD diss. For analyses of historicity. 2007. Elizabeth Ermarth. See also Elias’s elaboration of Hutcheon’s theory in Sublime Desire.” in Simians. 1970—1990. 308-323: Joseph Tabbi. Hutcheon. chapters 6. H. Raymond Federman. See also Ruth Ozeki’s Mv Year ofMeats ) i999): far less metafictional than Auster’s Book of Illusions. and postmodern fiction. Larry McCaffery (Durham. 20. 21. ii. hut has immensely increased through the rapid spread of MP3 mediaplayers such as the iPod. ‘T’echnology. McHale does not suggest that all experimental twentieth-century novels neatly fit one pattern or the other. and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge. starting in the 19505.1—2 (Spring/Summer 2008): 410—412. But DeLillo’s innovative uses of satire should be noted as a constraint on his realism: see the analyses by N.. zooS). this novel nevertheless revolves around the creation of a tele vision series in the USA that is to be broadcast in Japan. Postoiodern Sublime: Technology and American 14”rttingfrmn Mailer to Cvherpunk (Ithaca. Nan’atingPostmodern Time and Space (Albany: State University of New York Press. For a discussion of historiographic fiction in the context of the long history of historical fiction. see Winfried Fluck. 12.” m . NY: Cornell University Press. . and includes detailed descriptions of individual episodes. Indeed. David Seed (Maiden. the crew of an 189os airship.. there are signs that print fiction is exerting a reverse pull on digital technologies. MA: Blackwell. see Brian McHale.” Cambridge Quarterly 23 15994): 305. “Postmodcrn Fictions. 2005). and Postmodernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. are indeed simultaneously characters from a boys’ adventure series and “real” individuals in the novel. Joseph Francese. Chronoschfcms: Time. i6. hand-held electronic reading devices such as the . ed. and 8. “The nineteenth-century histoirical novel. Against the Day (2006) features characters that appear to be pastiche figures from popular fiction genres such as the Western or the spy thriller. 1991). 131—132. film manifests its own obsolescence anxieties vis-/i-vis television. and \Vendy Steiner. The popularity of audiobooks. which totals fifty-three hourri.. Robert Coover. Pynchon continues such experimentation in his more recent work. Stanford University. Reeve and Richard Kerridge. all the way to Pynchon’s Against the Day. in The Cambridge History of American literature. Postmodernism. “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science. 1995). Sense of Place and Sense of Planet: The Environmental Imagination of the Global (New York: Oxford University Press. See also the discussion in Amy Hungerford.4 Companion to Science Fiction. i995). without the game-style or virtual-reality environments Coover foregrounds. see Francese. 1999). Veromca Hoillinger. 57. Narrating Postmodern Time and Space. Sacvan Bercovitch )New York: Cambridge University Press. 984 985 . predates digitization. One group of characters. 13. vol. see Jameson. Cyborgs. Poetics of Postmodernism. flipping back and forth from one identity to the other. which can run to over thirty listening hours. ed. Haraway. Donna J. “POSTcyberMoDnRNpunklsM.URSULA K. Heise. “On the Period Formerly Known as Contemporary. For discussions and attempts to overcome these binary oppositions. but rather that this distinction points to a broad watershed in relation to which the critic can situate individual textual projects. 1 am indebted to the lucid analyses of Barth’s work’ Fitzpatrick’s Anxiety of Obsolescence (23—25) and Joel Burgess “The Uses of Obsolescence: Historical Change and the Politics of the Outmoded in American Postmoderniry.

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