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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, we express our sincere thanks to Allah that he gave us the ability to do this project. This project is a requirement for the fulfillment of the degree of BBA (B&F). We tried to do it to the best of our ability but we hereby acknowledge that this project could not have been brought into completion without the help and support of our teacher Sir Fida Hussain Bukhari. We are very thankful to him for his precious time which he gave us to finalize the project work. We cant find words to thank and appreciate his care. Finally thanks to our loving parents, who provided us every suitable support both morally and financially and

always prayed for us. Without their prayers and Allahs blessings, project. it was impossible for us to complete this

ABSTRACT
This project, Influence of Organizational Culture on Job Satisfaction is basically a causal research. In our research we tried between job to find out the types in cause of and effect

relationship cultures and

different

organizational We tried to

satisfaction

Pakistan.

identify those types of organizational cultures which lead to high job the satisfaction different and of vice versa. This project

covers

types

organizational

cultures,

different theories to measure job satisfaction, instrument used to identify the culture of an organization culture and and job

relationship satisfaction.

between

organizational

This project covers following chapters,

1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Survey Method 4. Data Analysis and Results 5. Conclusion and Recommendations 6. References/Bibliography 7. Appendix

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Table of Contents

1.

Introduction 1.1 Introduction to the Topic 1.2 Background 1.2.1 Organizational Culture 1.2.2 Job Satisfaction 1.3 Definitions 1.3.1 Organizational Culture 1.3.2 Job Satisfaction 1.4 Background of Problem 1.5 Problem Statement 1.5.1 Hypothesis

1 1 3 3 6 8 8 11 12 16 16 17 17 18 23 23 24 25 26 32 33 33 36 40

2.

Literature Review 2.1 Organizational Culture 2.1.1 Levels of Culture 2.2 Diagnosing Organizational Culture 2.2.1 Behavioral Approach 2.2.2 Deep Assumptions Approach 2.2.3 The Competing Values Approach 2.3 Measuring Culture through Competing Values 2.3.1 Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) 2.4 Types of Culture 2.4.1 Control (Hierarchy) 2.4.2 Compete (Market) 2.4.3 Collaborate (Clan)

2.4.4 Create (Adhocracy) 2.5 Company Culture and Sub-Cultures 2.6 Job Satisfaction 2.6.1 What Is Job Satisfaction? 2.7 Measuring Job Satisfaction 2.7.1 Two-factor Theory 2.7.3 The Value Theory 2.7.4 The Met Expectations Theory 2.7.4 The Equity Theory 2.7.5 The Opponent Process Model of Job Satisfaction 2.8 Determinants of Job Satisfaction 2.8.1 Individual Determinants 2.8.2 Reward System 2.8.3 Culture 2.8.4 Work itself 2.8.5 Supervisory behavior 2.8.6 Working Condition

42 46 47 48 51 51 53 54 55 56 57 58 60 61 63 64 64

2.9 Relationship between Organizational Culture and Job satisfaction 67 3. Survey Method 3.1 Research Type 3.2 Target Population 3.3 Sample Size 3.4 Sampling Method 3.5 Instrument for the Study 3.6 Variables 3.6.1 Independent Variable 72 72 72 72 72 73 74 74

3.6.2 Dimensions of Independent Variable 3.6.2.1 Dominant Attributes 3.6.2.2 Leadership Style 3.6.2.3 Type of Bonding 3.6.2.4 Strategic Emphasis 3.6.3 Dependent Variable 3.6.4 Dimensions of Dependent Variable 3.6.4.1 Satisfaction with Work 3.6.4.2 Satisfaction with Co Workers 3.6.4.3 Satisfaction with Supervisor 3.6.4.4 Satisfaction with Pay & Benefits 3.6.4.5 Satisfaction with Promotional Opportunities 3.7 Limitations and Assumptions in Research

75 76 76 77 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 86 87 88 88 89 91 94 94 100 100 102

4. Results 4.1 Demographic Characteristics 4.2 Culture Types and Job Satisfaction 4.3 Organic Culture vs. Mechanistic Culture 5. Conclusion and Recommendations 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Recommendations 6. References 7. Appendix 7.1 Questionnaire 7.2 Tables and Calculation 7.2.1 Clan Culture 7.2.2 Adhocracy Culture

7.2.3 Hierarchy Culture 7.2.4 Market Culture

103 104

CHAPTER 1
8. Introduction 1.1 Introduction to the Topic For a long time, managers are becoming more and more aware of the concept of organizational culture and are

examining it. Several studies have been conducted in this regard explaining different types of cultures and the ways that an organizational culture can affect an organization itself and its impact on other employee-related variables such as satisfaction, commitment, cohesion and performance etc. One such study in that continuum Organizational

Culture and job satisfaction was conducted by Daulatram B Lund Professor of marketing, University of Nevada, USA, in 2003. In that study he used Cameron and freemans (1991) model of organizational culture which identifies four types of organizational cultures. Professor B. Lund spotted out the effect of each culture type on satisfaction of

employees. This empirical investigation examines the impact of organizational survey of culture types on job in satisfaction a in a of

marketing

professionals

cross-section

firms in the USA. Cameron and Freeman's (1991) model of organizational hierarchy, framework and for cultures market analysis. levels the comprising was The utilized results across of as clan, the adhocracy, conceptual that job

indicate corporate

satisfaction typology.

varied study an

cultural job the

Within

conceptual of

framework, cultures of on

satisfaction vertical axis

invoked that

alignment a

represents

continuum

organic

processes (with an emphasis on flexibility and spontaneity) to mechanistic and clan processes order). and Job (which emphasize was and control, positively negatively

stability, related to

satisfaction cultures,

adhocracy

related to market and hierarchy cultures. We are using the the same study as a benchmark in context and of

replicating

same

research

project

Pakistan (specifically Lahore). We used same Cameron and Freemans model of organizational culture. The four types of cultures identified by that model are Clan culture,

Hierarchy culture, Adhocracy culture and Market culture. Every culture has its own unique attributes and

characteristics which are explained later in this project. And how the level of contentment of employees varies in each type of culture is also the part of this study.

Figure I.I Overview of the Relationship

Clan Culture

Adhocracy Culture
Job Satisfaction Hierarchy Culture

Market Culture

Overview of the Relationship

1.2 Background 1.2.1 Organizational Culture The Concept in of the early organizational 1980s on when culture gained business and and

recognition periodicals Organization

the

prominent

featured (Lewis,

articles 1996:

Corporate 1992.

Culture Peters

Sheridan,

Waterman (1985) article, in the search of the Excellence was the one of driving force behind the proliferation of this concept. Organizational Culture is extremely broad and

inclusive in scope. It comprises a complex, interrelated, comprehensive and ambiguous set of factors (Quinn & Cameron 1999). According to Schein 1999, culture is the property of a group that is formed when the group develops enough common experience. phenomenon Determining He stated it that is an culture is very set important of forces,

because both

unconscious and

individual

collective

behaviors,

Values, thought patterns, and way of perceiving. At the organizational level, Schein (1999) stated that organizational culture is very critical because cultural elements determine strategy, goals, and modes of operating. He postulated that for organizations to become more

efficient and effective, the role that culture plays in organizational life must be fully understood because

decisions made without awareness of the operative cultural forces may have anticipated and undesirable consequences. Hatch and Schultz (1997) promulgated that

organizational culture develops at all hierarchical levels, is founded on a broad-based They history, and involves all

organizational

members.

perceived

organizational

culture as a symbolic context within which interpretation

of

organizational

identity

is

formed

and

intentions

to

influence organizational image are formulated. The culture, they stated, should be considered in explanation of the development and maintenance of organizational identity. Actually Organizational Culture one of the few areas, in fact, in which organizational scholars led practicing managers in identifying a crucial factor affecting

organizational performance. has led research, and

In most instances, practice have focused mainly models on of

scholars and

documenting,

explaining,

building

organizational phenomena that were already being tried by management (e.g., TQM, downsizing, reengineering, and

information technology).

Organizational culture, however,

has been an area in which conceptual work and scholarship have provided guidance for managers as they have searched for ways to improve their organizations effectiveness. The reason organizational factor is that in it culture was for the ignored as an

important performance values,

accounting refers to

organizational taken-for-granted and

underlying

assumptions,

expectations,

definitions present in an organization. things are around here. It

It represents how the prevailing It conveys

reflects

ideology that people carry inside their heads.

a sense of identity to employees, provides unwritten and, often, unspoken guidelines for how to get along in the organization, system that and they enhances the stability of the social are

experience.

Unfortunately,

people

unaware of their culture until it is challenged, until they experience a new culture, or until it is made overt and explicit through, for example, a framework or model. This

is why culture was ignored for so long by managers and scholars. It is simply undetectable most of the time. 1.2.2 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has received significant attention in the studies of work place. This is due to general

recognition that this variable can be major determinant of organizational performance and effectiveness. Some studies have reported strong correlations of the job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Behnkoff 1997). When the

employees are dissatisfied at work, they less committed and will look for are other opportunities they to may quit. If the or job

opportunities mentally

unavailable, from the

emotionally Thus are the

withdraw and

organization. commitment

satisfaction

organizational

important

attitudes in assessing employees intentions to quit and overall contribution to the organization. Here

Organizational commitment can be considered as a part or consequence of job satisfaction because it is ultimately the organizational commitment which will affect the

performance of an organization. The concept of job satisfaction, in relation with

other organization variables, has been studied many times such as task demands (Dodd and Ganster 1996, Zaffare 1994, Ting 1997 and Blau 1999), job satisfaction and leader

member exchange (Podsakaff et al, 1996 , Sparks and Schenk, 2001) , job satisfaction and social structure (Sargent and Terry 2000) ,task demand, social structure and job

satisfaction (Seers and Graen 1984, De Jonge 2001) ,job satisfaction and commitment (Lincoln and Kalleberg (1990) , Vandenberg and Lance (1992) , Farkas and Tetric (1989) and Currivan (1999) job satisfaction and demographic

characteristics such as age, gender, tenure, and education (Clark, 1993; Clark and Oswald, 1995; Hickson and

Oshagbemi, 1999; Oshagbemi, 1998, 2000) These studies show that a lot of work has been done on determining the relationship between job satisfaction and different variables but few efforts are made on determining the relationship of job satisfaction with organizational culture. Out of these few Odom et al. (1990) examined the

relationships

between

organizational

culture

and

three

elements of employee behavior, namely, commitment, workgroup cohesion and job satisfaction. They concluded that the bureaucratic to the culture creation was of not the culture commitment, most job

conductive

employee

satisfaction and work cohesion. Nystrom (1993) found that employees in strong culture as tend well to as express higher great job

organizational

commitment

satisfaction. He investigated health care organizations. One of the actual investigations concerning the

relationship of job satisfaction and organization culture has been done by Daulatram B. Lund who conducted a research on marketing professionals in cross section of firms in the USA. He used Cameron culture, market, and Freemans of (1991) clan, model of

organizational hierarchy, analysis. and

comprising as the

adhocracy, for

conceptual

framework

1.3 Definitions 1.3.1 Organizational Culture Although identified disciplinary over 150 & definitions Kluckhohn, of of culture the have two been main are

(Kroeber

1952),

foundations

organizational

culture

sociological

(e.g.,

organizations

have

cultures)

and

anthropological (e.g., organizations are cultures). each of these were disciplines, developed: a two different

Within to

approaches

culture

functional

approach

(e.g.,

culture emerges from collective behavior) and a semiotic approach (e.g., culture resides in individual

interpretations and cognitions).

The primary distinctions

are differences between culture as an attribute possessed by organizations what versus culture are. as The a metaphor former can can for

describing assumes

organizations researchers

approach identify change

that

and

managers cultures,

differences

among

organizational

cultures, and can empirically measure cultures.

The latter

perspective assumes that nothing exists in organizations except culture, and one encounters culture anytime one rubs up against any organizational phenomena. Culture is a

potential predictor of other organizational outcomes (e.g., effectiveness) in the former perspective, whereas in the latter perspective it is a concept to be explained

independent of any other phenomenon. Most discussions of organizational culture (Cameron & Ettington, 1988; OReilly & Chatman, 1996; Schein, 1996) agree with the idea that culture is a socially constructed

attribute glue

of

organizations an

which

serves

as A

the

social of

binding

organization

together.

majority

writers have come to an agreement that it refers to the taken-for-granted expectations, and values, definitions underlying present which assumptions, characterize

organizations and their members (that is, they have adopted the functional, how sociological things are perspective). here or Culture prevailing Culture feel, and

represents

around

ideology that people carry inside their heads. affects behave. the way organization members think,

Importantly, the concept of organizational culture is distinct from the concept of organizational climate.

Climate refers to more temporary attitudes, feelings, and perceptions of individuals (Schneider, 1990). an enduring, slow to change, core Culture is of

characteristic

organizations; climate, because it is based on attitudes, can change quickly and dramatically. implicit, climate often indiscernible to more overt, aspects Culture refers to of organizations; attributes of

refers

observable

organizations. interpretations

Culture includes core values and consensual about how things are; climate includes

individualistic perspectives that are modified frequently

as situations change and new information is encountered. The approach to change in this article focuses squarely on cultural attributes rather than climate attributes. It

considers the links among cognitions, human interactions, and tangible symbols or artifacts typifying an

organization (Detert, Schroeder, & Mauriel, 2000:853), or, in other words, the way things are in the organization rather than peoples transitory attitudes about them. Organizational culture is defined by Brent Ruben and Lea Stewart (1998) as the sum of an organization's symbols, events, traditions, standardized verbal and nonverbal

behavior patterns, folk tales, rules, and rituals that give the organization its character or personality. Ruben and Stewart note that organizational cultures are central

aspects of organizations and serve important communication functions them. 1.3.2 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction can be defined in many ways as there is no universal definition of the concept of job for the people who create and participate in

satisfaction (Mumford, 1991), it can be considered as a multi-dimensional concept that includes a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings by which employees perceive their

job (Davis and Newstro, 1999). Churchill (1974) defines job satisfaction according to all the characteristics of the job itself and of the work environment in which employees may find rewards, fulfillment of Muller and satisfaction, or

conversely,

sentiments Price and

frustration (1986)

and/or job

dissatisfaction.

identify

satisfaction by the degree to which individuals like their job. Job satisfaction state has been from defined the as a a positive worker

emotional

resulting

pleasure

derives from the job (Locke, 1976; Spector, 1997) and as the affective and cognitive attitudes held by an employee about various aspects of their work (Kalleberg, 1977;

Mercer, 1997; Wright and Cropanzan, 1997; Wong, 1998. In general, overall job satisfaction has been defined as a function wants of the perceived job relationship what one between that it one as

from

ones

and

perceive

offering(Locke, 1969). 1.4 Background of Problem The concept of culture is half a century old. Culture has always been a cornerstone variable in the study of International Business Subjects. Organizational culture

refers to a system of' shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.

This system of shared meaning is, on closer examination, a set of key characteristics that the organization values. An organization's of the culture can be understood and as the that sum its

total

assumptions,

beliefs,

values

members' share and is expressed through "what is done, how it is done, and who is doing it." Organizational culture is the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. All organizations have cultures just like all people have a personality. way of A culture about is a the persistent tasks of way, human

patterned

thinking

relationships within an organization. On the other hand job satisfaction is a multi-

dimensional concept that includes a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings by which employees perceive their job. Job satisfaction can be identified by the degree to which individuals like their job. Job satisfaction has been

defined as a positive emotional state resulting from the pleasure a worker derives from the job (Locke, 1976;

Spector, 1997) and as the affective and cognitive attitudes held by an employee about various aspects of their work

(Kalleberg, 1977; Mercer, 1997; Wright and Cropanzan, 1997; Wong, 1998. In general, overall job satisfaction has been defined as a function of the perceived relationship

between that one wants from ones job and what one perceive it as offering(Locke, 1969). There has been a long debate amongst researchers

regarding the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction. Many researchers have found

supporting evidence about the relationship between these two. By reviewing many articles that a lot of work has been done on determining the relationship between job

satisfaction and different variables but few efforts are made on determining the relationship of job satisfaction with organizational culture. Out of these few Odom et al. (1990) examined the relationships between organizational

culture and three elements of employee behavior, namely, commitment, work-group cohesion and job satisfaction. They concluded that the bureaucratic culture was not the culture most conductive to the creation of employee commitment, job satisfaction and work cohesion. Nystrom (1993) found that employees in strong culture tend to express great

organizational

commitment

as

well

as

higher

job

satisfaction. He investigated health care organizations. One of the actual investigations concerning the

relationship of job satisfaction and organization culture has been done on by Daulatram B. Lund, in who cross conducted section a of

research

marketing

professionals

firms in the USA. He used Cameron and Freemans (1991) model of organizational hierarchy, and culture, market, comprising as the of clan,

adhocracy,

conceptual

framework for analysis. On the basis of this study we are examining the impact of organizational culture on job satisfaction in Pakistan. For this purpose we have selected different organizations, service and manufacturing in Pakistan in order to examine the impact of different types of cultures in job

satisfaction.

1.5 Problem Statement Our research is about the influence of the

organizational culture on job satisfaction. In this study we will identify the have type higher of organizational of job culture in

which

employees

level

satisfaction.

Basically there are four types organizational culture- Clan Culture, Market Culture, Adhocracy Culture, Hierarchy

Culture. We combined these cultures into two groups on the basis of some common dimensions. These groups are named as Organic Culture (clan and adhocracy) and Mechanistic

Culture (hierarchy and market). For the purpose of research we have developed two hypotheses which are as follows, 1.5.1 Hypothesis H0: Employees in organic culture (clan & adhocracy) have high level of job satisfaction than in mechanistic culture (hierarchy & market). H1: Employees in the mechanistic culture (hierarchy & market) have high level of job satisfaction than in organic culture (clan & adhocracy).

CHAPTER 2
9. Literature Review A number of articles from electronic journals and

public journals have been studied regarding the concerned topics. Some related books have also been consulted.

Literature has been reviewed in terms of both researchers and theorists point of view and the valuable findings are as follow: 2.1 Organizational Culture All organizations have cultures just like all people have a personality. way of A culture about is a the persistent tasks In of way, human

patterned

thinking an

relationships culture is

within the

organization. term

anthropology, which the

foundational

through

orderliness and patterning of much of our life experience can be explained (Benedict, 1934) so; culture is the

inquiry into the phenomenon of social order. Culture gives an organization distinctive way of seeing and responding to the world. It expresses the values or social ideals and the beliefs that organization members come to share (Louis,

1980; Siehl and Martin 1981). The values or patterns of

beliefs are manifested by symbolic devices such as myths (Rowland, 1982), rituals (Deal and Kennedy, 1982), stories (Mitroff and Kilmann, 1976), legends (Wilkin and Martin

1980) and specialized language (Andrew and Hirsch, 1983). Edger Schein defines organizational culture as the

residue of success within an organization. According to Schein, culture is the most difficult organizational

attribute to change. He describes three cognitive levels of organizational culture. The culture of a group can be

defined as: A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external

adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. (Schein: 1985). Gareth Morgan describes culture as "an active living phenomenon through which people jointly creates and recreates the

worlds in which they live." 2.1.1 Levels of Culture There are many kinds or levels of culture that affect individual and organizational behavior. At the broadest

level, a global culture, such as a world religions culture

or

the

culture level. (e.g.,

of At

the a

Eastern less

hemisphere level or

would are

be

the

highest cultures

general

national cultures

Pakistani

culture)

subgroup

such as gender-based cultures (i.e., distinctive ways in which men and women view the world), ethnic group cultures (e.g., differences cultures between (e.g., punjabi police and pathan), or Each unique

occupational

culture),

socioeconomic group culture (e.g., rich versus poor). of these cultures is generally reflected by

language, symbols, and ethnocentric feelings.

Still less

broad is the culture of a single organization, which is the level at which this culture is reflected study by is aimed. what is An organizations the dominant

valued,

managerial and leadership styles, the language and symbols, the procedures and routines, and the definitions of success that make an organization unique. analysis primary in relation in with this the This level of culture job satisfaction However these is of were

interest

study.

different cultures which affect the organizational behavior and performance, further the organizational culture is

divided into three levels by Schein (1999). According to Schein (1999), culture exists at several levels in an organization, which go from very visible to

very

tacit

and

invisible.

Three

levels

for

culture

are

outlined here 1. Artifacts The first level is the most manifest

level and the easiest to observe. Artifacts are what you can see, hear of the and feel in organization social environment. It

consists includes

the

physical

and

organization, office

which

architecture,

technology,

layout,

manner of dress and how each person visibly interacts with each other and with organizational outsiders, and even

company slogans, mission statements and other operational creeds. 2. Espoused Values The second level explains the

behavior pattern in the first level. Constituents of this level provide the underlying meanings and interrelations by which the patterns of behaviors and artifacts may be

deciphered. At this level, local and personal values are widely expressed at within the organization. can be Organizational studied and by

behavior

this the to

level

usually

interviewing questionnaires membership.

organization's gather

membership about

using

attitudes

organizational

3.

Shared Tacit Assumptions The third level is an

unconscious level of culture at which the underlying values have, over a period of time, been transformed and are taken for granted as an organizationally The underlying acceptable basic way of

perceiving

the

world.

assumptions,

which first started as espoused values are also the most difficult to relearn and change. These are the elements of culture that are unseen and not cognitively identified in everyday interactions between organizational members. Figure 2.1 4 Levels of Culture and their Interaction (Schein, 1999)

These

were

different however

level inside

of an

culture

at

organizational

level

organization,

subunits such as functional departments, product groups, or even teams may also reflect their own unique cultures.

Difficulties in coordinating and integrating processes or organizational activities, for example, are often a result of culture clashes among different subunits. For example,

it is common in many organizations to hear of conflicts between marketing and manufacturing, or to hear of

disparaging comments about the fuzzy-headed HR department, or to hear put-downs of the white-coats in R&D. One reason

is that each different unit often has developed its own perspective, its own set of values, and its own culture. As at macro level and all work units of the such organization cultural have to

coordinate

together

differences It is easy fragment an

influence the job satisfaction of individuals. to see how these and to cultural make differences levels can of

organization impossible

high

effectiveness cultural

achieve.

Emphasizing

subunit

differences, in other words, can foster increase in job dissatisfaction, alienation and conflict. On the other hand, it is important to keep in mind that each subunit in an organization also contains common elements typical of the entire organization. Similar to a

hologram in which each unique element in the image contains

the characteristics of the entire image in addition to its own identifying characteristics, subunit cultures also

contain core elements of the entire organizations culture in addition to their own unique elements. There is always In

underlying glue that binds the organization together.

assessing an overall organizations culture, therefore, one can focus on the entire organization as the unit of

analysis, or it is possible to assess different subunit cultures, identify the common dominant attributes of the subunit cultures, and aggregate them. provide culture. 2.2 Diagnosing Organizational Culture According to Cummings and Worley (1997), researchers and practitioners for three the have developed a number of useful They an approximation of the This combination can organizations

overall

approaches described approach, assumption though

diagnosing different

organizational perspectives: approach,

culture. the and

behavioral the deep even on

Competing

Values

approach. is

Each yet

diagnostic complementary

perspective, arid

different,

focuses

particular aspects of organizational culture. 2.2.1 Behavioral Approach

According behavioral

to

Cummings provides

and

Worley

(1997),

the about

approach

specific

descriptions

task performance and the management of relationships in an organization. organizational It emphasizes the the pattern surface of level of that

culture,

behaviors

produce business results and assesses key work behaviors that can be observed. The behavioral approach can be used to diagnose and assess the cultural risk of trying to

implement organizational changes needed to support a new strategy because significant cultural risks can result when changes that are highly important to implementing a new strategy are incompatible with the existing patterns of

behavior. It is an important approach to use when managers want to determine whether implementation plans should be changed to manage around the existing culture, whether the culture should be changed, or whether the strategy itself should be modified or abandoned. 2.2.2 Deep Assumptions Approach The deep assumption approach typically begins with the most tangible level of awareness and then works down to the deep assumptions. It emphasizes the deepest levels of

organizational culture, which are the generally unexamined assumptions, values, and norms that guide members behavior

and that often have a powerful impact upon organization effectiveness.

2.2.3 The Competing Values Approach The Competing Values approach assesses an

organizations culture in terms of how it resolves a set of value dilemmas. It suggests that an organizations culture can be understood in terms of four important value pairs; each pair consists of contradictory values placed at

opposite ends of a continuum. The four value pairs are internal focus versus external focus, organic processes

versus mechanistic processes, innovation versus stability, and people orientation are faced with versus these and task orientation. values of

Organizations internal attending

competing must or

versus to

external internal

focus

choose their

between external

operations

environment for continued survival. Too much emphasis on either can result in missing As important our changes is have in the

competitive

environment. culture in

study people

identify more job

organizational

which

satisfaction and for the identification of organizational culture we will use competing values frame work. Therefore

Competing Values Approach will be explained briefly here so that we can understand that how this approach will be used in our research method. 2.3 Measuring Organizational Culture through Competing Values Through decades of empirical research, scholars have established abundant links between organizational culture and organizational performance. While previously businesses were either unaware of cultures importance or believed it too difficult to manage, today they recognize that it can be used for competitive advantage. This is something that Apple Computer gets. By leveraging their culture of

innovation toward product as well as internal processes, they have been as able as to survive into despite new and incredible profitable a

competition markets.

well

venture to use

But

in

order

culture

strategically,

company first needs to understand its culture. Culture is defined as complex issue that essentially includes all of a groups shared values, attitudes, beliefs, assumptions,

artifacts, and behaviors. Culture is broad encompassing all aspects of its internal and external relationships and

culture is deep in that it guides individual actions even to the extent that members are not even aware they are

influenced by it. Scholars tend to agree that the root of any organizations culture is grounded in a rich set of assumptions about For the nature of the world and belief human that might

relationships. people are

example, and only

the out

underlying for

selfish

themselves

unwittingly influence a companys attitudes and behaviors toward outside salespeople, vendors, and consultants. This is profound stuff that is largely invisible, unspoken, and unknown to an organizations members. So is it possible to really know a companys culture? While admittedly it would be very difficult (and some might claim impossible) task to fully account for all components of a companys culture, the dominant on attributes effective can generally be identified. research In has

focusing

organizations,

uncovered many critical dimensions. John Campbell (1974) and his fellow researchers identified thirtynine important indicators. impractical While for such a list is to helpful, account it for is so still many

organizations

dimensions to identify their own culture. Realizing this, Robert Quinn and John Rohrbaugh (1983) reviewed the results of many studies on this topic and determined that two major dimensions could account for such a broad range. Their

Competing Values Framework combines these two dimensions, creating a 2x2 matrix with four clusters.

The

Competing

Values

Framework

has

proven

to

be

helpful framework for assessing and profiling the dominant cultures identify of the organizations underlying because it helps individuals exist in

cultural

dynamics

that

their organizations. early 1980s as a

This framework was developed in the result & of studies of organizational followed by

effectiveness

(Quinn

Rohrbaugh,

1981),

studies of culture, leadership, structure, and information processing (Cameron, 1986; Cameron & Quinn, 1999). The framework a consists focus on of two dimensions, one that and

differentiates

flexibility,

discretion,

dynamism from a focus on stability, order, and control. Some organizations and are effective whereas if they are changing, are

adaptable,

organic,

other

organizations

effective if they are stable, predictable, and mechanistic. This dimension ranges from organizational versatility and pliability (flexibility) on one end to organizational

steadiness and durability on the other end. The second dimension differentiates a focus on an

internal orientation, integration, and unity from a focus on an external orientation, differentiation, and rivalry. That is, some organizations are effective if they others have are

harmonious

internal

characteristics,

whereas

effective if they focus on interacting or competing with others outside their boundaries. This dimension ranges from organizational cohesion and consonance on the one end to organizational separation Together these two and independence on the other. form four quadrants, each

dimensions

representing a distinct set of organizational effectiveness indicators. these two Figure dimensions 1 illustrates to one the relationships along with of the

another

resulting four quadrants. to represent what what how people they they

These dimensions have been found value define process about as an good, organizations right, and and what

performance, appropriate,

information,

fundamental human needs exist, and which core values are used for forming judgments and taking action (Beyer &

Cameron, 1997; Cameron & Ettington, 1988; Lawrence, 2001; Mitroff, 1983; Wilber, 2000).

Figure 2.2 Competing Values Framework

CLAN

ADHOCRACY

HIERARCHY

MARKET

As discussed earlier first dimension places the values of flexibility, discretion, and dynamism at one end of the scale with stability, order, and control on the other. This means that some organizations emphasize adaptation, change, and organic processes (like most start-up companies) while others are effective in emphasizing stable, predictable,

and mechanistic processes (like NASA, Citigroup, and most universities). The second value dimension is marked by

internal orientation, integration, and unity at one end of the scale with external orientation, differentiation, and rivalry on the other. Some organizations are effective

through focusing on themselves and their internal processes If we improve our efficiency and do things right, we will be successful in the marketplace. Others excel by focusing on the market or competition Our rivals have weak customer service, so this is where we will differentiate ourselves. What is notable about these dimensions is that they represent opposite or competing assumptions. Each

continuum highlights a core value that is opposite from the value on the other end of the continuum i.e., flexibility versus stability, internal produce versus external. that are The also

dimensions,

therefore,

quadrants

contradictory or competing on the diagonal. quadrant identifies values that emphasize

The upper left an internal,

organic focus, whereas the lower right quadrant identifies values that emphasize external, control focus. Similarly,

the upper right quadrant identifies values that emphasize external, organic focus whereas the lower left quadrant

emphasizes internal, control values.

These competing or

opposite values in each quadrant give rise the name for the model, the Competing Values Framework.

Further quadrants related to

work

on by

defining combining

how these

each two

of

the

four is Kim

(formed company

dimensions) by

characteristics

was

conducted

Cameron and Robert Quinn (1999). Each quadrant represents those features a company feels is the best and most

appropriate way to operate. In other words these quadrants represent their basic assumptions, beliefs, and values, the stuff of culture. None of the quadrants Collaborate (clan), Create (market) culture (adhocracy), is is Control better better (hierarchy), than than another another. and just But, Compete as no

inherently necessarily

some

cultures might be more appropriate in certain contexts than others. As objective of our study is to identify the

culture in which the workers are most satisfied. In this context we can say just take an assumption that, clan

culture creates more job satisfaction. The keys to using culture to improve performance lies in matching culture or attributes to organizational goals. 2.3.1 Organizational Culture Assessment

Instrument (OCAI) It is a questionnaire type of the instrument used to measure organizational culture. This tool consists of six dimensions and each dimension has four alternative answers,

used to access six key dimensions of an organization. Six key dimensions of this instrument are as follows, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In Dominant Characteristics of the Organization Organizational Leadership Management of Employees Organizational Glue Strategic Emphases Criteria of Success our research we used four of themDominant Strategic

Characteristics,

Leadership,

Glue

(Bonding),

Emphasis, because of limitations of our research. As if we take all these dimensions length of the questionnaire would have increased and administration time would increase.

Normally respondents do not fill lengthy questionnaires and exhausts. Because of such factors we take most important dimensions required to identify culture of an organization. 2.4 Types of Culture Now we will see four major types of organizational culture.

2.4.1 Control (Hierarchy) This is a formalized and structured work environment. Procedures their decide what people do. Leaders are proud of the

efficiency-based

coordination.

Keeping

organization functioning effortlessly is most vital. Formal rules and policy keep the organization together. The longterm goals are stability and results, paired with efficient and smooth execution of tasks. Trustful delivery, smooth planning, and low costs define success. The personnel

management has to guarantee work and values predictability. Hierarchical organizations share similarities with the stereotypical large, bureaucratic corporation. As in the values matrix, they are defined by stability and control as well as internal focus and integration. They value

standardization, control, and a well-defined structure for authority and decision cultures making. are those Effective that can leaders in

hierarchical

organize,

coordinate, and monitor people and processes. Good examples of companies with hierarchical and cultures are and McDonalds government

(think

standardization

efficiency)

agencies like the Department of Motor Vehicles (think rules and bureaucracy). As well, having many layers of management like Ford Motor Company with their seventeen levels is

typical

of

hierarchical

organizational

structure.

In

Pakistan WAPDA and other Government organizations can be considered as hierarchical organizations as they have

strict and well defined rules, many layers of management and high level of bureaucracy. As well, having many layers of management like Ford Motor Company with their seventeen levels is typical of a hierarchical organizational

structure. The earliest approach to organizing in the modern era was based on the work of a German sociologist, Max Weber, who studied government organizations in Europe during the early 1900s The major challenge faced by organizations at the turn of the and twentieth services century for an was to efficiently complex

produce

goods

increasingly

society. To accomplish this, Weber (1947) proposed seven characteristics attributes of that have become known rules, as the classical

bureaucracy:

specialization,

meritocracy, hierarchy, separate ownership, impersonality, accountability. These characteristics were highly effective in accomplishing their purpose. They were adopted widely in organizations hose major challenge was to generate

efficient, reliable, smith-flowing, predictable output. In fact, until the 1960s, almost every book on management and

organizational

studies

made

the

assumption

that

Webers

hierarchy or bureaucracy was the ideal form of organization because products it led to stable, efficient, the highly consistent was

and

services.

Because

environment

relatively stable, tasks and functions could be integrated and coordinated, uniformity in products and services was maintained, and workers and jobs were tinder control. Clear lines of decision-making authority, standardized rules and procedures, and control and accountability mechanisms were valued as the keys to success. The organizational culture compatible with this form (and as assessed in the OCAI) is characterized by a

formalized and structured place to work. Procedures govern what people do. Effective leaders are good coordinators and organizers. Maintaining a smooth running organization is important. The long term concerns of the organization are stability, predictability, and efficiency. Formal rules and policies hold the organization together. 2.4.2 Compete (Market) This is a results-based organization that highlights completing competitive work and and getting things on goals. done. People are are hard

concentrated

Leaders

drivers, producers, and competitors at the same time. They are demanding and have high expectations. The emphasis on winning keeps the organization together. Reputation and

success are the most important. Lasting focus is on rival activities and reaching goals. Market penetration and stock are the definitions of success. Competitive prices and

market leadership are important. The organizational style is based on competition. This form of organizing became popular during the late 1960s as organizations laced new competitive challenges. This form relied on a fundamentally different set of

assumptions than the hierarchy and was based largely on the work of Oliver Williamson (1975), Bill Ouchi (I 9S 1), and their colleagues. These organizational scholars identified an alternative set of activities that they argued served as the foundation of organizational effectiveness. The most important of these was transaction costs. The new design was referred to as a market form of organization. The term marker is not synonymous with the marketing (unction or with consumers in the marketplace. Rather, it refers to a type of organization that functions as a market itself. It is oriented toward the external environment instead of internal affairs. It is focused on

transactions with (mainly) external constituencies such as suppliers, customers, contractors, licensees, unions, and regulators. And unlike a hierarchy, where internal control is maintained by rules, specialized jobs, and centralized decisions, the market operates primarily through economic market mechanisms, mainly monetary exchange. That is, the major focus of markets is to conduct transactions

(exchanges, sales, contracts) with other constituencies to create competitive advantage. Portability, bottom-line

results, strength in marker niches, stretch targets, and secure customer Not bases are primary the objectives core of the that

organization.

surprisingly,

values

dominate market-type organizations are competitiveness and productivity. Competitiveness organizations arc and productivity through a strong in market on

achieved

emphasis

external positioning and control. At Philips Electronics, for example, the loss of market share in Europe and a

first- ever year of red ink in 1991 led to a corporation wide initiative to improve the competitive position of the firm. Under the leadership of a new CEO, the worldwide organization instituted a process called Centurion in which a concerted effort was made to shift the companys culture

froth a relatively complacent, arrogant, hierarchy culture to a culture driven by customer focus, premium returns on assets, culture. and improved yearly to the corporate meetings establish OCAI competitivenessa were new a held stretch to market assess targets. shift

Three and

performance Assessments

using

showed

substantial

toward a market-driven culture from the early 1990s to the mid-1990s. A similar example of a market culture is a Philips competitor, General Electric. General Electrics former

CEO, Jack Welch, made it clear in the late 1980s that if GE businesses were not number one or number two in their

markets, they would be sold. Welch taught and sold over three hundred businesses during his twenty-one year tenure as CEO. The GE culture under Wetch was known as a highly competitive, results-or-wise, take-no-prisoners type of

culture. It reflected a stereotypical market culture. The basic assumptions in a market culture are that the external environment is not benign but hostile, consumers arc choosy and interested in value, the organization is in the business of increasing its competitive position, and the major task of management is to drive the organization toward productivity, results, and profits. It is assumed

that a clear purpose and an aggressive strategy lead to productivity George and profitability. (1944), market In the words of General not

Patron

Organizations

arc

interested in holding on to their positions. Let the enemy do that. [They] arc advancing all the time, defeating the opposition, marching constantly toward the goal. A market culture, as assessed Leaders in the are OCAI, is a

results-oriented

workplace.

hard-driving

producers and competitors. They arc rough and demanding. The glue that on holds winning. actions and the The organization long-term together concern is is an on and

emphasis

competitive

achieving

stretch

goals

targets. Success is defined in terms of market share and penetration. Outpacing the competition and market

leadership are important. Even as parent figures. The organization is held

together by loyalty and tradition. Commitment is high. The organization emphasizes the long-term benefit of individual development, with high cohesion and morale being important. Success is defined in terms of internal climate and concern for people. The organization places a premium on teamwork, participation, and consensus.

2.4.3 Collaborate (Clan) This working environment is a friendly one. People

have a lot in common, and its like one big family. The leaders are seen as mentors or maybe even as father

figures. The organization is held together by loyalty and tradition. There is great participation. The organization emphasizes long-term Human Resource development and bonds fellow workers by morals. Success is described within the framework of addressing the needs of the clients and caring for the people. The organization endorses teamwork,

participation, and consensus In the values matrix Collaborate (clan) are similar to Control (hierarchy) in that there is an inward focus with concern emphasize for integration. and However, discretion Collaborate rather (clan) the

flexibility

than

stability and control of Control (hierarchy) and Compete (market) organizations. With the success of many Japanese firms in the late 1970s and 1980s, American corporations began to take note of the different way they approached business. Unlike American national culture, which is

founded upon individualism, Japanese firms had a more teamcentered approach. This basic understanding affected the way that Japanese companies structured their companies and

approached problems. Their Collaborate (clan) organizations operated more like families hence they valued cohesion, a humane working environment, group commitment, and loyalty. Companies were made up of semi-autonomous teams that had the ability to hire and fire their own members and

employees were encouraged to participate in determining how things would get done. A good example of a Collaborate (clan) in American business is Toms of Maine, which

produces all natural toothpastes, soaps, and other hygiene products. The founder, Tom Chappell, grew the company to respect agents, relationships suppliers, with coworkers, and customers, the owners,

the

community,

environment.

According to their company statement of beliefs, they aim to provide their employees with a safe and fulfilling

environment and an opportunity to grow and learn. Typical of Collaborate (clan) cultures, Toms of Maine, is like an extended family with high morale and Tom himself takes on the role of mentor or parental figure. 2.4.4 Create (Adhocracy) This is a dynamic and creative working environment. Employees takers. take risks. Leaders are and innovators originality and are risk the

Conducting

experiments

linking materials within the organization. Distinction is

emphasized. The long-term goal is to develop and treat new resources. The availability of new products or services is seen as an achievement. The organization encourages

individual ingenuity and freedom. As the developed world shifted from the industrial age to the information It is to that an the age, an ideal type form of that organizing is most

emerged. responsive conditions

organizational hyper

turbulent, typify

ever-accelerating the organizational

increasingly

world of the twenty-first century. With rapidly decreasing halflife of product and service advantages, a set of

assumptions were developed that differed from those of the other three forms of organization. These assumptions were that innovative and pioneering initiatives arc what leads to success, that organizations are mainly in the business of developing new products and services and preparing for the future, and that the major task of management is to foster entrepreneurship, creativity, and activity on the cutting edge. It was assumed that adaptation and

innovativeness lead to new resources and profitability, so emphasis was placed on creating a vision of the future, organized anarchy, and disciplined imagination.

The root of the word adhocracy is ad hoc- implying something temporary, specialized, and dynamic. Most people have served on an ad hoc task force or committee, which disbands as soon as its task is completed. Adhocracies are similarly temporary. They have been characterized as tents rather than palaces in that they can reconfigure

themselves rapidly when new circumstances arise. A major goal of an adhocracy is to foster adaptability flexibility, and creativity where uncertainty, ambiguity, and

information overload arc typical. The adhocracy organization may frequently be found in industries such as aerospace, software development, thinktank consulting, and filmmaking. An important challenge for these organizations is to produce and services and products and services and to adapt quickly to new opportunities. Unlike markets or hierarchies, or authority adhocracies do not have

centralized

power

relationships.

Instead,

power flows from individual to individual or from task team to task team, depending on what problem is being addressed at the time. Emphasis on individuality, risk taking, and anticipating the future is high as almost everyone in an adhocracy becomes involved with production, clients,

research and development, and other matters. For example,

each

different as

client

demand

in

consulting and

firm

is

treated

an

independent

project,

temporary

organizational design is set up to accomplish the task. When the project ends, the structure disintegrates. Similarly, the story of the successful failure of the Apollo 13 space mission illustrates clearly how leadership changes regularly and often unpredictably, team membership is temporary, and no clear map can be drawn to identify the communication astronauts in or the control space system. capsule During as well the as flight, support

personnel on the ground were not organized in a stable way for very long. Different problems demanded different types of task teams to address them, leadership shifted often, and even the piloting of the spacecraft switched from one astronaut to another. This was typical of the entire Manned Space Flight Center at NASA. Its formal structure changed seventeen times in the first eight years of its existence. No organizational chart was ever drawn because it would have been outdated before it could be printed.

Jurisdictional lines, precedents, and policies were treated as temporary. Titles, job responsibilities, and even

departmental alignments changed, some - times weekly. The

organization

operated

with

an

adhocratic

design

and

reflected values typical of an adhocracy culture. Sometimes adhocratic subunits exist in larger

organizations that have a dominant culture of a different type. In the values matrix Create (adhocracy) are similar to Collaborate (clan) in that they emphasize flexibility and discretion; focus. however, they they are do like not share the same in inward their

Instead

Compete

(market)

external focus and concern for differentiation. 2.5 Company Culture and Sub-Cultures It is very important to note that all organizational culture research types being focused on companies around the as a whole. time Other as the

conducted

same

Competing Values Framework Martin and Siehl (1983), Louis (1983), Gregory (1983) emphasizes that the company culture is not homogeneous. Schein (1999) notes that this is not necessarily dysfunctional, rather it allows the company to perform effectively in different environments based on

function, product, market, location, etc. In order to get a more accurate picture of the company, it is important to understand not only the company organizational type, but

the cultures of departments or other important groups as well. The same organizational culture types Control

(hierarchy), Compete (market), Collaborate (clan), Create (adhocracy) apply at both levels(Organizational and

Departments). So, a Control (hierarchy) company may contain a research group that is a Create (adhocracy), an

engineering department that is a Compete (market), and a human resources department that is a Collaborate (clan). 2.6 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job

satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance, and methods job include job Other style and rotation, influences and job on

enlargement satisfaction employee groups. which is

enrichment. the management

include

culture, work

involvement, Job

empowerment is a by

autonomous

satisfaction

very

important

attribute The most

frequently

measured

organizations.

common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of

tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and coworkers. Attitudes behavior at are work significant either because or they influence Few

directly

indirectly.

concepts in the field of organizational behavior and human resource management have attracted as much attention among both managers and researchers as the specific employee it is

attitude

called

Job

Satisfaction.

Consequently,

acknowledged as the most well-known, frequently measured, and extensively researched work attitude. 2.6.1 What Is Job Satisfaction? If we were to invite views from people on how they feel about their jobs, we would most probably find that they have strong emotional reactions pertaining to their jobs. This is not unexpected considering that employees

spend approximately one third of their lives at work. Broadly speaking, we can define job satisfaction as an individuals overall attitude toward his/her job. Locke

(1976) has given a comprehensive and universally popular definition of job satisfaction. He defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting

from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. It is

an end state of feelings and consists of an employees cognitive, affective, and evaluative reactions to his/her job. Pareek (198) in his integrated model of work

motivation states that the final psychological outcome of the persons working in an organization is the satisfaction he/she derives 1mm his/her work and role. Job satisfaction has been regarded both as a general attitude as well as satisfaction with specific dimensions of the job such as pay. The work itself, promotion

opportunities, supervision, co-workers and so forth. These may interact in different ways to create the feeling of satisfaction with the job. The degree of satisfaction may vary with how well outcomes fulfill or exceed expectations. Mumford (199) analyzed job satisfaction in two ways. First, in terms of the fit between what the organization requires and what the employee is seeking and second, in terms of the fit between what the employee is seeking and what

he/she is actually receiving. Since an avenge employee spends almost one third of his/her life in the organization. There are sonic concerns that have to be addressed particularly in the context of job satisfaction. These have to do with stability of

satisfaction, work context, and supervisory behavior. In an intriguing research by Straw and Ross (1985), it was found that job satisfaction is a comparatively stable disposition and does not change overtime. In their survey of over 5000 men who changed jobs between 1969 and 1971, it was found that the expressions of job satisfaction were relatively stable. Although they had different type of jobs, employees who were satisfied or dissatisfied in I 969 felt equally satisfied or dissatisfied in 1971 too. Although some

researchers have challenged the disposition of stability of job satisfaction, follow-up researches have, nevertheless, supported it. Work is inextricably bound with human existence .The content and context of work should therefore promote,

rather than damage, human dignity. Kanungo (1992) pointed out that managers and He have the moral obligation their the need to empower and

subordinates development.

thereby

promote

growth to

strongly

emphasizes

analyze

work norms and conditions to see whether such practices promote productive behaviour, high job satisfaction, and overall improvement with the of work life of the and that they as are human

consistent

dignity

employees

beings. In an interesting study Page and Wiserman (1993)

asked workers from USA, Mexico, and Spain to indicate how satisfied they were with their work and the behavior of their superiors. Not only were their average responses to both questions quite high but uniformly so in all three countries. These studies show that job satisfaction is a major concern of the employees. This is not surprising as people do not select jobs jobs that randomly. are They tend with to be

attracted

toward

compatible

their

interests, values, and abilities. Hence different people join different jobs for different reasons, which make job satisfaction a complex and multifaceted concept which can mean various things to different people. 2.7 Measuring Job Satisfaction Measuring process to job satisfaction scientists as has it been a challenging be directly

social

cannot

observed nor accurately inferred. However several useful techniques have been developed to measure job satisfaction. However in our study we used five dimensions of job to measure job satisfaction. These dimensions are pay, nature of work, supervision, promotional prospects and

relationship with co-workers. 2.7.1 Two-factor Theory

Frederick Herzbergs two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. Herzberg suggested that the opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction.

According to Herzbergs theory, therefore, motivators when present at high levels contribute to job satisfaction,

however, when absent do not lead to job dissatisfaction just less satisfaction. to Similarly, when hygiene present factors but not only to

contribute

dissatisfaction

satisfaction when absent. Figure 2.3 Herzbergs Two Factor Theory

Research testing Herzbergs theory has produced mixed results: some studies have supported Herzbergs findings while others documented that hygiene and motivators had

strong

effects

on

both

job

satisfaction

and

dissatisfaction. Herzbergs theory has attracted voluminous research in India also with the attempt being mostly to validate the theory in India using different samples and measurement methods. The findings are again conflicting. In some studies the Two-Factor theory holds good

(Sutaria.1980), while in others it does not (Sarveswara and Rao, 1973) This methodology Herzberg theory has been heavily criticized for its while and only

(Schwab a

and

Cummings.

1970).

Besides,

assumed in

correlation his

between he

satisfaction measured

productivity

methodology,

satisfaction and not productivity. Nevertheless, Herzbergs work is useful in illustrating the conditions of a job that employees find satisfying and dissatisfying. His theory has also stimulated considerable research and theory on job

enlargement and job enrichment, (Machungaws and Schmitt, 1983). 2.7.3 The Value Theory A second significant theory of job satisfaction is the Value Theory proposed by Locke (1984). He proposed that job satisfaction occurs when the job outcomes or the reward that the employee receives matches with outcomes that are

desired by him. The theory

focuses on any outcome that

people value regardless of their quality or quantity. Thus the value attached to outcome is more important. The better the outcome that they get the more satisfied they will be; and the less valuable outcome they receive, the less

satisfied they will be. Essential to Lockes theory is, therefore, the discrepancy between the present aspects of the job and those that an employee desires such as pay, learning opportunities, promotion, and so on. Lockes Value Theory has been substantiated by a study of McFarlin and Rice, (1992). One of the valuable implications of the

theory is that it focuses attention on those aspects of the jobs that need to be changed for employees to experience satisfaction. People perceive serious discrepancies between the job and job satisfaction. But it also suggests that these factors may not be the same for all. In addition to these two theories of job satisfaction, there are quite a few others. Some of the significant ones are briefly presented below: 2.7.4 The Met Expectations Theory This approach is based on the expectations that new employees have about the job and how far these expectations are met. It suggests that the employees will work to

achieve the outcomes they expect to follow after successful performance (Porter and Steen, 1973), Workers become

dissatisfied if their expectations about their job are not met. Review of the theory suggests that the correlation between job satisfaction and met expectations is around

0.39 (Wanous et al 1992). One of the implications of the Met Expectations theory is that one way of reducing

potential dissatisfaction among employees is to bring their expectations in line with the reality. The idea of Met Expectations suggests that the processes undergoing within the person influence job dissatisfaction. A critical

viewpoint of this notion is that it ignores the social context of the individual, and this is the basis of the Equity Theory. 2.7.4 The Equity Theory Adams (1963) Equity Theory argues that people compare the ratio of their outcome over input with the ratio of others outcome over input. If their ratio is greater than or lesser than that of the others, they feel dissatisfied because inequity has occurred. However to feel satisfied with the job, the ratio should be equal to that significant others (what is called equity). Though the basis of their comparison is ones perception, the fact remains that

organizations must attempt to bring about equity to avoid the feeling of dissatisfaction. One of the criticisms of the theory is ways that of it is imprecise with because of there are

alternate

dealing

feelings

inequity.

However, an important implication of this theory is that employees need to feel that they are fairly dealt with in order to feel satisfied. 2.7.5 Satisfaction Initiating some change in the job may increase worker satisfaction but it is not necessary that the increase in satisfaction will remain the same over time. This is The Opponent Process Model of Job

because constant input does not result in constant output. The process of adaptation implies that a constant input will have a decreasing output. This notion was applied to the concept of job satisfaction in the Opponent Process Theory by Landy (1978). He applied this idea to the goalsetting theory and asserted that in the beginning of

his/her career, an employee will resist goal-setting. But as experience with goal-setting as well as goal-attainment increases, resistance shall decrease. Consequently,

pleasure from goal-attainment must also increase. The broad implication of this is that interventions intended to

increase job satisfaction may not necessary became popular on their introduction (Chimel, 2000).

2.8 Determinants of Job Satisfaction Over the past seven decades, researchers have

been active in conducting thousands of studies pertaining to job satisfaction. In the Indian context too, job

satisfaction has consistently been one of the most heavily researched topics as indicated in all the three major

reviews of OB researches in India (Sinha, 1972; Sinha 1981, Khandwalla, 1988). All three reviewers have identified a number of factors that cause people to become satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs. A wide range of factors relating to individual,

social, cultural organizational and environmental factors affect the level of job satisfaction. Specifically: Individual intelligence Factors and include abilities, personality, age, marital education, status,

orientation to work.

Social Factors include relationships with co-workers, group working and norms, opportunities for interaction, informal organization. Cultural Factors include underlying attitudes, beliefs and values. Organizational structure, relations, Factors include policies the nature and and size, formal

personnel nature of

procedures, technology of

employee and work

work, and

organization,

supervision

styles

leadership,

management systems, working conditions. Environmental Factors include economic, social, technical and governmental influences. Some these factors are explained below that how they

influence job satisfaction. 2.8.1 Individual Determinants Various personality and biosocial variables have been linked to job satisfaction. The position of an individual in the organization seems to be a good indicator of the degree of job satisfaction. There exists a differential opportunity to satisfy

various motivational needs within different levels in the

organization. Generally it has been found that the higher is ones position in an organization the greater is the level of job satisfaction. This could be explained by the fact that the higher the status of the individual in the organizational hierarchy the more he enjoys both relatively better working conditions people in and who rewards are longer job than lower with level their are more

employees. jobs tend

Further, to remain

satisfied than

them

those

who are

dissatisfied.

Persons

with

more

experience

satisfied with their jobs when compared to those who are less experienced. Evidence relationship generally between age indicates and job a direct linear However,

satisfaction.

given the general scenario of downsizing and mergers, longterm employees have started feeling a sense of insecurity at being unwanted as well as a lower sense of loyalty and belongingness. Studies indicate that younger people are

more satisfied with their jobs. In a recent in study of Dhawan (2001) indexed learning job and

satisfaction

terms

opportunity,

challenge, influence over supervisors, work meaningfulness, satisfaction with work group, and desirable future. Data was collected on 110 blue collar and 50 white collar

workers. Comparisons by dividing them into below and above 30 years of age showed that blue collar employees of 30 years and below as were compared more to satisfied those above with 30 work years.

meaningfulness

Similarly white collar employees of 30 year and below were more satisfied with opportunity, job satisfaction will not necessarily satisfaction absenteeism. 2.8.2 Reward System There is ample evidence to suggest that pay and other monetary benefits (Dhawan contribute and Roy, significantly 1993; Nazir, to job Panda. lead is to low to absenteeism, bring about and an low job in

inclined

increase

satisfaction

1998;

200!). The organizational reward system has been found to be related to job satisfaction. This pertains to how pay benefits and promotions are distributed. Researches

uncovered that satisfaction increases when the pay is seen as fair with respect to both level of compensation to

various ways to deal with it. A common way to cope with it is displacement. This is a process of venting out

frustration on others who are not the cause for it (e.g. after a frustrating day at the work place an individual may go home and scream at his wife or children). A second

possibility is to strike back at the source of frustration by making negative statements about the company, joining informal groups that violate organizational rules, going on strike, or indulging in acts of sabotage. In the wake of downsizing, organizations have become sensitive to this

issue and the feelings of those affected. In order to deal with the threats of violence, some organizations are

training managers to recognize and effectively deal with aggressive behavior (Johnson, 1993). 2.8.3 Culture The culture not only at notional level influence the job satisfaction but the culture at organizational level also effects job satisfaction. As in flexible working

environment workers experience more job satisfaction rather than a tight, strict culture by and and the rule oriented environment. has Lund

Organizational relationship (2003).

job study

satisfaction of Daultram B

evidenced

National Culture and Job Satisfaction Employees expectations, behaviors and performance may be different with the various national cultures (Redding, 1990). The influence of national culture on individual

behavior eastern

is and

well

established cultures

and are

differences rather

between

western

significant.

National culture influences the way how organizations are structured and managed. For example firms in Pakistan and South Korea tend to be owned by the founders and families. They tend to be paternalistic, promote values of higher power distance and and collectivism, decision and making have with bureaucratic the little

control

centralized

work empowerment. Position is often with the family ties and network. By contrast Western firms tend to be owned by public shareholder and run by professional manager. They are flatter in structure, less bureaucratic, making promote more

individualism,

decentralized

decision

and

empowering to their workers. Promotion is often linked with personal competencies and merits. With the trend towards globalization, organizations and managers need to have a greater understanding of relative importance of

organizational variables such as organizational culture and leadership style that determine levels of the commitment and job satisfaction in different national context. Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction Organizational culture can influence how people set personal and professional goals, perform tasks and

administer

resources

to

achieve

them.

Organizational

culture affects the way in which people consciously and subconsciously thinks and makes decisions and ultimately the way in which they perceive, feel and act. Deal Kennedy (1982) amd petes Waterman (1982) have suggested that

organizational culture can exert considerable influence in organizations satisfaction, individuals particularly performance their in and personal areas such as Since job the and

commitment. values,

bring

attitudes

beliefs to the work place, their level of satisfaction and commitment to organization may differ. Values, attitudes

and beliefs are reflected in different national cultures. How the personal and in with of be the the a existing national major organizational culture on in the the

culture personal

influence could

values

difference

difference in how firms in the east and west are managed 2.8.4 Work itself The nature of work contributes heavily to the feeling of satisfaction. in the Flexibility, performance freedom, of ones and job discretion contribute

available

heavily to job satisfaction. On the other hand ambiguity in task, confusing instructions, and unclear understanding of the job leads to job dissatisfaction. Mehia (1989)

concluded

in

his

study

that

one

third

of

the

senior

bureaucrats perceived the nature of the job itself as the reason for low work satisfaction.

2.8.5 Supervisory behavior Studies have also indicated that satisfaction tends to be higher when employees believe their supervision to be competent have their best interest in mind, and treat them with dignity and respect (Sayeed. 1988). Suspensor

style that influences job satisfaction is the degree to which the supervisor takes a personal interest in the

employees welfare, provides advice, and communicates at a personal level (Dhawan 2001). Supervisory behavior has been found to be the most important dimension of quality of work life contributing 21% of the variance in the employees role efficacy (Gupta and Khandelwal 1988). 2.8.6 Working Condition In recent years because of the issue of managing

diversity at work place, working conditions have acquired a special significance. Working condition is a broad-based

concept and includes not only the organizational policies but the work environment as well. A number of studies have focused on a the wide working variety of the of an components which A

constitute

conditions

organization.

group of studies have shown that job satisfaction of the employees is directly proportionate to the degree of

participation in the process of decision making. Some have built a strong case of increasing the aspiration for need satisfaction from work and satisfying these aspirations

through participation .While satisfaction with supervisory style has been found correlate significantly with job

satisfaction, others feel that satisfaction with co-workers also plays a significant role in job satisfaction (Dhawan, 2001). In a study of 60 scientists Dhawan and Roy (1993) found that Indian scientists identified 5 factors

contributing to job satisfaction. Of these five one was relationship with co-workers. The other factors were

comfort, challenge, salary, and resource availability. Training and development facilities offered to

employees go a long way in generating high levels of job satisfaction. In an extensive study of 124 managers from various departments Joshi and and levels Sharma in a private measured sector their

organization,

(1997)

responses on 15 job and organization-related variables. Of all the variables, job contents and training facilities

were found to be the best predictors of job satisfaction. Research has also demonstrated that job satisfaction, to some extent, is dark dependent and on working shop environment. extreme

Overcrowding,

noisy

floors,

temperatures and poor air quality tend to create low or no satisfaction at work. In a study of 100 production workers, Shantamani (1988) found chat poor perception of working

conditions created dissatisfaction with the job. Not only this, long working hours also contributed to a high degree of job dissatisfaction. that as the Studies working of clerical employees job

showed

hours

increased,

satisfaction decreased. Another area of concern within the larger context of working condition has to do with the policies regarding employees. Any sense of job insecurity may lead to a drop in the degree of of satisfaction have shown derived that from the job. of A

number

studies

the

degree

job

satisfaction is directly proportionate to the degree of job insecurity. All these of were the the factors at which For effect our the

satisfaction

employee

work.

research

purpose we selected following factors to measure the job satisfaction whit in different organizations having

different types of organizational cultures. i. ii. Satisfaction with work Satisfaction with co workers

iii. Satisfaction with supervision iv. v. Satisfaction with pay and fringe benefits Satisfaction with promotional opportunities 2.9 Relationship between Organizational Culture and

Job satisfaction There has been a long debate amongst researchers

regarding the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction. Many researchers have found

supporting evidence about the relationship between these two. Kerego & Mthupha (1997) views job satisfaction as the of the organizational context, while

evaluation

organizational climate provides a description of the work context. They defined job satisfaction as the feeling of

employees about their job. Normally there is the difference between the outcomes, which a person actually receives and those that he expects to receive. Job satisfaction is thus

related

to

job

characteristics

and

people

will

evaluate

their satisfaction level according to what they perceive as being important and meaningful to them. The evaluation of the different aspects of the job by employees is of a

subjective nature, and people will reflect different levels of satisfaction around the same factors. Research studies (Kerego & Mthupha, 1997; Robbins, 1993; Hutcheson, 1996) supported the five main job satisfaction dimensions as pay, nature of work, supervision, promotional prospects and

relations with co-workers.

Since the job dimensions are

components of the organization, and represents its climate, job satisfaction Job is an evaluation describes of the organizational feelings of

factors. employees factors),

satisfaction the

regarding while

environmental climate

factors provides

(climate only a

organizational

description of the work context. that job satisfaction to at higher a job level levels level

Some researchers believed increases however the less also as employees that are with that

progress managers satisfied

indicated organization satisfied revealed do not

higher the

of but

with

salary, The like

promotional

opportunities. variables

study

organizational

structure

affect

employees in the same way. exist in terms of the

Two schools of thought seem to of job satisfaction.

measurement

Chetty (1983) warns that researchers should guard against singling out certain variables as the sole contributory

factors to job satisfaction of employees. He indicated that both family and other social factors affect employees, and this would also have an impact on their performance and satisfaction at work. On the other hand it is also argued that because of the multidimensionality of job

satisfaction/dissatisfaction it should rather be measured in terms of the individual dimensions instead of a global construct. Measurement enables factors of of individual dimensions to of job the to and

satisfaction environmental certain Reichers among

researchers (climate job

identify related Schneider the

variables)

dimensions (1983)

satisfaction. research and on

conducted

relationship satisfaction,

organizational and turnover

climate indexes of

job

production

amongst study

five

financial that

institutions.

The

findings

their

revealed

climate and satisfaction measures correlates for people in certain positions and not for others. A relationship

between satisfaction and production was not found, while satisfaction (1994) correlated a with to turnover. determine Kline the and Boyd

conducted

study

relationship

between organizational structure, context and climate with job satisfaction amongst three levels of management. Their

study revealed that employees at different levels of the organizations are affected by different work factors. Based on the outcome of this study, they recommended that

different aspects of the work environment be looked into when addressing the issues of job satisfaction amongst

different positions in the same organization. Based on the above overview of the literature and a number of research studies (Schneider & Snyder, 1975; Hellreigel & Slocum,

1974) within a production environment it is clear that some relationship exists between the constructs organizational culture, climate and job satisfaction. Little evidence

could however be found of similar studies in the service industry. Due to the problems experienced within the

subject organization the need for such a study was evident. These studies show that a lot of work has been done on determining the relationship between job satisfaction and different variables but few efforts are made on determining the relationship of job satisfaction with organizational culture. Out of these few Odom et al. (1990) examined the relationships between organizational culture and three

elements of employee behavior, namely, commitment, workgroup cohesion and job satisfaction. They concluded that the bureaucratic culture was not the culture most

conductive

to

the

creation

of

employee

commitment,

job

satisfaction and work cohesion. Nystrom (1993) found that employees in strong culture as tend well to as express higher great job

organizational

commitment

satisfaction. He investigated health care organizations. One of the actual investigations concerning the

relationship of job satisfaction and organization culture has been done by Daulatram B. Lund who conducted a research on marketing professionals in cross section of firms in the USA. He used Cameron culture, market, and Freemans of (1991) clan, model of

organizational hierarchy, analysis. and

comprising as the

adhocracy, for

conceptual

framework

CHAPTER 3
10. Survey Method 3.1 Research Type The research is quantitative in nature. Among the

three types of Research Methods- exploratory, descriptive and causal, the underlying project falls in the category of Causal Research. Causal Research establishes the cause-

effect relationship among two or more variables. 3.2 Target Population The total organizations working in Lahore has been

taken as the population in this research project. 3.3 Sample Size Sampling is the use of subset of the population to represent the population. In this case, sample of 15

different organizations have been taken into consideration. From 15 different organizations, 100 representative

respondents were requested to fill the questionnaires. 3.4 Sampling Method Convenience or haphazard sampling method is used for data collection. In this method, data is collected

arbitrary in an unstructured manner i.e. members of the sample are chosen based on their ease of access. 3.5 Instrument for the Study The study is conducted through the self-administered questionnaires. This questionnaire is developed by taking into consideration OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument) by Cameron and Freeman (1999) and five

dimensions of job satisfaction. Respondents are contacted and asked to answer the questions by project members

themselves. This questionnaire is given in appendix at the end.

3.6 Variables As in our study we are defining the cause and effect relationship between organizational culture and job

satisfaction. For research purpose we take Organizational Culture as an independent variable, there are four types of organizational variables. culture all are in taken this as independent is Job

Dependent it has

variable five

research Both of

Satisfaction,

dimensions.

these

variables are explained below. 3.6.1 Independent Variable The independent variables taken are i. ii. iii. iv. Clan Culture Adhocracy Culture Hierarchy Culture Market Culture These variables independently result in the change in dependent variable i.e. job satisfaction.
Organizational Culture

Clan Culture

Adhocracy Culture

Hierarchy Culture

Market Culture

3.6.2 Dimensions of Independent Variable Four considered Actually Culture dimensions which in of each independent the from which variable culture are type.

turn

measure are taken (OCAI)

these

dimensions

Organizational was given by

Assessment

Instrument

Cameron and Freeman (1999) to identify the culture of an organization. These are i. ii. iii. iv. Dominant Attributes Leadership Style Type of Bonding Strategic Emphasis

Organizational Culture

Dominant Attribute

Leadership Style

Types of Bonding

Strategic Emphasis

3.6.2.1 Dominant Attributes Attribute is a construct whereby objects or

individuals can be distinguished. An attribute in social sciences belong to characteristic of a variable. Dominant attributes in an organization is a good measure to learn about its culture. Dominant attributes for Clan Culture will be

cohesiveness, participation, sharing and teamwork. Dominant Attributes for Adhocracy Culture will be

entrepreneurship, adaptability and creativity. Dominant Attributes for Hierarchy Culture will be

order, rules and regulations and uniformity. Dominant Culture for Market Culture will be

competitiveness and goal achievement. 3.6.2.2 Leadership Style Leadership style refers to the ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader. A leader can have one or more visions of the future to aid them to move a group successfully towards a goal. Leadership style of supervisor also depicts about the

culture of an organization.

Leadership

Style

for

Clan

Culture

will

be

like

of

mentor, sage and father figure. Leadership Style for Adhocracy Culture will be of

innovator, risk taker and entrepreneur. Leadership Style for Hierarchy Culture will be of

coordinator, organizer and administrator. Leadership Style for Market Culture will be of

decisive and achievement oriented. 3.6.2.3 Type of Bonding Human bonding in organizational context refers to the process or formation of close personal relationships. It is also a measure to determine the type of culture prevailed in a particular organization. Bonding type in Clan Culture will be like traditional, loyalty based and cohesion. Bonding type in Adhocracy Culture will be flexible and risk oriented. Bonding type in Hierarchy Culture will be through

rules and policies, and procedures.

Bonding

type

in

Market

Culture

will

be

of

goal

orientation, production and competition. 3.6.2.4 Strategic Emphasis It refers to the type of policy making and decision making in order also to avail to organizational what type goals. of This

dimension

helps

determine

culture

exists in an organization. Strategic Emphasis in Clan Culture will be towards

developing human resources, commitment and morale. Strategic Emphasis in Adhocracy Culture will be

towards innovation, growth and new resources. Strategic towards Emphasis stability, in Hierarchy Culture and will be

predictability

smooth

operations. Strategic Emphasis in Market Culture will be towards competitive advantage and market superiority. Questions like kind of organization, leadership style, bonding type and are strategic asked. emphasis sum on their is relative used to

organizations

Constant

scale

evaluate culture type. Respondents are asked to divide 100

equal points in the four options. Sample questionnaire is attached in the appendix section at the end. 3.6.3 Dependent Variable The dependent variable taken is Job Satisfaction. Job can be defined in five dimensions like pay, nature of work, supervision, promotional prospects and relation with coworkers.
Job Satisfaction

Satisfaction with Work

Satisfaction with CoWorkers

Satisfaction with Supervisor

Satisfaction with Pay & fringe benefits

Satisfaction with Promotion

3.6.4 Dimensions of Dependent Variable Following five dimensions of dependent variable have been taken into consideration. They are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Satisfaction with work With co workers With supervisor With pay and fringe benefits With promotional opportunities

3.6.4.1 Satisfaction with Work Satisfaction with work includes to what extent an

employee is contented with the nature of work, job timings, and work environment. 3.6.4.2 Satisfaction with Co Workers It refers to the level of happiness and pleasure an employee feels while working with the coworkers and

colleagues. 3.6.4.3 Satisfaction with Supervisor It means to what extent an employee is satisfied with his master, boss or supervisors attitude and commands. 3.6.4.4 Benefits It is related to the employees contentment with his pay and other fringe benefits including, 3.6.4.5 Opportunities It refers to the employees gratification towards his achievement in moving up the ladder in organizational Satisfaction with Promotional Satisfaction with Pay & Fringe

hierarchy level.

All these five dimensions written above lead to high or low job satisfaction. The scale selected to measure the above mentioned dimensions is Likert Scale, ranging from 1 to 7, from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Sample

questionnaire is attached in the appendix section at the end. 10.7 Limitations and Assumptions We have tried our best to make this research definite but as we all know there are always certain limitations and limited scope for each research. Researchers have to make certain assumptions about the research. In our research we also made certain assumptions and there were certain

limitations. Our research has following limitations and

assumptions, Our research was based on a limited sample size,

because being students it was not possible for us to take a large sample size. There were limitations regarding time and budgets

because of being students.

There

were

certain

limitations

regarding

access

to

information and support. Although in most of organizations respondents were supportive and were willing to fill

questionnaire but some respondents were reluctant and were not willing to fill questionnaire because they were taking it personally. As we tried to define cause-and-effect relationship

between Organizational culture and Job Satisfaction, so we just assumed that only organizational culture is affecting job satisfaction. Although there would be other variables that may have effect on job satisfaction, but it was not possible for us to take into account all such variables, because research. We conducted research through self-administered it could lead to more complications to our

questionnaire on the basis of convenient sampling. Here we made assumption that all of our respondents are unbiased and make right answers according to the best knowledge

about their organizations. We assumed that our research instrument will measure what it purports to measure.

CHAPTER 4
11. RESULTS 4.1 Demographic Characteristics Table 4.1 Demographic Characteristics Demographic Characteristics: Age: 20-29 30-39 40-49 50 or above Gender: Male Female Marital Status: Single Married Organization: Manufacturing 21.6 43.2 56.8 94.6 5.4 54 27 2.7 16.3 Percent (%):

Services Other Formal Education: Undergraduate Graduate Masters M.Phil./PhD Professional Experience: 1-9 Years 10-19 Years 20-29 Years 30-39 Years

62.1 16.3

0 10.8 70.3 18.9

72.9 8.1 13.5 5.5

The

table

is

indicating

the

demographic

characteristics (in percentage) of the sample we selected for data collection. As the emphasis of current study is on the relationship not of on organizational relationship culture of the and job

satisfaction

the

demographic

variables and job satisfaction, it just shows the diversity of the sample. Questionnaires were distributed randomly. Results

showed that the age of 54 % people in our sample were

ranging from 20 to 29 years and 27 % people are between 30 to 39 years indicating that the majority of employees in an organization range between 20 to 40 years. In these

organizations number of older employees is less than the number of young employees. Only 19% people are above 40 years of age. The result is more than half of the employees in an organization are less than 40 years of age. Secondly, males are 94.6% and only 5.4 % of employees are women which indicate a truth that in Pakistan, males are more likely to do a job than women in our society. Majority of women in our society are either housewives, cannot or do not go for a job. Next we can see that, there is almost equal number of married and unmarried people working in different

organizations. Number of unmarried employees is slightly lower than unmarried. Manufacturing smaller in number organizations than are 21.6 % which are

service

organizations

(62.1%)

indicates the fact that in Lahore, there are more service organizations than manufacturing. If this study will have been conducted in Faisalabad, the result might be different because of its industrial importance.

In the next part of the table, it has been discovered that the percentage of employees doing job after completing their masters is 70.3 % which is highest. 10.8 % of people go to job after getting graduated and number of employees with education more than masters is 18.9%. This shows the trend of people to go for a job after completing their education is normally Masters Degree. In terms of professional experience, 72.9% people of our sample are having a professional experience ranging

from 1 to 9 years and 8.1% have an experience ranging from 10 to 19 years. 13.5% have 20 to 29 years of experience and other 5.5% are 30 years or above experienced. 4.2 Culture Types and Job Satisfaction This table shows overall job satisfaction mean of each type of organizational culture. Table 4.2 Culture Types and Job Satisfaction Culture Type No. of the Organizations Job Satisfaction Mean Clan Culture 35 4.68

Adhocracy Culture Hierarchy Culture Market Culture

12

4.93

30

4.03

23

4.02

4.3 Organic Culture vs. Mechanistic Culture Table 4.3 Organic Culture vs. Mechanistic Culture Organic Culture Clan 88.89% High Satisfaction 11.11% Low Satisfaction 100% 100% 100% 100% 16.67% 46.67% 47.83% Adhocracy 83.33% Mechanistic Culture Hierarchy 53.33% Market 52.17%

CHAPTER 5
12. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion From the Results in Chapter 4 it can be demonstrated that the mean satisfaction in clan and adhocracy culture are higher than in hierarchy and market, the earlier are

organic cultures and the laterals are mechanistic cultures. Table 4.3 showed that out of 35 respondents who perceived their organization as clan, 88.89 % are highly satisfied with their job and 11.11% are low satisfied with their job and in case of adhocracy, out of 12 respondents, 83.33% respondents showed higher job satisfaction and 16.67%

showed low job satisfaction. So, both of the results prove that employees in organic which is culture the have high of job our

satisfaction hypothesis. On the

level,

first

part

other

hand

results

shows

that

out

of

30

respondents who perceived their organizations as hierarchy, 53.33% of the employees are highly satisfied and 47.66% of employees in these cultures are less satisfied with their

jobs and in case of market culture out of 23 respondents 52.17% are highly satisfied and 47.83% are less satisfied. This means employees in mechanistic cultures are low

satisfied with their jobs as compared to organic cultures. This in turn proves that employees in mechanistic cultures have low job satisfaction level. From the results our null hypothesis is accepted and

alternative hypothesis is rejected. Although no other analysis then descriptive analysis has been done to test the hypothesis due to complexity created by using two which different requires types of scales in

questionnaires, techniques generated by for

applied Still are these strong

statistics results enough to

interpretation. analysis

descriptive

prove our findings. 5.2 Recommendations From our research we concluded that, in clan and

adhocracy culture (organic culture) employees have higher level of job satisfaction than in hierarchy and market

culture (mechanistic culture) in Pakistan. Although it is not possible for each organization to change their culture, but job satisfaction of employees is influenced by it. We

concluded from our research that a single organization may have different cultures in different of departments. organizations. Job I

satisfaction

influences

performance

think that organizations should shift their cultures from mechanistic to organic, because organic cultures provides flexibility to the employees.

CHAPTER 6
13. References

International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 15608530/2001/0319394

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Performance: The Case of Local Government

Public Productivity & Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Dec., 1997), pp. 170-191

Job Satisfaction In Relation To Organizational Culture SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 2002, 28(2), 2330

Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Analysis of Different Pakistani Commercial Banks Kamal, Yasir and Hanif, Fawad Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology (SZABIST), Islamabad

Organizational Culture by Kathryn A Baker Four Organizational Culture Types by Bruce M. Tharp

Measuring job satisfaction in surveys - Comparative analytical report

European Foundation for Improvement of Living and Working Conditions What Do We Know about Developing and Sustaining a Culture of Innovation? L.Aiman-Smith 2004 Understanding Organizational Culture and Leadership Enhance Efficiency and Productivity By Ghirmai T Kefela, PhD Published in PM World Today January 2010 (Vol XII, Issue I) Organizational Size and Job Satisfaction by Michael Beer Source: The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Mar., 1964), pp. 34-44 Organizational Communication: Relationships to Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction by Paul M. Muchinsky Source: The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Dec., 1977), pp. 592-607 Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness Author(s): Daniel R. Denison and Aneil K. Mishra Source: Organization Science, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Mar. Apr., 1995), pp. 204-223

Organizational Culture and Performance: Proposing and Testing a Model Author(s): George A. Marcoulides and Ronald H. Heck Source: Organization Science, Vol. 4, No. 2 (May, 1993), pp. 209-225

Organisational Behaviour by Mirza S Saiyadain Organizational Behaviour by Stephen P. Robbins Daulatram B.Lund (2003), Organizational Culture and job Satisfaction, Journal of business and industrial marketing, Vol. 18 No. 3, Page 219-236.

http://www.newpakistani.com/ http://www.ccsenet.org/ http://www.uoguelph.ca/ http://www.wikipedia.org/ http:/wwww.jstore.org/ http:/www.pulibrary.edu.pk/ http:/www.ask.com/ http:/wiki.answers.com/

CHAPTER 7
14. Appendix

7.1 Questionnaire

Respected Sir / Madam, We are students of BBA (Honors) Banking and Finance program at HCBF, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The following questionnaire is required to be filled for partial

fulfillment of requirements of our project. Questionnaire is comprised of two parts related to organization type and job satisfaction. Your unbiased cooperation in this regard will be highly appreciated and will be considered a great contribution towards a purposeful research. We assure you that all the data will be kept confidential and privacy will not be disobeyed. Thank You Very Much

STATISTICAL INFORMATION

Age

Gender

Marital Status

Organization

20 -29 30-39 40-49 50-above

Male Female

Single Married

Manufacturing Service Other________

Designation Professional Experience Formal Education PART I (Job Satisfaction)

_______________________ __________________ Years __________________ Years

The following statement describes your feeling towards job related issues regarding the organization you currently

work for. For each, please indicate the extent to which you agree/disagree with the statement by encircling the

appropriate number on the scale. Strongly Disagree 1 Agree All in all, I am satisfied with the work 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of my job. All in all, I am satisfied with my co1 2 3 4 5 6 7 workers. All in all, I am satisfied with the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly

supervision. All in all, I am satisfied with my pay 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (total wages and tips). All in all, I am satisfied with the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 promotion opportunities.

PART II (Organization Type) The questions that follow relate to what your companys operation is like. Each of the numbered items contains four descriptions of organizations. Please distribute 100 points among the four descriptions as per your organization. None of the descriptions depending on how similar the

description is any better than any other; they are just different. For each question, please use all 100 points. You may divide the points in any way you wish.

1. Kind

of

organization

(Please

distribute

100

points

between A, B, C, & D.) A My organization is a very personal place. It Points is like an extended family. People seem to share a lot of things. B My organization is a very dynamic and Points _______ _______

entrepreneurial place. People are willing to

stick their needs out and take risks. C My organization is a very formalized and Points _______

structured

place.

Established

procedures

generally govern what people do. D My organization is a very production oriented. Points A major job is with concerning the job done, without much personal involvement. _______

2. Leadership (Please distribute 100 points between A, B, C, & D.) A The Head of my organization is considered to Points be a mentor, sage or a father or mother _______

figure. B The head of my organization is generally Points _______

considered to be an entrepreneur, innovator or risk taker. C The head of my organization is

generally Points _______

considered to be a coordinator, administrator or organizer. D The head of my organization is

generally Points _______

considered to be a producer, a technician or a head driver.

3. What holds the organization together (Please distribute 100 points between A, B, C, & D.) A The glue that holds my organization together Points is loyalty and mutual trust. Commitment to _______

organization is important here. B The glue that holds my organization together Points is commitment to innovation and development. There is an emphasis on being first. C The glue that holds my organization together Points is formed rules and policies. Maintaining a smooth running institution is important here. D The glue that holds my organization together Points is the emphasis A on goal and task is _______ _______ _______

accomplishment.

production

orientation

generally important here.

4. What is important (Please distribute 100 points between A, B, C, & D.) A My organization emphasis human resource. High Points collision important. B My organization emphasis growth and acquiring Points new resources. Readiness to meet new _______ and morale in the firm are _______

challenges is important. C My organization emphasis smooth permanence operations and Points are _______

stability. important.

Efficient,

D My organization emphasis competitive actions Points and achievement. Measurable goals are _______

important.

7.2 Tables and Calculation

7.2.1 Clan Culture

Respondent No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Job Satisfaction Mean 6.0 7.0 4.8 3.8 4.4 4.4 4.2 2.6 4.0 5.2 4.2 5.0 5.6 4.2 4.0

High Satisfaction H H H

Low Satisfaction

L H H H L H H H H H H H

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Total Percentage

5.6 6.6 4.2 4.2 5.4 6.4 1.0 4.6 6.2 3.2 4.8 5.6 4.8 3.0 6.2 5.6 5.2 4.8 2.6 4.4 163.8

H H H H H H L H H L H H H L H H H H L

H 29 82.86% 6 17.14%

7.2.2 Adhocracy Culture

Respondent No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total Percentage

Job Satisfaction Mean 3.2 5.2 5.8 4.8 5.0 5.8 5.0 4.0 5.4 2.6 6.0 6.4 59.2

High Satisfaction

Low Satisfaction L

H H H H H H H H L H H 10 83.33% 2 16.67%

7.2.3 Hierarchy Culture

Respondent No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Job Satisfaction Mean 4.0 4.2 3.8 5.4 3.2 5.2 2.6 4.4 3.0 4.0 2.8 5.4 5.0 3.0 5.2 4.2 1.0

High Satisfaction H H

Low Satisfaction

L H L H L H L H L H H L H H L

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total Percentage

3.6 3.8 5.4 3.6 2.8 5.4 4.8 4.4 5.2 3.8 3.0 3.2 5.6 121 H 16 53.33 H H H H H

L L

L L

L L L

14 46.67

7.2.4 Market Culture

Respondent No. 1 2

Job Satisfaction Mean 3.0 3.0

High Satisfaction

Low Satisfaction L L

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Total Percentage

4.4 4.6 4.2 4.8 3.2 2.8 5.2 3.8 3.8 4.2 5.6 2.6 4.4 3.2 3.6 3.2 5.8 4.4 4.8 3.2 4.6 92.4

H H H H L L H L L H H L H L L L H H H L H 12 52.17% 11 47.83%