SEEING THROUGH

- A Guide to Insight Meditation-
BHIKKHU K. N A ~ . D
'.
'The Gift of Dhamma
excels all other gifts'
Printed for free distribution
by
J.Alwis
T.P.G.N.Leelaratne
&
U.Sapukotana
PREFACE
Insight meditation paves the way to that penetrati ve wisdom which delivers
the mind from bondage to Sarilsiira. This bondage often baffles the thinker
because there is a 'catch' in the tools he has to take up to break it. Percepts
are subtly elusive and concepts are tacitly delusive. So the insight worker
has to fOFge his own tools to break this bondage, going the Buddha's Middle
Way.
The present sermon, based on a verse from the 'Section on the Wise' in the
Dhammapada, might drop some helpful hints for the insight meditator
climbing the steep path of meditative attention - alone, apart, untiring. The
original sermon in Sinhala was cassetted at the request of Venerable
Navagamuve Sugunasiira Thera during my stay at Meetirigala Nissarana
Vanaya. It touches ,upon the prog'ressive stages in Insight Meditation and the
last four of the 16 steps in Aniipiinasati meditation, while drawing upon the
implications of the Dhammapada verse.
This sermon has now been published in Sinhala under the tttle 'Vidasun
Upades' at the instance of Mr. U. Mapa, the Public Trustee, under the
auspices of the 'Bhikkhu Kasyapa' Trust' in memory of the late Venerable
Kassapa Thera of Vajiriiriima, Bambalapitiya.
Our thanks are due to Mr,&Mrs.S.D.E. Gaminitilake for giving technical
advice and to Ms. Sumie ' Horiuchi for her assistance in preparing the
manuscript for print.
- Bhikkhu K. NiiI)ananda
Pothgulgala AralJya
Pahan KaQuwa
Kandegedara
Devalegama
Sri Lanka
July 1999
- 1\ Nikaya
'.N. - Smilyulla l\ikaya
A. ' . - Allgullara Nik:iya
Abbrcvial ions
P.T .. - Pali Text S<leicty's Edition
B,· the arne author
I. Concept and Reality in Early Buddhist Thought. -( 1971)
2. Sarilyull.a I ikaya-Part II (An Anthology)-wh. 183/1 85
3. Ideal Solitude-wh.188
4. The Magic of the Mind-( 1972)
5. Towards Calm and Insight.
-Buddhist Publication Society.
P.O.Box61.
54.Sangharaja Mawathri
Kandy,
Sri Lanka
- Printed for free distribution by
1. Alwis
, .
, i
I ,'Namo tassa bhaga vato arahato samma.,ambuddha sa'
'Yesmil samho(lhi al1gcsu - citwm Jol \ Illlm
Adana r apni ssaggc - <Inup1idliya yo Tilla
Khll) asava julimanla - te loke parinrbflUili
Thi s IS the las t ve rse of the 'Section on Ihe \Visc' (f'andiI3\JFg , If I.
Dhalllmnpadl1. According to lhe Dhammapada commerUary. lhl "cr .• b
we ll as the two prcceding one&. were preached fly the Buddha at SaVill/h, to
ri ve hUJldred visi ting monks so thai they may allam If! Ihe r-ruits of the P-Il
(maggaphala) hy unders tanding the m. An cxaminatilln or the key-worrl (or
thi s verse, wou ld reveal some very Important facls for our "ubJcct or
medit ati on.
The meaning o r verse , simpl y staled. would Ix: omethmg like Ihi
'Yesaln , samhodhi <1li ges u - sa mmii cilium subhavilarn' - Whosc mind I
we ll develored in the Factors of Enl ightenment. anti morcmcr-
'Adana ra[ini ssagge - anupadaya ye raHi' - who dellghl 1ft laking up olnd
gi ving up without grasping.
The word-order would be: 'anupii diiya ada na aggc rata' - n
grasping they deli ght in taking up <l ntl giving up'. mcan,; 'n
grasping'.
Khil) asava jutimanlii - te lake parinibhula' - those r.hliunll'ankerl ', (or
influx-free) ones are extinguished or grown COlli in \\orld. here
'and now.
This is the general meaning of Ihe I"cr1'e. 0llig6U - ",lmm:!
CitUlJil subhiivitaril'. At Ihe vcry outse!. il IS 1lll'llti''Ill't.1 Ih.tI on'. mm I h,
reached i\ cerlain dc\dopcd in meditalivc altcnll"Il , '11"11 i In ",I). I i
mind has (kvelopctl in the Partor of Enltghtcnm 'nl. Thl' '': 'n F.l't, of
Enlighlenment are menliolled .Hllong till' 37 RC<Juul'" Fnii",htemn 'n\ .\
-1-
a certain developed stage in Satipallhiina meditation. Firstl y, the four
Foundation of Mindfulness (i .e., the four satipanhii na) and then the four
Right Endeavours (sammappadhiina), and then the four Paths to Success
(iddhipada). and then lhe five Faculties (pancaindriya) and the five Powers
(paiicabala).
When these are systematically developed, the Factors of Enli ghtenment are
also thereby developed in lhe meditator. Even in the classification of the
Requisites of Enlightenment, lhe Buddha follows a certain order. There is a
certain procedure in enumerating these Requisites of Enlightenment. It does
not mean that one has to develop the first category first and then after a time
the next category and so on. But still there is a certain order in the
development - an ascending order, one may say.
One's mind is well developed in the Factors of Enlightenment when one
reaches a stage at which those factors are lined up in a direct order. There is
a certain lining up in one's mind. These factors are 'sati' (mindfulness),
dhamma-vicaya (investigation of mind-objects), viriya (energy), piti (joy),
passaddhi (calm or tranquillity), samadhi (concentration), and upekkhii
(equanimity). These are the seven Factors of Enlightenment.
Out of these seven, the first is sati . mindfulness. In enumerating these
seven also, we see a certain order, a system. It is when mindfulness is
purified that one comes to see the mind-obje'cts clearly, which is called
'dhrurunavicaya' or investigation of mind·objects. That is to say, one sees to
a certain extent, the as they are. Then the mind is awake.
The mind awakens when one sees mind-objects clearly. Thereby one is able
to recognize the good and bad, the skilful and the unskilful so that one can
do what is necessary with those mental states. That is to say, the skilful ones
have to be developed and the unskilful ones have to be abandoned. The
knowledge of the means of doing this, is available through 'dhammavicaya'
or the investigation of mind-objects and that as we stated earli er, is made
available through mindfulness. With the understanding acquired through
'dhammavicaya' one puts forth energy-right endeavour _ to dcvelop the
skilful and to abandon the unskilful Slates. This, therefore, is the third
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Pactor of - the application of energy or 'viriya'. Thus. we
have sati , dhamma-vicaya and viri ya.
As one puts fOrlh energy, there arises joy. for, it is said:
uppajjati piti niramisii" . To one who started up effort or energy, there
ari ses a kind of spiritual j oy which has nothing 10 do willt Ute maaeriaJ. Thus
one attains a certain amount of joy out of the very facL that one puts forth
the right endeavour. The meditator, well knowing that this joy is nOI the end
of his endeavour, subdues it and attains to a calm or tranquillity which is
called 'passaddhi'.
Through that calm or tranquillity, which is both physical and mental. he
attains to a certain state of bliss which brings in its train, concenlraJioo.
Once concentration is attained, there is nOlhing more to struggle for, and so
the meditator makes use of equanimity to stabilize his gains. The purpose of
equanimity is to preserve the concentration one has auained. Also. lhis
equanimity, as the culmination of the devel opment of these Factors of
Enlightenment, i.e., as 'the last of the seven factors, is nearer wisdom. The
word 'sambojjhanga' means 'factor of enlightenmenl' (Sambodhi + mga)
and when the word 'sambodhi' is taken into consideration, it gives the idea
of understanding or knowledge. It does not mean Buddbahood alone, bui
even arahanthood. So the lining up of these Factors of Enlightenment is for
the purpose of understanding or knowledge. The factor that is nearest to
understanding is equanimity. It is when one has reached an equanimous
state of mind that one can see things as they are. And in order to see dUngs
as they are, one has to have concentration or one-pointedness. That also is
already mentioned, i.e ., 'samiidhi ' . It i s fo r the lIainment of this
concentration that the preceding factors beginning with mindful ness are
made use of.
When analysed thus, we see that there is a cert.ain system - an order - in the
enumeration of these Factors of Enlightenment. There is also another wny
of analysing them. That is to say, at the very tart, one finds it difficult to
develop these Factors of Enlightenment as in the co e of the fi \ '"C facuhi
namely, 'saddha' , 'viriya', 'sati' , 'samiidhi ' and ' pOM ii' - faith, energy.
I.Sila Sutta, Bojjhaitga Samyutta, S.N.V.6

However, as one proceeds in Insight Meditation, one comes to reflect th.at in, ' ....
this mode of attention, there is present a certain illusion - a wrong notion '
one has been cherishing throughout 'samsara'. That is, the concept of two
ends and a middle. When one notes a visual object as 'a form' and an
auditory object as 'a sound', there is a kind of liJetween the e);'e
and form, the ear and the sound. So thereby one is perpetuating the illusion, .
the wrong notion, of two ends. Wherever there are the tw,o ellds, there is
also the middle. In this way of menta,l noting leaves r.oom for a
. subject-object relationship. There is the meditatoF on one, side, whoev,er it
may he, and there is the ,object that comes to his mind; and he attends to)t
as an object, even though he ma¥ not go into its Now the me\fitator
has to break through this as well. Be lhas .to brl;ak this bondage.
Why?
:1
In the case of 'sanna' or perceptj,on, there are ,the si,x kinds of percepts - r.URa .
saffiia, sadda-sanna, gand\1asanna, rasa sanna, sanna, dhamry;tll:
sanna (i.e., the percepts oHorm, sound, smell, taste, Joufh and ielea).The,se
are the six objects of the senses. The Buddha ,has (\:@mparedthe i\gguegate .on
perception to a mirage. Now, if perception is a mirage, what .is· 'fUpa-saiijnii'
, or a visual percept? That also must be a mirage. What about ,'sadda sanna'?,
What about the auditory percept or what strikes the e¥? 'That too must be a
mirage. Thougn it is not something that one sees with the eye; it has the
nature of a mirage.
To take as real what is of a mirage-nature, is a delusion. h is something that
leads to a delusion. It is an illusion that to a delusio.n. I.n mdyT :to
understand deeply this mirage-nature in senso,ry perception, there is a need
for a more refined way of menta,\ attending. So thy rrieqitator, . 0.£
attending to these objects as 'form', 'fonn' or 'sqund", 'sound:, moves a .step
further and notes them as 'seeing' or 'hearing'. Now he' attends ,to these.
sense-percepts even more briefly, not allowjng the mind to go' far - .as
'seeing-seeing', 'feeling-feeling', thinking-thinking'.
In short, the attempt here, is to escape the net of 'sanna' or perc!:ption and to
limit oneself to the bare awareness. To stop short just at the awareness. This
is an attempt to escape the net of language, thenet;of logic and also to be
free from the duality of the two ends which involves a middle. Everywhere
one is c(;lnftonted, with a subject-object relationship. There is one who
grasps and something to be grasped. There is a seer and an object seen. But
this way of attending leaves room for delusion.
Now, if perception is a,mirage, in oIder to get'at this mirage nature, one has
to be content with attending simply as 'seeing, seeing'. One way or the other
it is just a' seei'ng' or justa hearing. Thereby he stops short at the bare
awareness'. He stops shoR at. the bare seeing, bare hearing, bare feeling and
bate thinking. He does not igrant it an object status. He does not cognize it
as an object e-xisting in the world. He does not give it a name. The purpose
of this method of menta,l noting or attending, is the eradication of the
, conceit 'AM', which meditator has to accomplish so as to attain release.
The conceit 'AM'
This existence or 'bhavlI' is ,aotually a w,ay of measuring. Existence involves
. meastlring. In ol\der. to mea&ure, one has to have two and this subject-
object relationship fl!1lfiIls this requirement. There is one who and an
objeet grasped. It is afteE driving these two pegs 'down-to-earth', so to say,
that one starts measuring w,hat is called 'existence' or 'bhava'. So, it is
between these two pegs that 'existence' exists.
In lorder to eradicate or up"qot these pegs, one has to do away with this
duality OE the e1ichotomy as well as the middle. As already mentioned,
wherever theFe are 'two ends, there is a middle. The attempt now is to
elimtnate all these. llhe meditator who is poised to accomplish this task, is
the one referred to in the first two lines of the verse in question.
'Yesam ailgesu
samma cittaril subhavitaril'
-'whose mind is well developed in the Factors of Enlightenment' The next
ItwO lines have a deeper significance.
'adanapatinissagge
anupadaya ye ratii'
-6- -7-
----------
'who take delight in t1l.king up and giving up, without grasping'
'adana' mea ns ' taking up' and means giving- up or
relinquishi ng. So 'adana' and 'papnissRgga' make a couple - 'taking up and
giving up. But then we have 'anupadaya' also - 'not grasping'.
'Ye anupadaya adana patinissagge rata' is the word-order. They, who
without grasping. delight in taking up and giving up.
Here we have something suggestive of what we said above about the two-
ends and the middle. The representatives of the two ends would be 'adana'
and 'pa!:inissagga' - 'taking up' and 'giving up' . Between these two we have a
holding on or a grasping. The word for holding on or grasping is 'upadana'
and 'upadaya' is its absolutive form. Of course we do not have here the word
'upiidaya'. Here we have 'anupadaya', the negative - not grasping' . Any way,
here are the two-ends and the middle - only, the middle is negated here. The
usual order, however, is adana-upadana - pa!:inissagga, taking up - holding
on and giving up. What comes in the middle is upadana.
This is the middle - the holding on or grasping. Now in this context, the
most important ternt;;se6ms to be 'anupadaya'. The most significant term is
'not-grasping'. It is "because of this not-grasping' that one takes delight only
in the taking up and the giving up - 'adiinapa!:inissagga'.
In the case of Insight Meditation, there is a possibility of delighting only in
taking up and giving up, when there is no grasping in the middle. Where
there is no 'upadiina' or grasping, there is only 'adana' and 'pa!inissagga'.
One may note the special significance of the prefix 'upa' in this partioular
context
Let us try to understand this with the help of an illustration. Suppose we go
to a well. We go to a well for a drink or for a wash or to bring some water.
What do we do there?
First, we draw water. Then keeping the bucket near us, we either drink from
it or a wash or may be we pour the water into some vessel to bring it
along WIth us. After all that, if there is still some water left, we throw it
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I
,
away. This is what we do with the water we draw from the well.
That is, when we want to make use of the water. So (he procedure here is:
'adana' - we draw water - 'upiidiina' - we keep the buckel of water beside us,
or hold on to it - a nd the n we throwaway whatever is left over -
This is what we n"ormaUy do when we are making use of tile
water we draw rrom a well.
Supposing we want to empty out the well. We wanl the well emptied. Whal
do we do then? We lower the bucket into the well, draw water and throw it
away. We draw water and throw it away. There is only a laking up and a
giving up. We do it very speedily. There is no holding on. We need not
meddle with the bucket so much. We are nol thinking of making any special
use of the water. Instead, we are now keen on seeing the well empty. Our
purpose is to see the well empty - to see Ihe emptiness or the well.
'Sinca bhikkhu imam navam
silla te lahumessaii'
'Empty thi s boat, 0 monk! Emptied. it will go lightly with you"
Thi s is an advice given by the Buddha in the section on the Monk "(Bhikkhu-
vagga) in the Dhammapada. In keepi ng with this advice. here too the
meditator has to do some emptying. It is this process of emptying that is
signified by the lines, 'adana pa(i nissagge-anupiidaya ye rata'.
Now, let us leave aside this illustration and take up another that is more
relevant to our meditati on subject and has far-reaching implications -
Anapanasati .
Anapanasati : 'ana' means breathing in; 'apana' means breathing OUI.
Breathing in and breathing out. This i what we do everyday. We breathe in
and out.
Between these two there is something rather imperceptible, som'thing th:lt
'is overl ooked. But that is the very thing which perpetuates samsarn. Why do
-9-
we breathe in'? We breathe in to maintain this existence. That is to maintain
craving and ignorance - to perpetuate this sml1sara. We breathe in to
preserve this body from destruction and death. There is grasping or
'upadana' as an imperceptible gasping for breath. In short there is both
'gasping' as well as grasping. Beneath it lies craving and ignorance. There is
supposed to be an T behind this breathing - a breather.
Breath is the most'elementary requirement of all beings who are breathers.
There is not simply a breathing in. There is a holding on to the breath or a
grasping. The effort, here, is to hold on to the breath and to make use.of it te
do other work. for instance, the case of a person who is going to lift a
weight. Why does he draw in a deep breath before lifting the weight? It is to
infuse new life into his body. Breathing in means infusing new life into the
body.
It is after holding on to the breath that one sets about doing the work one
has to do. Within this very grasping lies the ego - 'my ability', 'my strength',
'I can do" and all that sort of thing.
So, one takes in a breath and holds on to it, but he has to let go of it as well.
Thi:; letting go happens out of sheer necessity - per force. To let go of the
breath that way, we call 'breathing out'. We breathe-in with some special
purpose in mind - to preserve our life. If it is possible to hold on to the
breath for ever, for this purpose, so much the better, but we can't. Since we
cannot do it, we have to let go of the breath after a while, whether we like it
or not.
So then here too we seem to have a case of 'adana' and 'patinissaga' - a
taking up and a letting -go, at least on the face of it. There is a stage in
'iinapiinasati' at which this insight emerges. If we analyze the last four of the
i6 steps in anapiinasati taught by the Buddha, we can understand
to some extent the way of emergence of this insight. These last four have to
do with the contemplation of mind-objects - 'dhammanupassana'.
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They an::
Anic(.;anupassi assasissamiti sikkhati
Ani(.;canupassi passasisslimiti sikkhati
Viraganupassi assasi ssli miti sikkhati
Virligli nupassi passasi sslimiti sikkhati
Nirodhlinupassi assasisslimiti sikkhati
Nirodhanupassi passasisslimiti sikkhati
Patinissagglinupassi assasissamiti sikkhati
Patini ssagganupassi passasisslimiti sikkhati
Contemplating impermanence, I shall breathe in, so he trains
Contemplating impermanence, I shall breathe out, so he trains
Contemplating detachment, 1 shall breathe in, so he trains
Contemplating detachment, I shall breathe oul, so he trains
Contemplating cessation, I shall breathe in, so he trains
Contemplating cessation, I shall breathe out, so he trains
Contemplating relinquishment, I shall breathe in, so he trains
Contemplating relinquishment, I shall breathe out, so he trains.
It seems, then that this is a training. What is the purpose of this training?
The purpose is to get an insight into impermanence. Here too one can see
some order, a gradual procedure. One breathes in seeing impermanence and
one breathes out also seeing impermanence. Thus the meditator understands
the impennanence of the entire process. For him, this breathing is an obje 1
lesson in understanding or gaining an insight into impem!anence. This is a
training. This meditator is now taking in a breath- nol for the purpose of
keeping himself alive, not For the purpose of continuing in srunsira, but ju t
to learn a lesson from it, to develop his in ight through it. He i making u
of his meditation subject For the purpo e of understanding a law of nature -
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I,
impennanence. He sees impelmanence in in-breath as as il'l uhe Ol'lt-
breath.
What is this impelmanence? Summed up in two words, it is 'udaya' and
'vaya' _ arisina and passing away. This appears as the first bud fr,qlm wl)ich
b ,
arows the tree of insight into impermanence. To ll;le exten.t Olne s
:nderstanding of the process of arising and passing away deepens, to that
extent the law of impennanence becomes .c1ear to him. [J:t a wlte
has developed the Factors of and otheu requis[te
s
of
satipatthana meditation, by the time he reaches the last four stages in bhe
practice of Anapanasati, the insight into impeT/Ranence is ,aifleady tiheue to a
certain extent. He is well aware of the process of aFising and ,passing away.
As this contemplation Olf impermanence ince&sann
process of arising and ,passing av.(ay all cl\le mpre ,F<![jlipll¥?, the latter lI
s
[ile,ct,.
namely the aspect of passing away, becomes more prominent to him. Just as
in the case of one trying to , look a mark in a rapidlly wheel, the
meditator becomes more aw.a!ie of tme Fa,lIil'lg
becomes less prominent It is the process of' Jilassing away, the pmcess of
destruction, that is more striKing to him,now.
"
,1 , hili :t
This gives rise to detachment and dispassion. One takes in a breanh with
craving which is on the side of 'amsing' - 'samljdaxa'. In fureatfljng-in,Ollil,cr)§
dwelling on the arising aspect, breathillg-out ist,he.
are all 'preparations' - sankharas: Craving is the lUegenera,tor wmo is
responsible: fOF all these pqeparatiens. 'Rhese preP'lratio.ns "are nl!le
. lust, desire or craving. . J'" J
Now, when the .rapid process of des,truction and brell,k,io.gup becomes mGI\e,
prominent, dispassion sets in. Ol'le se((s thi,s as a troubl((. Qne is FepeIJerl bY'
it, not attracted. The result of this dispassion is the 0f ,cFaving,j
the regeneratpr -, 'talJha ponobhayika'. As craving tihins outi, Ehe fae( of
cessation, becomes all the more clear, becau&e is tl;lis very GraV,LI'Ig', tman mas'
been concealing it all the time. .1
Why do we say that craving is concealing tne fact ot cessation? Becal'ls,e,
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cFa;ving is on the side oli "arising," As soon, as a cessation occurs, craving as
nlk regenerator ,prompts ,a Fe-arising., As the phrase ,' lalJha pooc)bhavika
nandiragasahagatii tatratatrabhinandini" implies, craving as the regenerator
is always oul to make lior Fe-becoming. II' is accompanied by delight and
lust, and it delights now-here-now-there, Because of its very nature of
taking delight now here-now there, craving says, 'Don't worry about the
that is gone, catch hold of another breath. Take hold of another
ereatm'. it tempts arid pFompts,. when dispassion sefs in, this tendency to
and prompt , eec0mes less and less. It is reduced, with the result, that
cessabiol). aspect becomes mOFe prominent - and with it, the passing
a,way, ereaking-up, the destruction. lihat way, one comes to see the
c,e'ssati@,m of mind-obj'ects also and that is ',nirodhanup.assana - Ihe
contemplation of cessation.
So heFe too we see some order and sequence, From the contemplation of
imJilermanen€e to Uhe ·contem.p.lationof detac'hment and from the
Gontemplation oj:' detali:hment to the contemplation of cessation. Now when
0ne sees this process of Gessation more clearly, one understands how vain
' a'nd I!Iseless -all tlflese attempts, are. Even, the process 0f breathing now
appeaFs tolhim ' as a ,set of attempts. With a deep awareness of this
va,n,it!}', ·Ilie n@WJ,bIeathes ,in, simply to breathe out, to let go -
.. ]bis '[S the, contemJillation of relinquishment which is
the sixteel'ltlfl and,laststep in Anapanasati meditation.
1'iFhe -insighn develloped throl'lgh anapanasati, reaches its climax here. The
, pmen0men@n of b1lealmdng ,'mas n·ow. -become a'n object-lesson in
unclersMnding !me empt,iness and "not-s,e1f nature of existence .
'Patinissagganupassi assasissami' - 'Contemplating relinquishment I shall
,JeFealhe in, even wmile' bFeathing-in; one i,s contemplating the idea of giving
?Up .' .one , i's net ge,ing to gra:sp it and make use of i-t. Similarly,
passasissami', Needless ,to say then, while breathing
out to(i),' he is contemplating the idea of giving ,up,'so we can now revert to
@ur simi'le,(i)f the weN, OnlY',' in this contex,l, i't is not a case of drawing. water
tilll a illia,wing ,in of breath.
$utta, V. 421
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One draws ,in a breath just to let go of it. Here is simply a drawing in aAd a
letting go. One has no idea of holding on to the breath, to do something with
it. . One is simply aware of it as a certain natural . phenomenon. There is no
'I' who holds on to the breath. Breathing is 'Simply a natuml process
connected with this bodily frame.
By now, the meditator has passed througln the stages of insight connected
with the seeing of 'h>reaking-up; feau and peuil. , 'the oli
insight knowledges, the meditator is now well tG!, let go in ourleF to me
free. Breathing, as an illustration of the nalUFal law of auising and passing
away, has now contributed to a deepening of-inslght infio ,the uhree
characteristics, 'anicca' 'dukkha"and 'anattii' - impermanence, sufifering and
not-self.
Out of the two ends and .the middle we earlier s]iloke amout, the middle
signified by 'upadiiya' (grasping), has Sio we are left with
simply the two ends. is the midd'le that justifies the discriminati 6l n
between two ends. Now that the significance af th6 middle, is , 10st, the tw.o
ends also lose their jl!1stification. !Now the entire processClofl breathing 'is
understood as a Gircular ]'lrocess. Thenl is simpJ.y a pU0cess !of breathing in
and a breathing out. There is no 'one' that breathes. 'Phis, i,n}act, is tine
realization of the not-self nature. What . has happened is tnat a @isgust or a
disenchantment - 'nibbida' - has been aroused by the insight know ledges
relating to destruction, fear and peroH (bhanga, bhaya, adinava), with the
result craving has lost its sanction. When craving; the regenerator, goes rol!1t
of action, there is no 'upadana'. There is no grip to grasp\
So breathing is now understlooc;! simply as ia ,lbodidy JilrepatMian
(kayasankhiira), not as an activity impelled and by am T. This
way, one reaches a depth of insight that is helpful in' doing ,away with the
fiisavllS' or influxes· which are the net-result ()f one's sam sane ·habits. 'Iihe
1\VOrd 'iisava'connotes both fermentation and intoxication. 'Asavas" are,
therefore, habits and habitual tendencies which we' have stored up in the
'past and. now to and into our everyday life.
'beeply ingrained In all these samsaric habIts, IS a tendency to grasp and
hold on. 'one grasps. and holds 011 to sensuality, to views, to rites and rituals
and to the assertion of a self.
All these are modes of habitual grasping. It is the release from this habitual
gras]'ling that bril)gs abG!ut the extinction of the influxes. The three influxes
are, 'kamiisavii', 'bhaviisava' and 'avijjiisavii', i.e., the in'fluxes relating to
sensuality, ,existence and ignorallc.e. 'Khll).iisava' is the term for the arahant
wha .lnas extingl:1ished 'these influ'Xes. The arahants have reached that state
my ,giving. UJilI ami, that we sometimes come across the
phrase, 'anupad,aya, ciLtassa vimokkhG!' - 'the mind's release by not grasping'.
What it means is the freedom of, the mind ' from the tendency to grasp. So,
when upadana which is il) the middle is -d'one away with, the two ends also
lose But all this happens through understanding. That js,
the understanding of the two ends and the middle. In short., it boils down to
the understanding that the so-called object is merely a mirage. That is to
say, what one has so far taken as the object, what one has so far conceived
as an ooje<>t, is, in fact, simply a mirage.
AI,I tile de'lusion in tl?e world is traceable to the illusion that is in perception
- 'sanna'. It is because of 'sanna' or .perception that knots and grips occur, so
much so that one who is free from 'sanna' is free from knots and grips also.
That is why it is said in the Magandiya.Sutta of the Sutta Nipata.
'Sannavirattassa na santi gantha
Pannavimuttassa na santi moha'
'To one detached from perceliltion there are no knots to one released
through wisdom there' are -na delusions.'
So the purpose off this .training in insight is that release from perception.
. Until fuTl detachment with regard to perception sets in, knotting will go on.
A sort of disgust or disenchantment has to occur for detachment to sel in.
With the gradual refinement of the mode of mental noting, one IS able 10
eliminate these knots brought about by . perception. As mentioned above,
one has to stop short at the bare awareness of seeing, hearing, feeling and sl)
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__________________________________ L-______________ __
forth. one does not take seriously those two pegs between, which
perception occurs. One avoids thinking in terms of aniil object -
'There is that fonn there, and here am 1'; 'There is that sound there, and here
am 1'. that way of thinking, one understands experience. simply as
a process of seeing and hearing. But there is something far m0re subtle
which leads orie towards perception and that is, contaot or 'phassa'. The
arising of c0ntact is an extremely subtle phenomenon. What is generally
understood as is the striking togetJrter'oftwo things. So, the notion of
duality is already implicit there. But this of course is the way of
understanding the phenomenon of contact. That is why the Bl!liildha also
sometimes gives the of the together of pieces of
wood as a simile for the phenomenon of contact To contact 0r to strike
together there has to be two. The presence of two thin.gs is a.lread'y
presupposed.
There is, however, an important sutta in MajJh:ima N.ikaya wJrtieh g.ives us a
deeper insight into this phenomenon of contact. is tJrte MaiilJrtupil)Qiika
Sutta. There we read: .
'Cakkhuilca paticoa rTIpe CR ,oakkhuviililal)'aom, til)I;laom' sangati
phasso, phassa paccaya vedana ... .'
'Dependent on eye and '[onns, there arises eye-consciousness. The coming
together of the three is contact, dependent on contact is feeling ... .' and' so
forth. It is the first few words that convey something extremely deep.
'Cakkhuilca paticca rope ca uppajjati cakkhuviililal)am. Here we have the
two words'paticca' Mld ;uppajjaoi' whieh Ireminiil us of the ' term
'paticcasamuppada.' 'Paticca' means 01;' 'liJecause 0f'. What is
implied here is that consciousness is not something in itself or by
itself. It is not something abstract. It always arises depeniilenf on .
oi other, because of something or other. 'Paticca' c0n'veys rhe idea of
relationship or relativity.
For instance, eye-consciousness is a relationship between the eye, the
internal base, and fonns, the external base. Here, th·en,. we already have an
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i.nstance of 'pa\icca samuppada' - the law of Dependent Arising.
Consciousness has been compared to a conjuror's trick - to a ma¥ic-shoW.
One has to get an insight into the back-stage workings of thi), magic-show.
'There are the s ix dependently arisen conseiousnesscs with mind-
consciousness as the sixth. In the phrase quoted above, the emphasis should
be placed on the word 'paticca.' "Cakkhui'ica paticca rtipe ea uppajjati
c1lklQhuviili'ianam. Eye consciousness arises dependent on eye and farm and
not ,independently.
Apparently, mere again, we are faced with the question of two things, but
then let us ,ake a peep into the backstage workings oF-consciousness. What
is called 'consciousness' is a' fonn of discrimination. In fact. consciousness
itsel f is the very discrimination between an internal base and an external
base - eye and forms, ear and sounds and so on.
But nhe irony of the situation is thi s. The very discrimination implies the
ignoni ng of, uhe relations!o1ip. That is why the birth of consciouSness is in
itself; rhe' birth 'of ignorance. Given this 'ign0rance, there is ·the possibility of
eQunting the three - 'eye', forms and eye-consciousness. This, then, is
the triad - the three that are comi'ng together to bring about contact.
''1''il)l)aFiJ sangati phasso'. This is the' most basic reckoning - 'phassa paiii'iatti'
which implies the counting as a three. This -might wel l appear as !in
extremely subtle problem for the logician. It is because of eye and fonns
that eye-consciousness has arisen. But once eye-consciousness has arisen,
there is the tendency to. forget - to ignore - the relationship and to make a
reckoning in which the ohird. factor - the 'tertium-quid' - is that very
discrimination, \e ye-consci @usness'. -In other words, there is an implicit
ignorance of nhe that consciousness is dependently-arisen. Once this
reckoning of rhe three as eye, forms, and eye-consciousness is taken
seri'ously, the stage is set for 'contact' - 'til)l)aril sangati phasso': 'The
coming-together of the is oontact.'
In fact it is not simply a coming-together; it is a going-together as well. It i'
a concurrence. So long as the three go together in ignorance. there is
-lil-
cOlllac!. There i: a possihility of a situlllion called 'colltIlCt.' we wcrc
lalking aboul two things to define 'colltact.' But here we seem to have three
thing', But there is 11(\ cOlltradil'tinn. Whl\l is meant is that the ... ! is an
ignor,l1lce of the fact thai eye-consciousness which forms the third is arisen
dependcnt on the othcflwo.
When eyc hccomcs self consciou • it separates itself from forms. and these
are the two ends. Wilh thesc IWO end: as pegs, 11 measuring goes on which
we call percepts, concept· and knowlcdge. But in this so·called knowledge,
the duality is already implicit. There is a dichotomy between an 'internal'
and an 'c:uemal'-between a subjcct and an object. That is why there is a
need for a more refined way of mental-noting in order to get rid of this
delusion.
ow let us take the case of a mirage. When a deer sees a mirage al a
di'tance. it does not know. It is ignorant of the fact Ihal il is a mirage. Thirsty
as it is. it imagines the mIrage to be water. Its vision is biased and unclear. It
lacks the wisdom 10 understand the nature of the phenomenon which we call
'a mirage'. It perceives and conceives water in the mirage. In the language of
the deer, the mirage would be called 'water.'
Just as in the world people call each other 'man' or 'woman', so the deer
would call the mirage ·water.' If we are 10 take seriously the duality and say:
'the form is oul Ihere and I am here, the sound is out there and I am here,'
we will be in a similar position. So actually what we have here is just a bit
of bare experience. That 100 comes about by giving recognition to the two
ends - the internal base and the external base. By recognizing them, by
separating them, by discriminating between them, there-arises a certain
measuring. So the concept of two things striking together also follows as a
mailer of course. Given two things, there is a possibilit,y of a contact
between thcm. And this is 'contact' as the world understands it.
Givcn Ihis conlact, there arisc dependent on it, feeling, perception and all
the rest of it. It goes as far as Ihinking and logic.
Now, this is the delusion. This is the ignorance. What, then, is the insight
that helps one to unravel this MalC of affairs'! It is the understanding of the
-IH-
conditioned nature of con:.cioul>neSs - that dependent
on conditions Even that inljight emerges through II refined WIliY of
attcnding. That is. by accelerating the mental nOling III such a way as nOI IV
get caught in the net of perception or sanna. In other word 'I, to stop ,hor. lit
bare awareness. It is by such a tcchnique that one can get an insighl inlo the
back stage workings of consciousness. For instance. the inSight thallhe eye-
consciousness arises dependenl on eye and forms and thaI the: very
discrimination between the twO ends is eye-consciousness. which the
middle. This story of the two ends and the middle is beaulifully presenred in
the Piiriiyal:la Sulta found in Ihe Section of the Sixes III the Anguuara
Nikaya. What forms the nucleus of that SUn3 b the rollowlng verse quoted
from the ParayaQa Yagga of the Sutta Niplita:
'Yo ubhante viditvana - majjhe manta na lippali.
Tam br\imi mahapurisoti - so'dha sibbanimaccagli'
This verse preached by the Buddha in reply to a queslion put by Brobmm
Tissa Melleyya, is quoted here for comment. In a sort of a 'semmar- on lhe
significance of lhis verse, six monks put forward !heir individual opinion.;
thereby drawing out the deeper implications of the yerse in que tion. The
meaning of the verse, as it stands, would be something like this:
'Yo ubhante viditvana' - He who having understood both ends,
'Majjhe manta na lippati' - Does not get altacht.-d 10 the middle through \\isdom.
'Tam brumi mahapurisoli' - Him I call a great man
'So idha sibbanirh accaga' - It i he who has by po 'sed or escaped
seamstress in this world.
'Sibbani' or 'seamstress' is a lerm for craving. The fun'lion of n\\,ingo i.'
conceived here as a process of stilching or weaving. The i ,.
the accumulation of knots. It is craving that L re pon'ible for lhe 1..'11 Ity
nalllre of this existence. The two end and Ihe middl rdcm:d IQ in thi'
verse arc just the things necessary for making a knot, Th' signifi an' .-
the two ends and the middle has heen \ariou.l) interpreted in Ihi.· s-utlJ.
According 10 one interprelation Ihal cnme up at thi: :ymposium. th unc-
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end means the six internal bases and the second end means the six ext.ernal
bases and the middle is consciousness.
Bv consciousness is meant the six kinds or sense-consc ious ness. ,So
\0 this interpretation lOa, we rind thaL Gonsciousness betWmcs
middle as a result or reckoning the sense and ,its 0bjcot as. two fi) nds. It is as
if two. pegs have. been driven as eye and fOl1ll1 S for Lhat is
implicit in sense-perception.
The arising of this basic discriminati (') n is call ed the. ari sing of thc sensc-
bases - 'ayatanuppada'. And the insight into thi s basic di scriminati on is
called the seeing of the arising of sense-bases. In Sana Sutla, among the
Sixes of the Anguttara Nikaya, we find the foll owing signifi cant verse:
'TalJhakkhayadhimuttassa
Asammohanca cetaso
Disva ayatanuppadam
Samma cillam vimuccati'
, I
, ,
"
r 1 l
I' I fft
) , r
'In one who is intent upon the destruction of craving aDd the.non-de lusioA of
the mind, on seeing the arising of sense-bases, the is well released.'
One may well infer from this verse that it is by the not- seeing of bhe ari sing
of the bases that one Temains bound - that the mind remains bound to
samsara. As we mentioned above , so long as thllre. i,s ITO pr ope r
understanding of the two-ends. a middle creeps in. So long as one grasps
eye and forms as the two ends, eye-consciousness comes in. That is because
what is called eye-consciousness is the very discrimination of eye and 1'01111
as two things. Now, in the case of the mirage, the deer thinks: 'I alql hore, the
water is out there.' It is with this presumption that the deer rum; towards vhe
mirage. But from the very outset, this discrimination, this consciousness Qf
water, is wrong. Therefore the deer keeps on running after the mirage. It is a
vain pursuit. The more it approaches the more its object recedes. Ifhis is
nature of a mirage. But what impels the deer in its pursuit is iLS eye-
consciollsness, This consciousness acts like two pegs. So the deor thinks:
"here is my eye and there is that water. If onl y I can go there. I can see that
real wuter' and dflink il. "
Simil arl y, when we gras p eye and forms a5 the two ends. we have driven the
two pegs down to the earth, as it were. Wc have taken eye and fonns as real.
That very di scriminati on is eye-consciousness.
The bes t re velati on of thi s state of affairs comes when one has accelerated
one's speed or mental-noting to such an extent that when a thought comes to
one's mind, one summaril y di smi sses it as a mere thinking without bei ng
carried away by it. Thereby one does not all ow that thought to crystall ize
itself as an object. NGnmall y, an obj ect is something that one cli ngs to or
hangs on to. The mind which has been in the habi t of clinging throughout
saril sara, always seeks to hang on to something or the other, however frai l it
may be. That is because of the craving for existence. Just as a man fall ing
/,down a jDrec ipi ce would hang on even to the frail straw for fear of the fa ll ,
the ever-new regenerator, craving - 'taDha ponobhavika' - prompts one to
hang @n to 'thi s that or the otlqe-r. But the crux of the problem lies where the
mind meets its objeot.
Mind has the habit of hanging on to its obj ect. Even when the fi ve external
senses do not grasp their respective objects, mind would grasp the thought
as its obj ect. One tends to think: "Here am I, the thinker. and this is my
mi,ndrobj ecl." So 10ng as thi s bifurcation, thi s duality. is there. there will
also be a place for mind-cons ciousness. In the magic-show of
consciousness, mind-consciousness is the subtlest trick of all. Now in the
verse qU(Jted abo,ve, it is ·saidr that the mind is well released on seeing the
ari sing of bases. How does this come about? When the meditator attends 10
the objects of the six senses rapidly and in a more refined way. without
clinging to them, summarily dismissing them, in the course of hi _
meditative attention - alii of a sudden - he discovers the mind-object as soon
as it strikes the mind. The relativity involved in the process of sense-contact
is Lhereby understood and the delusion regarding the magic-show of •
consciousness is dispelled. Strange as it may appear, this very insight into
the dependenL arising of sense bases has dismantled those vcry sense-bascs-
____________________ ____________________ ____________________ _
as it were.
Of course, the process of cessation was going on all the tlime. But due to tme
regenerator, - craving - which had a partiality for the arising aspect, the fact
of cessation was not seen. As it is said in Dvayatanupassana Sutta of the
Sutta Nipata:
'Ye ca rTIpTIpaga satta
Ye ca arTIpaHhayino
Nirodhari1 appajananta
Agantaro punabli>havari1'
'Those beings who approach realms 0f form and tmose that are i'n f0mJless
realms, not understanding well the fact of cessation, come again and again
to existence.'
What is meant is that impelled by craving, beings are always keen on ever-
new arisings to the neglect of the fa:Gn Iilf eessati0n. As S00n as a nming
breaks up, craving "Don't worry about this thing that is lost. Take
hold of that thing out there." This renewing process goes on so rapidly in
the mind, that the process of mental-noting is something like a battle with
Mara. One has to speed up the process of mental-noting in such a way as to
eliminate the possibilities of attachment and clinging. ltd'aen, it wliluld li>e at
1\ totally unexpected moment that the teleasing insighn breaks forth. But once
that insight dawns, one understands fOF the fitst time nfue delusi6ln one fuas
been in, a1\ this time. Consciousness dependent on oonditions. There
is no 'I' in it. This way, one sees the law of Paticcasamuppada with the help
of the six sense-bases. This is the significance of .the wmrase: "Cakkml!lnca
pa!icca rope ca uppajjati quoted above.
Eye-consciousness arises dependent on eye and forms. And likewise, mind-
consciousness arises dependent on mind and mind-objects. So long as
fact is not seen, there is a tendency to imag!ne three things in nhis siluatiIDn -
'til)l)arn sangati phasso', 'the concurrence of the three is contact.' This
conourrence or the going-together is actually a goiHg-togetheF of the
delusion of the three. So this insight may be called the understanding of
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contacD or the understanding of consciousness or the understanding of
perception.
In short, it is the understanding of - the Dependent
AFising. 'Fh0ugh it is the illusion of the mirage that tcmpts the deer, what
prompts its vain pursuit is a delusion. It is when one understands this
delusion concerning the sense-bases that one attains to the influx-free
position of the Arahant - the extinction of influxes. The tendency to grasp
and Gling which leads to grips and kn0ts wears off. That is why it was said:
'Sannaviraltassa na santi gantha' -, 'to one detached from sense-perception
there are no knots.' This is the release f rom 'Sanna' or perception. It was also
said: 'pannavimuttassa na santi moha' - 'to one released through wisdom,
there are no delusions. It is in the light of wisdom that one discovers the
secret on consciousness.
'Vinnal)ariJ. )!larini'ieyyariJ, panna bhavetabba
q
- 'consciousness is to be
eomp>Fehended and wisd0m is to be developed.'
rt is by the development of wisdom that one comes to understand the true
state Iilf affairs with regard to consciousness. It is something like taking a
peep into the backstage workings of a magic-show. Wisdom is something
penetrative (,nibbedhika panna'). In fact, the culmination of all endeavours
is the development of wisdom. Wisdom is the crest-gem. 'Panna naranam
Fatanarn'- 'Wisdom is the jewel of mankind." It is only through wisdom that
one can understand the delusion involved in cl'Jnsciousness. In the last
analysis, tme murk of delusion, th.e darkness of ignorance, is dispelled only
li>y t!hJe r.adiaHee of wisd<ilm.
l11'1e Buddl'la has declared that there are four radiances in the world - the
radiance of the moon, the radiance of the sun, the radiance of fire and lastly
the radiance of wisdom - 'pannappabha'·. He proclaimed that out of these
fOUF, the last, the radiance of wisdom ,is the highest. It is the highest because
4. Mahavedalla Sutta, M.N. 1293(P.T.S) •
5. Ajarasa Sutta, S.N. I 36 (P.T.S)
6. Abha Sutta, A.N. II l39f (P.T.S)
-23-
the darkness of ignorance is dispelled only by it. The influx-free arahant's
mind is radiant with that radiance of wisdom. So it is' said" 'khil)asava
Jutimantii'. The fermenting inf'luxes which make for intoxication are
destroyed and with the insight into the nature of consciouspess bhrough
wisdom, his mind is radiant. N(!)w,' all thiS shows that to see
'Paticcasamuppada' is t(i) be free from it. In this Law 06 Dependent Arising,
there are two aspects _ 'm;ising (samuda¥a) and cessani0n (nirodha). Out of
dlese two aspects, if one has seen the arisilirg aspect, rhen and thepe, one has
already got an insight in'to the fact of oessati.on. 10ne undeFstands that
whatever of a nature to arise is also of a nature ,to cease. '¥mTh kinci
samudayadhammaIit, sabbantaIit nirodhadhammam.'
What prevents this insight is that grasping or 'upadana'. _Generally in the
world, very few are keen on emptying the well. The majority simply draw
water to make use of it. But there is no end to this making use of the water.
Only when one decides upon emptying the well, will one be clrawing water
just to throw it away without graswirog. This is nhle position 011 those wmG> are
keen on seeing the emptiness of the worl<il, ancl in is thlat are fully
appeased in the world. The word 'parinibbuta' ,in this c0ntext does iloLimean
that the arahants have passed away: 1lhey live in the world fu!l.y appeased,
having extinguished the fires of lust, hate and delusion.
The word 'upadana' has two senses - 'grasping' as well as 't'uel that catches
fire'. In fact, the totality of existence is a raging fire kept up by the fuel of
'upadana'. 'Bhavanirodho nibbanam'. The realization of the cessation of
existence is at the same time, the extinotion of Uhat raging iii.re which
an appeasement. Therefore the Arahants are those ohae .dwell fl!Jl ,ly appeased
in the world, having extinguished those fires.
'Yesam sambodhi angesu - samma cittam subhavitaIit'
Adanapatinissagge - anupadaya ye rata
Khil)iisava jutimanta - te lake parinibbuta'
_____ -?4- ______ ..:..... _____ .-.JI _________ -.A ....... ____ _

A Guide to Insight Meditation- BHIKKHU K. NA~.SEEING THROUGH . D .

Bhikkhu K. So the insight worker has to fOFge his own tools to break this bondage.Sapukotana '.P. Sumie ' Horiuchi for her assistance in preparing the manuscript for print. going the Buddha's Middle Way. Bambalapitiya. under the auspices of the 'Bhikkhu Kasyapa' Trust' in memory of the late Venerable Kassapa Thera of Vajiriiriima. while drawing upon the implications of the Dhammapada verse.PREFACE 'The Gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts' Printed for free distribution Insight meditation paves the way to that penetrati ve wisdom which delivers the mind from bondage to Sarilsiira. The original sermon in Sinhala was cassetted at the request of Venerable Navagamuve Sugunasiira Thera during my stay at Meetirigala Nissarana Vanaya. based on a verse from the 'Section on the Wise' in the Dhammapada. the Public Trustee.upon the prog'ressive stages in Insight Meditation and the last four of the 16 steps in Aniipiinasati meditation. It touches .alone.N.D.S . The present sermon. Percepts are subtly elusive and concepts are tacitly delusive. Our thanks are due to Mr. U.&Mrs.G. This sermon has now been published in Sinhala under the tttle 'Vidasun Upades' at the instance of Mr. untiring.Alwis T. might drop some helpful hints for the insight meditator climbing the steep path of meditative attention . Mapa. This bondage often baffles the thinker because there is a 'catch' in the tools he has to take up to break it.E.Leelaratne & U. NiiI)ananda Pothgulgala AralJya Pahan KaQuwa Kandegedara Devalegama Sri Lanka July 1999 . by J. apart. . Gaminitilake for giving technical advice and to Ms.

mm I h. Concept and Reality in Early Buddhist Thought. Thl' '': 'n F.~amma citwm Jol \ Illlm Adana r apnissaggc . I i of mind has (kvelopctl in the Partor of Enltghtcnm 'nl. Printed for free distribution by 1. Sri Lanka 5. Towards Calm and Insight. reached i\ COlli in Ihl~ \cr~ \\orld.il ~amhodhi 0llig6U . .N. I .Box61. il IS 1lll'llti''Ill't. 54.( 1971) (or or 'Yes aln .Pali Text S<leicty's Edition Thi s IS th e las t ve rse of the 'Section on Ihe \Visc' (f'andiI3\JFg .".Hllong till' 37 RC<Juul'" ~r Fnii".te lake parinibhula' . sa mhodhi <1li ges u . Sarilyull.Smilyulla l\ikaya A.<Inup1idliya yo Tilla Khll) asava julima nla .~a' mcan. 183/1 85 3.ambuddha sa' 'Yesmil sa mho(lhi al1gcsu . . 1ft laking up olnd 4..• we ll as th e two prccedin g one&.te loke parinrbflUili . .188 . were preached fly the Buddha at SaVill/h. Alwis The word-ord e r would be: 'anupiidiiy a a d a na pa !i ni ~ aggc rata' . The Magic of the Mind-( 1972) -Buddhist Publication Society. would Ix: omethmg like Ihi B.lmm:! CitUlJil subhiivitaril'. Enlighlenment are menliolled .a I ikaya-Part II (An Anthology)-wh. s impl y sta led . P.Whosc mind we ll de velored in the Fac tors of Enl ig htenment. 'Yc~a.· the arne author I. 'n grasping'. i 'Adana ra[ini ssagge . to ri ve hUJldred visi tin g monks so thai they may allam If! Ihe r-ruits of the P-Il (maggaphala) hy unders tand in g the m. An cxaminatilln or the key-worrl thi s verse .hliunll'ankerl '.Sangharaja Mawathri Kandy.1 Ih. Khil) asava jutimanlii . At Ihe vcry outse!. a nti morcmcr- I 2. '11"11 i In ".T.1\ !:~i. This is the general meaning of Ihe I"cr1'e.'Namo tassa bhaga vato arahato samma. ' . . Ideal Solitude-wh.i111lna Nikaya '.N . .Abbrcvial ions ~I. The meanin g o r thi ~ ve rse .Allgullara Nik:iya P.those r.\ -1- . here ~ cerlain dc\dopcd ~Iagc in meditalivc altcnll"Il. According to lhe Dhammapada commerUary..I). If I.tI on'. 'a n upadli. (or influx-free) ones are extinguished or grown 'and now. . wou ld revea l so me ve ry Important facls for our "ubJcct med it ati o n. lhl "cr.htemn 'n\ .l't. b Dha lllm npadl1.n grasping they de li ght in taking up <lntl g iving up'. .O.anupadaya ye raHi' .who dellghl gi vin g up without grasping.sa mm ii c ilium subhavilarn' .

Thus. it gives the idea of understanding or knowledge. it is said: 'iraddhavjriy~ uppajjati piti niramisii" . 'saddha'. That is to say. When analysed thus. 'samiidhi ' and 'pO ii' . As one puts fOrlh energy .e . 'sati'. mindfulness. there is nOlhing more to struggle for. To one who h~ started up effort or energy. With the understanding acquired through 'dhammavicaya' one puts forth energy-right endeavour _ to dcvelop the skilful and to abandon the unskilful Slates . piti (joy). i. we see a certain order. is the third Pactor of E nli ghtenm ~nt . The purpose of equanimity is to preserve the concentration one has auained. It does not mean Buddbahood alone.fa ith. concenlraJioo. passaddhi (calm or tranquillity). Firstl y. the minci~o'bjects as they are. These are the seven Factors of Enlightenment. That also is already mentioned. 'samiidhi '. one has to have concentration or one-pointedness. S. and then the four Paths to Success (iddhipada).V. subdues it and attains to a calm or tranquillity which is called 'passaddhi'. dhamma-vicaya (investigation of mind-objects). is nearer wisdom. as the culmination of the de velopment of these Factors of Enlightenment. samadhi (concentration). is made available through mindfulness. the skilful and the unskilful so that one can do what is necessary with those mental states. It does not mean that one has to develop the first category first and then after a time the next category and so on . M I.a certain developed stage in Satipallhiina meditation.N. bui even arahanthood. one finds it difficult to develop these Factors of Enlightenment as in the co e of the fi \'"C facuhi namely.an order . the four satipanhiina) and then the four Right Endeavours (sammappadhiina). therefore . the four Foundation of Mindfulness (i . Bojjhaitga Samyutta. Thereby one is able to recognize the good and bad. Through that calm or tranquillity.. The mind awakens when one sees mind-objects clearly. and then lhe five Faculties (pancaindriya) and the five Powers (paiicabala). This. is available through 'dhammavicaya' or the investigation of mind-objects and that as we stated earlier.e. the first is sati . a system. i. So the lining up of these Factors of Enlightenment is for the purpose of understanding or knowledge. In enumerating these seven also. we see that there is a cert. as 'the last of the seven factors.6 -2 - . at the very tart. That is to say. That is to say. These factors are 'sati' (mindfulness). well knowing that this joy is nOI the end of his endeavour. And in order to see dUngs as they are. one sees to a certain extent. for. There is a certain lining up in one's mind. the skilful ones have to be developed and the unskilful ones have to be abandoned . When these are systematically developed. It is when one has reached an equanimous state of mind that one can see things as they are. Even in the classification of the Requisites of Enlightenment. he attains to a certain state of bliss which brings in its train. One's mind is well developed in the Factors of Enlightenment when one reaches a stage at which those factors are lined up in a direct order. It is when mindfulness is purified that one comes to see the mind-obje'cts clearly.an ascending order.in the a enumeration of these Factors of Enlightenment. e nergy. But still there is a certain order in the development . Once concentration is attained. dh amma-vicaya and viri ya. and so the meditator makes use of equanimity to stabilize his gains. there arises joy. one may say.. lhis equanimity .. there arises a kind of spiritual joy which has noth ing 10 do willt Ute maaeriaJ. in system .Sila Sutta. and upekkhii (equanimity). the Factors of Enlightenment are also thereby developed in lhe meditator.e. viriya (energy). The meditator. There is also another wny of analysing them.the application of energy or 'viriya'. lhe Buddha follows a certain order. 'viriya'. The knowledge of the means of doing this. The word 'sambojjhanga' means 'factor of enlightenmenl' (Sambodhi + mga) and when the word 'sambodhi' is taken into consideration. Then the mind is awake. which is both physical and mental. Also. we have sati . The factor that is nearest to understanding is equanimity. It i s fo r the lIainment of this concentration that the preceding factors beginning with mindfulness are made use of. Thus one attains a certain amount of joy out of the very facL that one puts forth the right endeavour. Out of these seven. There is a certain procedure in enumerating these Requisites of Enlightenment. which is called 'dhrurunavicaya' or investigation of mind·objects.

Now. pho. side. in oIder to get'at this mirage nature. 'feeling-feeling'. Wherever there are the tw. There is the meditatoF on one. not allowjng the mind to go' far . Everywhere one is c(. bare hearing.r. In sh~rt.URa . one comes to reflect th.mirage. wherever theFe are 'two ends.er it may he.step further and notes them as 'seeing' or 'hearing'. and he attends to)t as an object. Now the me\fitator has to break through this ba~rier as well.at in.£ attending to these objects as 'form'. the concept of two ends and a middle.\ attending.is· 'fUpa-saiijnii' . It is an illusion that lead~ to a delusio. Why? :1 is an attempt to escape the net of language. is the eradication of the . To stop short just at the awareness.l noting or attending. Now. This existence or 'bhavlI' is . taste. and there is the .n. there are . sound. conceit 'AM'. So. thenet.ry perception. the attempt here. is to escape the net of 'sanna' or perc!:ption and to limit oneself to the bare awareness..'sadda sanna'?. with a subject-object relationship. sense-percepts even more briefly. Thougn it is not something that one sees with the eye.to brl. He does not give it a name. Be lhas .tll: sanna (i. The Buddha . gand\1asanna. Existence involves . In lorder to eradicate or up"qot these pegs. is a delusion. There is one who grasps and something to be grasped. He stops shoR at.has (\:@mparedthe i\gguegate . 'hearing~hearing'. The attempt now is to elimtnate all these. .The. There is a seer and an object seen. the percepts oHorm. is the one referred to in the first two lines of the verse in question. It is afteE driving these two pegs 'down-to-earth'. One way or the other it is just a' seei'ng' or justa hearing. the bare seeing. t 'adanapatinissagge anupadaya ye ratii' In the case of 'sanna' or perceptj. the ear and the sound.on. if perception is a.e. What about .aotually a w. That is. meastlring. there is present a certain illusion .se are the six objects of the senses. moves a . to mea&ure. of two ends. subject-object relationship. To take as real what is of a mirage-nature. even though he ma¥ not go into its de~a!ls. if perception is a mirage. In short. bare feeling and bate thinking. h is something that leads to a delusion. This -6- -7- . llhe meditator who is poised to accomplish this task. or a visual percept? That also must be a mirage.~fhabb~ sanna. The purpose of this method of menta. Joufh and ielea).the si.x kinds of percepts . The conceit 'AM' is · 'asmi~mana'. ' .h at is called 'existence' or 'bhava'. there is a need for a more refined way of menta. So thy rrieqitator. seeing'. smell. mdyT :to n understand deeply this mirage-nature in senso. one has to have two pe~s and this subjectobject relationship fl!1lfiIls this requirement.object that comes to his mind. ~nstead 0. In ol\der. There is one who grasp~ and an objeet grasped.lnftonted. He does not igrant it an object status. there is also the middle. I. But this way of attending leaves room for delusion..a wrong notion ' one has been cherishing throughout 'samsara'. Now he' attends .to these. As already mentioned. . He does not cognize it as an object e-xisting in the world. 'fonn' or 'sqund". there is a middle.ak this bondage. this way of menta. rasa sanna. dhamry. the wrong notion.l noting leaves r. 'sound:. What about the auditory percept or what strikes the e¥? 'That too must be a mirage. one has to do away with this duality OE the e1ichotomy as well as the middle. it has the nature of a mirage. When one notes a visual object as 'a form' and an auditory object as 'a sound'. saffiia. whoev.o ellds.However. So thereby one is perpetuating the illusion. which ~he meditator has to accomplish so as to attain release. there is a kind of bifurca~ion liJetween the e). what . Thereby he stops short at the bare awareness'. 'Yesam sam~odhi ailgesu samma cittaril subhavitaril' -'whose mind is well developed in the Factors of Enlightenment' The next IwO lines have a deeper significance. it is between these two pegs that 'existence' exists. thinking-thinking'. as one proceeds in Insight Meditation. .of logic and also to be free from the duality of the two ends which involves a middle. so to say.oom for a .ay of measuring. this mode of attention. that one starts measuring w. one has to be content with attending simply as 'seeing.'e and form.as 'seeing-seeing'.on perception to a mirage. sadda-sanna.

We breathe in and out. we draw water. delight in taking up and giving up. T his is what we do with the water we draw from the well. This is the middle .holding on and giving up. let us leave as ide this illustration and take up another that is more rele vant to our meditati o n subject and has far-reaching implications Anapanasati .'adiinapa!:inissagga'. But then we have 'anupadaya' also . Here we have something suggestive of what we said above about the twoends and the middle. There is only a laking up and a giv ing up. It is this process of emptying that is signified by the lines. Any way. however.king up and giving up. without grasping' 'ada na' mea ns 'taking up' a nd 'pa~ini s sa g g a ' me an s g ivin g. An apa nasa ti : 'a na' mea ns brea thin g in . Instead.'upiidiina' .not grasping'. who without grasping. We wanl the well emptied. There is no holding on. Why do -8- -9- . 'Ye anupadaya adana patinissagge rata' is the word-order.we draw water . They. draw water and throw it away. som'thing th:lt 'is overl ooked. We need not meddle with the bucket so much. The representatives of the two ends would be 'adana' and 'pa!:inissagga' . the middle is negated here. We go to a well for a drink or for a wash or to bring some water. In the case of Insight Meditation. Our purpose is to see the well empty . the negative . Supposing we wa nt to empty out the well. T his is what we n" rmaUy do when we are making use of tile o water we draw rrom a well.'not grasping'.only. if there is still some water left. 'Sinca bhikkhu imam navam silla te lahumessaii' I . This i what we do everyday. we throw it away. Between these two we have a holding on or a grasping. 0 monk ! Emptied.to see Ihe emptiness or the well.pa!:inissagga. Between these two there is something rather imperceptible.up o r relinquishi ng. It is "because of this not-grasping' that one takes delight only in the taking up and the giving up . We are nol thinking of making any special use of the water.a nd the n we throwaway whatever is left over 'pa~ill issagga'. taking up .'who take delight in t1l. we are now keen on seeing the well empty. is adana-upadana . The word for holding on or grasping is 'upadana' and 'upadaya' is its absolutive form. Where there is no 'upadiina' or grasping. What comes in the middle is upadana. there is only 'adana' and 'pa!inissagga'. So 'adana' and 'papnissRgga' make a couple . The most significant term is 'not-grasping'. Here we have 'anupadaya'. we either drink from it or hav~ a wash or may be we pour the water into some vessel to bring it along WIth us. it will go lightly with you" This is an adv ice given by the Buddha in the section on the Monk " (Bhikkhuvagga) in the Dhamm apada. Then keeping the bucket near us. 'adana pa(i nissagge-anupiidaya ye rata'. or hold on to it . We do it very speedily.'taking up and giving up.the holding on or grasping.'taking up' and 'giving up'. Breathin g in and breathing out. What do we do there? First. the most important ternt. Now in this context.we keep the buckel of water beside us. After all that.. Now. So (he procedure here is: 'adana' . One may note the special significance of the prefix 'upa' in this partioular context Let us try to understand this with the help of an illustration. when we want to make use of the water. here too the meditator has to do some emptying. We draw water and throw it away. Suppose we go to a well. here are the two-ends and the middle . T hat is. Of course we do not have here the word 'upiidaya'. The usual order. 'apana' means breathing OUI. 'Empty this boat.se6ms to be 'anupadaya'. there is a possibility of delighting only in taking up and giving up. Whal do we do then? We lower the bucket into the well. But that is the very thing which perpetuates samsarn. In keepi ng with this advice. when there is no grasping in the middle.

I shall breathe in. but we can't. -10- -11- . so he trains Contemplating impermanence. To let go of the breath that way.of it te do other work. One breathes in seeing impermanence and one breathes out also seeing impermanence. There is supposed to be an T behind this breathing . There is grasping or 'upadana' as an imperceptible gasping for breath. Breathing in means infusing new life into the body. for instance. is to hold on to the breath and to make use. I shall breathe out. the case of a person who is going to lift a weight. here. whether we like it or not. So. I shall breathe in.nol for the purpose of keeping himself alive. If it is possible to hold on to the breath for ever. It is after holding on to the breath that one sets about doing the work one has to do. We breathe in to preserve this body from destruction and death. to develop his in ight through it. Why does he draw in a deep breath before lifting the weight? It is to infuse new life into his body. so he trains Contemplating relinquishment. but he has to let go of it as well. It seems. These last four have to do with the contemplation of mind-objects . There is not simply a breathing in. so much the better.ca nupassi passasisslimiti sikkhati Viraganupassi assasi ssli miti sikkhati Virliglinupassi passasisslimiti sikkhati Nirodhlinupassi assasisslimiti sikkhati Nirodhanupassi passasisslimiti sikkhati Patinissagglinupassi assasissamiti sikkhati Patinissagganupassi passasisslimiti sikkhati Contemplating impermanence. not For the purpose of continuing in srunsira. Beneath it lies craving and ignorance. This meditator is now taking in a breath. a gradual procedure. Within this very grasping lies the ego .a breather.. we call 'breathing out'. but ju t to learn a lesson from it. so he trains Contemplating cessation.'my ability'. He i making u of his meditation subject For the purpo e of understanding a law of nature - i6 steps in anapiinasati medi~tion taught by the Buddha.to preserve our life. T~e.we breathe in'? We breathe in to maintain this existence. I shall breathe out. then that this is a training. What is the purpose of this training? The purpose is to get an insight into impermanence. For him.. so he trains. If we analyze the last four of the They an:: Anic(. I shall breathe out. letting go happens out of sheer necessity . at least on the face of it. We breathe-in with some special purpose in mind . for this purpose. we can understand to some extent the way of emergence of this insight. we have to let go of the breath after a while. so he trains Contemplating detachment. so he trains Contemplating cessation. The effort. so he trains Contemplating detachment. this breathing is an obje 1 lesson in understanding or gaining an insight into impem!anence. 1 shall breathe in. I shall breathe in. There is a stage in 'iinapiinasati' at which this insight emerges.'dhammanupassana'. Since we cannot do it. That is to maintain craving and ignorance . 'I can do" and all that sort of thing. Thus the meditator understands the impennanence of the entire process. This is a training.to perpetuate this sml1sara. I shall breathe oul. Thi:. So then here too we seem to have a case of 'adana' and 'patinissaga' .anupassi assasissamiti sikkh ati Ani(. so he trains Contemplating relinquishment. Here too one can see some order. Breath is the most'elementary requirement of all beings who are breathers. 'my strength'. In short there is both 'gasping' as well as grasping. There is a holding on to the breath or a grasping. one takes in a breath and holds on to it.a taking up and a letting -go.per force.

" As soon. ing .'samljdaxa'. The result of this dispassion is the weal<en~ng 0f . V. :t I.F<![jlipll¥?..truction and brell.ate~ wlte has developed the Factors of Enliglrt'tenm~nt and otheu requis[te s of satipatthana meditation.assana . craving as nlk regenerator .. One takes in a breanh with craving which is on the side of 'amsing' . contemJillation of relinquishment which is the sixteel'ltlfl and. that ~me · cessabiol). As craving tihins outi. Just as in the case of one trying to .le ex ten.J'" J Now.a Fe-arising. eec0mes less and less.(ay all cl\le mpre . .tl. ]bis '[S the. becomes more prominent to him. 'Don't worry about the brea~h that is gone. the insight into impeT/Ranence is . as a cessation occurs. desire or craving. 'Rhese preP'lratio. hili " cF a. What is this impelmanence? Summed up in two words. the passing a. to that extent the law of impennanence becomes .lis very GraV. . 1'iFhe -insighn develloped throl'lgh anapanasati.j the regeneratpr -.laststep in Anapanasati meditation. it tempts arid pFompts. Now when 0ne sees this process of Gessation more clearly.o~ .. tman mas' been concealing it all the time. this tendency to .gup becomes mGI\e. Qne is FepeIJerl bY' it. dispassion sets in.sankharas : Craving is the lU egenera.passing av. Ol'le se((s thi.i ng to gra:sp it and make use of i-t.ct.one . water tilll a illia.way.c1ear to him. the latter lI s[ile. it is 'udaya' and 'vaya' _ arisina and passing away. ~_ .temp~ and prompt.qlm wl)ich b . w ~.Dhammacakkappavattana $utta. simply to breathe out.Ihe contemplation of cessation.e . ·Ilie n@ WJ.Ollil. with the result. ~..- impennanence. are.s contemplating the idea of giving ?Up . even wmile 'bFeathing-in. reaches its climax here. So heFe too we see some order and sequence.ving is on the side oli "arising.------------~~~. to let go 'Jila~inissagganupassl'. catch hold of another breath .' in this contex. lihat way.lIil'lg aspeli:~.in of breath. ~he ereaking-up. As this contemplation Olf impermanence deep~os. He is well aware of the process of aFising and .k.he. J~ut when dispassion sefs in.~. i's net ge.'mas n·ow.. It is reduced. while breathing out to(i). With a deep awareness of this va. prominent.t or wmo is responsible: fOF all these pqeparatiens. and it delights now-here-now-there. OnlY'. one comes to see the c. As the phrase . The .cFaving.prompts .l. when the . 'talJha ponobhayika'.in. -become a'n object-lesson in unclersMnding !me empt.rhes~ are all 'preparations' .io.bIeathes . lust.ns "are nl!le res.esJ the ince&san n process of arising and ..now. craving as the regenerator is always oul to make lior Fe-becoming. arows the tree of insight into impermanence. Even.look ~t a mark in a rapidlly ~urning wheel. 421 -14- -13- . This gives rise to detachment and dispassion. namely the aspect of passing away.lationof detac'hment and from the he Gontemplation oj:' detali:hment to the contemplation of cessation. )J>a~inissaggam!lpassii l passasissami'. ness and "not-s.s as a troubl((. the meditator becomes more aw.. Tlte!i~is:iR~ .JeFealhe in.m of mind-obj'ects also and that is '.nirodhanup.LI'Ig'.. not attracted. by the time he reaches the last four stages in b he practice of Anapanasati.to say then.p. becau&e i~ is tl.. the pmcess of destruction. To ll.n. In fureatfljng-in.aifleady tiheue to a certain extent.(i)f the weN.1 Why do we say that craving is concealing tne fact ot cessation? Becal'ls.and with it.lt . that is more striKing to him.up. i't is not a case of drawing. i 'Patinissagganupassi assasissami' . l~. Similarly. pmen0men@n of b1lealmdng .'lalJha pooc)bhavika nandiragasahagatii tatratatrabhinandini" implies. Because of its very nature of taking delight now here-now there.§pec~ becomes less prominent It is the process of' Jilassing away.'Contemplating relinquishment I shall . Take hold of another ereatm'.a!ie of tme Fa.passing away.cr)§ dwelling on the arising aspect.set of ¥a~n' attempts.e'ssati@.it!}'.e 1f nature of existence . he~e. aspect becomes mOFe prominent . a~ . Ehe fae( of cessation . From the contemplation of imJilermanen€e to U ·contem. II' is accompanied by delight and lust.'so we can now revert to @ur simi'le. one understands how vain ' a'nd I!Iseless -all tlflese attempts.' . craving says. This appears as the first bud fr.as[j>ect.t Olne s :nderstanding of the process of arising and passing away deepens. one i.rapid process of des.becomes all the more clear. . the destruction. [J:t a medit. Needless .1 . the process 0f breathing now appeaFs to lhim 'as a . cessani0n .' he is contemplating the idea of giving . He sees impelmanence in ~he in-breath as ~ell as il'l u Ol'lthe breath. breathillg-out ist.

has disap]ileaFe~ . What it means is the freedom of.One draws . 'Iihe 1\VOrd 'iisava'connotes both fermentation and intoxication. 'anicca' 'dukkha"and 'anattii' . Until fuTl detachment with regard to perception sets in. One has no idea of holding on to the breath. AI. adinava). sufifering and not-self. the tw. As mentioned above. The arahants have reached that state my . . is tine realization of the not-self nature. one has to stop short at the bare awareness of seeing. the two ends also d' lose their . one reaches a depth of insight that is helpful in' doing . J. the mind 'from the tendency to grasp. There is no 'one' that breathes. 'Khll). to rites and rituals All these are modes of habitual grasping. It is because of 'sanna' or .'the mind's release by not grasping'. fear and peroH (bhanga. is . is. feeling and sl) -14__________________________________L-________________ -15- . there is no 'upadana'. UJilI gra~ping ami. the understanding of the two ends and the middle.ciLtassa vimokkhG!' .impermanence. So. Breathing is 'Simply a natuml process connected with this bodily frame. the in'fluxes relating to sensuality.'nibbida' . 'beeply ingrained In all these samsaric habIts. That js.perception that knots and grips occur.the uhree characteristics.has been aroused by the insight know ledges relating to destruction. With the gradual refinement of the mode of mental noting. so much so that one who is free from 'sanna' is free from knots and grips also. 'one grasps. whi~h s~k now to influ~n~e and i~filt. This way. the meditator has passed througln the stages of insight connected with the seeing of 'h>reaking-up. hearing. to do something with it.. has now contributed to a deepening of-inslght in fio . the middle signified by 'upadiiya' (grasping).f~cance. Breathing. A sort of disgust or disenchantment has to occur for detachment to sel in.rate into our everyday life.~ is the midd'le that justifies the discriminati 6l n between two ends.. 'Asavas" are.has happened is tnat a @isgust or a disenchantment . the meditator is now well poise~ tG!.lbodidy JilrepatMian (kayasankhiira).y a pU0cess !of breathing in and a breathing out. one IS able 10 eliminate these knots brought about by .e. by am T . feau and peuil. One is simply aware of it as a certain natural . simply a mirage. the regenerator. By now. That is why it is said in the Magandiya. 'kamiisavii'. with the result craving has lost its sanction. 'Phis. therefore. i. 'anupad. habits and habitual tendencies which we' have stored up in the 'past and. bhaya. let go in ourleF to me free.perception. 011 to sensuality. IS a tendency to grasp and hold on.existence and ignorallc.lnas extingl:1ished 'these influ'Xes.! simply as ia .iisava' is the term for the arahant wha . When craving. to views.o ends also lose their jl!1stification.training in insight is that release from perception. But all this happens through understanding.e. not as an activity impelled and proJilel1e~. when upadana which is il) the middle is . what one has so far conceived as an ooje<>t. it boils down to the understanding that the so-called object is merely a mirage. 'Sannavirattassa na santi gantha Pannavimuttassa na santi moha' 'To one detached from perceliltion there are no knots a~d to one released through wisdom there' are -na delusions.in a breath just to let go of it.away with the fiisavllS' or influxes· which are the net-result ()f one's sam sane ·habits. Sio we are left with simply the two ends. Now that the significance af th6 middle. It is the release from this habitual gras]'ling that bril)gs abG!ut the extinction of the influxes. In short. !Now the entire process Clofl breathing 'is understood as a Gircular ]'lrocess.one away with. The three influxes are..s igni.Sutta of the Sutta Nipata. What . Here is simply a drawing in aAd a letting go. in fact. what one has so far taken as the object. There is no 'I' who holds on to the breath .' So the purpose off this . i.aya. knotting will go on. 'bhaviisava' and 'avijjiisavii'.I tile de'lusion in tl?e world is traceable to the illusion that is in perception . Out of the two ends and . that 'is ~ wohy we sometimes come across the phrase.'sanna'. as an illustration of the nalUFal law of auising and passing away.10st. That is to say. . Thenl is simpJ.g iving. There is no grip to grasp\ So breathing is now understlooc. and holds and to the assertion of a self. phenomenon.n }act.the middle we earlier s]iloke amout. Wi ~l? 'the ma~l!1rity oli ~hese insight knowledges. . goes rol!1t of action.

Here. One has to get an insight into the back-stage workings of thi).'phassa paiii'iatti' which implies the counting as a three. Once this reckoning of rhe three as eye.' "Cakkhui'ica paticca rtipe ea uppajjati c1lklQhuviili'ianam. and here am 1'. which perception occurs. This is the' most basic reckoning . is the triad .uppajjaoi' whieh Ireminiil us of the ' term 'paticcasamuppada. the internal base. and here am 1'. This -might wel l appear as !in extremely subtle problem for the logician. one understands experience.'eye'.'til)l)aril sangati phasso': 'The coming-together of the thr~e is oontact. however. Ther~by one does not take seriously those two pegs between.is that very discrimination. What is implied here is that consciousness is not something exis~il1g in itself or by itself. That is why the birth of consciouSness is in itself. there is -lil- oi other. uhe relations!o1ip. It is because of eye and fonns that eye-consciousness has arisen. But once eye-consciousness has arisen.to ignore . there arises eye-consciousness. Consciousness has been compared to a conjuror's trick . we are faced with the question of two things. 'There are the s ix dependently arisen conseiousnesscs with mindconsciousness as the sixth.nstance of 'pa\icca sam uppada' . There is. . phassa paccaya vedana .' and ' so forth. because of something or other. One avoids thinking in terms of subjee~ aniil object 'There is that fonn there. we already have an -16- . til)I. ear and sounds and so on. In fact. forget . 'Paticca' c0n'veys rhe idea of relationship or relativity. Apparently. What is generally understood as contac~ is the striking togetJrter'oftwo things. but then let us . The arising of c0ntact is an extremely subtle phenomenon. The very discrimination implies the igno ni ng of. What is called 'consciousness' is a' fonn of discrimination. It is not something abstract. mere again.the 'tertium-quid' . There we read: . It i' a concurrence. the emphasis should be placed on the word 'paticca. he But n irony of the situation is thi s. -In other words.laom' sangati phasso.. forms and eye-consciousness. 'Cakkhuilca paticca rope ca uppajjati cakkhuviililal)am.gs is a. Given this 'ign0rance. factor . . This. Avo~ding that way of thinking. and fonns. i. there is an implicit ignorance of nhe fac~ that consciousness is dependently-arisen. dependent on contact is feeling .eye and forms.independently. the external base.. It always arises depeniilenf on somethin~ .forth. Here we have the two words'paticca' Mld .. 'There is that sound there. In the phrase quoted above. the notion of duality is already implicit there.the three that are comi'ng together to bring about contact. So long as the three go together in ignorance. there is ·the possibility of eQunting the three fac~oFs .ives us a deeper insight into this phenomenon of contact. magic-show. th·en.ikaya wJrtieh g. contaot or 'phassa'. rhe' birth 'of ignorance. the stage is set for 'contact' . ''1''il)l)aFiJ sangati phasso'. It is the first few words that convey something extremely deep. simply as a process of seeing and hearing. The presence of two thin.' In fact it is not simply a coming-together. it is a going-together as well. forms. But this of course is the wo~ldly way of understanding the phenomenon of contact. then.ake a peep into the backstage workings oF-consciousness. consciousness itsel f is the very discrimination between an internal base and an external base . and eye-consciousness is taken seri'ously. [~ is tJrte MaiilJrtupil)Qiika Sutta. \e ye-co nsci @ usness'. an important sutta in MajJh:ima N.oakkhuviililal)'aom.the law of Dependent Arising. eye-consciousness is a relationship between the eye. But there is something far m0re subtle which leads orie towards perception and that is. 'Cakkhuilca paticoa rTIpe CR uppajjla~i .. So. there is the tendency to..the relationship and to make a reckoning in which the ohird.lread'y presupposed. For instance.to a ma¥ic-shoW.' 'Dependent on eye and '[onns.' 'Paticca' means 'dependen~'0n' 01. That is why the Bl!liildha also sometimes gives the illustFa~ion of the st~iking together of ~wo pieces of wood as a simile for the phenomenon of contact To contact 0r to strike together there has to be two. Eye consciousness arises dependent on eye and farm and not .' 'liJecause 0f'. The coming together of the three is contact.

· s-utlJ. perception and all the rest of it.' Eal'li~r. by separating them. So actually what we have here is just a bit of bare experience. and these are the two ends. 11 measuring goes on which we call percepts. we wcrc lalking aboul two things to define 'colltact. lit bare awareness. That is why there is a need for a more refined way of mental-noting in order to get rid of this delusion.'11 Ity nalllre of this existence. It lacks the wisdom 10 understand the nature the phenomenon which we call 'a mirage'.Him I call a great man 'So idha sibbanirh accaga' . So the concept of two things striking together also follows as a mailer of course. The ~nd'rlying i .' Just as in the world people call each other 'man' or 'woman'. the accumulation of knots. this is the delusion.~. But there is 11(\ cOlltradil'tinn.on lhe significance of lhis verse. In a sort of a 'semmar. Given two things. Now. th unc- -IH- -19- .- the two ends and the middle has heen \ariou. as it stands.cioul>neSs . conditioned nature of con:. When a deer sees a mirage al a di'tance. In other word'I. Givcn Ihis conlact. by discriminating between them. six monks put forward !heir individual opinion. atl~S dependent on conditions Even that inljight emerges through II refined WIliY of attcnding. But in this so·called knowledge.l) interpreted in Ihi. would be something like this: 'Yo ubhante viditvana' . there arisc dependent on it.majjhe manta na lippali.' conceived here as a process of stilching or weaving. by accelerating the mental nOling III such a way as nOI IV get caught in the net of perception or sanna. which i~ the middle. And this is 'contact' as the world understands it.the internal base and the external base.He who having understood both ends. one interprelation Ihal cnme up at thi: :ymposium. Whl\l is meant is that the . For instance. the sound is out there and I am here. is the insight that helps one to unravel this MalC of affairs'! It is the understanding of the Tam br\imi mahapurisoti . concept· and knowlcdge. Its vision is biased and unclear. There i: a possihility of a situlllion called 'colltIlCt.' But here we seem to have three thing'.. It perceives and conceives water in the mirage. The two end and Ihe middl rdcm:d IQ in thi' verse arc just the things necessary for making a knot. the mirage would be called 'water.hor. the duality is already implicit. 'Majjhe manta na lippati' . 'Sibbani' or 'seamstress' is a lerm for craving. to stop .l1lce of the fact thai eye-consciousness which forms the third is arisen dependcnt on the othcflwo.! is an ignor. Wilh thesc IWO end: as pegs. It is craving that L re pon'ible for lhe 1. there-arises a certain measuring. What. It is by such a tcchnique that one can get an insighl inlo the back stage workings of consciousness. so the deer would call the mirage ·water.' we will be in a similar position. This story of the two ends and the middle is beaulifully presenred in the Piiriiyal:la Sulta found in Ihe Section of the Sixes III the Anguuara Nikaya. 'Tam brumi mahapurisoli' .It i he who has by po 'sed or escaped th~ seamstress in this world.. Thirsty as it is. It is ignorant of the fact Ihal il is a mirage. it imagines the mIrage to be water.that con~JOune. thereby drawing out the deeper implications of the yerse in que tion. When eyc hccomcs self consciou • it separates itself from forms. It goes as far as Ihinking and logic. There is a dichotomy between an 'internal' and an 'c:uemal'-between a subjcct and an object.ingo i. then.-d 10 the middle through \\isdom. What forms the nucleus of that SUn3 b the rollowlng verse quoted from the ParayaQa Yagga of the Sutta Niplita: 'Yo ubhante viditvana . the inSight thallhe eyeconsciousness arises dependenl on eye and forms and thaI the: very discrimination between the twO ends is eye-consciousness. In the language of the deer. That 100 comes about by giving recognition to the two ends .' If we are 10 take seriously the duality and say: 'the form is oul Ihere and I am here. By recognizing them. This is the ignorance.Does not get altacht. That is. feeling.so'dha sibbanimaccagli' This verse preached by the Buddha in reply to a queslion put by Brobmm Tissa Melleyya.. there is a possibilit. The meaning of the verse. ow let us take the case of a mirage.cOlllac!. is quoted here for comment.y of a contact between thcm. The fun'lion of n\\.. Th' signifi an' According 10 of . it does not know..

" Simil arl y.ndrobj ecl.pro mpts one to . the water is out there. in the case of the mirage. That very di scriminati on is eye-co nsc iousness. I can see that rea l wute r'a nd dflink il. But from the very outset. the deer thinks: 'I alql hore. the min~ is well re leased. Bv conscious ness is meant the six kind s or se nse-cons c io us ness.s ITO think: "Here am I. is wrong. this consciousness Q f water. ____________________ ____________________ ~~~ _____________________ . But what impels the deer in its pursuit is iLS ey econsciollsness. In th ~ Sana Sutla.So "here is my eye and there is th at water. As we mentioned above . Now in the verse qU(Jted abo. a middle creeps in. Wc have take n eye and fonns as real. when we gras p eye and forms a5 the two e nds. It is as if two. . been driven as ey e and fOl1ll1 S for th e .'ayatanuppada'. Thereby one does not a ll ow that tho ught to crystall ize itself as an object. Ifhis is ~he nature of a mirage. T he min d which has bee n in the habi t of cling ing throughout saril sara. always seeks to hang on to some thin g or the other. e .he discovers the mind-object as soon as it strikes the mind. If onl y I can go there. mind would grasp the thought as its obj ect. l11ea ~urin g Lhat is implicit in sense-perception. towards vhe mirage. we rind thaL Gonsciousness betWmcs tl~e middle as a result or reckoning the sense and .' It is with this presumption that the deer rum." So 10ng as thi s bifurcation . And the insight into thi s basic di scrimin ati o n is called the seeing of the arising of sense-bases. So long as one grasps eye and forms as the two ends. This consciousness acts like two pegs. two fi) nds. Strange as it may appear. without clinging to them . thi s duality.~ . the thinker.. That is because what is called eye-consciousness is the very discrimination of eye and 1'01111 as two things. is there. r hang @ to 'thi s that or the otlqe-r. we have driven the two pegs dow n to th e earth . That is because o f the crav in g fo r ex istence. th e e ver-new regene rator. ) I~ . this discrimination. Therefore the deer keeps on running after the mirage.its 0bjcot as. So the deor thinks: -20.down a jDrec ipi ce wo uld han g on even to the fra il straw for fear of the fa ll. among the Sixes of the Anguttara Nikaya. 'In one who is intent upon the destruction of craving aDd the. I " r 1 ~l I' I fft may be.non-de lu sioA of the mind . cravin g . How does this come about? When the meditator attends 10 the objects of the six sen ses rapidly and in a more refined way. there will also be a place for mind-con s ciousness. an object is something that one cli ngs to or hangs o n to. in the course of hi _ meditative attention . it is ·saidr that the mind is well released on seeing the v ari sing of bases.end means the six internal bases and the second end means the s ix ex t. so long as thllre. The arisin g of this basic discriminati (') n is called the.' Mind has the habit of hanging on to its object.ern a l bases and the middle is consciousness. ari sing of thc se nscbases . Now. i. T he bes t re velati on o f thi s state of affairs co mes when o ne has accelerated one's speed o r mental-n otin g to such an ex tent th at when a tho ught comes to one's mind. we find the fo ll ow in g s ignifi cant verse : 'TalJhakkhayadhimuttassa Asammohanca cetaso Disva ayatanuppadam Samma cillam vimuccati' . The relativity involved in the process of sense-contact is Lhereby understood and the delusion regarding the magic-show of • consciousness is dispelled. pegs have. eye-consciousness comes in. mind-consciousness is the subtlest trick of all. Even when the fi ve external senses do not grasp their respective objects. as it we re. and this is my mi. It is a vain pursuit. Ju st as a man fa ll ing /. One tends to One may well infer from this verse that it is by the not.seeing of bhe ari sin g of the bases that one Temains bound .'taDha po nobhavika' . In the magic-show o f consciousness. The more it approaches the more its object recedes. summarily dismissing them. however frai l it a~cording \0 this interpretation lOa. this very insight into the dependenL arising of sense bases has dismantled those vcry sense-bascs~ pr o pe r understanding of the two-ends.alii of a sudden . NGnmall y.that the mind remains bound to samsara. But the crux of the problem lies where the n mind meets its objeot. o ne su mm aril y di smi sses it as a mere thin king without bei ng carried away by it. on seeing the arising of sense-bases.

Ajarasa Sutta. Consciousness a~ises dependent on oonditions. And likewise. It is something like taking a peep into the backstage workings of a magic-show. But due to tme regenerator. 'the concurrence of the three is contact. M.T.' This conourrence or the going-together is actually a goiHg-togetheF of the delusion of the three. l11'1e Buddl'la has declared that there are four radiances in the world .' What is meant is that impelled by craving. But once contacD or the understanding of consciousness or the understanding of perception. There is no 'I' in it.the Dependent AFising. the fact of cessation was not seen." This renewing process goes on so rapidly in the mind. th. Mahavedalla Sutta.S) -23- .S) 6. . one sees the law of Paticcasamuppada with the help of the six sense-bases. It is when one understands this delusion concerning the sense-bases that one attains to the influx-free position of the Arahant . So this insight may be called the understanding of -22- radiance of the moon.is the highest.adiaHee of wisd<ilm. In the last analysis . panna bhavetabba q eomp>Fehended and wisd0m is to be developed. 'to one detached from sense-perception there are no knots.the extinction of influxes. It is the highest because 4. Wisdom is something penetrative (. there are no delusions. Abha Sutta.'to one released through wisdom." It is only through wisdom that one can understand the delusion involved in cl'Jnsciousness.'Wisdom is the jewel of mankind. the radiance of fire and lastly the radiance of wisdom . As S00n as a nming breaks up. one understands fOF the fitst time nfue delusi6ln one fuas been in. I 36 (P. the last. beings are always keen on evernew arisings to the neglect of the fa:Gn Iilf eessati0n.as it were. the radiance of wisdom . This is the significance of . not understanding well the fact of cessation.the Eye-consciousness arises dependent on eye and forms. In fact. As it is said in Dvayatanupassana Sutta of the Sutta Nipata: 'Ye ca rTIpTIpaga satta Ye ca arTIpaHhayino Nirodhari1 appajananta Agantaro punabli>havari1' 'Those beings who approach realms 0f form and tmose that are i'n f0mJless realms. It was also said: 'pannavimuttassa na santi moha' . there is a tendency to imag!ne three things in nhis siluatiIDn 'til)l)arn sangati phasso'. S. That is why it was said: 'Sannaviraltassa na santi gantha' -. come again and again to existence. So long as ~his fact is not seen. Of course. it wliluld li>e at 1\ totally unexpected moment that the teleasing insighn breaks forth. He proclaimed that out of these fOUF. it is the understanding of Pa~icoasamuppada . In short. that the process of mental-noting is something like a battle with Mara.S) • 5.' This is the release f rom 'Sanna' or perception. One has to speed up the process of mental-noting in such a way as to eliminate the possibilities of attachment and clinging. 1293(P. 'Panna naranam Fatanarn'. Wisdom is the crest-gem. what prompts its vain pursuit is a delusion. a1\ this time.' 'consciousness is to be - rt is by the development of wisdom that one comes to understand the true state Iilf affairs with regard to consciousness. A.e darkness of ignorance.nibbedhika panna'). the process of cessation was going on all the tlime. is dispelled only that insight dawns. 'Fh0ugh it is the illusion of the mirage that tcmpts the deer. It is in the light of wisdom that one discovers the secret on consciousness.N. li>y t!hJe r.craving . This way. 'Vinnal)ariJ. II l39f (P. mindconsciousness arises dependent on mind and mind-objects.N. craving pr~mpts: "Don't worry about this thing that is lost.which had a partiality for the arising aspect. the radiance of the sun. ltd'aen. Take hold of that thing out there. )!larini'ieyyariJ. The tendency to grasp and Gling which leads to grips and kn0ts wears off. tme murk of delusion .T.'pannappabha'·.T.the wmrase: "Cakkml!lnca pa!icca rope ca uppajjati cakkhuvinn~aJn' quoted above. the culmination of all endeavours is the development of wisdom.N.

Therefore the Arahants are those ohae .:.? 4 . '¥mTh kinci samudayadhammaIit. The word 'parinibbuta' ..y appeased.dwell fl!Jl. The realization of the cessation of existence is at the same time. the totality of existence is a raging fire kept up by the fuel of 'upadana'._ _ _ _ _.anupadaya ye rata Khil)iisava jutimanta .samma cittam subhavitaIit' Adanapatinissagge ._ _ _ __ . there are two aspects _'m. Out of dlese two aspects.on. sabbantaIit nirodhadhammam.in this c0ntext does iloLimean that the arahants have passed away: 1lhey live in the world fu!l.A..te lake parinibbuta' _ _ _ _ _ . The fermenting inf'luxes which make for intoxication are destroyed and with the insight into the nature of consciouspess bhrough wisdom. very few are keen on emptying the well. 'Yesam sambodhi angesu .-. 'Bhavanirodho nibbanam'.. ancl in is ~hey thlat are fully appeased in the world.JI_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-. will one be clrawing water just to throw it away without graswirog.re which b~ings an appeasement. having extinguished those fires. if one has seen the arisilirg aspect. 10ne undeFstands that whatever i~ of a nature to arise is also of a nature . The majority simply draw water to make use of it. In this Law 06 Dependent Arising. Only when one decides upon emptying the well. In fact. But there is no end to this making use of the water. his mind is radiant. one has already got an insight in'to the fact of oessati.to cease.' all thiS shows that to see 'Paticcasamuppada' is t(i) be free from it.. rhen and thepe. N(!)w .'grasping' as well as 't'uel that catches fire'.. So it is' said" 'khil)asava Jutimantii'. hate and delusion. The influx-free arahant's mind is radiant with that radiance of wisdom. _ world. having extinguished the fires of lust. The word 'upadana' has two senses .ising (samuda¥a) and cessani0n (nirodha)..... the extinotion of Uhat raging iii._ _ __ _ _.' Generally in the What prevents this insight is that grasping or 'upadana'..ly appeased in the world..the darkness of ignorance is dispelled only by it. This is nhle position 011 those wmG> are keen on seeing the emptiness of the worl<il.