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Lecture Notes on Transmission Line Theory

December 2009

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS

POLITECNICO DI TORINO

Chapter 1

**Transmission line equations and their solution
**

1.1 Introduction

Electromagnetic energy, once generated in one place, has a natural tendency to spread in the whole space at a speed close to 300.000 Km/s. In telecommunications this behavior can be useful when the user position is not known in advance, as in a broadcasting system or in a cell phone network. In other applications, instead, electromagnetic energy must be transferred from one place to the other along a well deﬁned path without any spreading at all: an example is the cabling of a building. In the most general terms, a transmission line is a system of metal conductors and/or dielectric insulating media that is capable of “guiding” the energy transfer between a generator and a load, irrespective (at least with a good approximation) of the bends that the line undergoes because of installation needs. From this point of view, a one dimensional propagation phenomenon takes place on a transmission line. There are many types of transmission lines, some examples of which are shown in Fig. 1.1. The various line types are used for diﬀerent applications in speciﬁc frequency ranges. Striplines and microstrips are used only inside devices, such as ampliﬁers or ﬁlters, and their lengths never exceeds some centimeters. Twisted pairs and coaxial cables are used for cabling a building but coaxial cables can also be used for intercontinental communications. Hollow metal pipes, known as waveguides, are used to deliver large amounts of microwave power over short to moderate distance. Waveguides can also be made of dielectric materials only, as in the case of optical ﬁbers. In this text we will deal only with structures consisting of two metal conductors, such as coaxial cables, microstrips and striplines. These can be deﬁned transmission lines in strict sense, whereas the others are more appropriately called metal or dielectric waveguides. More rigorously, all the structures of Fig. 1.1 are waveguides, but those of the ﬁrst type are characterized by the fact that their fundamental propagation mode is TEM (transverse electromagnetic) - or quasi-TEM in the case of microstrips - since they consist of two conductors. This implies that they can be used also at very low frequency - even at dc - irrespective of their size. Waveguides, in general, have a lowest frequency of operation, which depends on their transverse size. In conclusion, transmission lines are waveguides whose behaviour, at suﬃciently low frequency, is related to the TEM mode only. 1

1 – Transmission line equations and their solution

n3 n2 n1 b a c

d

e

Figure 1.1. Examples of transmission lines: (a) coaxial cable, (b) two wire line, (c) optical ﬁber, (d) microstrip , (e) stripline.

1.2

Electromagnetism background

The physical phenomena that take place in a transmission line belong to the realm of electromagnetism and hence, from a quantitative point of view, they are completely described by four vector ﬁelds: the electric ﬁeld E(r,t), the magnetic ﬁeld H(r,t), the electric displacement (or electric induction) D(r,t) and the magnetic induction B(r,t). The relationships between these ﬁelds and the sources (described by the current density J (r,t)) are speciﬁed by Maxwell equations, that are written in MKSA units as × E(r,t) × H(r,t) = − = ∂ B(r,t) ∂t

(1.1)

∂ D(r,t) + J c (r,t) + J (r,t) ∂t

Let us review the meaning of the symbols and the relevant measurement units.

E(r,t) H(r,t) D(r,t) B(r,t) J (r,t) J c (r,t)

electric ﬁeld magnetic ﬁeld electric induction magnetic induction current density (source) (conduction) current density

V/m A/m C/m2 Wb/m2 A/m2 [A/m2 ]

These equations must be supplemented with the constitutive relations, that describe the link 2

2) 0 E(r. isotropic.t) (1. i. The ratio L/λ0 is deﬁned electrical length of the structure and is a pure number.t) (1. have the values µ0 0 = = 4π · 10−7 H/m 1 1 ≈ · 10−9 2 µ0 c 36π F/m where the speed of light in free space c has the value c = 2. electromagnetic waves are characterized by a spatial period λ0 = c/f . the time harmonic (sinusoidal) regime with frequency f is very important. The size L of the structures with which the electromagnetic ﬁeld interacts must always be compared with wavelength.t) gives rise to a conduction current density J c (r.t) D(r. Moreover.t) where µ = = µ0 µr 0 r and µr . in the case of a plane wave. called wavelength. In these conditions. the ratio between the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds is called wave impedance and has the value Z0 = µ0 0 ≈ 120π ≈ 377 Ω In the case of linear.t) dielectric permittivity. both from a theoretical and from an application point of view. the presence of an electric ﬁeld E(r. = = µ0 H(r.t) dove γ is the conductivity of the dielectric. The simplest case is that of free space in which B(r. and µ0 magnetic permeability.99792458 · 108 m/s. essentially three regimes can be identiﬁed: 3 . the constitutive relations (1.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution between ﬁelds and inductions.2) are substituted by B(r. non dispersive dielectrics. When the dielectric contains free charges. All non ferromagnetic materials have values of µr very close to 1.3) D(r. It is known from Mathematics that a ﬁeld with “arbitrary” time dependence can be represented as a summation of sinusoidal ﬁelds with frequencies contained in a certain band (Fourier theorem). measured in S/m.t) = E(r. In this case λ0 denotes the minimum wavelength.t) where 0.e.t) = µ H(r.t) = γ E(r.t): J c (r. Depending on the value of L/λ0 . r (pure numbers) are the relative permittivity and permeabilities. Even if an electromagnetic ﬁeld can have an arbitrary time dependance. the one that corresponds to the maximum frequency. which is a sort of characteristic length of the ﬁeld spatial structure.

hence its behavior cannot be predicted by Kirchhoﬀ laws. e. mirrors. Typically. 1. that are applicable only to lumped parameter 4 . typical of distributed parameter circuits. typical of the usual optical components studied by classical optics (lenses.e. but they are commonly used also in the frequency band for which the electrical size of the network is very small. 1. Consider now one of the transmission lines shown in Fig. inductors. i.2a a coaxial cable is shown as an example. with L/λ0 ∼ 1.g..t). with a transverse cross section that is independent of the longitudinal coordinate z.3 Circuit model of a transmission line Consider a length of uniform transmission line. an electromagnetic system can be considered lumped provided the propagation delay is negligible with respect to the period of the oscillations. The equations that determine the dynamics of a transmission line could be obtained directly from Maxwell equations. a transmission line is characterized by inductance and capacitance per unit length. a transmission line can be long with respect to wavelength. As a consequence. The state variables of such a system are then v(z.t) and i(z. Lumped parameter circuit theory deals with the dynamics of systems made of elements of negligible electrical size.2b shows its symbol.) The solution technique of electromagnetic problems and even their modelling is diﬀerent depending on the regime of operation.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution • quasi-static regime. by generalizing the properties of lumped parameters networks. As previously remarked. with L/λ0 1. etc. 1. Indeed L L1 τ L = = = λ0 c/f cT T where T is the period of an oscillation with frequency f = 1/T and τ is the time that an electromagnetic wave requires to go from one end of the network to the other. their transverse size is small with respect to wavelength but their length can be very large. i. In Fig.2b. Hence. 1. in which voltage and currents depend on time and on a longitudinal coordinate that will always be indicated with z. Then. its schematic and conventional representation in the form of two parallel “wires” in which a current ﬂows and between which a potential diﬀerence exists. A circuit containing transmission lines is often called “distributed parameter circuit”to underline the fact that electromagnetic energy is not only stored in speciﬁc components. but for teaching convenience we will proceed in circuit terms. at DC. while a lumped parameter circuit is modeled as point like. but also in the space surrounding the conductors of a line. This condition can be reformulated in terms of transit time. The state variables employed in the model are the potential diﬀerence vrs (t) between two nodes Pr and Ps of a network and the electric current irs (t) that ﬂows in the branch deﬁned by the same two nodes. Fig. For this reason one says that a lumped parameter circuit operates in quasistatic regime. a transmission line is a one dimensional system. typical of lumped parameter circuits • the resonance regime . i.e.1. It is evident that all two conductor transmission lines have the same circuit symbol shown in Fig. analyzed in this text • the optical regime. these quantities are deﬁned uniquely only in static conditions. 1.. with L/λ0 1. Rigorously. capacitors.e.

3. However we can subdivide the line in a large number of suﬃciently short elements ∆z λ. by deﬁnition. power is dissipated in the metal conductors because of their limited conductivity: hence.t) /∆z 5∆z i(z+∆z. but for the other transmission lines one can proceed similarly .1 – Transmission line equations and their solution (a) Figure 1. derive a lumped equivalent circuit for each of them and then analyze the resulting structure by the usual methods of circuit theory. b) Equivalent circuit of the element we use physical arguments. This ﬁeld gives rise to a linked ﬂux through the rectangle shown in Fig. the equivalent circuit contains a series resistance with value R∆z.3. 1. To obtain the equivalent circuit ∆z i(z. We start by observing that the current ﬂowing in the conductors produces a magnetic ﬁeld with force lines surrounding the conductors. 1. To this end we will let ∆z go to zero. Moreover.t) &∆z *∆z v(z+∆z.t) v(z. measured in H/m is the inductance per unit length of the line. Hence. the inductance of the element that we can write as L∆z because the surface of the rectangle is clearly proportional to ∆z. as a consequence of the potential diﬀerence maintained between the inner and outer conductors. The proportionality factor relating the ﬂux to the current is.t) (a) (b) Figure 1. where R is the resistance per unit length of the line.2. Analogously. so that we will be able to derive a set of partial diﬀerential equations that can be solved in closed form. The surface used to deﬁne L is shown dashed. We will instead follow a diﬀerent route because we are interested in an analytical solution of the problem. we make reference to the coaxial cable. (b) (a) Length of coaxial cable and (b) its symbolic representation circuits.3 shows an element of the line with its equivalent circuit. a) Element ∆z of a coaxial cable. a charge is induced on them. This is actually the modeling technique used in some circuit simulators. expressed in Ω/m. L. The proportionality constant that relates the charge on 5 . Fig.

which is responsible of a current ﬂowing from one conductor to the other through the insulator. that must completed with boundary and initial conditions.t) ∂z ∂t (1.4) Next divide both sides by ∆z and take the limit for ∆z → 0.t) + C ∆z v(z + ∆z.4. the capacitance of the element. The incremental ratios in the left hand side become partial derivatives with respect to z and.t) + L ∂ i(z. Finally.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution the ∆z element to the potential diﬀerence is. 1. Heaviside 1880): − ∂ v(z. Alternative equivalent circuits of an element of transmission line.t) − i(z + ∆z. coupled.t) = R ∆z i(z. where C is the capacitance per unit length of the line.t) ∂t (1. we obtain the transmission line equations (Telegrapher’s equations.5.t) ∂z ∂t It is to be remarked that any other disposition of the circuit elements.t) = G v(z.t) + C v(z.t) = R i(z.5) ∂ ∂ − i(z. by deﬁnition.3b: v(z. L Fundamental circuit comprising a generator and a load connected by a transmission line. that we write C∆z. 6 . this phenomenon is accounted for by the conductance G∆z.4. noting the continuity of v(z. where G is the conductance per unit length of the line. the dielectric between the conductors has a non zero conductivity. Since ∆z λ Kirchhoﬀ laws can be applied to the circuit of Fig. Figure 1. measured in S/m.t). partial diﬀerential equations. such as those of Fig. From a circuit point of view.t) ∂t i(z. measured in F/m. Rg + e(t) RL 0 Figure 1.t) = ∂ G ∆z v(z + ∆z.5) are a system of ﬁrst order.t) − v(z + ∆z. Equations (1. leads exactly to the same diﬀerential equations. 1.t) + L ∆z ∂ i(z.

not always is a transmission line excited only at its ends. It is clear that the boundary conditions to be associated to (1.t) dt dt dt C The initial conditions to be speciﬁed are vc (0) and i(0). in this case) is v(z. 1. Concerning the boundary conditions (1.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution Usually. both the load impedance and the internal impedance of the generator have been assumed real. 1. Typically.t)+ v (z.e. D and N are two formal polynomials in the operator d/dt.5. i.8) ◦ ∂ ∂ − i(z. hence. without forcing term. eq.t) ∂z ∂t (1. v0 (z) ≡ 0 e i0 (z) ≡ 0 0 ≤ z ≤ L We observe that (1. at t = 0 the line is at rest and. which express the voltage across the capacitor and the current in the inductor at the time t = 0. 1. we can say that the system is excited via the boundary condition in z = 0. a line connects a generator to a load.0) = i(z. In problems of electromagnetic compatibility one studies the eﬀect of a wave that impinges on the transmission line: the phenomenon is not a point-like excitation and can be modeled by means of a set of voltage and current generators “distributed” along the the line with a density per unit length ◦ ◦ v (z.t) + L ∂ i(z.t) + C v(z. where. Moreover.t)+ i (z. For example.7 and correspondingly eq. In this case the equivalent circuit of a line element has the form shown in Fig.t) = N ( ) i(L.t) = R i(L.5) is a system of homogeneous equations.t) = v(0. the second is homogeneous.t) + i(L. 1.t) = v(L.7) to be completed with the initial conditions for the reactive components of the load network. the ﬁrst is nonhomogeneous. if the load network is that of Fig. but is formulated as an ordinary diﬀerential equation of the type D( d d ) v(L.7 takes the form: d d2 1 d v(L.5) are: In z = 0 In z = L e(t) − Rg i(0. In the case the load network contains reactive elements.t) = R i(z.6).t). the boundary condition is not of algebraic type.6) RL i(L.5) become ◦ − ∂ v(z. (1.t) ∂z ∂t 7 .t) e i (z.t) = G v(z. This is the simplest circuit comprising a transmission line. as sketched in Fig.0) = v0 (z) i0 (z) 0≤z≤L 0≤z≤L where v0 (z) e i0 (z) are known (real) functions.t) dt dt (1. In the case the line is initially at rest. the initial condition that specify the initial state of the reactive components (only of the line.t) + L 2 i(L. In the applications.t) ∀t ≥ 0 (1.t) ∀t ≥ 0 where e(t) is a given causal function.6. for simplicity.

proper evolutions. Other common names are free evolutions. We will ﬁnd that the general solution is the linear combination of two normal modes of the system.t) Figure 1. We are going to focus ﬁrst on the homogeneous equation. It is well known that the general solution of a linear non-homogeneous diﬀerential equation is given by the sum of a particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation and the general solution of the associated homogeneous equation.t) R v(L.t) L C vC(L. since they contain a forcing term. o /∆z 5∆z v ++ o ] i ] &∆z *∆z Figure 1. a capacitor C and an inductor L. Load network with reactive components. Equivalent circuit of a line element ∆z when distributed generators are present on the transmission line. Diﬀerentiate the ﬁrst equation with respect to z and the 8 .t) describe source terms and therefore are to be considered as known. The functions v (z.8) deﬁne a non-homogeneous problem. without sources.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution i(L. called forward wave and backward wave. Eq.6.t) and i (z. ◦ ◦ 1. consisting of a series connection of a resistor R. Wave equations and their solutions A transmission line is called ideal when the ohmic losses in the conductors and in the insulators can be neglected. resonant solutions. The line equations.7. (1. become in this case ∂v + L ∂i = 0 ∂z ∂t (1.t) alone.4 Lossless lines.9) ∂i ∂v +C = 0 ∂z ∂t From this system of ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equations we can obtain a single second order equation for the voltage v(z.

t).t) obeys a wave equation identical to (1.10) can be solved by a change of variable technique. the wave equation in the new variables becomes ∂2v =0 ∂ξ∂η that is ∂ ∂η ∂v ∂ξ 9 =0 . We need the chain rule of multivariable calculus. η = z + vph t The old variables are expressed in terms of the new ones as z= 1 (ξ + η). The wave equation for an inﬁnitely long ideal transmission line. in order to obtain the current i(z.0) = i0 (z) (1. i(z. 2vph Now rewrite the wave equation in the new variables. voltage and current are inextricably linked. ∂v ∂v ∂ξ ∂v ∂η ∂v ∂v = + = + ∂z ∂ξ ∂z ∂η ∂z ∂ξ ∂η ∂v ∂v ∂ξ ∂v ∂η = + = −vph ∂t ∂ξ ∂t ∂η ∂t and also ∂2v ∂ = ∂z 2 ∂ξ ∂v ∂v + ∂ξ ∂η + ∂ ∂η ∂v ∂v + ∂ξ ∂η ∂v ∂v − ∂η ∂ξ ∂v ∂v − ∂ξ ∂η = ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v +2 + 2 ∂ξ 2 ∂ξ∂η ∂η ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v −2 + 2 2 ∂η ∂ξ∂η ∂ξ ∂ ∂2v = vph ∂t2 ∂η ∂v ∂v − ∂η ∂ξ vph − ∂ ∂ξ 2 vph = vph Using these two last expressions.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution second with respect to t: 2 2 ∂ v +L ∂ i ∂z 2 ∂z ∂t = 0 ∂2i ∂2v +C 2 = 0 ∂t ∂z ∂t The two mixed derivatives are equal under the usual regularity conditions for i(z.9 ) must be associated to (1. diﬀerentiate the ﬁrst of (1.9) with respect to t and the second with respect to z. 2 t= 1 (η − ξ). To obtain it.10). Deﬁne the new independent variables ξ = z − vph t. Obviously one of the two (1. Observe that also the current i(z.0) = v0 (z).10). with the initial conditions v(z. Recall in fact that on a transmission line.t) and we obtain ∂2v ∂2v − LC 2 = 0 ∂z 2 ∂t This equation is known as wave equation (in one dimension) because its solutions (obtained by √ d’Alembert in 1747) are waves propagating along the line with speed ±vph = ±1/ LC.

η) = f (ξ)dξ + f2 (η) where f2 is an arbitrary function of η. consider (1. eq.η) = f1 (ξ) + f2 (η) This is the general solution of the wave equation.e. an arbitrary function ξ. (1. We have introduced the symbol f1 (ξ) to denote the integral of the arbitrary function f (ξ). i.9) from which ∂i 1 ∂v =− ∂t L ∂z that is i(z.11) ∂v = v + (z − vph t) + v − (z + vph t) ∂z 1 L 1 = − L and i(z.t) = − v + (z − vph t)dt + − 1 vph v + (ξ)dξ + v − (z + vph t)dt 1 vph v − (η)dη = Y∞ {v + (z − vph t) − v − (z + vph t)} were the quantity Y∞ = Siemens.12).1 – Transmission line equations and their solution whose solution is ∂v = f (ξ) ∂ξ where f is a constant with respect to η. we must obtain the functions v + (ξ) and v − (η) in such a way that the initial conditions (1.10) are satisﬁed. S. written for t = 0.t) = v + (z − vph t) + v − (z + vph t) (1. Rewrite the previous equation as v(ξ. C/L is called characteristic admittance of the line and is measured in In conclusion. By integrating the previous equation. yield v0 (z) = v + (z) + v − (z) i0 (z) = Y∞ v + (z) − Y∞ v − (z). ∂z (1. the general solution of the transmission line equations can be written as v(z.12) Y∞ v + (z − vph t) − Y∞ v − (z + vph t).t) = − From (1. To complete the solution of the initial value problem.t)dt. we get v(ξ. Now. 10 . Returning to the original variables. To derive the expression of the current.t) = v + (z − vph t) + v − (z + vph t) where the more appropriate symbols v + e v − have been introduced in place of f1 e f2 .11) we compute 1 L ∂ v(z. we get v(z.t) = i(z.

based on the use of Fourier transforms.t) = i(z. obtained for the ﬁrst time by d’Alembert. Recall that the general solution of an ordinary diﬀerential equation contains arbitrary constants. The arbitrariness is removed when a particular solution is constructed. which satisﬁes initial/boundary conditions. deﬁned by ∞ F (ω) = −∞ f (t) e−jωt dt = F{f (t)} 11 (1.14) .5 Review of Fourier transforms and phasors ∞ It is known that for every absolutely integrable function of time f (t). Note that the electric state on the line depends on z e t only through the combinations t − z/vph e t + z/vph : this is the only constraint enforced by the wave equation. i. these equations can be rewritten v(z. 2 2 Y∞ 1 [v0 (z − vph t) + v0 (z + vph t)] + [i0 (z − vph t) − i0 (z + vph t)] .13) where F (ω) is the Fourier transform. The solution for t > 0 is obtained by substituting the argument z with z − vph t in v + and z + vph t in v − . It is possible also to employ another method. whereas a partial diﬀerential equation contains arbitrary functions. This is the only possible one in the case of ﬁnite length lossy lines and will be presented now after a short review of phasors and Fourier transforms. | f (t) | dt < ∞ −∞ the spectral representation exists: f (t) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ F (ω) ejωt dω (1.t) = Z∞ 1 [v0 (z − vph t) + v0 (z + vph t)] + [i0 (z − vph t) − i0 (z + vph t)] . we ﬁnd v + (z) = v − (z) = 1 [v0 (z) + Z∞ i0 (z)]. 2 2 Alternatively.t) = i(z.e. 2 2 Y∞ Y∞ [v0 (z − vph t) + Z∞ i0 (z − vph t)] + [v0 (z + vph t) − Z∞ i0 (z + vph t)] .t) = 1 1 [v0 (z − vph t) + Z∞ i0 (z − vph t)] + [v0 (z + vph t) − Z∞ i0 (z + vph t)] . of f (t).12): v(z. 2 In this way the functions v + e v − are determined.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution Solving by sum and diﬀerence. as it follows from (1. or spectrum. 1. 2 2 one can immediately verify that these expression satisfy the initial conditions. The solution method just presented is the classical one. 2 1 [v0 (z) − Z∞ i0 (z)].

by Euler’s formula ∞ (1.14). so that the signal (1.8. In the applications.e. the part of spectrum corresponding to the negative frequencies does not add information to that associated with the positive frequencies. Even if the Fourier transform is deﬁned for complex time functions. ω 12 . harmonic).13). ω0 Spectrum of a sinusoidal signal.15) In other words. This implies that the following relation holds: F (−ω) = F ∗ (ω) (1. F(ω) -ω0 Figure 1.18) πF0 ejφ δ(ω − ω0 ) + πF0 e−jφ δ(ω + ω0 ) This spectrum consists of two “lines” (Dirac δ functions) at the frequencies ±ω0 . very often signals are sinusoidal (i.17) is also called monochromatic. that is of the type f (t) = F0 cos(ω0 t + φ) Let us compute the spectrum of this signal by means of (1.17) F (ω) = −∞ F0 cos(ω0 t + φ) e−jωt dt = ∞ −∞ = = F0 2 ej(ω0 t+φ) e−jωt dt + F0 2 ∞ −∞ e−j(ω0 t+φ) e−jωt dt = (1. each one with (inﬁnitesimal) amplitude F (ω) dω. the spectrum of a real function is complex hermitian. there is a one-to-one correspondence between the derivative operator in time domain and the multiplication by jω in the frequency domain. A very useful property of Fourier transforms is the following: F df dt = jω F{f (t)} = jω F (ω) (1.e. This representation underlines the importance of sinusoidal functions in the analysis of linear systems.16) i. the physical quantities such as voltage and current are real functions.13) is that the function f (t) can be represented as a (continuous) sum of sinusoidal functions.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution The meaning of (1. provided they satisfy (1.

13): f (t) = = F0 2 ejφ ∞ −∞ δ(ω − ω0 ) ejωt dω + e−jφ ∞ −∞ δ(ω + ω0 ) ejωt dω = F0 jφ jω0 t e e + e−jφ ejω0 t = 2 (1.19) can be deﬁned as the inverse transform formula for phasors. F = Ph{f (t)} the following property holds Ph df dt = jω0 F This equation is formally identical to (1. It is important to remember. that we rewrite here for convenience: ∂v + L ∂i = 0 ∂z ∂t ∂i ∂v +C ∂z ∂t 13 = 0 . Because of the very close connection between phasors and Fourier transforms. calling Ph the one-to-one correspondence that associates a time-harmonic signal to its phasor. whereas its transform is measured in V/Hz. This is obvious if we consuider eq.19) = Re F0 ejφ ejω0 t The quantity F = F0 exp(jφ) is generally called phasor of the harmonic signal f (t) and coincides. For example. the phasor of a voltage is measured in V.18) through the inverse transform formula (1. Moreover. however.6 Transmission line equations in the frequency domain Let us apply now these concepts to the ideal transmission line equations. apart from the factor π.18) and note the well known property ∞ δ(ω) dω = 1 −∞ which implies that the Dirac function δ(ω) has dimensions Hz−1 . that phasors and transforms have diﬀerent physical dimensions: • phasors have the same dimensions as the corresponding time harmonic quantity • transforms are spectral densities. (1. Note. whereas ω0 is the speciﬁc angular frequency of the harmonic signal under consideration. however. that ω denotes a generic angular frequency.15). with the coeﬃcient of the Dirac δ function with support in ω = ω0 . we can say that any equation in the ω domain can be interpreted both as an equation between transforms and as an equation between phasors and this justiﬁes the use of the same symbol F for the two concepts. eq. (1. 1.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution Let us now proceed in the opposite direction and derive the time domain signal from its spectrum (1. Observe further that.

observing that z is to be considered as a parameter in this operation: − d V (z.ω) = I(z. (1. We must remember. Proceeding in a similar way on the wave equation (1.10). ± Then.ω) = V0+ (ω) e−jkz + V0− (ω) e+jkz (1.t)} are the Fourier transform of voltage and current.1. has been introduced.21) + − I0 (ω) e−jkz + I0 (ω) e+jkz ± where V0± (ω) and I0 (ω) are arbitrary constants with respect to z (but dependent on ω.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution Take the Fourier transforms of both sides. of course. (1. These equations have constant coeﬃcients (because of the assumed uniformity of the transmission line) and their general solution is a linear combination of two independent solutions. its solution contains only two arbitrary constants. we obtain d2 V (z.ω) + k 2 I(z.ω) = jω L I(z.20) d − I(z.9)) and hence.ω) = 0 dz 2 and d2 I(z.ω) = F{i(z. which we can ﬁnd by obtaining I(z. Eq. however.ω) dz where V (z. between V0± (ω) and I0 (ω) two relations must exist.22) can be rewritten as I(z.ω) = Y∞ V0+ (ω) e−jkz − Y∞ V0− (ω) e+jkz 14 .ω) = jω C V (z. As such one could choose sin kz and cos kz but exp(+jkz) and exp(−jkz) have a nicer interpretation. which is a parameter).ω) from the ﬁrst of (1.22) = Note that 1 jkV0+ e−jkz − jkV0− (ω) e+jkz jωL √ ω LC 1 k C = = = Y∞ = ωL ωL L Z∞ where we have introduced the characteristic admittance and characteristic impedance of the line.ω) dz (1. The characteristic impedance is denoted by the symbol Z∞ since it coincides with the input impedance of a semi-inﬁnite line. These equations can be called Helmholtz equations in one dimension. that the transmission line equations are a 2×2 ﬁrst order system (see eq.ω) + k 2 V (z. with the dimensions of the inverse of a length. Hence. as it will be shown in section 5.21): I(z) = 1 jωL − dV dz = (1.ω) = F{v(z. as it is obvious since transmission lines are a linear time-invariant (LTI) system. we can write V (z.t)} and I(z.ω) = 0 dz 2 √ where the quantity k = ω LC. Note that the transmission line equations have become ordinary diﬀerential equations in the spectral domain. the spectral components of voltage and current at diﬀerent frequencies are uncoupled. Their counterpart in two or three dimensions are very important for the study of waveguides and resonators. Moreover.20) by substituting (1.

25) (1. We can use the inverse transform rule of phasors f (t) = Re{F ejω0 t } so that we obtain: v(z.ω) = V0+ (ω) e−jkz + V0− (ω) e+jkz (1.t) − Y∞ v − (z. the current is proportional to the voltage via the characteristic admittance.ω) = I(z. By enforcing its diﬀerential to be zero d (ω0 t − k0 z + arg(V0+ )) = ω0 dt − k0 dz = 0 we ﬁnd the condition that must be satisﬁed: dz ω0 ω0 1 = = √ =√ = vph dt k0 ω0 LC LC Hence we say that the ﬁrst term of (1. in which only one spectral component at ω0 is present. Note that also the ﬁrst term of the expression of the current describes a forward wave: in particular. It is to be remarked that when the dielectric is homogeneous. so that the signals are monochromatic.24) where k0 = ω0 LC. Consider the ﬁrst term of the expression of v(z. It is clear that the value of the cosine function is constant if the argument is constant. sketched in Fig.21). called wave. In conclusion.t) + v − (z. so that the propagation mode is rigorously TEM. it is necessary to transform them back to time domain.26) (1. The propagation velocity of a wave (phase velocity) can be deﬁned as the velocity an observer must have in order to see the wave phase unchanging. Consider ﬁrst the simplest case.9. LC = 15 r r c2 . as a consequence. 1.t).1 – Transmission line equations and their solution From the comparison between this equation and the second one of (1. It is a function of z and of t. it can be shown that c vph = √ and.t) = v + (z. the general solution of transmission line equations in the spectral domain are V (z.25) represents a forward wave because it moves with positive √ phase velocity equal top 1/ LC.t) = Y∞ v + (z.23) Y∞ V0+ (ω) e−jkz − Y∞ V0− (ω) e+jkz To understand fully the meaning of these two equations. it follows + I0 (ω) = Y∞ V0+ (ω) − e I0 (ω) = −Y∞ V0− (ω) which are the desired relations.t) = = Y∞ | V0+ | cos(ω0 t − k0 z + arg(V0+ )) + − √ Y∞ | V0− | cos(ω0 t + k0 z + arg(V0− )) (1.t) = = | V0+ | cos(ω0 t − k0 z + arg(V0+ )) + + | V0− | cos(ω0 t + k0 z + arg(V0− )) i(z.

1. (b) a backward wave and (c) a stationary wave on a short circuited transmission line. The two curves are obviously periodic and we can deﬁne two periods: • the temporal period T = 2π/ω0 is the time interval during which the wave phase changes of 2π radians (note that ω0 is the time rate of change of the wave phase) • the spatial period or wavelength λ = 2π/k0 is the distance over which the wave phase changes by 2π radians (note that k0 is the space rate of change of the wave phase) From this deﬁnition and from that of k0 we ﬁnd at once fλ = ω0 1 ω0 2π = =√ = vph 2π k0 k0 LC 16 .10.9. The second (b) shows the distribution of the forward voltage on the line at a speciﬁc time instant t = t0 . The ﬁrst (a) shows the time evolution of the forward voltage in a speciﬁc point of the line z = z0 .1 – Transmission line equations and their solution Figure 1. Tree dimensional representation of (a) a forward wave. Consider now the plots of Fig.

we say that a (strictly) stationary wave is present. moving with negative phase velocity ω0 1 vph = − = −√ k0 LC Moreover. t 0 ) V0+ 1 0 -1 0 + λ 1 0 -1 0 5 10 15 5 10 15 (a) t (b) z Figure 1. When on a transmission line both the forward and the backward wave are present with the same amplitude. 1. with | V − |=| V + | can be rewritten in 17 . plotted in Fig. Also in this case.10. are the two sides of a same coin. Consider now the second term of the expression of the voltage (1. and also T vph = λ: in other words. The minus sign in the impedance relation for the backward wave arises because the positive current convention of the forward wave is used also for the backward one.25). In conclusion. with similar argument as above. the current is proportional to the voltage via the factor −Y∞ . t ) V0+ + T 2 v ( z. 1. Forward and backward waves on the line are the two normal modes of the system. In any case.25). what is referred to by the term stationary wave is the interference pattern of two waves.9 the straight lines z = vph t are clearly recognizable as the direction of the wave crests .4: the general solution of the transmission line equations is expressed as linear combination of two waves. that it describes a backward wave. even if ordinarily used. Each wave is made of voltage and current that. We ﬁnd immediately. the wave crests are aligned on the straight lines z = −vph t. (a) Time evolution of the forward wave in a ﬁxed point of the line and (b) distribution of the forward voltage on the line at a speciﬁc time instant.9b. (1. The proportionality between voltage and current of the same wave (called impedance relationship) + I0 (ω) = Y∞ V0+ (ω) − e I0 (ω) = −Y∞ V0− (ω) is only apparently diﬀerent in the two cases. In the spacetime plot of Fig.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution 2 v ( z0 . whereas they are in general coupled by the boundary conditions (generator and load) if the line has ﬁnite length. Actually. a forward one propagating in the direction of increasing z and a backward one. in a certain sense. It is important to observe that the two waves are absolutely identical since the transmission line is uniform and hence is reﬂection symmetric. They are independent (uncoupled) if the line is of inﬁnite length. the name given to the phenomenon is related to the fact that eq. is improper since a wave is always travelling at the phase speed. a wave moves over the distance of a wavelength during the time interval of a temporal period. moving in the opposite direction. This deﬁnition. we ﬁnd again the result of Section 1.

9a e b suggest.33) I0 cos kz − jY∞ V0 sin kz 18 = 1 2 (V0 + Z∞ I0 ) e−jkz + 1 (V0 − Z∞ I0 ) e+jkz 2 + I0 ) e −jkz (1.32) 1 2 (Y∞ V0 − 1 2 (Y∞ V0 − I0 ) e +jkz . 1. Fig.5.t) = 2Y∞ | V0+ | sin[ω0 t + (arg(V0+ ) + arg(V0− ))] · sin[k0 z − (arg(V0+ ) − arg(V0− ))] (1. (1. also in z = 0: V (0) I(0) = V0+ + V0− = Y∞ V0+ − Y∞ V0− = = V0 (1.. Further considerations will be made in Section 3. 1.7 Propagation of the electric state and geometrical interpretations V (z) = I(z) = V0+ e−jkz + V0− e+jkz Y∞ V0+ e−jkz − Y∞ V0− e+jkz We have obtained the general solution of the transmission line equations in the form (1.28) 2 2 i. as a product of a function of z and of a function of t.e.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution factorized form: 1 1 v(z.27) 1.e. even at intuitive level. (1.29) hold in any point z and.9c shows a spacetime plot of v(z.t). in particular.e.20). Whereas Figs.30) I0 from which V0+ e V0− can be obtained: V0+ V0− = = 1 2 (V0 1 2 (V0 + Z∞ I0 ) (1. Suppose then that the electric state of the line is given at z = 0. this plot is clearly characteristic of a stationary phenomenon. an idea of movement. Equations (1.t) = 2 | V0+ | cos[ω0 t + (arg(V0+ ) + arg(V0− ))] · cos[k0 z − (arg(V0+ ) − arg(V0− ))] 2 2 and 1 1 i(z. I(z) in an arbitrary point z. we solve the initial value problem associated to eq. V (z) = I(z) = V0 cos kz − jZ∞ I0 sin kz (1.31) − Z∞ I0 ) Substituting these relations into (1. i. V (0) = V0 and I(0) = I0 are given: we want to ﬁnd the state V (z). In order to understand better the meaning of these equations.29) where the two arbitrary constants V0+ e V0− appear. via Euler’s formula.29) we ﬁnd V (z) = I(z) i.

(1.35) with complex coeﬃcients V0+ e−jkz e V0− e+jkz . It is convenient to rewrite also eq. Geometric representation of the electric state of a transmission line.11.0)] which relates the state in a generic point z to that in the origin z = 0. viewed as a two-port device. ψ2 = 1 −Y∞ (1. In the light of these considerations. Since voltage and current in a point of the line deﬁne the system state. This matrix is known as transition matrix in the context of dynamical systems (in which the state variables are real and the independent variable is time) but coincides with the chain matrix (ABCD) of the transmission line length. the state in a generic point z is obtained as a linear combination of two basis states ψ1 = 1 Y∞ . In the general case. respectively. we can introduce a two dimensional complex state space (isomorphic to C2 ) each point of which correspond to a possible operation condition of the transmission line. V ψ2 ψ1 I Figure 1. Assuming for simplicity of drawing that in a point of the line voltage and current are real.33) in vector form: V (z) I(z) = cos kz −jY∞ sin kz −jZ∞ sin kz cos kz V0 I0 (1.36) [T (z.11. The state is a function of z and the corresponding point moves on a trajectory in the state space. the situation is that sketched in Fig. we can rewrite (1. (1.34) In other words. Obviously the two basis states are the forward and backward waves discussed before.29) in vector form: V (z) I(z) = V0+ 1 Y∞ e−jkz + V0− 1 −Y∞ e+jkz (1.29) is called travelling wave type solution. 19 . Forward and backward voltages are then interpreted as excitation coeﬃcients of these waves.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution This form of the solution is called stationary wave type solution whereas eq. four real dimensions would be necessary for this type of plot. in the state space we can describe the excitation of the line with reference to the “natural basis” V e I or to the vectors ψ1 e ψ2 . 1. As in the cartesian plane of analytic geometry diﬀerent reference systems can be used.0)] where we have introduced the matrix [T (z. It is useful to describe the propagation phenomenon on the transmission line in geometric terms.

1. notice that if the total voltage is zero in a point. In algebraic terms this state vector is eigenvector of the transition matrix [T (z.ω) dz − d I(z. it is not identically zero on the line (apart for the trivial case of a non excited line). we can say that in the propagation the state vector remains parallel to itself since it is only multiplied by the scalar exp{−jkz}. both modes are excited. For comparison. e ψ2 are not orthogonal (if Z∞ = 1Ω). A completely analogous property holds for the backward wave (vettore ψ2 ). In other words.31).38) = V0+ 1 Y∞ (1.ω) = jω L I(z. Otherwise. Suppose we know voltage and current in the point z0 of the line and we want to compute the corresponding values in an arbitrary point z.39) V0 ψ(z. we want to solve the initial value problem − d ψ(z. Note that ψ1 . In this section we obtain the same result directly from the ﬁrst order system.ω) dz (1. whose components in the natural basis are total voltage and current.37) In geometric terms. with coeﬃcients given by (1. Indeed. if we wish that on a transmission line only one of the basis states is excited. with eigenvalue exp{−jkz}. Hence these equations describe the change of basis. Assume for instance that the backward wave is not excited in the point z = 0: it will be absent on the whole transmission line. in the origin V0 I0 By means of (1.36) we ﬁnd immediately V (z) I(z) = V0+ 1 Y∞ e−jkz (1.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution The basis of the two vectors ψ1 e ψ2 has peculiar properties with respect to all the other bases that could be introduced in the state space. with a more abstract technique.ω) The system can be rewritten as a single diﬀerential equation for the state vector ψ(z). it is necessary that V0 /I0 = ±Z∞ .ω) = jω A · ψ(z.8 Solution of transmission line equations by the matrix technique In the previous sections we have found the solution of transmission line equations from the second order equation. which has the advantage that the geometrical interpretation of forward and backward waves as modes of the system is almost automatic. Conversely.ω) dz = jω C V (z. Consider again the transmission line equations in the spectral domain − d V (z.0)].ω)| = ψ0 = z=z0 I0 where we use a double underline to denote matrices and A= 0 C 20 L 0 .

.41) term by term. .40).39). . . .ω) = exp −jωA(z − z0 ) · ψ 0 where the exponential of the matrix is deﬁned by the series expansion: exp −jωA(z − z0 ) = I − jωA(z − z0 ) − where I is the identity matrix.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution It is well known that the solution of this problem can be written in the form ψ(z.41) and (1. .] I+ 2! 4! √ 1 (ω(z − z0 ))3 ( LC)2 + 3! 0 C L 0 0 C L 0 2n+1 2n (1.40) 1 2 2 ω A (z − z0 )2 + . 2! (1. Note ﬁrst that A2n = and A2n+1 = Hence the series (1.41) √ = ( LC)2n I √ = ( LC)2n 0 C L 0 j[ω(z − z0 ) − √ 1 (ω(z − z0 ))5 ( LC)4 + . by diﬀerentiating (1. Indeed.40) satisﬁes (1. It is simple to verify that (1.] A 5! 21 + .] A 5! 1 √ 1 √ (ω LC(z − z0 ))2 + (ω LC(z − z0 ))4 + . . . (1.] I+ 2! 4! We modify slightly the previous equation as follows exp −jωA(z − z0 ) = − [1 − √ √ 1 1 j √ [ω(z − z0 ) LC − (ω(z − z0 ))3 ( LC)3 + 3! LC √ 1 (ω(z − z0 ))5 ( LC)5 + . . .41) reduces to exp −jωA(z − z0 ) = − + [1 − 1 √ 1 √ (ω LC(z − z0 ))2 + (ω LC(z − z0 ))4 + . (which is allowed by the fact that the series converges uniformly for all matrices A and all (complex) z) we ﬁnd d − exp −jωA(z − z0 ) = jωA exp −jωA(z − z0 ) dz so that d d = − exp −jωA(z − z0 ) · ψ 0 − exp −jωA(z − z0 ) · ψ 0 dz dz = jωA exp −jωA(z − z0 ) · ψ 0 = jωA · ψ The matrix exponential can be computed directly by eqs.

35). Hence we compute ﬁrst the eigenvectors of A. Moreover L 0 1 0 Z∞ C √ A= = Y∞ 0 C LC 0 L so that. exp −jωA(z − z0 ) = 0 Y∞ Z∞ 0 cos k(z − z0 ) −jZ∞ sin k(z − z0 ) −jY∞ sin k(z − z0 ) cos k(z − z0 ) Even if we are now in the position to obtain the solution of the initial value problem (1. whose columns are the two eigenvectors : 1 1 M = C C − L L The matrix M .e. because in this basis the matrix is diagonal. (1. the “voltage” component).42) It can be shown that if f (x) is an analytic function. in conclusion.39). satisﬁes 0 C L 0 M =M λ1 0 0 λ2 . f 0 C L 0 =M 22 f (λ1 ) 0 0 f (λ2 ) M −1 . Deﬁne the modal matrix M . we will use instead a diﬀerent method that allows a more fruitful physical interpretation. together with the eigenvalue diagonal matrix. Indeed. since they are solutions of a homogeneous problem. . exp −jωA(z − z0 ) = cos k(z − z0 )I − j sin k(z − z0 ) i. it is known that a function of a (diagonalizable) matrix is easily computed in the basis of its eigenvectors. by left multiplication by M −1 .e.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution In the ﬁrst square parenthesis we recognize the Taylor expansion of cos k(z − z0 ) and in the second one the expansion of sin k(z − z0 ). by solving 0 L 1 0 u1 −λ =0 C 0 0 1 u2 We ﬁnd immediately √ λ1 = LC λ= √ λ2 = − LC [u1 ] = [u2 ] = 1 C/L 1 − C/L The eigenvectors have an arbitrary norm. Notice that they coincide with the basis states of (1. then f 0 C L 0 M =M f (λ1 ) 0 0 f (λ2 ) from which. we have chosen to set to one their ﬁrst component (i.

Eq. basis I0 basis V − 0 V0− ( z ) evolution initial point z0 Figure 1. final point 23 modal V0+ natural V0 V ( z) I ( z) M −1 M Td V0+ ( z ) z .ω) where =M exp{−jk(z − z0 )} 0 0 exp{+jk(z − z0 )} M −1 V (z0 .ω) = cos k(z − z0 ) −jY∞ sin k(z − z0 ) −jZ∞ sin k(z − z0 ) cos k(z − z0 ) V (z0 .36).45) is the ﬁnal result of the computation. 1.43) is rewritten as V (z.ω) I(z.ω) (1.12 shows pictorially the method described.40).45) [T (z. we obtain: V (z. Fig.z0 )] This equation is identical to (1.43) is fundamental for the interpretation. I to the modal basis of forward and backward waves. but (1.ω) (1.1 – Transmission line equations and their solution Applying this property to the exponential of the matrix in (1. The inverse of M is Td = [M ]−1 = 1 1 2 1 L C L − C (1. from the natural basis V . because it makes explicit the change of basis .ω) I(z0 .12.ω) I(z.43) exp{−jk(z − z0 )} 0 0 exp{+jk(z − z0 )} √ is the evolution matrix in the modal basis and k = ω LC. apart from the fact that the initial point is in z = z0 instead of the origin. (1.ω) I(z0 .44) so that (1.

l. separated by a dielectric (see Fig.2 shows a plot of Z∞ .u. r where the logarithms are natural (basis e).1) (2. log(D/d) µ0 1 log 0 r 2π L= µ0 log 2π D d . We can observe that 24 . 2.2) (2. we show only the expressions of the inductance and capacitance p. The two conductors. Fig.3) Z∞ = D 60 D ≈ √ log( ).2 Coaxial cable The coaxial cable is a transmission line consisting of two coaxial cylindrical conductors.).1 shows the ﬁeld lines of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of the TEM mode. 2.l.l. 2. 2. G (conductance p.Chapter 2 Parameters of common transmission lines 2. C (capacitance p.l.). L e C versus the ratio of the conductor diameters. In particular. The expressions that yield these parameters as a function of the geometry of the structure require the solution of Maxwell equations for the various cases. If r denotes the relative permittivity of the insulator. In this chapter we limit ourselves to a list of equations for a number of common structures: the reader can consult the books in the bibliography for further details . the line parameters are given by: C= 2π 0 r . d d r c vf = √ .l.u. R (resistance p.u.1 Introduction In chapter 1 we have obtained the transmission line equations on the basis of a phenomenological model that contains four primary parameters: L (inductance per unit length. here shown as homogeneous. Fig. The parameters related to the losses will be shown in chapter 4.u.). p.).u. are often made of braided small diameter copper wires.1). (2. the fundamental one of this structure viewed as a waveguide.

those of the magnetic ﬁeld by dashed lines.the geometrical dimensions. The ﬁeld lines of the electric ﬁeld are shown by solid lines. If the operation frequency increases.ϕ. consistently with the fact that the TEM mode has zero cutoﬀ frequency. Figure 2. The maximum frequency for which the coaxial cable is single mode is approximately vf .5) 25 . (2.z) = V (z) 1 log(D/d) ρ (2.1. Coaxial cable.4) fmax = π(D + d) The corresponding minimum wavelength is λmin = π(D + d). the electric ﬁeld conﬁguration is that of a cylindrical capacitor.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines d D Figure 2.2. The electric ﬁeld in the cable is radial and its magnitude is given by E(ρ. a point is reached in which higher order modes start to propagate. Parameters of the coaxial cable vs.

3. The normalized maximum electric ﬁeld is Emax = 485.3V/m if the voltage V is 1V.92 Ω. outer conductor diameter D = 5. The ﬁeld lines of the electric ﬁeld are shown solid.35 pF/m. This structure has a true TEM mode only if the dielectric that surrounds the conductors is homogeneous and the formulas reported hereinafter refer to this case.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines where V (z) is the voltage. which means that the return conductor is connected to ground.2576 µH/m.7) (2. Hence the maximum electric ﬁeld. Hence the voltage of the other conductor is referred to ground.6) (2. with inner conductor diameter d =1. Z∞ = 50. se x 1. C = 99. Two-wire transmission line. r It may be useful to recall that cosh−1 x = log(1 + x2 − 1) ≈ log(2x). The parameters of the two-wire transmission line. of course. vf /c = 1/ r = 65. 2. π D d . the conductors are embedded in a thin insulating support structure. r = 2.3 Two-wire line The two-wire line consists of two parallel cylindrical conductors.8 mm.3. It is to be remarked that the coaxial cable is an unbalanced line.5 GHz. V (z) 1 log(D/d) d 2. not to be exceeded in order to avoid sparks. (2. In practice. fmax = 8. (2. 26 . those of the magnetic ﬁeld dashed. which causes the fundamental mode to be only approximately TEM.9) d D Figure 2.3 are: C= π 0 r .8) Z∞ = cosh−1 120 ≈ √ cosh−1 r c vf = √ . whose geometry is shown in Fig.6 mm. is on the surface of the inner conductor and has the value Emax = Example Compute the parameters of a cable.9%. √ Applying the previous formulas we get L = 0. cosh−1 (D/d) 1 π µ0 0 r L= D d µ0 cosh−1 (D/d).

The parameters of the two-wire line are: C= π 0 r . (2. On the contrary. 2. in which the wires have a diameter of 1. but if its size is much larger than the distance h between the wire and the plane.4 Wire on a metal plane This line consists of a single wire running parallel to a grounded metal plate. L = 750 nH/m.11) (2.51 pF/m. We ﬁnd C = 6. L = 1. 2. 27 . which entails problems of electromagnetic compatibility. placed at an height h = 5. If the metal plate were inﬁnite.5 mm and a separation of 5.4a. (b) (a) Wire on a metal plane and (b) equivalent two-wire transmission line. the two wires have opposite potentials with respect to ground. in a coaxial cable with suﬃciently good outer conductor.71 µH/m and Z∞ = 512. cosh−1 (2h/d) 1 π µ0 0 r L= 2h d µ0 cosh−1 (2h/d).4.2 mm in air. see Fig.10) Z∞ = cosh−1 120 ≈ √ cosh−1 r (2. 2. Z∞ = 224. the errors are negligible. so that the two-wire line is never isolated from the other nearby conductors.71.84 pF/m. i.74 cm on a ground plane. we ﬁnd that C = 14. this line would be perfectly equivalent to a two-wire line.4b). vf = c. d d h D= 2h (a) Figure 2. the two-wire line is always used in a balanced conﬁguration. the operation of the line is completely shielded from external interference.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines Example Compute the parameters of a two-wire line. π 2h d . For this reason. It is to be remarked that the TEM ﬁelds are non negligible up to large distance from the line itself. r Example Consider a wire with diameter d = 3.e.12) c vf = √ .0 mm and are located in air.4 Ω. because of the image theorem (Fig. the equivalence is only approximate. When the ground plane is ﬁnite.

with diﬀerent parameters. L = 0.39 Ω. the structure of Fig.5 can be used.6). which is valid in the case the strip thickness is negligible: 30π Z∞ ≈ √ b weff + 0.441b (2.14) (2. Using the previous formulas we get: C= 25. 2. (2. The parameters for the symmetric mode can be computed from the following equations: C= log π 0 r 2h(D2 − h2 ) d(D2 + h2 ) Z∞ = 1 π .43 µH. this is a two conductor line and the fundamental mode is TEM. Example Consider a shielded two-wire line with diameter of the outer conductor D = 100 mm.77 pF.15) vf = .2 – Parameters of common transmission lines 2. (2. Shielded two-wire line and ﬁeld conﬁguration of the symmetric (balanced) TEM mode. a symmetric (balanced) one where the potentials of the two inner conductors are symmetric with respect to that of the outer one.13) µ0 0 r log 2h(D2 − h2 ) d(D2 + h2 ) c r . Since the two planes have the same potential. 2. The relevant parameters cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions. inner conductors with diameter d = 15 mm e spacing 2h = 50 mm. and an asymmetric (unbalanced) one. 2. Note that this is a three conductor line (two plus a grounded one).5 Shielded two-wire line To avoid the electromagnetic compatibility problems of the two-wire line. Z∞ = 129. We report below an approximate expression for the characteristic impedance. This is clearly an unbalanced structure. L= µ0 log π 2h(D2 − h2 ) d(D2 + h2 ) .16) r 28 .5. which is used only inside components and devices.6 Stripline The stripline consists of a metallic strip placed between two grounded metal planes (Fig. connected to ground. In this case there are two TEM 2h Electric field D d Magnetic field Figure 2. modes.

Fig.19) = 0.35. r = 2. x if √ √ r ∞ (2.20) and this is already the value of w/b. in which the dimensions of the structure are known.247 ns. obtained by inversion of (2. k τ = √ l l = vf c r = 0. as shown in Fig.6 − x if b r Z∞ > 120 Ω where 30π x= √ − 0. Find then the value of the propagation constant and the wavelength at the frequency f = 10 GHz and the delay τ = l/vf introduced by line lentgth l = 5 cm. 2. the 29 .2 Ω (< 120 Ω) we compute x = 0. we can use the following equations. 2 if w/b < 0. as for all TEM structures is given by c vf = √ .32 cm.830 by means of (2.17): √ w Z < 120 Ω. separation between the ground planes b = 0. 2. in which the dimensions are to be determined in order for the line to have a desired characteristic impedance.35 (2.2.0212 cm.18) The previous equations are appropriate in an analysis problem.16) and (2. Since the transverse cross section is not homogeneous.1065 cm−1 vf c/ r c and λ= 2π = 2. For the design activity.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines w b Figure 2. Stripline geometry .7 Microstrip A microstrip consists of a conducting strip deposited on a dielectric layer. where the equivalent strip width weff is computed from w weff = − b b 0 w 0.85 − 0.266 cm.441 (2.17) The phase velocity.8.6.35 − b if w/b > 0. r (2. 2.7 shows plots of the characteristic impedance of a stripline where the strip thickness f is non negligible. then the propagation constant is computed from √ 2πf r ω ω k= = √ = = 3.20) r Z∞ Example Design a stripline with characteristic impedance Z∞ = 50 Ω. Hence w = 0. whose lower face is covered with a metal ground plane. √ Since Z∞ r = 74.

Even in this case.8. only approximate formulas are available for the characteristic impedance. we compute ﬁrst an equivalent dielectric constant eff . In practice. In an analysis problem.22) 30 . the longitudinal ﬁeld components are very small with respect to the transverse ones and the so called “quasi-TEM approximation” is used.7. fundamental mode is not rigorously TEM. Microstrip geometry. in which the dimensions of the line are known. (2.21) The phase speed is computed as always.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines Figure 2. w h εr Ground conductor Figure 2. its dimensions. Characteristic impedance of a stripline vs. which is a weighted average of the permittivities of air and of the substrate: = r eff +1 2 1+ 1 1 + 12h/w . but exploiting this eﬀective permittivity c vf = √ eff (2.

which takes into account the frequency dispersion of eff due to the longitudinal ﬁeld components. 1973) r − eff (0) (2.159. eff = 1. h w >1 h (2.87 rad/m = 41.12 show the analogous plots of the characteristic impedance Z∞ . we obtain l = 2. The substrate thickness is 1/20 and r = 2.5 GHz. as it is to be expected in the case of a TEM mode.11 and Fig.21) and the other parameters are fp = Z∞0 /(2µ0 h) (2.26) w < 2. Next. from (2.29) 31 .9 and Fig.985 and C = 2. First of all.27) we get w/h = 3. h if w = 2 h r −1 B − 1 − log(2B − 1) + C π 2 r (2.10 show the plots of eff versus w/h in the two ranges of wide and narrow strip. for various values of r of the substrate. we can use the approximate formula (Getzinger. we get w/h = 3. three auxiliary quantities are computed: A= Z∞ 60 r +1 + 2 B= r r −1 +1 0. B = 7.2. Then the propagation constant is given by √ 2πf eff k= = 71.19 cm.23) For design these formulas are not convenient and the following are used instead. 2.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines and the characteristic impedance is given by √ log 8h + w 60 w 4h eff Z∞ = 120π √ w w + 1.125.667 log + 1. 2.44 eff h h where natural logarithms are used. which introduces a phase shift of 90◦ at the frequency f = 2. instead. which is in the domain of vality of the equation and hence it is acceptable. if if w < 1. Fig. 2. We compute A = 1. Note that the eﬀective permittivity eff given by (2. 2. c If the phase shift must be kl = π/2. From the second.39 − Next 8eA 2A e −2 0.21) does not depend on frequency. it is not acceptable.24) (2.391 cm results. Moreover.393 + 0.25) 377π √ 2Z∞ r C = log(B − 1) + 0.18◦ /cm.28) eff = r − 2 1 + (f 2 /fp ) G where eff (0) is the zero frequency value given by (2. Since this result is greater than 2. If we desire a more accurate model.21) the eﬀective dielectric constant is computed.11 r (2.27) w if >2 h Example Compute the width w and length l of a microstrip with characteristic impedance Z∞ = 50 Ω.88.23 + 0. Fig. from the ﬁrst of (2.61 r (2.081.056. From this w = 0.

23) with this value of eff (f ).30) Figure 2.009Z∞0 . Eﬀective permittivity eff versus microstrip dimensions (wide strip approximation). (2.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines or fp (GHz) = 0.398Z∞0 /h(mm) and G = 0. (2. The characteristic impedance at the operating frequency is then computed by (2.31) where Z∞0 is the zero frequency characteristic impedance (in Ω).6 + 0.9. 32 .

Figure 2.2 – Parameters of common transmission lines Figure 2.10. 33 . Eﬀective permittivity eff versus microstrip dimensions (narrow strip approximation). Characteristic impedance Z∞ versus microstrip dimensions (wide strip approximation).11.

34 . Characteristic impedance Z∞ versus microstrip dimensions (narrow strip approximation).2 – Parameters of common transmission lines Figure 2.12.

called Smith chart. The relationship between these two quantities is displayed in graphic form by means of a famous plot. we indicate how a shorted transmission line of suitable length can be used to realize capacitors. deﬁned as the ratio between the phasors of the voltage at the terminals and that of the ingoing current.1) 35 . Next we discuss the power ﬂow on the transmission line. Finally. where ordinary lumped parameter components are not available.Chapter 3 Simple transmission line circuits 3.2 Deﬁnition of local impedance In the analysis of lumped parameter circuits a fundamental quantity is the impedance of an element.1. (b) 0 z (a) Impedance of a one-port circuit element and (b) local impedance on a transmission line. whose IL VL ZL = VL IL I(z) Z ( z) = V ( z) I ( z) V(z) ZL (a) Figure 3. In the case of a transmission line terminated with a load ZL we can deﬁne a local impedance Z(z). The fundamental concepts we are going to introduce are the local impedance on a line and the reﬂection coeﬃcient. 3. which can be considered the trademark of microwave circuits. inductors or resonators that can work at high frequencies. we can start to study some simple circuits.1 Introduction In Chapter 1 we have obtained the general solution of the transmission line equations. value depends on the longitudinal coordinate z: Z(z) = V (z) I(z) (3. With this result in our hands.

2) Note that the origin has been placed on the load. which is completed when the variable z increases by λ/2. The intersections with the real axis. Example 1 Shorted piece of lossless transmission line of length l. x ζ0 rmin 1 rmax r Figure 3.3a.4) 1 − jζL tan kz Obviously this formula allows the computation of the input impedance of a transmission line length loaded by the normalized impedance ζL . We have ζL = 0 ζ(z) = −j tan kz Zing = jXing = jZ∞ tan kl (3. 3. This equation deﬁnes a curve in the complex plane ζ with z as parameter. 36 . as it is to be expected in the case of a lossless circuit of ﬁnite size.2. Then the local impedance Z(0) = V0 /I0 coincides with the load impedance ZL .2 and it can be shown to be a circumference.4). 3. and the previous equation becomes ZL − jZ∞ tan kz Z(z) = (3.3 – Simple transmission line circuits Substitute in this equation the expressions (1.3) 1 − jY∞ ZL tan kz It is convenient to introduce the normalized impedance ζ(z) = Z(z)/Z∞ . Representation in the complex plane of the normalized impedance ζ = r+jx of the curve ζ(z) deﬁned by (3. This curve is shown in Fig. Its transformation law is easily deduced from the previous equation: ζL − j tan kz ζ(z) = (3. so that V0 and I0 are the load voltage and current. as shown in Fig. due to the periodicity of the tangent function.5) Note that this input reactance is purely imaginary.33) of voltage and current on the line: Z(z) = = V0 cos kz − jZ∞ I0 sin kz I0 cos kz − jY∞ V0 sin kz V0 − jZ∞ I0 tan kz I0 − jY∞ V0 tan kz (3. rmax e rmin have the property rmax rmin = 1 Consider now some particularly important examples. It is clearly a closed curve.

Suppose now to ﬁx a certain value of the line length. (b) 2π (a) Shorted transmission line and (b) corresponding input reactance. We have ζL → ∞ ζ(z) = j cot kz Zing = jXing = −jZ∞ cot kl The behavior is analogous to that of the shorted line.3b. we note that the input reactance is a function of frequency: Xing = Z∞ tan ωl0 vf and. Example 2 Length of lossless transmission line terminated with an open circuit. of that frequency for which the line is half wavelength long.25 kl (a) Figure 3. If we choose the line length conveniently. apart from a kl = π/2 translation of the plot. we can obtain any input reactance. for which the line is λ/4 long.75 1 1. If the line is λ/4 long. the line behaves as a shunt resonator. On the contrary. We observe that the input impedance is a periodic function of kl with period π. Typical of the distributed parameter circuits is that Xing (ω) is a periodic meromorphic function. in the neighborhood of f0 = vf /(4l0 ). say l0 . Analogously. can always be written as the ratio of two polynomials. as typical of all lossless circuits.e. Recalling that k = ω/vf . 37 . 3. lumped or distributed (Foster theorem). Note also that Xing (ω) is an ever increasing function of frequency. either inductive or capacitive. We can observe that in the neighborhood of f0 = vf /(2l0 ).5 0.3 – Simple transmission line circuits X ing Z∞ 10 5 0 Zing -5 -10 0 0. Example 3 Length of lossless transmission line terminated with a reactive load. the input impedance of a lumped parameter circuit is a rational function. i. i.25 0. the input reactance Xing (ω) has a behavior similar to that of the reactance of a series LC resonator.3. the input impedance is that of an open circuit. obviously.e. the plot of this function is still given by Fig.

3 – Simple transmission line circuits X ing Z∞ 10 5 0 Zing -5 -10 0 0.4. We ﬁnd ZL Z∞ xL − tan kz ζ(z) = j 1 + xL tan kz ζL = jxL = It is useful to set xL = tan φL because the previous equation becomes ζ(z) = j from which we get tan φL − tan kz = j tan(φL − kz) 1 + tan φL tan kz Zing = jXing = jZ∞ tan(kl + φL ) We see that changing the load produces a rigid displacement of the input reactance plots.75 1 1. Example 4 Length of lossless transmission line. (a) Open circuited length of lossless transmission line and (b) corresponding input reactance. 38 . terminated with the characteristic impedance Z∞ .25 0.5 0.25 (a) (b) kl 2π Figure 3. terminated with a generic impedance ZL . We ﬁnd ζL = 1 ζ(z) = 1 Zing = Z∞ The line is said to be matched and this is the only case in which the input impedance does not depend on the line length. Example 5 l = λ/4 length of lossless transmission line.

875 1.25 (a) (b) kl 2π Figure 3. 39 .3. 2π If l = λ/4.75 1 1.6) This length of transmission line behaves as a normalized impedance inverter and is commonly employed to realize impedance transformers.25 0. (a) Transmission line terminated with the characteristic impedance and (b) corresponding input resistance (Xing = 0). If we evaluate the limit of ζ(z) for z → −λ/4 by de l’Hospital rule we ﬁnd ζing = 1 . the argument of the tangent in (3.4) is π/2 and we are in presence of an undetermined form.5 0.4.6. discussed in Section 6.5 0 0 0.25 kl (a) (b) Figure 3. (a) Piece of lossless transmission line closed on a reactive load and (b) corresponding input reactance.5.3 – Simple transmission line circuits X ing 10 Z∞ XL Zing 5 xL 0 -5 -10 0 0.375 0. Ring 2 Z ∞ 1. ζL Zing = 2 Z∞ ZL (3.5 Z∞ Zing 1 0.

terminated with a generic impedance ZL .3 – Simple transmission line circuits ZL Zing λ 4 Figure 3. Circuit consisting of a generator and a load. connected by a transmission line. another procedure is more convenient. hence also on the load. in practice. We ﬁnd immediately VA = IA = ZA Vg ZA + Zg Vg ZA + Zg Voltage and current in all points. + Vg Zg ZL ZA A B Figure 3. ZA . We can now perform the complete analysis of a simple circuit. 40 . hence it is ZA = ZL + jZ∞ tan kl 1 + jY∞ ZL tan kl So we are left with the lumped parameter circuit of Fig.9.7.zA )] I(z) IA where [T (z. 3. consisting of a generator and a load. computed in Section 1.zA )] = cos k(z − zA ) −jY∞ sin k(z − zA ) −jZ∞ sin k(z − zA ) cos k(z − zA ) We will see that. can be computed by the (ABCD) chain matrix. connected by a transmission line. Compute the impedance seen by the generator.7 V (z) VA = [T (z. λ/4-length of lossless transmission line. Example 6 Analysis of a complete circuit. This is also the input impedance of a piece of transmission loaded by ZL .8.

Lumped equivalent circuit. 3. 3. n = 0.7.9. excited by a generator that produces a forward wave incident on the load. as depicted in Fig.3 – Simple transmission line circuits + Vg Zg ZA Figure 3. If the line is shorter than λ/4. Obviously V inc and I inc satisfy this relation only if ZL = Z∞ : in this case 41 . The results of Examples 1 and 2 can be used as a basis for a measurement technique of the parameters Z∞ e k of a length l of line. Its value can be determined only if we know an estimate of the wavelength on the line. As discussed in section 1. Hence we must deﬁne the behavior of a generic load in the basis of forward and backward waves. total voltages and currents are not the most convenient quantities for the description of the electric state on a transmission line.3 Reﬂection coeﬃcients In lumped circuits the state variables are voltages and currents and circuit elements are characterized by their impedance (or admittance) that plays the role of transfer function. when it is shorted. since these are the basis states of the system.10: V inc (z) = V0+ e−jkz I inc (z) = Y∞ V0+ e−jkz Saying that the line in z = 0 is loaded by ZL is equivalent to saying that in this point voltage and current are related by V (0) = ZL I(0). Example 7 Measurement of the parameters Z∞ and k of a length of transmission line. is Zsc = jZ∞ tan kl whereas Zoc given by Zoc = −jZ∞ cot kl is the corresponding input impedance of the length of line when it is open. Consider a transmission line with characteristic impedance Z∞ and phase constant k. loaded by the impedance ZL . These equations can easily be solved with respect to Z∞ e k in the form √ Z∞ = Zcc Zca k= 1 arctg l − Zcc + nπ Zca The presence in this formula of the integer n is related to the fact that the tangent function is periodic with period π. Recall that the input impedance Zsc of this piece. The natural state variables are instead the amplitudes of forward and backward waves.

7) VΓ ζ +1 y+1 1− 1 + IΓ I Γ=− ζ −1 y−1 = .10. the forward wave alone is capable of satisfying the boundary condition. sum of the forward and backward components. ζ +1 y+1 y= 1− 1+ V Γ VΓ = 1 + IΓ 1 − IΓ 42 . satisfy the boundary condition: V inc (0) + V ref (0) = ZL (I inc (0) + I ref (0)) that is V0+ + V0− = ZL Y∞ (V0+ − V0− ) From this the unknown amplitude V0− is immediately deduced as V0− = ZL Y∞ − 1 + V ZL Y∞ + 1 0 The proportionality coeﬃcient that relates the backward voltage to the forward one is called voltage reﬂection coeﬃcient − ZL Y∞ − 1 ζL − 1 ZL − Z∞ def V V ΓL = V Γ0 = 0+ = = = ZL Y∞ + 1 ζL + 1 ZL + Z∞ V0 This voltage reﬂection coeﬃcient is the transfer function of the circuit element when forward and backward + − voltages are used as state variables. the same circuit element can be characterized either: • by the impedance ZL or the admittance YL (with ZL = 1/YL ) • or by the voltage V Γ or current I Γ reﬂection coeﬃcient (with V Γ = − I Γ) The equations that relate the reﬂection coeﬃcients to the corresponding normalized impedances and admittances are ζ −1 y−1 1 + VΓ 1 − IΓ V Γ= =− . ζ= = (3. necessarily on the load a backward (reﬂected) wave must be generated V ref (z) = V0− e+jkz I ref (z) = −Y∞ V0− e+jkz with a suitable amplitude V0− in such a way that the total voltage and current.3 – Simple transmission line circuits V+ V− 0 Figure 3. If instead the load impedance is arbitrary. ZL z Scattering description of a load. Obviously also the forward and backward currents I0 e I0 could be used as state variables: this choice would lead to the deﬁnition of a current reﬂection coeﬃcient: I ΓL = I Γ0 = def − I0 −Y∞ V0− = − V Γ0 + = I0 Y∞ V0+ Hence.

8) V (z) V0 e √ In the case of a lossless transmission line.4 Energy balance In the study of lumped circuits. 0 z Transmission line terminated with a generic load impedance. which are the basis states of the line. Recalling (1. This power. it is a fractional bilinear transformation. We prove now that this is the case. it is to be expected that their transformation law is simple. 3. whereas its phase is proportional to z.3 – Simple transmission line circuits with y = 1/ζ. All these relations are fractional bilinear transformations of the general type w= az + b cz + d This class of complex variable mappings are well known and have a number of properties that will be discussed later on. loaded with the impedance ZL (see Fig. ZL z’ Figure 3. Since the reﬂection coeﬃcients are deﬁned with reference to the forward and backward waves.11). we have P (z) = = = 1 Re{[V + (z) 2 ∗ + V − (z)] Y∞ [V +∗ (z) − V −∗ (z)]} = ∗ − |V − (z)|2 ] + Y∞ (V − (z)V +∗ (z) − V + (z)V −∗ (z))} = ∗ − |V − (z)|2 ] − j2Y∞ Im{V + (z)V −∗ (z)}} ∗ 1 Re{Y∞ [|V + (z)|2 2 ∗ 1 Re{Y∞ [|V + (z)|2 2 43 . is absorbed by the part of the circuit lying to the right of z (note the current sign convention) and is interpreted as the power ﬂowing in the line in the point z. Consider an ideal transmission line. We have seen that the transformation law of the local impedance on a transmission line is fairly complicated. The local voltage reﬂection coeﬃcient in a point z is deﬁned as the ratio of the backward and forward voltages in that point: V − e+jkz V − (z) V Γ(z) = + = 0+ −jkz = V Γ0 e+j2kz (3. in harmonic regime.23). We extend them to the realm of distributed circuits containing transmission lines. 3. V Γ(z) moves on a circumference with center in the origin of the complex plane. if positive. for which k = ω LC is real the magnitude of the reﬂection coeﬃcient is independent of z.11. since these variables yield the most natural description of the system. It is useful to express this power in terms of the amplitudes of the forward and backward waves. By the way. In other words. in the same point we can deﬁne an ingoing active power P (z) 1 P (z) = Re{V (z) I ∗ (z)} 2 as well known from circuit theory. If in the point z voltage and current are V (z) e I(z). the energy considerations play an important role.

This condition takes place when the load is a pure reactance. power uncoupled). the line is matched. Since there is no ambiguity. The quantity 1 − | V Γ|2 is called power transmission coeﬃcient. The same coeﬃcient. Both of them are very often used in practice (see Table 3. Conversely. • In a lossless line the net active power ﬂowing in a point is the diﬀerence between the active powers ﬂows associated to the forward and backward waves. which will be introduced in the next section.e. Hence.5 Line voltage. Voltage and current on the line can be expressed in the following way in terms of forward and backward waves: V (z) I(z) = = V + (z) + V − (z) I + (z) + I − (z) = = V + (z)(1 + V Γ(z)) V Y∞ V + (z)(1 − Γ(z)) Since the reﬂection coeﬃcients for voltage and current are just opposite one of the other. Hence the two waves are power-orthogonal (i. 3. as shown in Fig. 44 . Return loss e Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). because it is equal to the ratio of the power absorbed by the load and the incident power. hence | V Γ| ≤ 1.12. • If V Γ = 0 (i. • If | V Γ| = 1. express the mismatch of the load with respect to the line in diﬀerent but equivalent manners. the voltage reﬂection coeﬃcient will be written Γ(z) without superscripts. RL = 0 dB for a reactive load and RL → ∞ dB for a matched load. if ZL = jXL V Γ= jXL − Z∞ jXL + Z∞ and numerator and denominator have the same magnitude. This condition is equivalent to Re{ZL } ≥ 0. The net power coincides with the incident one. the reﬂected power is equal to the incident one. • For a passive load. due to the absence of the reﬂected wave.3 – Simple transmission line circuits For an ideal line Y∞ is real and then P (z) = |V + |2 1 1 Y∞ |V + |2 − Y∞ |V − |2 = (1 − | V Γ|2 ) 2 2 2Z∞ We can make the following remarks: • Since | V Γ| = constant on an ideal line. A quantity frequently used in practice to characterize a load is the return loss RL. ZL = Z∞ ). This is obviously related to the fact that an ideal line is lossless . which is said to be a “matched” load for the line. current and impedance diagrams Consider a loaded transmission line. and consequently the net ﬂowing power is zero. as we will prove in Section 3. We can also say that the net power is the diﬀerence between the incident and the reﬂected power. in these conditions. 3. Hence the power absorbed by the load impedance ZL is PL = P (0) = P (z). expressed in dB. one says that. the whole incident power is absorbed by the load.1).6. Indeed. deﬁned as RL = −10 log10 |Γ|2 It yields the ratio (in dB) between the reﬂected power (which is “lost”.e. for simplicity we will always use the one for voltage also in the current expression. the reﬂected power is smaller or equal to the incident one. from the point of view of the load) and the incident one. the net power ﬂowing is the same in every point of the line. is called reﬂection loss.

and moreover: |1 + Γ(z)|max |1 + Γ(z)|min = = 1 + |Γ| 1 − |Γ| In Fig. Table 3. It is evident from the ﬁgure that |V (z)| and |I(z)| reach the maximum and minimum value when Γ(z) is real. Hence. 3. As for the second. The ratio between the maximum and minimum voltage magnitude is called VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) S= 1 + |Γ| Vmax = Vmin 1 − |Γ| Clearly. The magnitude of voltage and current is given by |V (z)| |I(z)| = = |V + (z)| |1 + Γ(z)| |Y∞ V + (z)| |1 − Γ(z)| The ﬁrst factor |V + (z)| is constant on an ideal line. Hence. Our goal now is to obtain plots of the magnitude and phase of voltage. recall that Γ(z) = Γ0 exp{+j2kz} (see Fig.1 yields examples of correspondences. Let us start with the magnitude plot. 3.2 that the normalized local impedance ζ(z) moves on a circumference in the complex ζ plane.14 the vectors 1 + Γ e 1 − Γ are shown.14). reﬂection loss and magnitude of the reﬂection coeﬃcient express the mismatch in equivalent manners. VSWR. We have seen in Fig. Since the magnitude of Γ(z) of a passive load is always comprised between 0 (matched load) and 1 (reactive load) (see Section 3.12. Return loss. the ratio between the maximum and minimum current magnitude is also S.13. the magnitude of the impedance is an oscillating function and the maxima and minima are reached when ζ(z) is real and their value is Rmax = Vmax Imin Vmin Imax = |V + |(1 + |Γ|) |Y∞ V + |(1 − |Γ|) |V + |(1 − |Γ|) |Y∞ V + |(1 + |Γ|) = Z∞ S Z∞ S Rmin = = = 45 .4). The VSWR is normally used in practice to specify the mismatch of a load with respect to a reference resistance (Z∞ ). current and impedance on the line. 3. the VSWR is always greater than 1. 3. shown in Fig. z Ideal transmission line terminated with a generic load impedance. This shape is easily explained.3 – Simple transmission line circuits ZL v L Figure 3. The analytic expression of |V (z)| is then |V (z)| = = |V + | |1 + |Γ0 | exp(j(arg(Γ0 ) + 2kz))| = |V + | 1 + |Γ0 |2 + 2|Γ0 | cos(arg(Γ0 ) + 2kz) 1/2 Note that the curve is only apparently sinusoidal.

Plot of the magnitude of voltage.5 -1 -0. Plot of the local reﬂection coeﬃcient in the complex plane. local impedance on a transmission line loaded by ZL = (1 + j)Z∞ .2 has center in ζc and radius R given Γ − 46 Γ Γ Γ Γ .3 – Simple transmission line circuits 2 V ( z) V+ 1 -1.5 -1 -0. current. 3.13. we ﬁnd that the circumference of Fig.14.5 -1 -0.5 kz (2π ) 0 0 3 2 1 Z (z) Z∞ -1.5 kz (2π ) 0 0 Figure 3. (z ) 1 + ( z) -1 1 − ( z) 1 (z ) Figure 3. On the basis of these results.5 kz (2π ) 0 0 2 I ( z) I+ 1 -1.

5697 1. VSWR and reﬂection loss Return Loss (dB) 0 3 5 10 15 20 30 |Γ| VSWR ∞ 5. With a little algebra it is possible to ﬁnd the expressions of the phase of voltage.0206 1.1 0.4325 1. since computers are widespread.4). i. 47 . has a periodic behavior. current and normalized impedance: |Γ0 | sin(2kz + arg Γ0 ) arg V (z) = arg V0+ − kz + arctan 1 + |Γ0 | cos(2kz + arg Γ0 ) + arg I(z) = arg I0 − kz − arctan |Γ0 | sin(2kz + arg Γ0 ) 1 − |Γ0 | cos(2kz + arg Γ0 ) arg ζ(z) = + arctan |Γ0 | sin(2kz + arg Γ0 ) 1 + |Γ0 | cos(2kz + arg Γ0 ) |Γ0 | sin(2kz + arg Γ0 ) arctan 1 − |Γ0 | cos(2kz + arg Γ0 ) The phases of voltage and current are decreasing functions for increasing z.6 The Smith Chart The Smith Chart is a graphical tool of great importance for the solution of transmission line problems.0043 1 0.6508 0. magnitude of the reﬂection coeﬃcient.0653 Reﬂection Loss (dB) 0 3. Hence. display the results on a Smith Chart.15).2222 1. its usefulness is no longer that of providing the numerical solution of a problem.0316 by ζc = and R= 1 2 S− 1 S = 2|Γ| 1 − |Γ|2 1 2 S+ 1 S = 1 + |Γ|2 1 − |Γ|2 It is clear that the circumference degenerates in the imaginary axis if |Γ| → 1.9249 1. Correspondence between values of return loss.5623 0. i. but that of helping to set up a geometrical picture of the phenomena taking place on a transmission line. The normalized impedance.4575 0. Nowadays.8480 3. as already shown by (3.1395 0. that tend to resemble a staircase when |Γ0 | → 1. all modern codes for the Computer Aided Design (CAD) of distributed parameter circuits. 3.e. as it is shown in Fig.1778 0.7079 0. as well as measurement instruments such as the Network Analyzer.0436 0.e. when the load becomes purely reactive.3 – Simple transmission line circuits Table 3.3162 0. 3.1. the load becomes reactive.

Γ = 1. corresponding to passive loads.9) has the following property: if the variable ζ moves on a circumference in its complex plane. With some algebraic manipulation it can be shown that • The right half plane Re{ζ} ≥ 0. In this way the transformation ζ → V Γ and its inverse are geometrically straightforward. (r=const. Plot of the phase of voltage.5 -1 -0. current and local impedance on a transmission line loaded by ZL = (1 + j)Z∞ . Both of them are complex variables and in order to provide a graphical picture of the previous equations. is mapped onto the unit radius circle. on those of the second the imaginary part of the impedance is constant (constant reactance curves). | V Γ| > 1.3: V Γ= ζ −1 .3 – Simple transmission line circuits 10 arg(I(z)/I0 ) + arg(V(z)/V0) kz (2π ) + 5 0 0 1 arg Z (z) Z∞ -1. It can be shown [1] that the bilinear fractional transformation (3. ζ +1 ζ= 1+ 1− V Γ VΓ where ζ = Z/Z∞ = r + jx is the normalized impedance and V Γ = V Γr + j V Γi = | V Γ| exp{j arg( V Γ)} is the voltage reﬂection coeﬃcient. the Smith chart consists of a portion of the complex V Γ plane. In particular. Mathematically.5 -1 -0.) are mapped onto the circumferences with equation V 2 2 Γr − V r 1+r + V 2 Γi = 1 1+r All of them pass through the point centers on the real axis (Fig.5 0 -1. is mapped onto the region external to the unit circle. shown in Section 3. it is based on the two relations. on which suitable coordinate curves are displayed. | V Γ| ≤ 1. • the vertical lines of the ζ plane. which is a singular point of the mapping.15. we can draw two sets of curves in the complex V Γ plane: on the curves of the ﬁrst set the real part of the impedance is constant (constant resistance curves). 3. and have the 48 . For this to be true without exceptions we must regard straight lines as (degenerate) circumferences of inﬁnite radius. the left half plane Re{ζ} < 0.5 kz (2π ) -1 0 Figure 3.16). also the corresponding V Γ values are located on a circumference.

because the straight lines r = constant and x = constant are orthogonal in the ζ plane and the mapping (3.5 0 −0.9) is analytic in the whole complex plane. (Fig. V Γ = | V Γ| exp{j arg( V Γ)}.16.5 −1 −5 −1 0 Real( Γ) V 0 1 Figure 3.5 −1 −1 0 Real( Γ ) V 0 −5 1 Figure 3.7)) that the relation between V Γ and ζ is formally the same as that between I Γ and y. We have seen (Eq.3 – Simple transmission line circuits • the horizontal lines of the ζ plane. ζ PLANE Γ PLANE 5 1 Imag( Γ ) 0 2 Real( ζ ) 4 Imag( ζ ) 0. apart from V Γ = 1). ζ PLANE Γ PLANE 5 Imag( Γ ) 0 2 Real( ζ ) 4 Imag( ζ ) 1 0. limited An example of Smith chart. 3. The Smith chart is equipped with scales to measure magnitude and phase of V Γ.5 0 −0. (x=cost. i. the Smith chart can be considered equally well as: 49 .17.17). Hence. parallel to the imaginary axis. Constant resistance lines in the ζ plane and their image in the Γ plane. the complex number V Γ is always given in polar form.18. is shown in Fig. • The two sets of circumferences meet always at right angle (except at V Γ = 1).) are mapped onto the the circumferences with equation V Γr − 1 2 + V Γi − 1 x 2 = 1 x 2 Also these circumferences pass through the singular point. 3. passing through the singular point V Γ = 1.e. Constant reactance lines in the ζ plane and their image in the to the region inside the unit circle. Γ plane. but have their centers on a vertical line. equipped with all the necessary scales. Because of the form of the evolution law of the reﬂection coeﬃcient on a line. (3.

on which constant conductance and constant susceptance curves are drawn.18. • The complex An example of Smith chart that can be used for analysis and design purposes V I Γ plane.3 – Simple transmission line circuits Figure 3. 50 . on which constant resistance and constant reactance curves are drawn. • The complex Γ plane.

solves the problem. Fig. it is clear that we can exploit the Smith chart to compute the admittance corresponding to a given impedance and viceversa. A more complex problem. to read the coordinates of the points. Regions of the Smith chart: (a) loads with conductance g ≥ 1.9) 51 . 3.20. Using the standard curves.21. we can place it on the chart by viewing the set of lines as V A I A Figure 3. I Γ = − V Γ. Indeed. compute the normalized impedance ζB at point B. 3.3 – Simple transmission line circuits If we recall the relation between the two types of reﬂection coeﬃcients. Place ζB on the Smith chart. The opposite point with respect to the center is I ΓA and. (a) (b) Figure 3. Suppose we must ﬁnd in the V ΓA plane the set of impedances with conductance greater than one. Now let us see how the use of the Smith chart simpliﬁes the analysis of the circuit of Fig.20a shows hatched the region of the I ΓA plane where g ≥ 1. so that V ΓB is determined. labeled now with resistance and reactance values. which is solved with the same simplicity is the following.19. already solved in 3. From the load impedance ZL and the line characteristic impedance Z∞ . Computation of impedances and admittances. viewed this time as constant conductance and constant susceptance circles. This property is clearly very useful when we have to analyze transmission line circuits containing series and parallel loads. by reading its coordinates with respect to the set of lines. Fig. we obtain the desired value of yA .20b displays the symmetric region with respect to the origin.2. if we know the normalized impedance ζA . The reﬂection coeﬃcient at point A is given by V ΓA = V ΓB exp(−j2klAB ) = V ΓB exp(−j 4π lAB ) λ V Hence V ΓA is on the circumference. 3. constant resistance and constant reactance circles: in this way V ΓA is automatically deﬁned. (b) impedances of the loads with g ≥ 1. with center in the origin. passing through arg( V ΓA ) = arg( V ΓB ) − 4π lAB λ ΓB and with a phase (3.

so that the coordinate of A is z = −lAB . is to be read on the scale with the label Transmission coeﬃcient E or I. 3. 3. 52 . in the range [0. Find then the (total) voltage at the line input VA = The voltage at point z is given by where + V + (z) = VA e−jk(z+lAB ) = ZA Vg Zg + ZA V V (z) = V + (z)(1 + Γ(z)) VA e−jk(z+lAB ) 1 + V ΓA and V Γ(z) = V ΓB e+j2kz assuming that the origin has been chosen in B.2]. This quantity is called Transmission coeﬃcient for a reason explained in the next section. In conclusion V (z) = Vg and ZA e−jklAB −jkz (e + Zg + ZA 1 + V ΓA V ΓB e+jkz ) e−jklAB −jkz ZA (e − Zg + ZA 1 + V ΓA To write the expression of the current. In particular. Notice that the phase values in this equation must be expressed in radians. as explained in Section 3. the magnitude of 1 ± V Γ(z). taking into account that it is just necessary to study the behavior of 1 ± V Γ(z).21. it is straightforward to draw the plots of magnitude and phase of voltage and current.22. we have used I(z) = Y∞ Vg + + IA = Y∞ VA V ΓB e+jkz ) and I(z) = I + (z)(1 + I Γ(z))) = I + (z)(1 − V Γ(z))) From a graphical point of view. and with the ticks pointing toward the point V Γ = −1. Appropriate scales are provided on the chart to simplify these operations.14 and Fig. After identifying V ΓA it is enough to read the coordinates of this point on the basis of the constant resistance and constant reactance circles to obtain ζA and therefrom ZA = ζA Z∞ .3 – Simple transmission line circuits + Vg Zg ZA A ZL B 0 ζB rm ζA l AB λ − l AB (a) z (b) Figure 3. The phase is read by means of an angular scale with the label Angle of Transmission Coeﬃcient in degrees.5. transmission line and load and (b) Smith chart solution. (a) Complete circuit. see Fig. consisting of generator.

3 – Simple transmission line circuits ζB 1+ ΓB V arg(1+V ΓB ) Figure 3.25 − arg( V ΓB ) 4π A second one.25 + arg( V ΓB ) 4π both of them being measures of the phase of the reﬂection coeﬃcient. measured on the Smith Chart. Magnitude and phase of the transmission coeﬃcient 1+ V ΓB .22. is labeled Wavelengths toward load and displays the quantity l λ TL eqB def = 0. The outer one has the label Wavelengths toward generator and displays the quantity l λ TG eqB def = 0. even if the symbol suggests an interpretation as equivalent electrical length. Two scales drawn on the periphery of the chart simplify the evaluation of eq. concentric with the ﬁrst.9). The presence of the 0.25 shift is related to the fact that the 53 .(3.

5). but is the driving point impedance generator that one imagines to connect in the point of interest of a circuit to deﬁne the relevant impedance. has values that increase counterclockwise and is useful when the input impedance is known and the load impedance value is desired: l λ In this way.23.(3.3 – Simple transmission line circuits origin of these scales is on the negative real axis. It is useful to clarify the reasons for using the symbol (l/λ)T G as a measure of arg( V Γ). V ΓB can be viewed as the input reﬂection coeﬃcient of a line with electrical length (l/λ)T G .9) becomes l λ TG = eqA l λ TG + eqB lAB λ (3. terminated with a resistor of value RL = Z∞ rm .10) The rotation sense on the chart is clockwise. In this way eq. (3. Moreover.10) has the appearance of a sum of homogeneous quantities. 54 . A similar interpretation eqB holds for (l/λ)T L .7 Analysis of simple circuits Sometimes two transmission lines with diﬀerent characteristics are cascaded or lumped loads are connected in series or in shunt with the transmission line. the second a counterclockwise one. The second scale. only sums are carried out.21 eq the intersection of the circle | V Γ| = | V ΓB | with the negative real axis is the point labeled rm . 3. Moreover. but it has nothing to do with the actual geometry of the lines. Z∞2 A+ Cascade connection of two lines with diﬀerent characteristic impedance. eq. Notice that the picture uses the symbols of the transmission lines: Z ∞1 Figure 3. Note that the “generator” in the label has nothing to do with the one present in the circuit. (3. The normalized impedance is instead discontinuous (ζA− = ζA+ since Z∞1 = Z∞2 ). The very circuit scheme adopted implies that both the voltage and the current are continuous at point A: VA− = VA+ IA− = IA+ Dividing both sides of the ﬁrst equations by IA− = IA+ yields the continuity of the local impedance ZA− = ZA+ . wavelengths toward load. In Fig. TL = eqB l λ TL + eqA lAB λ 3. Clearly.9). more than eq eq. hence the diﬀerent size of the “conductors” is just a graphical convention to denote lines with diﬀerent characteristic impedance. Cascade connection of transmission lines Consider ﬁrst the cascade connection of two lines with diﬀerent characteristic impedance.9) (remember that the phase of complex numbers increases counterclockwise). Let us see how the analysis is carried out in such cases. the ﬁrst is a clockwise scale. as speciﬁed by the sign of the exponent in (3. from the picture. because in this point the normalized local impedance ζ(z) has the minimum real part and zero imaginary part (see Section 3.

Apply Kirchhoﬀ laws at the node A: Ip Yp A Figure 3. Then V + + VA+ = VA+ = VA− (1 + ΓA− ) Deﬁning a Transmission Coeﬃcient TV = in this case is TV = 1 + For this reason. we can obtain. we ﬁnd V + ΓA− ) = VA+ (1 + V ΓA+ ) that is + VA+ + VA− = 1+ 1+ V ΓA− A+ VΓ Also the ratio of the forward currents is obtained immediately: + IA+ + IA− = + Y∞2 VA+ + Y∞1 VA− = V Y∞2 1 + Y∞1 1 + V ΓA− A+ VΓ Suppose that the second line is matched.24. on the Smith chart. as in the previous case. the quantity 1 + def + VA+ + VA− V V ΓA− Γ is always called Transmission coeﬃcient. VA− IA− YA− = = = VA+ IA+ + Ip YA+ + Yp Exploiting the continuity of the total voltage at A. by recalling the general formula V (z) = V + (z)(1 + + VA− (1 + V Γ(z)). so that ΓA+ = 0.3 – Simple transmission line circuits As for the forward voltage. the relation between the forward voltages + VA+ 1 + V ΓA− + = 1 + V ΓA+ VA− and therefrom the corresponding one for the forward currents + IA+ + IA− = Y∞2 1 + Y∞1 1 + V ΓA− A+ VΓ 55 . Shunt connection of a lumped load Consider now the case of of a line with the lumped load Yp connected in shunt at A. Shunt connection of a lumped load on a transmission line.

Yp A Figure 3. Yp could be the input admittance of a distributed circuit positioned at right angle with respect to the main line. Kirchhoﬀ law at node A yield VA− IA− ZA− = = = VA+ + Vs IA+ ZA+ + Zs To ﬁnd the link between forward and backward waves. which is continuous: + IA+ 1 + I ΓA− 1 − V ΓA− = = + 1 + I ΓA+ 1 − V ΓA+ IA− As for the voltage + VA+ + VA− = Z∞2 1 − Z∞1 1 − V ΓA− A+ VΓ Note that in these cases the use of Kirchhoﬀ laws is completely justiﬁed. In other words. We will see examples of such circuits in Chapter 6 on impedance matching. as shown in Fig.25.26. Series connection of a lumped load Consider now the case of a lumped load Zs connected in series on a transmission line at A.27. as in Fig.3 – Simple transmission line circuits Vs Zs AFigure 3. A+ Series connection of a lumped load on a transmission line. Transmission line length as a two-port device Two analyze more complex cases. Y . It is interesting to note that the loads in the circuits above are lumped in the z direction but not necessarily in others. positioned at right angle with respect to the main line. Zs could be the input impedance of a distributed circuit. 3. Likewise. or ABCD. Shunt connection of a distributed load on a transmission line. it may be convenient to represent a transmission line length as a two-port device. 3. characterized via its matrices Z. since they have been applied to lumped elements. We derive now the expression of these matrices 56 .26. and then apply the usual lumped circuit theory. it is convenient to work on the current.

diﬀerently from before. Y = Z −1 . This is the reason of the minus signs in the deﬁning equations. for a length l of transmission line with characteristic impedance Z∞ and propagation constant k. also in this case.11) = Z11 Z21 Z12 Z22 I1 I2 Note that the current I2 is assumed to be positive when it enters into the port. A+ Series connection of a distributed load on a transmission line.12) = Y11 Y21 Y12 Y22 V1 V2 Note that.3 – Simple transmission line circuits Zs AFigure 3. obviously. Chain matrix ABCD Deﬁning equations V1 I1 We get ABCD = cos kl jY∞ sin kl jZ∞ sin kl cos kl (3. Open circuit impedance matrix [Z] Deﬁning equations V1 V2 We get Z = −jZ∞ cot kl csc kl csc kl cot kl (3. See also Chapter 7 for a review of these matrices. 57 . the current I2 is assumed to be positive when it enters into the port. the current I2 is assumed to be positive when it goes out of the port. Moreover.27. Short circuit admittance matrix [Y ] Deﬁning equations I1 I2 We get Y = jY∞ − cot kl csc kl csc kl − cot kl (3.13) = A C −B −D V2 I2 Note that.

2 ZT 12 = −jZ∞ csc kl kl . (b) (a) T equivalent circuit and (b) Π equivalent circuit of a transmission line length. The values of the elements are ZT 1 = ZT 2 = jZ∞ tan YP 1 = YP 2 = jY∞ tan kl . shown in Figure 3.3 – Simple transmission line circuits Also useful are the T and Π equivalent circuits. as it is typical of distributed parameter circuits. Z T1 Z T2 YP12 Z T12 YP1 YP2 (a) Figure 3.28. YP 12 = −jY∞ csc kl 2 Note that all the matrix elements are periodic functions.28. 58 .

1 Perdite nel dielettrico Il fenomeno della dissipazione di energia nel dielettrico ` il pi` semplice da descrivere. quando si ` iniziato lo studio delle linee di trasmissione. il che porta alla deﬁnizione di una costante dielettrica e complessa. che hanno una conducibilit` a a grande ma non inﬁnita. 4.1) ` in fase con il campo elettrico. e e Di solito questa corrente.ω) ω jω εE (r.Chapter 4 Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione Nel capitolo 1.ω) = = = jωεE (r.ω) + γd E (r.ω) + J e (r.1) dove E ` il campo elettrico.2) 59 . si ` detto che nelle strutture reali e e la propagazione delle onde ` aﬀetta da attenuazione.ω) ˜ jω ε − j (4.t) + J e ∂t (4. sia dalle perdite nei conduttori.ω) + J e (r. che come indicato dalla (4. cio` prodotta dal campo applicato. In ogni dielettrico e u reale vi sono delle cariche libere che danno luogo a una corrente quando viene applicato un campo elettrico.ω) γd E (r. viene conglobata e nella corrente di spostamento che ` in quadratura.ω) + J e (r.t) = ε che nel dominio spettrale diventa × H (r. ma una corrente di campo. In linea con l’impostazione circuitale di questa prima parte del corso ci limiteremo invece a una discussione qualitativa. Ricordiamo infatti la seconda equazione di Maxwell × H (r. J c ` la densit` di corrente per unit` di superﬁcie e il pedice c sottolinea che e e a a questa corrente non ` una sorgente.3) ∂E (r. Lo studio dettagliato di questi fenomeni richiede di risolvere le equazioni di Maxwell nelle varie strutture di interesse.t) + γd E (r. che e e ha una conducibilit` piccola ma non nulla. Essa ` causata sia dalle perdite nel dielettrico. che compare nella e a legge di Ohm in forma microscopica J c = γd E (4. misurata in Siemens/metro. Il materiale ` caratterizzato da una conducibilit` γd .

4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione

In modo del tutto naturale quindi si ` introdotta una permettivit` dielettrica equivalente complessa ε, la e a ˜ cui parte reale ` l’usuale costante dielettrica e quella immaginaria ` legata alla conducibilit`. e e a Si usa anche introdurre un angolo di perdita δ, deﬁnito come angolo di fase del numero complesso ε: ˜ ε = ε − jε = ε0 εr ˜ 1−j γd ωε0 εr γd ωε0 εr = ε0 εr (1 − jtgδ) (4.4)

Quindi la relazione tra angolo di perdita e conducibilit` ` ae tgδ = (4.5)

Ovviamente, per un buon conduttore ad alta conducibilit` l’angolo di perdita δ → π/2.Osserviamo inﬁne a che quando si vuole studiare l’andamento in frequenza di ε occorre ricordare che sia εr , sia γd sono funzioni ˜ della frequenza. Si ` visto nel capitolo 1 che le perdite nel dielettrico sono descritte in termini circuitali tramite la e conduttanza per unit` di lunghezza G. Il calcolo di questa quantit`, come del resto di tutti i parametri a a per unit` di lunghezza, a partire dalla geometria della linea di trasmissione e dai parametri ﬁsici dei a materiali richiede che si risolvano le equazioni di Maxwell per la conﬁgurazione in questione. A partire dalla conoscenza dei campi si pu` risalire ai valori dei parametri delle linee. Questo procedimento verr` o a illustrato sommariamente nella prossima sezione, in cui si analizzano le perdite nei conduttori. Le formule che permettono di calcolare G per qualche esempio di linea sono riportate nella sezione 4.3.

4.2

Perdite nei conduttori

La permettivit` dielettrica complessa introdotta prima ` in grado di descrivere anche un buon conduttore. a e In realt`, in conduttori come il rame a frequenza ﬁno nel campo delle onde millimetriche la corrente di a spostamento ` trascurabile rispetto a quella di conduzione per cui la ε ` assunta puramente immaginaria. e ˜e In una linea di trasmissione in cui i conduttori si assumono perfetti, il campo elettromagnetico ` diverso e da zero solo nel dielettrico: infatti, nei conduttori il campo ` identicamente nullo. In queste condizioni, sulla e superﬁcie dei conduttori scorre una corrente elettrica che ` strettamente legata al campo elettromagnetico. e Si tratta, come detto, di una corrente superﬁciale la cui densit` per unit` di lunghezza J σ , misurata lungo a a il contorno della sezione trasversale del conduttore, ` pari in modulo al valore del campo magnetico nei e punti del dielettrico adiacenti al conduttore stesso, vedi ﬁgura (4.1). La sua direzione ` ortogonale al e campo magnetico.

Jσ

ds

Figure 4.1. Conduttore perfetto e corrente che scorre sulla sua superﬁcie. La sua densit` J σ ` la a e corrente che scorre attraversando l’elemento di linea ds. Se ora immaginiamo che la conducibilit` del materiale sia molto grande ma ﬁnita, si pu` dimostrare a o risolvendo le equazioni di Maxwell in queste condizioni che la corrente elettrica non ` pi` conﬁnata alla e u

60

4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione

sola superﬁcie ma si distribuisce anche all’interno, con una densit` per unit` di superﬁcie che decade in a a modo circa esponenziale verso l’interno del conduttore. Anche il campo magnetico “penetra” all’interno del conduttore, pur essendo caratterizzato dallo stesso decadimento esponenziale. Questo fenomeno ha due conseguenze: • a causa della presenza nel metallo di un campo elettrico e di una densit` di corrente elettrica, in fase a tra loro per la (4.1), si ha dissipazione di energia. • il campo magnetico nel conduttore d` luogo a un ﬂusso autoconcatenato che si descrive tramite a un’induttanza interna, da sommare a quella esterna che tiene conto del ﬂusso del campo nel dielettrico. Un caso che si riesce a studiare semplicemente ` quello di una linea di trasmissione planare, riportata e in ﬁgura (4.2).

z x

w h

y

d

Figure 4.2. Linea di trasmissione planare.

Supponiamo che w/h >> 1, in modo da poter trascurare le variazioni con y di campi e corrente, che dunque risultano solo dipendere da z e da x. Qui ci occupiamo solo della dipendenza da x, in quanto vogliamo ricavare i parametri per unit` di a lunghezza della linea, sulla base dei quali poi si ricaver` la dipendenza dalla coordinata longitudinale z. Si a pu` dimostrare, risolvendo le equazioni di Maxwell, che la densit` di corrente per unit` di superﬁcie nel o a a conduttore di sinistra ` diretta lungo z ed ` data dall’espressione e e Jz (x) =

x I cosh T h h − 1 T w sinh (T h)

(4.6)

dove T = (1 + j) /δ e I/w ` la densit` di corrente per unit` di lunghezza lungo y che scorre complessivae a a mente nel conduttore . Nel conduttore di destra la corrente ` opposta. e La ﬁgura (4.3) riporta in un graﬁco tridimensionale la dipendenza della densit` di corrente per unit` a a di superﬁcie Jz (x,ω) dalla profondit` normalizzata x/h e dal parametro h/δ. Questo equivale a indicare la a dipendenza dalla frequenza, perch´ si vedr` tra poco (ﬁg.(4.7b)) che h/δ ` funzione della frequenza. Inoltre e a e la densit` puntuale Jz (x,ω) ` ` stata normalizzata alla densit` di corrente media I/(wh). Vediamo che se a ee a h/δ → 0 la corrente ` distribuita uniformememnte nel conduttore. Viceversa, se h/δ ` grande, la corrente e e tende a concentrarsi lungo l’interfaccia tra il metallo e il dielettrico. In queste condizioni si puo’ dimostrare

61

4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione

6

|Jz|

4 2 0 0 4 3 0.5 2 1 0 1

h/δ

Figure 4.3.

x/h

Dipendenza della densit` di corrente Jz dalla profondit` x e dalla frequenza. a a

che Jz (x) decade esponenzialmente al crescere di x verso l’interno del conduttore e il tasso di decadimento ` ﬁssato dal parametro δ, detto profondit` di penetrazione per eﬀetto pelle. Infatti la corrente ﬂuisce e a sostanzialmente in una sottile pellicola adiacente all’interfaccia tra conduttore e dielettrico. Si dimostra che l’espressione di δ ` e 2 δ= (4.7) ωµγ da cui si vede che δ ` inversamente proporzionale alla radice quadrata della frequenza e della conducibilit`. e a La tabella (4.1) riporta alcuni esempi di conduttori comuni. A partire dall’espressione della densit` di corrente e dei campi ` possibile calcolare l’impedenza supera e ﬁciale del metallo, deﬁnita come il rapporto tra il campo elettrico Ez all’interfaccia x = 0 e la densit` di a corrente per unit` di lunghezza lungo y (I/w). Il campo elettrico Ez (x = 0) si trova dalla equazione (4.6) a e dalla legge di Ohm in forma microscopica: Ez (x = 0) = 1 T I Jz (x = 0) = coth (T h) γ γ w (4.8)

Quindi l’impedenza superﬁciale, per unit` di lunghezza nella direzione z e per unit` di larghezza nella a a direzione y, vale Z = = R + jωLi = 2 2 T coth (T h) = γ

1+j h h coth (1 + j) = 2Rs (1 + j) coth (1 + j) γδ δ δ 1 = γδ ωµ 2γ

(4.9)

dove si ` introdotto il parametro Rs e Rs = (4.10)

62

78 0.3) a meno dell’induttanza esterna. la profondit` di penetrazione ` grande e h/δ << 1. poich´ gli elementi di conduttore sono in parallelo. All’altro estremo di frequenza molto bassa.12 2.081 1. Se il conduttore ha la larghezza w.93 2. a e ` E da notare che questa impedenza per unit` di lunghezza coincide con l’impedenza serie del circuito a equivalente di un tratto elementare ∆z di linea di trasmissione (vedi ﬁgura 1.38 3.80 ×10 1.14 Alluminio Argento Cromo Graﬁte Nickel Oro Ottone Rame Stagno Zinco 3.5 29 0.11) (vedi ﬁgura (4.65 1 KHz [mm] 2. In queste a e condizioni la corrente scorre con densit` quasi uniforme entro tutta la sezione trasversale del conduttore a (vedi ﬁgura (4.064 0. (Ω/ ).085 0.26 1.870×10 7 detto resistenza superﬁciale.03 2.59 0.6) si sempliﬁca e diventa un esponenziale.41 3. L’espressione (4.7 2. in modo che la profondit` di penetrazione δ diventi sempre pi` piccola.3 1.171 0.86 ×10 7 7 7 7 0.9) tiene conto dell’esistenza di due conduttori identici.50 ×10 1. legata al campo magnetico presente nel dielettrico. Questa a resistenza superﬁciale dipende dalla frequenza e si misura in Ω. Supponiamo ora a di far crescere la frequenza.90 1.6 50.4 2.014 0.6) vale per ogni frequenza di lavoro. Caratteristiche di alcuni buoni conduttori Profondit` di penetrazione a Materiale γ [S/m] δf 2 [m Hz 2 ] 1 1 50 Hz [cm] 1.06 1.98 2.1 5. In a u questo caso h/δ >> 1 e il conduttore si comporta come se fosse di spessore inﬁnito.59 ×10 5.6 1.9) ` proporzionale all’ induttanza interna. Vedremo al termine di questo capitolo che ` consuetudine esprimere il valore numerico in “Ω per quadro”.12) 63 . La parte immaginaria di Z nell’equazione (4.126 0.171 0.2 1.54 ×107 6.8 ×10 1.0 ×10 7 7 5 0.5)) e l’impedenza per unit` di lunghezza si ricava da (4.075 0.50 0. e L’espressione della densit` di corrente indotta (4.19 1. Jz (x) ≈ I I (1 + j) x T exp (−T x) = exp − (1 + j) w w δ δ (4.126 0.9) si riduce a Z = R + jωLi ≈ qui scritta per il caso di un conduttore di larghezza w. associata al campo magnetico presente all’interno del metallo.4)).41 1.064 0.066 0. l’impedenza per unit` di lunghezza lungo z vale Z/w. mentre la (4.1. che in realt` coincide con la parte reale di Z solo se h >> δ.014 0.59 0.0117 3 GHz [µm] 1.2 3.15 22.19 0.085 0.075 0.15 ×10 3.066 0.70 1 MHz [mm] 0.4 2.3 4.9) ricordando lo sviluppo della a 2Rs (1 + j) w (4.117 1. Inﬁne il fattore 2 nella equazione e (4.081 1.4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione Table 4.3 ×107 4.

14) dove si ` usata l’espressione di δ (eq.6 0.15) per ciascun conduttore.9) si trova Z ∼ = = 2 (1 + j) δ 1 h + (1 + j) = w γδ h (1 + j) 3 δ 2 1 2h +j 2 γhw 3γ w =2 1 1 ωµh +j γhw 3 w = R + jωLi (4. invece. 0. (4. la resistenza per unit` di lunghezza ` data.8 1 Andamento di Jz (x) per h/δ = 10. Dato che wh ` l’area della sezione trasversale del conduttore questo risultato e coincide con il valore di resistenza in corrente continua. Ad alta frequenza. dalla a e (4.2 Figure 4.12) Rs 1 R= = (4.16) w γδw 64 .7)) e il fattore 2 si riferisce sempre al fatto che vi sono due e conduttori identici che contribuiscono al risultato.4 x/h 0.4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione 15 J z (x ) I (wh ) 10 5 0 0 0. per ciascun conduttore. cotangente iperbolica per argomento piccolo 1 z coth (z) ∼ + .13) (4.4. = z 3 Sostituendo nella equazione (4. Notiamo allora che in queste condizioni di bassa frequenza la resistenza per unit` di lunghezza vale a R= 1 = Rdc γwh (4.

5.025 J z (x ) 1. La ﬁgura (4.6 0. Confrontando le equazioni (4. e a normalizzata alla resistenza in continua Rdc .6b) riporta l’andamento della stessa impedenza normalizzata rispetto alla resistenza in continua Rdc = 1/ (γwh). Per quanto riguarda la a reattanza serie. dall’equazione (4. a In ﬁgura (4.4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione 1.8) ` riportato il graﬁco della parte reale dell’impedenza serie per unit` di lunghezza.16) possiamo ricavare la seguente interpretazione del parametro δ: in condizioni di alta frequenza. cio` se lo spessore del conduttore ` grande rispetto alla profondit` di e e a penetrazione.02 1. La ﬁgura (4. Dato che δ ` funzione della frequenza. la resistenza superﬁciale ` stata moltiplicata per e la quantit` γh.7b) riporta il graﬁco a della profondit` di penetrazione δ.995 0 Figure 4. Infatti e 65 . la resistenza non normalizzata a tende al valore ﬁnito Rdc (come ` evidente dalla ﬁgura (4.7a).9) riporta un graﬁco dell’induttanza interna. detta di demarcazione. In realt`. normalizzata allo spessore h del conduttore.5.17) πµγh2 Questa frequenza.005 1 0. Notiamo che a bassa frequenza in ﬁgura (4. Vediamo che gli asintoti relativi al comportamento a bassa e ad alta frequenza si incontrano per h/δ = 1. Sempre in funzione della stessa frequenza normalizzata. come illustrato in ﬁgura (4. questa condizione e determina la frequenza fd 1 fd = (4.8 1 Andamento di Jz (x) per h/δ = 0. Dato che δ dipende da ω. la resistenza equivalente per unit` di lunghezza ` quella che si otterrebbe in continua se la a e corrente scorresse con densit` costante in uno strato di spessore pari a δ. in funzione dello spessore normalizzato h/δ.01 1. la ﬁgura (4.14) si vede che essa tende a zero per ω → 0. In ﬁgura (4. separa il regime di bassa frequenza da quello di alta frequenza.015 1. normalizzata rispetto al valore in continua.15) e (4.6b)) mentre la resistenza superﬁciale Rs tende e a zero.2 0. Notiamo che l’induttanza interna ` sempre piccola rispetto a quella esterna.4 x/h 0.6a) la resistenza normalizzata diventa molto grande. anche questa induttanza ` funzione e della frequenza.6a) ` riportato l’andamento dell’impedenza per unit` di lunghezza normalizzata alla ree a sistenza superﬁciale Rs in funzione dello spessore h/δ. I (wh ) 0. Per ottenere una grandezza normalizzata. dove come frequenza di normalizzazione si ` assunta quella per e cui δ = h.

Dato che in genere d >> h. 3 2.5 Zs / Rdc 0.5 2 γhR s 3 2.19) µd w (4.5 0 0. L’impedenza di normalizzazione ` la resistenza superﬁciale Rs in e (a) e la resistenza in continua Rdc in (b).5 2 δ/h 2. Impedenza serie normalizzata della linea planare.5 1 0. e l’induttanza esterna ` data da e Le = mentre l’induttanza interna a frequenza zero ` e Li0 = 1µ h 3w (4.5 Frequenza normalizzata (b) 10. Linea continua: parte reale.5 3 2.5 1 0. (a) Resistenza superﬁciale normalizzata Rs γh.5 2 1.18) e ancora pi` piccola al crescere della frequenza.5 1 0.6. 1.5 2 2.0 Figure 4. linea tratteggiata: parte immaginaria.5 2 2. l’induttanza interna risulta u trascurabile rispetto a quella esterna. 66 .5 3 Spessore normalizzato h/δ (b) Figure 4.7.5 5.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 5.5 1 0.5 Frequenza normalizzata (a) 10 1.5 0 0.4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione 3 2. La frequenza di normalizzazione usata in ascissa ` quella per cui δ = h.0 7.0 7. (b) Profondit` di penetrazione normala izzata δ/h.5 1 1.0 2.5 3 Spessore normalizzato h/δ (a) Zs / Rs 2 1.

5 R / Rdc 2 1.5 0 0 0.4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione 3 2. Parte reale dell’impedenza serie per unit` di lunghezza. Induttanza interna di una linea planare.4 0.8.3 4. normalizzata rispetto al valore in continua.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 Spessore normalizzato h/δ 10 Figure 4.5 2 2.3.5 Spessore normalizzato h/δ 3 Figure 4. 1 /i /i 0 0. in funzione dello spessore normalizzato h/δ.8 0.6 0.9. al ﬁne di deﬁnire la frequenza di demarcazione.1 Parametri di perdita di alcune linee di trasmissione Cavo coassiale Perdite nel dielettrico 2πγd D log d G= (4.5 1 0. Sono a anche disegnati i comportamenti asintotici. normalizzata a Rdc .5 1 1.20) 67 . 4.

Cavo coassiale.21) Induttanza interna: Li = • Media frequenza √ √ 2K0 D µ 1− 4π D De 2 −2 D De 2 − 1 − 2 log D De (4. 68 . d = j2 √ 3 • Alta frequenza R + jωLi = Rs 1+j π 1 1 + d D (4.16) nel caso della linea a piani a paralleli. l’impedenza e serie ` la stessa che si avrebbe se tutta la corrente scorresse con densit` costante entro uno strato di e a spessore pari alla profondit` di penetrazione δ.23) 1 d D . K1 sono funzioni di Bessel modiﬁcate. Perdite nel metallo • Bassa frequenza Resistenza per unit` di lunghezza: a R= 1 1 + 2 d2 De − D 2 1 π γc 4 (4.22) R + jωLi = dove Rs j 2 3 2J0 d πdJ1 d + Rs j 2 1 πDK1 D (4. La a stessa interpretazione era gi` stata data in connessione con l’equazione (4. quantit` che sono le circonferenze dei conduttori stessi.4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione d D De Figure 4.10. La “larghezza equivalente” del conduttore vale 1/πd per il a conduttore interno e 1/πD per quello esterno.24) Questa formula ha una semplice interpretazione. J1 sono funzioni di Bessel di prima specie e K0 . Quando l’eﬀetto pelle ` ben sviluppato. D = j2 √ 2δs 2δs e J0 .

2 Linea biﬁlare Perdite nel dielettrico G= πγd cosh−1 D d (4. a δ J w Figure 4.27) Per capire inﬁne per quale motivo la resistenza superﬁciale Rs si misura in facciamo riferimento alla ﬁgura (4. a 69 .4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione 4.28) 3 2 πd2 γc Rs j 2 3 Li = √ µ 4π (4. Linea biﬁlare.25) d D Figure 4. w Prisma a base quadrata di lato w e profondit` pari a δ.12.11.3. Perdite nel metallo • Bassa frequenza R= • Media frequenza (se D >> d) R + jωLi = dove d = j2 √ e J0 . J1 sono funzioni di Bessel di prima specie. • Alta frequenza R + jωLi = 2Rs 1+j πd (4.26) 2J0 d πdJ1 d d 2δs (4.12) dove si considera un prisma a base quadrata di lato w e profondit` pari a δ.

4 – Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione Abbiamo gi` detto che l’impedenza ` la stessa che si avrebbe con un ﬂusso uniforme di corrente entro a e lo spessore δ. la resistenza superﬁciale vale R= l w 1 = = γS γδw γδ che ` indipendente dalle dimensioni del quadrato. In tali condizioni. con lato arbitrario. ha la stessa e resistenza. 70 . Quindi ogni quadrato.

without losses.t) + C ∂ v(z.ω) dz = = (R + jω L) I(z. we turn back to the complete equations.(5. that is − d V (z.t) ∂t ∂t (5. i. we get the real transmission line equations in the spectral domain.ω) = = L+ C+ R R =L−j jω ω G G =C−j jω ω formally identical to that of ideal lines. Note that the 71 .e. but it is simpler to resort to the trick of introducing a complex inductance and capacitance per unit length Lc Cc in such a way that Eq.t) ∂t ∂t Fourier transforming both sides.ω) (5. to understand the role played by the parameters R (conductor resistance per unit length) and G (dielectric conductance per unit length).2) (G + jω C) V (z.1) − ∂ i(z. The relevant equations are − ∂ v(z.ω) dz = = jω Lc I(z.ω) jω Cc V (z. It is just enough to take the solution of the ideal case and obtain its “analytic continuation” from the real values L e C to the complex ones (Lc and Cc ).t) = R i(z.2) take the form − d V (z.t) = G v(z.1 Solution of transmission line equations After explaining in detail the analysis technique of circuits containing ideal transmission lines.ω) dz − d I(z.ω) dz − d I(z.t) + L ∂ i(z.ω) We could now repeat step by step the analysis carried out for the ideal lines.Chapter 5 Lossy transmission lines 5.

5) and. the expressions of the voltage and current on a lossy line are given by V (z.3) when k and Y∞ are complex. Time constants of the RL and RC groups of an elementary length of transmission line equivalent inductance and capacitance Lc e Cc can be written Lc Cc = = L 1−j C 1−j 1 ωτs 1 ωτp where τs = L/R and τp = C/G can be viewed as the time constants of the series RL group and of the parallel RC group. the case of practical interest is that in which Lc e Cc have very small imaginary parts. respectively.3) where the (complex) propagation constant is (5.1. substituting the expressions of the complex inductance and capacitance. As for the propagation constant. shown in Fig.G. Hence. Obviously the time constants τs . in the equivalent circuit of an elementary length ∆z. k = ω L−j R ω C−j G ω √ = ω LC 1−j 1 ωτs 1−j 1 ωτp (5. Let us analyze now the properties of (5. 5.1. the quantity below the square root sign in (5.4) (5.5 – Lossy transmission lines τs L∆z ∆ R∆z R G ∆z τp C ∆z Figure 5.ω) I(z.L.ω) = = V0+ (ω) e−jkz + V0− (ω) e+jkz Y∞ V0+ (ω) e−jkz − Y∞ V0− (ω) e+jkz √ k = ω Lc Cc and the (complex) characteristic admittance is Y∞ = 1 = Z∞ Lc Cc −1 (5.3) holds for any value of R. τp go to inﬁnity for an ideal transmission line.6) Y∞ = 1 = Z∞ G C −jω L−jR ω = C L 1 1 − j ωτp 1 1 − j ωτs Observe that even if the solution (5.4) is given by the product of two factors with phase between −π/2 and 0. and hence has a phase between −π and 0: −π < arg(k2 ) ≤ 0 72 .C.

e. by continuity. As for the characteristic admittance. Moreover.(3. we choose Y∞ with positive real part. the elements of the matrices Z. in the lossy case k belongs to the fourth quadrant. In these notes we will always use the phase constant k. which is the ideal line case. This means also that Im{k} < 0: this choice agrees also with the fact that the forward wave must attenuate for increasing z. instead of the propagation constant k = β − jα.Y .13). 5. 5. Im k2 complex plane (left) and k complex plane (right) Im Y Y∞2 2 ∞ Y∞ Y∞ Re Re Figure 5. Hence. as shown in Fig.11) . we can take the limit for R.2. Re{k} > 0. 73 . To ascertain whether k belongs to the fourth or to the second √ quadrant. for example. given in (3.2.3. i. This choice is natural when transients are studied and the line equations are solved by the Laplace transform technique instead of the Fourier transform.G → 0. in which we had chosen k = ω LC. one introduces γ = jk = α + jβ in terms of which the general expression of the line voltage.3. Sometimes. see Fig. the radicand in (5. instead of circular trigonometric of kl. we recall that Y∞ is the input admittance of a semi-inﬁnite line: since it is a passive load.5 – Lossy transmission lines Im Im k2 −k Re k Re k2 k Figure 5. the real part of its admittance must be positive. 2 Y∞ complex plane (left) and Y∞ complex plane (right) Computing the square root yields the values ±k = ±(β − jα) with β ≥ 0 and α ≥ 0. become hyperbolic functions of γl.ABCD of a line length. is V (z) = V0+ e−γz + V0− eγz Moreover.5) belongs to the right halfplane: for continuity with the case of a lossless line.

which refers to a loss-less line.t) = = and. From the analysis of (5.5 – Lossy transmission lines v + ( z0 .4 shows a plot of the time evolution of the forward voltage wave in a speciﬁc point z = z0 .4. we compute the time evolution of voltage and current relative to the ﬁrst term of (5.t) = Re{V + (z. for which the following inverse transform formula holds: v + (z. 5.5 shows instead a plot of the same wave vs. because of the power dissipation taking place on the lossy line.9) we can conclude that: • The ﬁrst term of (5. 5. • The wave amplitude has an exponential decrease vs. as it can be expected. t ) V 0+ T t Figure 5. The inverse of the imaginary part of the propagation constant (α0 ) is the distance over which the amplitude undergoes a decrease of the factor 1/e = 0.7) arg(V0+ )) e −α0 z | cos(ω0 t − β0 z + ) e−j(β0 −jα0 )z ejω0 t } (5. 5. where the real and imaginary parts of the complex propagation constant have been introduced. We interpret (5. z. Note that it is identical to the plot of Fig.68589 dB of voltage or current (see Fig.3). Fig.t) = = Re{| Y∞ | ej arg(Y∞ ) | V0+ | ej arg(V0 + Re{| V0+ | ej arg(V0 | V0+ + ) e−j(β0 −jα0 )z ejω0 t } (5. 74 .ω) ejω0 t } In this way we obtain the expression of the forward wave in the form v + (z. for the forward current: i+ (z.10. Fig. Time evolution of the forward voltage wave at point z = z0 To understand better the meaning of the solution of lossy transmission line equations.8) and (5. 1.36788 = 8.3) as phasor equations.3) represents a wave traveling in the direction of increasing z with phase velocity vf = ω0 ω0 = β0 Re{k0 } Note that vf depends on the value of ω0 . since Re{k0 } is a nonlinear function of frequency.8) | Y∞ || V0+ | cos(ω0 t − β0 z + arg(Y∞ ) + arg(V0+ )) e−α0 z assuming k0 = k(ω0 ) = β0 − jα0 .6). z at time t = t0 . which represented a forward wave in the case of ideal lines.

6. we have V + (z) | V + (z) | def def = 20 log10 = 20 log10 e−α0 z = −α0 z 20 log10 e = −α0dB z V + (0) dB | V + (0) | 75 .ω ) V0+ e −1 1 α0 Figure 5.5 – Lossy transmission lines v + ( z. Forward voltage wave vs z at time t = t0 V + ( z . If we express the voltage ratio in dB. deﬁned as usual as the spatial period of the wave. • The measurements units of β0 and α0 are β0 α0 As for α0 . t0 ) V 0+ λ z Figure 5. z z-plot of the amplitude of the forward voltage wave on a lossy line • The wavelength. is given by λ= 2π 2π = β0 Re{k0 } • The current is proportional to the voltage. Note also that Y∞ depends on frequency.5. but shows the phase shift arg(Y∞ ) with respect to it. since → → rad/m Np/m or dB/m V + (z) | V + (z) | def = ln = ln e−α0 z = −α0 z + (0) V | V + (0) | Np it is natural to express α0 in Np/m.

5.8 the forward wave is created in A by the generator. of course.68589. Plot of the backward voltage wave vs z + Vg Zg ZL A B Figure 5. because of the reﬂection symmetry of the transmission line. Actually. The presence in these expressions of an exponential that increases with z seems to contradict the dissipative character of the lossy line. 5. the conversion factor for the attenuation constant is 20 log10 e = 8. in this reference the amplitude decays as exp{−ω0 α0 t/β0 }.8.3).9 shows the space-time plots of the forward and backward voltage waves. in which the natural evolution of the phenomenon takes place. in Fig.7. Lossy transmission line loaded with a generic impedance Hence. Fig. The same considerations can be carried out for the second term of (5. The time domain expressions of the voltage and current backward wave are v − (z.7. The same conclusion can be reached by introducing the reference in which the backward wave is at rest.t) i− (z. whereas the backward wave is excited in B at the load position and then it propagates in the backward direction −ˆ. 5.t) = = | V0− | cos(ω0 t + β0 z + arg(V0− )) eα0 z − | Y∞ || V0− | cos(ω0 t + β0 z + arg(Y∞ ) + arg(V0− )) eα0 z The plot of the backward voltage wave vs. z that the amplitude of the backward wave reduces. z = −vf t = −ω0 t/β0 . We can observe that the crests are parallel to the straight lines z = ±vf t where the upper sign refers to the forward wave and the lower to the backward one. from the propagation direction). It is in this direction. 76 . z at the time t = t0 is shown in Fig. which represents a backward wave identical to the forward one (apart. t 0 ) V0− z Figure 5.5 – Lossy transmission lines v − (z .

it is useful to introduce the notion of reﬂection coeﬃcient: V Γ(z) = V − (z) V + (z) V In the case of a lossy transmission line. originally produced by the generator. there is also an appreciable contribution of the backward wave. the transformation law of V Γ becomes Γ(z) = V Γ(0) ej2kz = V Γ(0) ej2βz e2αz We can observe that if we move from the load toward the line input. created in B by the load mismatch.2 (a). This fact justiﬁes the use of the symbol Z∞ . both the phase and the amplitude of the reﬂection coeﬃcient decrease. as shown in Fig.10. with the origin as pole.5 – Lossy transmission lines 1 v(z. Indeed. This result has also an intuitive explanation. the backward wave in A is negligible and the line appears to be matched. apart from the forward wave.10. 5. so that V Γ traces a logarithmic spiral in the complex plane.1 (b). 0 (c) In Chapter 3 we have seen that in the analysis of circuits containing transmission lines. 1 z/λ 0 1 2 t/T 3 5 0 −5 2 1 z/λ 0 1 2 t/T 3 0 −1 2 0 0 Figure 5. For this reason. v(z. Actually the generator power is only partially delivered to the load: the rest is dissipated in the line. Plot of the curve (b ) V (c ) Γ(z) for α/β = 0. the fact that the input impedance of a line is diﬀerent from Z∞ means that in A.9.t) regr. we can say that the input impedance of a semi-inﬁnite real (lossy) line coincides with its characteristic impedance. 0. 77 . t) progr. Space-time plots of the forward and backward voltage waves (a ) Figure 5. If the product of the attenuation constant times the line length is very large (α0 l → ∞).

V Γ(z) | are Apply now this formula to the circuit of Fig. obviously. we note that it is always multiplied times the line length. rigorously.9) = 1 | V + (z) |2 2 G 1− | V P (z) = Γ(z) |2 + 2B Im{ V Γ(z)} Where Y∞ = G + jB is the characteristic admittance.2 Computation of the power ﬂow The general formula that allows the computation of the power ﬂow in each point of any transmission line has been derived in Chapter 3 and is reported her for sake of convenience: 1 1 Re{V (z) I ∗ (z)} = G | V + (z) |2 − | V − (z) |2 + 2B Im{V +∗ (z)V − (z)} = 2 2 (5. There is also a physical explanation: in each point of the line an active power ﬂow exists even if the load is lossless.10) 2 As for the propagation constant.5 – Lossy transmission lines + Vg Zg ZL A B Figure 5.11. A line is deﬁned to be a low-loss line if B << G.10) twice. If this is small (αl << 1) then the eﬀects of losses can be neglected altogether.(5. PB is also the power delivered to the load ZL . a purely stationary wave can be formed. and the characteristic admittance can be taken as real. Denote by PA (PB ) the net power ﬂowing in A(B). because it is algebraically impossible to write the voltage on the line as the product of a function of t times a function of z. The ratio PB /PA is found readily by applying Eq. obviously. a purely stationary wave is established on it and the net power ﬂux is zero. This power.11. hence we must always consider the quantity αl. We can ask ourselves if also on a lossy transmission line. 5. The answer is no. Length of lossy transmission line terminated with an arbitrary load impedance We have seen in Chapter 3 that when an ideal line is connected to a reactive load. since e−αl 1 P (z) = When this condition is not satisﬁed losses must be accounted for and both | V + (z) | and | functions of z. so that also the power ﬂow changes from point to point of the line. The power ﬂow in this case can be computed by the formula that.11) 78 . 5. in the points A and B: PB = PA 1 G 2 1 G 2 + | VB |2 (1− | + | VA |2 (1− | V Γ B |2 ) 1− | = e−2αl V Γ |2 ) 1− | A V VΓ Γ B |2 2 A | (5. connected to a reactive load. is dissipated in the line length comprised between the point under consideration and the load. holds only in the case of ideal lossless lines: 1 | V + (z) |2 G 1− | V Γ(z) |2 (5.

where ωτs By recalling that if | x | 1: (1 + x) 2 (1 + x)− 2 1 1 1 and ωτp 1 1.e. as it would be rigorously true only in the case of a lossless line.5 – Lossy transmission lines where we have used the equation Moreover | + + | VB |=| VA | e−αl V ΓA |=| V ΓB | e−2αl If the load impedance ZL coincides with the characteristic impedance of the line (matched line). Considering the equations (5. In this section we analyze it. G do not depend on frequency. we recognize that we can deﬁne two frequency ranges: • a high frequency range. which is deﬁned nominal attenuation.7). if αl 1 the line has negligible losses and PB /PA ∼ 1. where ωτs R ωL • a low frequency range.3 Frequency dependence of phase constant and characteristic impedance The expressions (5. G ωC 1 1 1 and ωτp 1+ 1− 1 x 2 1 x 2 it is possible to obtain simple approximate expressions valid for each range. by assuming that the primary constants L. Finally. This amounts to neglecting the dielectric dispersion and the frequency dependence of the skin eﬀect (see Chapter 4). 5.7) show clearly that both the phase constant and the characteristic admittance have a frequency dependence. If the load impedance is arbitrary (mismatched line) the ratio PB /PA reduces. R.11) is expressed in dB: PB PA = −αdB l + (1− | dB PB PA V ΓB |2 )dB − (1− | V ΓA |2 )dB The Smith chart is provided with a scale that allows the fast evaluation the attenuation increase due to the line mismatch. i. For the high frequency range we ﬁnd k = √ ω LC 1−j R ωL 1−j G ωC √ 1 ω LC 1 − j 2 R G + ωL ωC 79 . C. V ΓB = 0 and the ratio PB /PA equals the factor exp(−2αl). The amount of power dissipated in the line length AB is readily found by taking into account the energy conservation: Pdiss = PA 1 − Often the expression (5. since the fraction that describes the additional attenuation due to the mismatch is always less than 1.

but the slope of the two straight lines is diﬀerent. which usually holds true in practice.13) √ RG Note that β (ω) is linear at both high and low frequency.12) Y∞ from which we get k = √ −j RG 1+j ωL R 1+j ωL G = G + jωC R + jωL √ 1 −j RG 1 + j 2 ωL ωL + R G From this equation the expressions of β and α follow by inspection β (ω) α (ω) = = ω 2 C R +L G G R (5.5 – Lossy transmission lines and hence β √ ω LC 1 2 C +G L L C α R As for the characteristic admittance. always in the high frequency range. we ﬁnd Y∞ = C L G 1 − j ωC R 1 − j ωL C 1 1+j L 2 from which G C L j C 1 L 2 G R − ωL ωC B G R − ωL ωC We see that the terms R/ωL and G/ωC. A simple computation shows that the low frequency slope is larger than the high frequency one if τp > τs . beside being small by hypothesis. from Eq. (5. As for the low frequency approximation of the characteristic admittance.7) as follows: k = −(R + jωL)(G + jωC) (5. To obtain the expressions for the low frequency range it is convenient to ﬁrst rewrite (5.13) we ﬁnd Y∞ = G R 1 + j ωC G 1 + j ωL R C L − G R ω G 1+j R 2 80 . are summed in the expression of α but subtracted in that of Z∞ .

related only to the fact that Z∞ (ω) can be considered to be a transfer function. It is important to note that when τp = τs = τ . B (ω) for a realistic transmission line with the following values of the primary constants: R = 25 Ω/m The time constants have the values τp = 0. so that the diﬀerent slopes in the two frequency ranges is represented as a vertical translation. If the Heaviside condition is fulﬁlled. it can be shown that the line inductance per unit length is increased by the quantity L/d. since R L = Z∞ = G C Note that if the losses are so large that the imaginary part of the characteristic admittance B cannot be neglected.14) The condition τs = τp is called Heaviside condition and is very important since it guarantees distortion free propagation. We note that the imaginary part of Y∞ is maximum when the real part has the maximum slope.0167s τs = 10−4 s L = 2. The imaginary part instead tends to zero in both regimes. This is a general property (Kramers Kr¨nig o relations). G (ω). from Eq. the forward and backwards waves are no longer power orthogonal This implies that the amplitude of the reﬂection coeﬃcient has no energy interpretation. that is the Fourier transform of the impulse response. Since in practice the line parameters do not fulﬁll this condition. α (ω).5 – Lossy transmission lines and hence the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic admittance are G G R j ω 2 G R C L − G R B We notice that both at low and high frequency the real part of the characteristic admittance is essentially frequency independent. 5. as it will be discussed in Chapter 8. Indeed. one can load the line with periodically spaced series inductors.12 shows plots of β (ω). In the intermediate frequency range no approximation is possible and the general expressions (5. where L is the inductor value and d their spacing. which is a causal time function.7) must be used. Z∞ is frequency independent.5 mH/m G = 0. 81 . Fig.3 µS/m C = 5 nF/m The plot of β(ω) is of log-log type. If the spacing is much smaller than the wavelength. the curve β (ω) becomes a straight line. but the two constant values are diﬀerent. The other plots are instead of semi-log type. (5. while α (ω) is a constant.7) it follows √ 1 k = ω LC 1 − j ωτ from which β (ω) α (ω) = = √ ω LC √ RG (5.

005 10 0 τ−1 τ−1 105 p s FREQUENCY ( Hz ) Re(Y∞) ( S ) 0 10 0 τs 105 τ−1 p FREQUENCY ( Hz ) Im(Y∞) (S) −1 x 10 1. α (ω).01 0.5 – Lossy transmission lines β =Re(k) ( rad / Km ) α =−Im(k) ( Np / Km ) 0.12. G (ω).5 −3 x 10 5 4 −4 1 3 2 1 0 10 τ−1 p 0. Plots of β (ω).5 0 τ−1 105 s FREQUENCY ( Hz ) 0 10 0 τ−1 p τ−1 105 s FREQUENCY ( Hz ) Figure 5. B (ω) for a realistic transmission line.015 10 0 0. The values of the primary constants are speciﬁed in the text 82 .

Chapter 6

Matching circuits

6.1 Introduction

In this chapter we address a subject with great practical importance in the ﬁeld of distributed parameter circuits, i.e. the notion of impedance matching. Actually there are two types of matching, one is matching to the line, the other is matching to the generator. When a transmission line must be connected to a load with an impedance diﬀerent from the characteristic impedance of the line, it is necessary to introduce a matching device, capable of eliminating the presence of reﬂected waves on the line. The other type of matching, not speciﬁc of distributed parameter circuits, has the property of allowing a generator to deliver its available power. These two objectives can be reached by means of lossless impedance transformers, which can be realized either in lumped or distributed form. As for the latter, several solutions will be described.

6.2

Types of impedance matching

Consider the circuit of Fig. 6.1, where a real generator and an arbitrary load are connected by a transmission line with negligible losses. We have already analyzed this circuit in Section 3.7, to ﬁnd voltages and

+ Vg

Zg ZL ZA A B

Figure 6.1.

Circuit consisting of a lossless transmission line, connected to a generator and a load.

currents in every point of the line. The power delivered to the load coincides with that absorbed by the input impedance Zin = ZA , since the line is lossless: PB = PA = 1 1 ∗ Re{VA IA } = |IA |2 Re{Zin } = 2 2

83

6 – Matching circuits

=

|Vg |2 1 Re{Zin } 2 |Zg + Zin |2

(6.1)

The standing wave ratio (VSWR) on the line is given by S= 1 + | V ΓB | Vmax = Vmin 1 − | V ΓB |

The power absorbed by the load can also be expressed in terms of the maximum voltage on the line. Indeed, express this power ﬁrst in terms of the forward voltage PB = The maximum voltage on the line is

+ Vmax = |VB |(1 + | V ΓB |). + Eliminating |VB | between the two equations we ﬁnd: 2 1 Vmax 1 . 2 Z∞ S + 1 |VB |2 1 − | V ΓB |2 . 2 Z∞

PB =

(6.2)

Depending on the values of the internal impedance of the generator ZG and of the load impedance, two diﬀerent cases can be considered: A) Matching of the load to the line If ZL = Z∞ , the reﬂection coeﬃcient in B is zero, as well as that in A, so that Zin = Z∞ . In this situation, deﬁned as uniformity matching, the standing wave diagram is ﬂat (VSWR = 1) since only the forward wave is present on the line. The power delivered to the load is PB = 1 Z∞ |Vg |2 . 2 |Z∞ + Zg |2

Observe that, ﬁxing the active power delivered to the load PB , the maximum line voltage Vmax has the minimum value when the load is matched to the line. Alternatively, we can say that ﬁxing the maximum voltage on the line, the power delivered to the load is maximum when the load is matched. This remark is important in high power applications, since for every transmission line there is maximum voltage that must not be exceeded in order to avoid sparks that would destroy the line. From (6.2) we recognize the importance of a VSWR as close to one as possible. B) Generator matching Suppose that in the circuit of Fig.6.1 the generator is ﬁxed but the value of the input impedance Zin = ZA can be changed at will. We can ask what is the optimum value of Zin that allows the maximum power to ∗ be extracted from the generator. Rewrite (6.1) recalling that che Re{Zin } = (Zin + Zin )/2: PB = and diﬀerentiate with respect to Zin :

∗ |Vg |2 ∂PB Zin + Zg − Zin − Zin 1 = ∗ + Z∗ 2 ∂Zin 4 Zg (Zg + Zin ) in ∗ |Vg |2 Zin + Zin ∗ + Z∗ ) 4 (Zg + Zin )(Zg in

=

∗ Zg − Zin |Vg |2 1 ∗ ∗ 4 Zg + Zin (Zg + Zin )2

84

6 – Matching circuits

∗ This derivative is zero for Zin = Zg , a condition deﬁned as conjugate matching. It can be readily checked that it corresponds to a maximum. The power delivered in this case is the available power of the generator and has the value 1 |Vg |2 Pav = 2 4Rg where Rg = Re{Zg } is the internal resistance of the generator.

It is interesting to note that the power delivered by a generator in an arbitrary load condition can be written as PB = Pav (1 − | k Γin |2 ) where k Γin is a generalized reﬂection coeﬃcient of the impedance Zin with respect to the internal generator impedance, introduced by Kurokawa:

k

Γin =

∗ Zin − Zg Zin + jXg − Rg = Zin + Zg Zin + jXg + Rg

Note that when Zg is real, the Kurokawa reﬂection coeﬃcient is coincident with the ordinary one, whereas it is a diﬀerent concept when Zg is complex. However, it is recognized as the usual reﬂection coeﬃcient of the equivalent impedance Zeq = Zin + jXg with respect to Rg and hence can be determined graphically by means of the Smith chart. If we now set

V

Γin = x + jy, Zg − Z∞ Γg = = a + jb, Zg + Z∞

V

it can be proved that the locus in the plane V Γin of the points for which it is PB /Pav = m with m a constant, is the circumference with equation (see Fig. 6.2): x2 + y 2 − 2αx − 2βy + γ = 0 where α β γ = = = ma , 1 − (1 − m) (a2 + b2 ) − mb , 1 − (1 − m) (a2 + b2 )

m − 1 + a2 + b 2 , 1 − (1 − m) (a2 + b2 )

V ∗

The center is in the point with coordinates (α,β), lying on the segment joining the point coordinates (a, − b), to the origin. The radius is √ 1 − m(1 − a2 − b2 ) r= . 1 − (1 − m) (a2 + b2 )

Γg , with

In particular, when m = 0, i.e. the delivered power is zero, the locus is the unit circumference with center in the origin of the plane V Γin : this result is obvious, since the corresponding Zin is a pure reactance. When m = 1, i.e. the generator delivers its available power, the locus reduces to the point V Γ∗ . g Note that when the energy matching condition holds, the VSWR can be greater than one, since it is related to | V ΓB |. In other words, energy matching and line matching are independent. The optimum operating condition for the circuit of Fig. 6.1 is that both the load and the generator are matched to the line. Indeed, in these conditions the generator delivers the maximum power. Moreover, because of the line matching, the voltage on the line is the minimum for that value of active power ﬂow. If the losses were not negligible, the line attenuation would be the minimum one and would be coincident with nominal one. Finally, as it will be discussed in Chapter 8, the line matching condition is essential to minimize distortions. In the rest of this chapter we will show how to design impedance transformers that allow the matching condition to be reached.

85

2. one on the real and one on the imaginary part of the input impedance. i.6 m=0. teristic impedance Z∞ of the feeding line. 6. for 86 .1 L cells with lumped reactive elements Two structures are possible (see Fig.4 m=0. Zin is the charac- ZL Z ing Figure 6. Scheme of impedance transformer.3. with V Γg = 0.e.3 Impedance matching devices First of all. In the case of conjugate matching. There are various solutions to this problem. In the case of matching to the line. 6.4) For certain combinations of Zin and ZL both can be used. We will discuss • “L” cells with lumped reactive • Single stub cells • Double and triple stub cells • λ/4 impedance transformers 6. all consisting of ideally lossless networks.2 m=0. PB /Pav = m loci on the Smith chart.3. multiple matching conditions can be enforced. If the network contains more than two independent elements.8 m=1 Figure 6.6 – Matching circuits m=0 m=0. we observe that a matching network must be formed by at least two components. First we address the simplest case of single frequency matching. at several frequencies or on a frequency band.5(−1 + j). Zin is the complex conjugate of the generator internal impedance. We have seen in the previous section that for several reasons it is useful to be able to design impedance transformers that perform as indicated in Fig.3.6. since two conditions must be enforced.

4. Consider the ﬁrst conﬁguration. Obviously the square root must be real: if this condition is not satisﬁed. we must use the conﬁguration of Fig.4) The corresponding X values are found from the second of (6. which can be solved by separating real and imaginary part of the right hand side (RHS). In this case the condition to 87 .4b. The condition to be enforced at the input terminals is 1 Rin + jXin = jX + 1 jB + RL +jXL This is a complex equation in the two real unknowns B and X.3) From the ﬁrst we obtain a quadratic equation in B: 2 2 (RL + XL )B 2 − 2XL B + (1 − RL )=0 Rin with solutions B= 1 2 2 RL + XL XL ± RL Rin 2 2 RL + XL − Rin RL (6.3). others only one of them. jB ZL Z in Figure 6.6 – Matching circuits jX jB jX ZL Z in (a) (b) The two possible schemes of L matching networks. we ﬁnd RHS = = = + = + jX + jX + RL + jXL = 1 − BXL + jBRL (RL + jXL )[(1 − BXL − jBRL ] = (1 − BXL )2 + (BRL )2 2 XL (1 − BXL ) − BRL + (1 − BXL )2 + (BRL )2 jX + j RL (1 − BXL ) − BRL XL = (1 − BXL )2 + (BRL )2 RL + 2 2 B 2 (RL + XL ) − 2BXL + 1 j X+ 2 2 XL − B(RL + XL ) 2 2 B 2 (RL + XL ) − 2BXL + 1 Enforcing the equality of left and right hand side yields Rin Xin = = RL 2 2 B 2 (RL + XL ) − 2BXL + 1 2 2 XL − B(RL + XL ) X+ 2 2 2 B (RL + XL ) − 2BXL + 1 (6. 6. After some algebra.

Obviously.6) Rin Finally. from the second of (6. This means that with present day technology this matching technique can be used up to some GHz (vedi Pozar p. Xin . the radicand is positive for 2 2 Rin + Xin − RL Rin ≥ 0 Geometrically.5 shows these regions. consider the circuit of Fig. From eq. the radicand of the square root must be positive. Suppose that a shunt stub matching network is to be designed. 6. Alternatively. 6. if X = −XL ± 2 2 Rin + Xin − RL Rin Rin ≤ Rc = 2 2 RL + XL RL Geometrically. terminated in short circuit or open circuit which. 6. Fig. 6. This reactance is realized by another length of transmission line. (6.5) we get B. to match a load to the feeding transmission line. The susceptance B and the reactance X can be realized by lumped elements (inductors and capacitors) if the frequency is low enough.6). We see that matching is possible only with the circuit of type a for Zin inside the circle and only with the circuit of type b for Zin to the right of the vertical line. Suppose that ZL is speciﬁed.3. From eq. terminated with an open or short circuit. in the case of line matching. It is interesting to note that the problem can also be solved graphically by means of the Smith chart. for frequencies in the microwave range.2 Single stub matching network The matching networks of this type consist essentially of a a transmission line length and a reactance.(6. B e X can be realized with transmission line lengths. Next. both circuits can be used. For other values of desired input impedance. Also in this case. this region is the part of the right half-plane lying outside of the circle with radius RL /2 and center in the point (RL . (Fig. In this way we have solved the matching problem in the most general case. in the plane Rin .0). (6.2.5) From the ﬁrst we get X: (X + XL )2 = from which RL 2 2 2 (Rin + Xin ) − RL Rin RL (6.6 – Matching circuits enforce is 1 1 = jB + Rin + jXin jX + (RL + jXL ) RL − j(X + XL ) Rin − jXin 2 2 = jB + 2 Rin + Xin RL + (X + XL )2 Rin 2 2 Rin + Xin − Xin 2 2 Rin + Xin RL 2 RL + (X + XL )2 B− X + XL 2 RL + (X + XL )2 from which By equating real and imaginary parts of the two sides we get the two equations = = (6. the formulas will simplify because Xin = 0. Assume 88 . have a purely reactive input impedance. The upper limit can be identiﬁed as the frequency for which the component size is of the order of λ/10.4b. as discussed in section 3. that can be connected in shunt or in series to the line itself.4a) can be used. It is interesting to ascertain for which combinations of load and input impedance each form of the L circuit can be used. called “stub”.6). 287). this region is the strip comprised between the imaginary axis and the vertical line Rin = Rc . and hence the circuit of Fig.4) we see that the radicand is positive.

We know that the locus on the admittance Smith chart of yA+ when lAB is changed is a circumference with center in the origin and radius equal to |ΓL |. The data are: ZL = 125 − 125j Ω e Z∞ = 50 Ω. Both points refer to values of yA+ that have the required real part. yL = 0.6 – Matching circuits Figure 6. 6. This circumference intersects the constant conductance circumference g = Re{yA+ } = 1 in the points I1 e I2 (see Fig.5j and. for Zin to the right of the vertical line. Z∞ jbs Z∞ - A+ B Figure 6. read on the chart. also that the matching network employs transmission lines with the same characteristic impedance as the feeding line. Realizability of L matching networks. | I ΓL | = 0.5 − 2. Using again the Smith chart. For Zin in the circle. From these points the origin of the Smith chart ( I Γ = 0) is reached by selecting the susceptance bs : bs = −Im{yA+ }.2j. only network b.6. From the intersection of the constant | I Γ| circle eqB 89 Z Z y ZL .7). having a shunt short circuited stub. only network a can be used.8).5. The matching network is an impedance transformer: its normalized input admittance must be yA− = 1 when it is terminated with yL . 6. Example 1 Design a line matching network. The length of the line AB is deduced from the angle between I ΓL and I1 (or I2 ).0326 (see Fig. Matching network with shunt stub: matching to the line.67 and equivalent electrical length (TG) (l/λ)T G = 0. We ﬁnd ζL = ZL /Z∞ = 2.2 + 0. the stub length is readily found as soon as its termination (short or open circuit) has been chosen.

25)λ = 0.9. We ﬁnd readily gm = 1 − |ΓL | 1 1 = = .421λ. Smith chart relative to the design of the matching network of Fig. In this case the length of AB becomes 0.329 − 0.079λ. for a given load admittance YL . The length of the stub is found from the Smith chart of Fig.6 – Matching circuits yL I1 y=1 zL I2 Figure 6. In this case the arrival point on the Smith chart is not the origin but a generic point. still short circuited. The relevant Smith charts are shown in Fig.1843.8 and Fig. The input impedance of the matching network would still be Z∞ at the design frequency.0326)λ = eqA 0. now.84j and then bs = −1.6 with the Re{y} = 1 circle we read yA+ = 1 + 1. gM 1 + |ΓL | S 90 . 6.10 that. • a shunt susceptance that modiﬁes the imaginary part of the input admittance. The stub length is then ls = (0.84 (capacitive stub) corresponding to yA+ = 1 − 1. If the stub were to be connected in series to the main line. is ls = 0. In fact.6 only the points of the region Rd can be reached. with a matching network of the type shown in Fig. Indeed. the design procedure would be only slightly modiﬁed. Let us make reference to a shunt stub. The procedure described above to design a line matching network can be generalized to solve the problem of designing a conjugate matching network. when the line length AB is changed. the real part of the input admittance is always comprised between gm and gM deﬁned by the intersection of the |Γ| =constant circle through yL and the real axis. is that the ﬁrst step is not always successful. The rotation takes place on the unit circle from the short circuit point y → ∞ to the point ys = 0 + jbs . 6. There is indeed a general rule: the bandwidth of a device is inversely related to its electrical length. 6. the length of AB has the value (0.9 The line AB could be lengthened by any multiple of λ/2. corresponding to the complex conjugate of the generator internal impedance. 6. The matching network structure is the same as before: • a transmission line length that allows the desired real part of the input admittance to be obtained. 6. Because bs < 0 we say that the stub is inductive.84. Since (l/λ)T G + = 0.7. The problem. A similar remark holds for the stub. In this case we would have employed an impedance Smith chart: no other change would be required. but its bandwidth would be smaller. 6.1843 − 0.1517λ.283λ and that of the stub. so that it has the desired value.84j. Of course there is also the solution bs = 1. it is evident from Fig.

it is simple to recognize that whatever the value of yL . We see that the union of Rr and l λ AB 0.6 – Matching circuits 0. as shown in Fig. so that the line matching is always possible. Incidentally. in this case. a “reversed L matching network” is used. the values of yA− that can be obtained from yL are those belonging to the region Rr (see Fig. Hence the region Rd is the part of plane internal to the circle Re{y} = gm and external to the circle Re{y} = gM . being that of Fig. 6. The domain Rr is the annular region between the concentric circles with radii |Γ| = 1 and |Γ| = |gL − 1|/|gL + 1|.8.12). i.0326 yL yAl Figure 6. Indeed.11. the origin belongs always to Rd .e. Smith chart relative to the design of the matching network of Example 1 where S is the load VSWR.1843 yA + λ AB ζL yA + 91 .6 a “straight L ”. we can still use a stub matching network. 6. 6. ∗ When the admittance yg to be reached lies outside of the region Rd . provided the structure is reversed.

The data are: ZL = 75 + 75j Ω. Example 2 Design a conjugate matching network with an open circuit shunt stub. Zg = 150 − 300j Ω and Z∞ = 75 Ω.329 Figure 6. 92 l s λ . Moreover the intersection of Rr e Rd is not empty. Smith chart relative to the design of the stub for the matching network of Example 1 Rd equals the entire Smith chart.9.6 – Matching circuits yA + 0. hence every matching problem can be solved by a stub network (either straight or reversed L). so that the solution for certain values of yA− can be obtained with both types of networks.25 bs 0.

Because of their form. The design can be carried out in two diﬀerent ways. The intersection between ∗ the constant | I Γ| circle through yg with the constant conductance circle through yL deﬁnes two points. because it is easier to realize. for example by the microstrip technology 6. .3. they are also called Π networks. for example. but are not guaranteed to exist. 6. sometimes double stub networks are used. and the length of AB becomes 0. 6.5 + 2j. In this case the solution are at most two. If we choose the other intersection yB − = 0.11.13.5 − 2j.1 − 0. then the corresponding admittances are read on the Smith chart: ∗ yg = 0. 93 . Z∞ Z∞ jbs ZL A Figure 6. hence only the reversed L conﬁguration is possible. The length of AB is 0. The points of the region Rd represent the input admittances of a matching network of the type of Fig. shown in Fig. we obtain bs = −1. yB − = 0. 6.5 − 0. bs = 2. of which.5 (capacitive stub). We see easily that the constant | I Γ| circle through yL and the constant conductance ∗ circle through yg have no intersections. loaded by yL .344λ. The relevant Smith chart is shown in Fig.10.147λ and ls = 0.2j and yL = 0. ∗ We compute ζg = 2 + 4j and ζL = 1 + j.3 Double stub matching network Even if the straight or reversed L matching networks can solve any practical problem. Sometimes the distance AB is ﬁxed a priori.+ B “Reversed L” stub matching network.6 – Matching circuits y L gM gm Rd Figure 6.190λ. The reason for which only examples of shunt stubs have been discussed is that this type of connection is more common.6. It is clear that the stub susceptances and their separation can be chosen in an inﬁnite number of diﬀerent ways.14 in the case of a shunt stubs. Let us try a reversed L conﬁguration.289λ and that of the stub is ls = 0.5 (capacitive stub).5j.

draw the constant conductance circle through yA− : this is the locus of all possible yA+ as the stub susceptance in A is changed. 4. in fact. draw the constant conductance circle through yL : this is the locus of all possible yB − as the stub susceptance in B is changed. rotate the whole circle by d/λ toward the load: the locus of the corresponding yB − is obtained. even if the relative distances are ﬁxed a priori (see Fig. From either of these points move to yA− by means of the stub with susceptance b1 = Im{yA− } − Im{yA+ }.17). we can use the method described above. from which b2 = Im{yB − } − Im{yL } is found. the solution for certain load and input admittances is not guaranteed to exist. starting from the load or from the generator. The detailed procedure is the following: 1. provided convenient stub lengths are selected. where the stub lengths are changed by means of sliding pistons. obtain yA+ and therefrom b1 = Im{yA− } − Im{yA+ }. 6. this circle intersects the constant conductance circle through yL in the points I3 and I4 .12. 6. The points belonging to the region Rr represent input admittances of a stub matching network loaded by yL . having ﬁxed the value of b1 . having found b2 . this circle intersects the constant conductance circle through yA− in the points I1 and I2 . is the following: 1. This limitation is not present in the case of a triple stub matching network. If the distance between the stubs is ﬁxed a priori. the desired matching can always be obtained. If we want to design such a matching network. (see Fig. even if the diagrams on the Smith chart are diﬀerent in the two cases.16). Obviously. 2. The procedure for the design of the same matching network.6 – Matching circuits yL gL Rr Figure 6. 4.15) the procedure is the following: 1. obtain yB − and then b2 = Im{yB − } − Im{yL }. 3. In this case. This device can be useful in the laboratory: indeed. draw the constant conductance circles through yL and yA− . These points deﬁne yB − . the values of b1 e b2 turn out to be the same. but starting form the generator (see Fig. 3. rotate the whole circle by d/λ toward the generator: the locus of the corresponding yA+ is obtained. 6. If we start from the load. 2. 94 . some implementation exist.

Smith chart relative to the design of the conjugate matching network (reversed L) discussed in Example 2.179 ζL y B− ζ g∗ ∗ yg yL 0. 2. obtain yA+ and yC − and.468 y B− λ AB 0. rotate the ﬁrst toward the generator by d2 /λ and the second toward the load by d1 /λ. They meet in two points and the value of b2 is given by b2 = Im{yB − } − Im{yB + }. having deﬁned yB − and yB + .6 – Matching circuits 0. From these nontrivial examples we can appreciate the power of the Smith cart as a design tool. 95 l l λ AB . respectively. therefrom. They represent the loci of yB − and yB + .321 Figure 6. 3.13. b1 e b3 .

we can use a matching network consisting of a λ/4 line length. ZA = In conclusion. starting form the load. Their purpose is that of transforming the complex impedances into pure resistances. In the case the two impedances to be matched are complex. the characteristic impedance of the line must be the geometric mean of the two resistances to be matched.14.18.6 – Matching circuits A B ZL Figure 6. 6. we ﬁnd √ Z ∞ = RL Ri . 6. Double stub matching network yi I1 yL I2 d/λ Figure 6.19.(3. The scheme is shown in Fig. 6. Design of a double stub matching network. can be used only to match real impedances and consists of a λ/4 length of transmission line of suitable characteristic impedance.6)): ζA = from which 1 .3. RL By enforcing the condition that the input impedance ZA coincides with the desired input resistance Ri . as 96 .15.4 λ/4 matching networks This type of matching network. The wavelength is to be evaluated at the design frequency. ζL 2 Z∞ . inserted between two line lengths (of arbitrary characteristic impedance Z∞ ). The normalized input impedance is the inverse of the normalized load impedance (see Eq. in its simplest form. as shown in Fig.

17.16.6 – Matching circuits d/λ yi yL I 1 I2 Figure 6.20. Design of a double stub matching network. Triple stub matching network. starting form the generator. indicated in Fig. A B C ZL jb1 jb2 jb3 Figure 6. the characteristic impedance of the central line BC is √ Z∞m = RB RC 97 . 6. If these resistances are called RB = Z∞ rB − and RC = Z∞ rC + .

Structure of the λ/4 matching network for complex impedances. ζ L rB− rC+ ζin Figure 6. Smith chart for the design of the λ/4 matching network for complex impedances.6 – Matching circuits Z∞ Ri Figure 6. RL B A λ/4 matching network between real impedances. d1 Z1 Z in A B λ 4 Z∞ C d2 Z2 D ZL Figure 6.20.18. 98 .19.

I1 V1 Figure 7. We start this presentation by focusing our attention to the important case of two-port devices (see Fig. (or its inverse.7. Often a couple of leads of a device is called a “port”: hence.Chapter 7 The Scattering matrix In this Chapter we develop a convenient formalism to describe distributed parameter circuits containing multiport devices.1) 99 .1 Lumped circuits The simplest two-lead circuit element is characterized by its impedance ZL . As known in circuit theory. these concepts can be generalized to the case of devices with several ports.1.e. 7. deﬁned as the ratio between the voltage V at its leads and the absorbed current I. a normalized form of forward and backward waves. Suppose this element is linear. First we review the matrix characterization of multiport devices based on the use of total voltage and total current as state variables. As discussed at length in the previous Chapters. This description is appropriate to the case of lumped networks. I2 V2 Two-port device with the deﬁnitions of voltage and current at the ports In general. the admittance YL ). in the case of distributed parameter circuits a change of basis is highly convenient: we will introduce the so called power waves. the two voltages V1 and V2 depend on both I1 and I2 : V1 V2 = = Z11 I1 + Z12 I2 Z21 I1 + Z22 I2 (7. so that the impedance does not depend on the excitation (I) but only on frequency.1). i. such a circuit element is also called a one-port device. say N .

k=j An important role in circuit theory is played by reciprocal and lossless networks. it follows {[Y ]∗ } = 0 Hence. capacitors. also for an N -port structure we can introduce a short circuit admittance matrix [Y ].. this dissipated power is zero for any excitation.g. as well as devices containing a magnetic material maintained in a static magnetic ﬁeld (e. The diagonal elements are input impedances. the linear dependence between currents and voltages is expressed in the form: I1 I2 that is. all ports. The relation (7. Then Pdiss = 0 = Due to the arbitrariness of [V ]. the other elements are trans-impedances. + VN IN } = { Vi Ii } = {[V ]T [I]∗ } 2 2 i=1 2 N = = Y11 V1 + Y12 V2 Y21 V1 + Y22 V2 If the device is lossless. On the contrary.k=j In other words. The total power dissipated in the device is the sum of the powers entering through the various ports: Pdiss = 1 1 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ {V1 I1 + V2 I2 + . in the case of linear networks. in this case [Z] is a N × N complex matrix. to which we will limit our attention. As in the case of a one-port device we can introduce the admittance YL = 1/ZL . transmission lines is always reciprocal. inductors. Note that the matrix [Z(ω)] can be interpreted as a set of transfer functions between the applied currents (inputs) and the voltages at all ports (outputs). except for the j-th. Another useful matrix characterization of two-port devices is that based on the equations V1 I1 = = AV2 − BI2 CV2 − DI2 1 1 {[V ]T [I]∗ } = {[V ]T [Y ]∗ [V ]∗ } 2 2 100 . The advantage of the matrix notation is that (??) can describe also a N -port structure. an ampliﬁer is non reciprocal.1) can be written in matrix form: [V ] = [Z][I] where [V ] = [V1 V2 ]T . derived from (7. ferrite devices). at which the exciting current is applied. [I] = [Y ][V ] From the comparison with (??) we get [Y ] = [Z]−1 . must be open circuited.1): Zij = Vi Ij Ik =0. in matrix form. The name given to the matrix [Y ] comes from the deﬁnition of its elements Ii Yij = Vj Vk =0. The name is justiﬁed by the deﬁnition of its elements. It can be shown [2] that the matrices [Z] and [Y ] of reciprocal devices are symmetrical.7 – The Scattering matrix where Zij are only functions of frequency. Recall that a circuit made of resistors. In the N = 2 case.. [I] = [I1 I2 ]T are column vectors and the 2 × 2 matrix [Z] is called open circuit impedance matrix. the [Y ] and [Z] matrices of lossless devices are pure imaginary.

On this line we deﬁne power waves: √ √ bi = Yri Vi− ai = Yri Vi+ . the short circuit admittance matrix of the resulting circuit is the sum of the ones of the two sub-blocks. In fact it relates the electric state at the input to that at the output of the device. by introducing a matrix reﬂection coeﬃcient. To each port we assign a reference impedance Zri that can be interpreted as the characteristic impedance of a transmission line connected to the port.2. In order to deﬁne power waves independently from the orientation of the z axis. Consequently. labeled with the subscript i = 1.N . with characteristic impedance Z∞i and propagation constant ki . We have seen in Chapter 1 that the electric state of a transmission line is speciﬁed in the more natural (and simplest) way by giving the amplitudes of the forward and backward waves V + and V − . In this case. recall that in Chapter 3 we have shown that the net active power ﬂowing on a line with real characteristic impedance is given by: Pt = If we set a= the previous equation is rewritten as: √ 1 1 Y∞ |V + |2 − Y∞ |V − |2 2 2 b= √ Y∞ V − Y∞ V + . however. it is useful to describe the signal a as a wave incident on the load and b as a wave scattered from the load. The various matrices are useful for the characterization of the connection of multi-port devices. the z dependence of the signals a and b is the same as that of V + and V − : a(z) = a(0)e−jkz b(z) Moreover. In this Chapter we are going to generalize this concept to N -port networks. if the two two-port devices are connected in cascade. which is arbitrary. Obviously. if two two-port devices are connected in series. instead of voltages or currents. For example. which is generally known as scattering matrix or S matrix. Finally. To explain this name. If the two two-port devices are connected in parallel.. Note also that the line characteristic impedance plays the role of a reference impedance. a one-port device connected to the line is more conveniently described in terms of a reﬂection coeﬃcient rather than in terms of impedance or admittance. It can be shown that the ABCD matrix of a reciprocal device has unit determinant. a single two-port is obtained.7 – The Scattering matrix or V1 I1 = A C B D V2 −I2 The relevant matrix is called ABCD matrix and is a kind of transmission matrix. 7.. Let us generalize these concepts to the case of a device with N ports. the ABCD matrix of the resulting structure is the product of the ones of the sub-blocks. = b(0)e+jkz 101 . whose open circuit impedance matrix is the sum of the ones of the two sub-blocks.2 Distributed parameter circuits Suppose now that each port i of an N -port device is connected to a transmission line. Pt = 1 2 1 2 |a| − |b| 2 2 so a and b are directly related to the power ﬂow. with respect to which the reﬂection coeﬃcient is computed. they are related by b(z) = Γ(z)a(z) where Γ(z) is the local reﬂection coeﬃcient. the amplitudes of the forward and backward waves on the line are speciﬁed as power waves amplitudes a e b.

7. Obviously. The terms out of the main diagonal are usually called transmission coeﬃcients from port j to port i. so that Eq. in order to guarantee that ai is actually incident on the device.2) we have: b1 b2 = = S11 a1 + S12 a2 S21 a1 + S22 a2 (7.4) aj ak =0. [S] being a N × N matrix. In general a wide band characterization of the devices is of interest and.4) we have given an explicit deﬁnition of the [S] matrix elements. The terms on the main diagonal (i = j) of [S] are the usual reﬂection coeﬃcients at port i when all the others are terminated with the relevant reference impedances. with a load impedance numerically equal to Zrk itself. There is also a noteworthy relation between the [S] matrix and the open circuit impedance matrix [Z]. from a theoretical point of view.(3. it is easier to construct a wide band matched load rather than an open circuit. that is the reference load for the [Z] matrix.2.3 Relationship between [S] and [Z] or [Y ] In (7. (see Fig.2) we ﬁnd that the elements are deﬁned as: bi Sij = (7.7.e. in practice. it is in practice the only one to be employed in the microwave ﬁeld. which generalizes the scalar one (eq.7)). There are several reasons. completely equivalent to that in terms of the matrices [Z] or [Y ] (apart from the singular cases).7 – The Scattering matrix where the z axis points always into port i. In this way the access line is matched and only an outgoing wave is present on it. Even if the characterization of a device by means of its scattering matrix [S] is. for example in a waveguide • the power waves a e b can be measured directly by means of an instrument called Network Analyzer. called Scattering Matrix.2) can be rewritten in matrix form: [b] = [S][a] (7. Introduce a1 Z r1 Zr2 a2 b2 Figure 7. among which: • voltage and current are not always well deﬁned quantities. the scattered waves on the various lines depend in general on the incident waves at all ports.2) i. with characteristic impedance Zrk . In the case of a two-port device. the form of (7. From (7.3) is valid also in the case of a N -port network. Two-port device and deﬁnition of the relevant power waves b1 the column vectors [a] = [a1 a2 ]T and [b1 b2 ]T .3) where [S] is a 2 × 2 complex matrix.(7. 102 . The condition ak = 0 at port k is obtained by terminating the access transmission line.k=j from which it is evident the character of generalized reﬂection coeﬃcients of the elements of the S matrix.

6) is [Z] = [Z∞ ]1/2 {[1] + [S]}{[1] − [S]}−1 [Z∞ ]1/2 In a similar way we can obtain the following relations between the scattering matrix and the short circuit admittance matrix: [S] = {[1] − [y]}{[1] + [y]}−1 where the normalized admittance matrix is deﬁned as: [y] = [Zr ]1/2 [Y ][Zr ]1/2 The inverse relation is : [Y ] = [Z∞ ]−1/2 {[1] − [S]}{[1] + [S]}−1 [Z∞ ]−1/2 7.5) where [1] is the identity matrix of size N and [ζ] is the normalized open circuit impedance matrix of the device: [ζ] = [Zr ]−1/2 [Z][Zr ]−1/2 (7.6) (7. characterized by its scattering matrix [S]. Remember that √ [Zr ]1/2 is the diagonal matrix having the values Zri on the main diagonal.7) The inverse relation of (7.5): [Zr ]1/2 ([a] + [b]) = [Z][Yr ]1/2 ([a] − [b]) Expanding the products and factoring [Zr ]1/2 at the left of both sides.4 Computation of the power dissipated in a device Consider a N -port device. Substitute into (7. hence Pd = 1 2 N (|ai |2 − |bi |2 ) = i=1 1 ([a]T ∗ [a] − [b]T ∗ [b]) 2 [b]T ∗ = [a]T ∗ [S]T ∗ (7. for a one-port device (N = 1) reduces to Pd = 1 |V + |2 (1 − |Γ|2 ) 2 Z∞ 103 .7 – The Scattering matrix Let us start from the device characterization in terms of [Z] matrix: [V ] = [Z][I] Express now [V ] and [I] in terms of power amplitudes [a] e [b]: [V ] = [V + ] + [V − ] = [Zr ]1/2 ([a] + [b]) [I] = Y∞ [V + ] − [V − ] = [Yr ]1/2 ([a] − [b]) where [Zr ] is the diagonal matrix constructed with the reference impedances of all ports. we ﬁnd [Zr ]1/2 [Yr ]1/2 [Z][Yr ]1/2 + [1] [b] = [Zr ]1/2 [Yr ]1/2 [Z][Yr ]1/2 − [1] [a] Canceling the common factor [Zr ]1/2 we get [S] = {[ζ] − [1]}{[ζ] + [1]}−1 (7. The power dissipated in it is the sum of the net active powers ﬂowing into all ports: Pd = Now recall that [b] = [S][a].8) 1 T∗ [a] ([1] − [S]T ∗ [S])[a] 2 It is straightforward to realize that this equation.

• an active device has a scattering matrix [S] such that at least one eigenvalue of [S]T ∗ [S] has magnitude greater than 1.8). • A lossless device has unitary scattering matrix: [S]T ∗ [S] = [1]. It is to be remarked that the eigenvalues of [S]T ∗ [S] are the squares of the singular values of [S]. by considering ﬁrst the case of a one-port device. by requiring that Pd = 0 for arbitrary excitation [a]. Its reﬂection coeﬃcient Γn with respect to Zrn is derived as: Γn = with Z = Zro Substituting and with a little of algebra.7 – The Scattering matrix 7. Let us address the problem gradually. with respect to a given set [Zro ] of reference impedances. with respect to a new set of reference impedances [Zrn ].6 Change of reference impedances Let [So ] be the scattering matrix of a device. This follows immediately from (7. we ﬁnd: 1 + Γo − Zrn (Zro − Zrn ) + Γo (Zro + Zrn ) Γno + Γo 1 − Γo Γn = = = 1 + Γo (Zro + Zrn ) + Γo (Zro − Zrn ) 1 + Γno Γo + Zrn Zro 1 − Γo Zro where we have induced the reﬂection coeﬃcient of the old reference impedance with respect to to the new one. [4] 7.5 Properties of the scattering matrix [S] of a device • A reciprocal device has a symmetric [S] matrix: [S] = [S]T . Suppose that we want to compute the scattering matrix [Sn ] of the same device. • A passive device has a scattering matrix [S] such that all the eigenvalues of [S]T ∗ [S] have a magnitude less than (or at most equal to) 1. In the case N = 2 the previous equation yields: |S11 |2 + |S21 |2 |S12 | + |S22 | |S11 | + |S12 | |S21 | + |S22 | ∗ S11 S12 ∗ S11 S21 2 2 2 2 2 2 = = = = = = 1 1 1 1 0 0 + + ∗ S21 S22 ∗ S12 S22 These relations have a geometrical interpretation: the rows and the columns of the unitary matrix [S] form an ortho-normal basis in the N dimensional complex linear vector space CN . Zro − Zrn Γno = Zro + Zrn Z − Zrn Z + Zrn 1 + Γo 1 − Γo 104 . The proof can be found in [3]. which has reﬂection coeﬃcient Γo with respect to Zro .

Notice that these matrices are diagonal. bi = b0i e−jki li where ki is the propagation constant on the line connected to port i. bi . We want now to examine the transformation of the [S] matrix induced by a displacement of these planes.7 – The Scattering matrix We can now address the case of an N -port device along the same lines. hence they commute.. exp{±jkN lN } } Denote with [S] the scattering matrix of the new structure obtained by the translation of the reference planes. a0i . . From (7. from (7. The same amplitudes at a distance li (> 0) away form the device are denoted by ai . a given S matrix refers always to a speciﬁc choice of reference planes. we can express the desired scattering matrix as [ζn ] − [1] [Sn ] = (7. The amplitudes of incident and reﬂected waves at port i (i = 1.2. Hence. [b0 ]. If [S0 ] is the scattering matrix of the original structure. Express now [ζo ] in terms of [So ] and substitute in (7. Consider a N -port device with scattering matrix S0 (see Fig. The complex amplitudes of these waves are function of the longitudinal coordinate.N ) are indicated by a0i and b0i .6). respectively. so that the previous equations can be written in matrix form : [a] = exp{+j[k]l} [a0 ] (7.7 Displacement of reference planes The scattering matrix [S] of a device describes its input/output characteristic on the basis of the incident and scattered waves on the transmission lines attached to each port. . b0i .3). .9). We ﬁnd [R] [Sn ] = [1] + [So ] [1] + [So ] [R] − [1] [R] − [R]−1 [1] − [So ] [1] − [So ] = = [1] + [So ] [1] + [So ] [R] [R] + [1] [R] + [R]−1 [1] − [So ] [1] − [So ] = ([R] − [R]−1 ) + ([R] + [R]−1 )[So ] [S]no + [So ] = ([R] + [R]−1 ) + ([R] − [R]−1 )[So ] [1] + [S]no [So ] where we have introduced the diagonal scattering matrix of the old reference impedances with respect to the new ones [R] − [R]−1 [R]2 − 1 [S]no = = [R] + [R]−1 [R]2 + 1 7. bi . [a0 ]. with components ai . we have: [b0 ] = [S0 ][a0 ] 105 . given by ai = a0i ejki li . Introduce now the column vectors [a]. hence they commute. [ζn ] = = [Zrn ]−1/2 [Z][Zrn ]−1/2 = [Zrn ]−1/2 [Zro ]1/2 [ζo ][Zro ]1/2 [Zrn ]−1/2 = [R][ζo ][R] where we have introduced the diagonal matrix [R] = [Zrn ]−1/2 [Zro ]1/2 .. .7.7).10) [b] = exp{−j[k]l} [b0 ] where exp{±j[k]l} is the diagonal matrix exp(±j[k]l) = diag{ exp{±jk1 l1 } . Moreover.9) [ζn ] + [1] Notice that the equation can be written in this form because both ([ζn ]−[1]) and ([ζn ]+[1])−1 are functions of the same matrix [ζn ]. [b].

This operation implies a partition in blocks of the scattering matrices of the two structures. There should be no surprise. Assuming that their scattering matrices are known. Substitute (7. [S ] [S21 ] . separating the ones referring to the ports that are going to be connected from the others. the second with K + N ports.7 – The Scattering matrix ai bi li a0i b0i port i a0j port j [S0] [S] b0j lj aj bj Figure 7. (7. N{ [b1 ] [S11 ] .3. 7.8 Cascade connection of structures Very often it is convenient to view a complex system as made out of interconnected simpler blocks.4. since these matrix elements are indeed reﬂection coeﬃcients at port i (when all the other ports are terminated with the respective characteristic impedances). For the elements on the main diagonal Sii = S0ii e−2jki li We recognize at once the analogy with the transformation rule of reﬂection coeﬃcients (3. 22 106 . consider two structures. [S12 ] . which must be connected through the K ports.12) . the problem arises of computing the scattering matrix of the complete structure. [a1 ] }N ··· = ··· ··· ··· (7. K{ [b ] [a ] }K . The ﬁrst is written as .11) 7. For the other elements the previous relation becomes Sij = S0ij e−j(ki li +kj lj ) . it is convenient to use a matrix formulation.8). the ﬁrst with N + K ports. i=j because the incident and scattered waves propagate on diﬀerent transmission lines. In deﬁning the power waves at the various ports. so that the complete structure has N + M ports. With reference to Fig.10): Displacement of reference planes [b] = [exp{−jkl}][S0 ][exp{−jkl}][a] In other words [S] = [exp{−jkl}][S0 ][exp{−jkl}] Make this equation explicit.

7 – The Scattering matrix

1 [a1] [b1] S’(N+K)(N+K) [a’] [b’] [a’’] [b’’] K porte

2 S’’(K+M)(K+M) [a2] [b2] M porte

K porte N porte

S(N+M)(N+M)

Figure 7.4. Connection of two structures

where the blocks [Sij ] have the dimensions [S11 ] [S12 ] [S21 ] [S22 ] → → → → N ×N N ×K K ×N K ×K

Implicit in this partition is the assumption that the ports to be connected are the last K ones. This condition can always be obtained by suitable exchanges of rows and columns. Indeed: • the exchange of bi with bj requires the exchange of the rows i and j in [S ] • the exchange of ai with aj requires the exchange of the columns i e j in [S ] Likewise, the second structure is characterized by the scattering . K{ [b ] [S11 ] . [S12 ] . ··· = ··· ··· . M{ [b2 ] [S21 ] . [S22 ] . where the blocks [Sij ] have the dimensions [S11 ] [S12 ] [S21 ] [S22 ] → → → → K ×K K ×M M ×K M ×M matrix [S ] in the following way [a ] }K ··· [a2 ] }M

(7.13)

In this case, it has been assumed the the ports to be connected are the ﬁrst K ones. Suppose also that the ports to be connected have the same reference impedances. In these conditions, the equations that deﬁne the connection are [a ] = [b ] [a ] = [b ] (7.14)

107

7 – The Scattering matrix

After the connection, the structure is accessible from the external world through N ports on the “1” side and M ports on the “2” side and, hence, it is described by a scattering matrix [S] with dimension (M + N ) × (M + N ), obviously partitioned in the following way . N{ [b1 ] [S11 ] . [S12 ] . [a1 ] }N ··· = ··· ··· ··· (7.15) . M{ [b2 ] [a2 ] }M . [S ] [S21 ] . 22 where the blocks [Sij ] have the dimensions [S11 ] [S12 ] [S21 ] [S22 ] → → → → N ×N N ×M M ×N M ×M

In order to determine the resulting [S] matrix, it is necessary to eliminate the variables [a ], [a ], [b ], [b ] from (7.12) and (7.13), via (7.14). The steps to be performed are the following: 1. Substitute (7.14) into (7.13), the ﬁrst of which becomes [a ] = [S11 ][b ] + [S12 ][a2 ] 2. The second of (7.12) is [b ] = [S21 ][a1 ] + [S22 ][a ] Eliminating [a ] between (7.16) and (7.17), yields [b ] = [S21 ][a1 ] + [S22 ] [S11 ][b ] + [S12 ][a2 ] from which we ﬁnd the expression of [b ] as a function of [a1 ] e [a2 ] [b ] = [1] − [S22 ][S11 ]

−1

(7.16) (7.17)

[S21 ][a1 ] + [S22 ][S12 ][a2 ]

(7.18)

**3. Substituting (7.18) into (7.16) we ﬁnd the expression of [a ] as a function of [a1 ] and [a2 ]: [a ] = + [S11 ] ([1] − [S22 ][S11 ])
**

−1

[S21 ][a1 ]+ [S22 ] + [1] [S12 ][a2 ] (7.19)

[S11 ] ([1] − [S22 ][S11 ])

−1

The curly parenthesis that multiplies [S12 ][a2 ] can be simpliﬁed. Set [X] = [S11 ] and [Y ] = [S22 ] for a simpler reading. The expression to be rewritten is: [X] ([1] − [Y ][X])−1 [Y ] + [1] = factor [X] to the left and [Y ] to the right: = [X] ([1] − [Y ][X])−1 + [X]−1 [Y ]−1 [Y ] = factor ([1] − [Y ][X])−1 to the left: = [X] ([1] − [Y ][X])−1 [1] + ([1] − [Y ][X]) [X]−1 [Y ]−1 [Y ] = factor [X]−1 [Y ]−1 to the right: = [X] ([1] − [Y ][X])−1 {[Y ][X] + [1] − [Y ][X]} [X]−1 [Y ]−1 [Y ] =

108

7 – The Scattering matrix

Simplify: rewrite as the inverse of a matrix:

= [X] ([1] − [Y ][X])−1 [X]−1 = = [X] ([1] − [Y ][X])−1 [X]−1

−1

= {[1] − [X][Y ]}−1

**In conclusion, and resuming the usual notation, (7.19) is rewritten as [a ] = + [S11 ] ([1] − [S22 ][S11 ]) ([1] − [S11 ][S22 ])
**

−1 −1

[S21 ][a1 ]+

[S12 ][a2 ]

(7.20)

**4. Substitute (7.20) in the ﬁrst of (7.12), to obtain [b1 ] as a function of [a1 ] e [a2 ]: [b1 ] = + [S11 ] + [S12 ][S11 ] ([1] − [S22 ][S11 ]) [S12 ] ([1] − [S11 ][S22 ])
**

−1 −1

[S21 ] [a1 ]+

[S12 ][a2 ]

From the comparison of this equation with (7.15), we get the expressions of [S11 ] e [S12 ]. 5. Now substitute in the second of (7.13) [a ] = [b ], the latter being given by (7.18): [b2 ] = + [S21 ] ([1] − [S22 ][S11 ])

−1

[S21 ][a1 ]+ [S22 ][S12 ] + [S22 ] [a2 ]

[S21 ] ([1] − [S22 ][S11 ])

−1

Comparing this equation with the second of (7.15) we derive the expressions of the remaining elements [S21 ] e [S22 ]. For reference sake, we collect the expressions of the four blocks: [S11 ] [S12 ] [S21 ] [S22 ] = = = = [S11 ] + [S12 ] [S11 ] ([1] − [S22 ] [S11 ]) [S12 ] ([1] − [S11 ] [S22 ]) [S21 ] ([1] − [S22 ] [S11 ])

−1 −1 −1

[S21 ] (7.21)

[S12 ] [S21 ]

−1

[S22 ] + [S21 ] ([1] − [S22 ] [S11 ])

[S22 ] [S12 ]

In some applications, it is useful to know the value of [b ], as given by (7.18); we write it here again for ease of reference: −1 [b ] = [1] − [S22 ][S11 ] [S21 ][a1 ] + [S22 ][S12 ][a2 ] Note that if the structures of interest are two-ports to be connected through one of their ports, all the sub-matrices are scalars. Another particular case is the one in which all the ports of the second structure are connected, so that it behaves as a K-port load. In this case M = 0 and the whole structure, having only N access ports, is characterized by [S11 ] alone. The computation of the comprehensive scattering matrix requires the inversion of a matrix with dimension equal to the number of ports K that are connected. This matrix is singular, hence non invertible, when the comprehensive structure that originates from the connection is resonant. If the constituents structures are passive, this happens only for complex frequency values, located in the upper half-plane for stability reasons. If the Taylor expansion is used to compute the inverse matrix ([1] − [A])−1 = [1] + [A] + [A]2 + . . . + [A]n + . . . which is convergent if the structures are passive, so that the eigenvalues of [A] have amplitude less than 1, we obtain the characterization of the comprehensive structure in terms of the multiple reﬂection series.

109

It is matched at all ports and the power propagating in the direction of the arrow suﬀers no attenuation. 7.2 Isolator An ideal isolator. It can be shown that a matched.1 Ideal attenuator An ideal attenuator is a reciprocal device.5. the behavior is due to a magnetized ferrite. Also in this case. but prevents it in the opposite direction. The phase shift is related to the physical size of the device. 7. because of the non reciprocity of the device.5. lossless three-port structure is necessarily non reciprocal and is a circulator. as done previously.9. Its scattering matrix is then: [S] = 0 Ae−jϕ Ae−jϕ 0 where A = 10−AdB /20 .9. Symbol of an ideal isolator. is a nonreciprocal device. that allows the undisturbed passage of a signal from port 1 to 2. The S matrix of the device is: [S] = 0 e−jϕ 0 0 The non-reciprocity is evident from the fact that S12 = S21 . In the drawings we will use the common convention of using one line as the symbol of a port. that produces an attenuation AdB on the signals through it.6. instead of two leads. while the one ﬂowing in the opposite direction is completely dissipated. whose symbol is shown in Fig.3 Circulator An ideal circulator is a nonreciprocal device. matched at both ports.9 Scattering matrix of some devices In this section we present the scattering matrix of some devices of common use in the microwave technology. 2 (ferrite).7 – The Scattering matrix 7. 110 . whose symbol is shown in Fig. 7. 7. [S] = e−jϕ2 0 0 0 e−jϕ3 0 This matrix is clearly non symmetrical. matched at both ports. 7. maintained in a static magnetic ﬁeld. An isolator contains a magnetic material 1 Figure 7.9. The power incident on port 2 is completely dissipated in the device. Its S matrix is then: 0 0 e−jϕ1 .

Note that if port 3 is terminated with a matched load.4 Ideal directional coupler An ideal directional coupler. 3 Symbol of an ideal three port circulator. its S matrix can be written: √ 1 − k2 jk 0 √ 0 1 − k2 0 0 . when in a communication system both the transmitter and the receiver are connected to the same antenna. 2 Isolator constructed by terminating port 3 of a circulator with a matched load. On the contrary. a signal incident on port 2 is directed to port 3.9.9. an incident signal at port 1 goes to port 2 without being inﬂuenced by the load on port 3. 3 1 Figure 7. Indeed. 7. √ jk [S] = 1 − k2 jk 0 0 √ 0 jk 1 − k2 0 The quantity C = −20 log10 k = −20 log10 |S31 | 111 . we obtain a two-port structure that behaves as an isolator. reciprocal four port structure. 7. With a suitable choice of the reference planes. without any power coming out of port 1. where it is dissipated in the matched load.7 – The Scattering matrix 1 2 Figure 7. see Fig. whose symbol is reported in Fig. in which the two ports on each side are uncoupled. S31 of practical devices is not small enough.7. Indeed.8. It is clear that in practice this conﬁguration works only if the transmission and reception frequencies are diﬀerent and a bandpass ﬁlter is inserted between the circulator and the receiver.6.7. as it is shown in Fig. A circulator can be used to realize a “diplexer”. 7. 7. is a matched.

etc. 7. (in dB). |S41 | |S31 | 112 . 1 4 Figure 7. is called coupling coeﬃcient: there are 3 dB-couplers (called hybrids). The directivity measures the ability of the directional coupler to discriminate the incident waves at port 1 from those incident at port 2. by specifying how port 4 is isolated from 1. The coupling C denotes the fraction of the incident power at port 1 that is transferred to port 3.8. 10 dB-. it is possible to derive the value of the reﬂection coeﬃcient.10. an instrument capable of measuring directly the scattering parameters of a device. 1 − k2 1 − k2 2 jk 3 Symbol of directional coupler. Other parameters used to characterize a real directional coupler are the directivity D: D = −20 log10 and the isolation I: I = −20 log10 |S14 |. A directional coupler is the heart of the Network Analyzer.7 – The Scattering matrix TX 1 3 2 RX Figure 7. The isolation I is related to the same concept. hence the following relation holds I =D+C An ideal coupler has inﬁnite isolation and directivity. 20 dB-couplers.9. The concept of the measurement is illustrated in Fig. From the ratio (in amplitude and phase) of the signals coming out of ports 3 and 4. Circulator used as a diplexer.

7 – The Scattering matrix jk L 1 − k 2V1+ 4 1 − k2 3 jk jkV1+ L V1+ Figure 7. substitute a2 in the ﬁrst two equations b1 = S11 a1 + S12 ΓL b2 b2 = S21 a1 + S22 ΓL b2 S21 a1 1 − S22 ΓL From the second we get the important relation b2 = Substitute this b2 into the ﬁrst of (??) and get b1 = S11 a1 + S21 S12 ΓL a1 1 − S22 ΓL 113 . Alternatively.10.10 Examples of analysis of structures described by S matrices In this section we illustrate the use of the scattering matrix for the analysis of simple networks. 7. that can be found by using equations (7. the third one stipulates that port 2 is loaded.21): Γin = = = S11 + S12 S21 ΓL = 1 − S22 ΓL S11 − S11 S22 ΓL + S12 S21 ΓL = 1 − S22 ΓL S11 − det [S] ΓL .e. 7. as shown in Fig. it can also be useful to derive it directly. i.11.10. 1 − S22 ΓL (7. 1 2 Measurement of the reﬂection coeﬃcient of a load by means of a directional coupler. by the scalar Γin . The comprehensive structure is a one-port load and is characterized by a 1 × 1 scattering matrix. To this end.1 Cascade connection of a two-port and a load We want to compute the reﬂection coeﬃcient at the input of a two-port whose port 2 is terminated with a load. The desired result Γin is obtained by eliminating a2 and b2 . The equations of the structure are: b1 = S11 a1 + S12 a2 b2 = S21 a1 + S22 a2 a2 = Γ L b 2 The ﬁrst two equations describe the general operation of the two-port.22) where ΓL is computed with reference to Zr2 and Γin is referred to Zr1 . 7.

7. In practice. several devices can be modeled in this way. in which two two-ports are connected by means of a length of transmission line. 114 . It can be remarked that when ΓL = 0. S’’ _ S’’ B Interconnection of two two-ports by means of a length l of transmission line.12.12.10.(7.7 – The Scattering matrix From this.21) to cascade the two structures. We obtain S11 = S11 + S21 = S12 S11 e−2jθ S21 1 − S22 S11 e−2jθ (7.22) is immediately derived. as it is obvious from the deﬁnition of scattering parameters. for example a one-resonator ﬁlter or a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Γin = S11 . 7. • shift the reference plane of the right two-port from B to A.11) ¯ [S ] = e−jθ 0 0 1 S e−jθ 0 0 1 = S11 e−2jθ S21 e−jθ S12 e−jθ S22 • use (7. The S matrix of the comprehensive structure can be obtained in two steps: l S’ A S Figure 7. by means of (7.23) S21 S21 e−jθ 1 − S22 S11 e−2jθ where θ = kl = ωl/vf is the electrical length of the line.2 Interconnection of two two-ports by means of a length of transmission line Consider the structure of Fig.11. whose port 2 is loaded with an impedance Observe ﬁnally that also the relation between ΓL and Γin is a bilinear fractional transformation. S’ Γi Figure 7. ΓL Two port network. Eq.

23) becomes D(θ) = 1 − S11 S22 e−j2(θ−(ϕ11 +ϕ22 )/2 The plot of D(θ) in the complex plane is clearly a circle with center in 1 + j0) and radius |S11 | |S22 |. [1]. 7. as shown in Fig. In practice this is not strictly true. but if the devices are not resonating or very large. Plot of D(θ) (left) and of D−1 (θ) (right). i. symmetrical with respect to the real axis with center in C= and radius R= |S22 | |S11 | 1 − |S22 |2 |S11 |2 1 1 − |S22 |2 |S11 |2 Hence the plot of |S21 (θ)| is the oscillating curve shown in Fig. θMIN = If the discontinuities on the line had a very high reﬂection coeﬃcient. it is known that the operation of inversion transforms circles into circles. their frequency dependence is much weaker than that of the exponential. where the minimum and maximum values of the transmission coeﬃcient are |S21 |MIN = |S21 |MAX = and their position is |S21 | |S21 | 1 + |S22 | |S11 | |S21 | |S21 | 1 − |S22 | |S11 | 1 (ϕ11 + ϕ22 + (2m + 1) π) 2 1 θMAX = (ϕ11 + ϕ22 + 2mπ) 2 It is also clear that from the shape of the curve |S21 (θ)| (for example obtained through a measurement) it is possible to infer the characteristics of the discontinuities present on the line and their separation.13. Setting S11 = S11 ejϕ11 S22 = S22 ejϕ22 the denominator of (7. D−1 (θ) traces a circle. the structure would behave as pass-band ﬁlter. In particular.7 – The Scattering matrix ℑm ℑm 1 ℜe 1+|S22'||S11''| (1+|S22'||S11''|)-1 ℜe (1-|S22'||S11''|)-1 1-|S22'||S11''| Figure 7.7. 115 . In these conditions it is simple to obtain a plot of the amplitude of the total transmission coeﬃcient S21 (θ).14.e. on θ. Moreover.13a. Suppose that the S matrices of the two two-ports do not depend on frequency.

14.7 – The Scattering matrix |S21| |S21|max |S21|min θmin Figure 7. θmax θ Plot of |S21 (θ)|. 116 .

has the scattering matrix Zr2 ΓF (1 + ΓF ) Zr1 S = Zr2 (1 − ΓF ) −ΓF Zr1 where ΓF is the reﬂection coeﬃcient Zr1 − Zr2 Zr1 + Zr2 This is called Fresnel reﬂection coeﬃcient because of its analogy with the reﬂection coeﬃcient deﬁned in optics at the interface between two semi-inﬁnite media. this can also be obtained by applying (7. However.7 – The Scattering matrix 7. We can make reference to Fig. Change of reference impedance.21) we ﬁnd ΓA− = ΓF + which is the desired equation.15. We want to compute the reﬂection coeﬃcient of the same load with respect to another reference impedance Zr2 .10. we can verify that they are equal.11 Transmission matrix Structures in which we can identify two “sides” with the same number N of ports. 117 .21) to analyze the two cascaded discontinuities. which can be viewed as generalizations of two-port structures. 1 − Γ2 ΓL ΓF + Γ L F = 1 + Γ F ΓL 1 + Γ F ΓL 7. ΓF = Note that S12 and S21 are only apparently diﬀerent: if the expressions of ΓF are substituted. are often characterized by means of a transmission matrix. we can obtain a direct link between ΓA− and ΓL .7. the junction between the two lines.3 Change of reference impedance for a one-port load Consider a load characterized by means of its reﬂection coeﬃcient with respect to the reference impedance Zr1 . as required by the reciprocity of the structure. The second discontinuity is a one-port load.15. The ﬁrst. hence its scattering matrix S reduces to the reﬂection coeﬃcient ΓL . We obtain the result by passing through the impedance: ZA+ = Zr1 ΓA− = 1 + ΓL 1 − ΓL ZA+ − Zr2 ZA+ + Zr2 Substituting the ﬁrst equation into the second one. By means of (7. Zr2 - Zr1 A+ ΓL A Figure 7.

c+ = [b2 ] 2 c− = [a2 ] 2 matrix [S] is [S12 ] [a1 ] ··· ··· [a2 ] [S22 ] (7. with transmission matrices [T1 ] and [T2 ] are connected via N ports as shown in Fig. ··· = ··· .24) 118 . observe ﬁrst that the forward and backward power waves are related to the incident and scattered ones by c+ = [a1 ] 1 c− = [b1 ] 1 The characterization of the device via the scattering . The characterization of the device by means of the transmission matrix [T ] is then the following: .16. where all blocks are square with dimension N × N . . + + [c1 ] [T11 ] . we introduce a single z axis for the two sides and deﬁne forward and backward waves in accordance with it. To derive the relation between the [T ] and [S] matrices of the same device. [c2 ] ··· = ··· ··· ··· . A characteristic of the transmission matrix is that its elements cannot be deﬁned directly by circuit type equations but must be obtained by other groups of parameters such as the scattering ones via algebraic relations. [c− ] [c− ] 1 2 [T21 ] . [b2 ] [S21 ] .7 – The Scattering matrix The transmission matrix relates the electrical states at the two sides of the structure in the power wave basis. . [b1 ] [S11 ] . Generalized two-port structure: deﬁnition of forward and backward waves on the two sides of it. 7. [T12 ] .16.16. 7. [T22 ] . When two structures of the type of Fig.17 the transmission matrix of the comprehensive structure is found by means of [T ] = [T ][T ] The convenience of the transmission matrix is related to the simplicity of this composition law. Referring to Fig. 7. side 1 1 [c1+ ] [c1− ] side 2 1 + [ c2 ] − [ c2 ] N N z Figure 7.

26) (7. The comprehensive structure is perfectly deﬁned by its scattering matrix [S]. we can identify the expressions of [T11 ] and [T12 ]. 7. so that the transmission matrix [T ] does not exist. Observe that the dimensions of the various factors are [S21 ] → K ×N [S21 ] ([1] − [S22 ][S11 ]) −1 → → N ×K K ×K hence the dimension of [S21 ] is N × N .25) 1 [c+ ] = [S21 ]−1 [c+ ] − [S21 ]−1 [S22 ][c− ] 1 2 2 (7. An example is the structure of Fig. this matrix has rank K at most. 119 . we are in presence of a projection. consider the expression of the block [S21 ] given by (7. In conclusion.24) into this [c− ] = [S11 ][c+ ] + [S12 ][c− ] 1 1 2 [c+ ] = [S21 ][c+ ] + [S22 ][c− ] 2 1 2 Since the blocks [Sij ] are square. Indeed. we obtain [c− ] = [S11 ][S21 ]−1 [c+ ] + [S12 ] − [S11 ][S21 ]−1 [S22 ] [c− ] 1 2 2 from which the expressions of the other elements of the [T ] matrix can be obtained. we can obtain [c+ ] from the second of (7. Cascade connection of two generalized two-ports.27) Obviously.17. the transformation formulas are: [T11 ] = [S21 ]−1 [T12 ] [T21 ] [T22 ] = = = −[S21 ]−1 [S22 ] [S11 ][S21 ]−1 [S12 ] − [S11 ][S21 ]−1 [S22 ] (7.25). However.26) into the ﬁrst of (7. hence it has zero determinant if K < N .25) Since [c+ ] is expressed as a function of [c+ ] and [c− ].21). [S21 ] represents an operator that maps vectors belonging to the complex vector space C N into vectors of C N through C K .18 if K < N . 1 2 2 Substituting (7. a notoriously non invertible operation. it can be veriﬁed that the submatrix [S21 ] is not invertible. if the submatrix [S21 ] of a structure is not invertible. such a structure cannot be represented by a transmission matrix. From the linear algebra point of view. If K < N . Substitute (7. However.7 – The Scattering matrix [T’] [T’’] [T] Figure 7.

7 – The Scattering matrix N ports K ports N ports Figure 7.18.27). Structure with 2N ports that arises from the “back-to-back” connection of two substructures with N + K ports each. If K < N the transmission matrix of the comprehensive structure is not deﬁned. which allow the computation of [S] from [T ]: [S11 ] [S12 ] [S21 ] [S22 ] = = = = [T21 ][T11 ]−1 [T22 ] − [T21 ][T11 ]−1 [T12 ] [T11 ]−1 −[T11 ]−1 [T12 ] 120 . For completeness we list also the inverse relations of(7.

we can compute directly the circuit response to time harmonic signals.1) or in the frequency domain as an algebraic product as VB (ω) = TV (ω) E (ω) where the impulse response tv (t) is related to the transfer function by a Fourier transform: tv (t) = 1 2π +∞ −∞ (8.1. Take the case of a simple circuit.2) TV (ω) ejωt dω (8. Suppose that the line is characterized by a phase constant k (ω) and characteristic impedance Z∞ (ω). as shown in Fig. In this chapter we consider instead signals with arbitrary time dependence. The generator waveform e (t) is the system input. consisting of a generator and a load. in general complex functions of frequency. connected by a transmission line. This problem can be conveniently described. the input-output relation can be expressed in time domain as a convolution product +∞ vB (t) = −∞ tv (t − τ ) e (τ ) dτ (8. 8. It is well known that for linear time invariant systems (LTI). • time-invariant.3) 121 . because the line parameters k and Z∞ . The system is: • linear. the load voltage vB (t) is the output. Also the load impedance ZL and the internal impedance of the generator are generic complex functions of frequency.2. as shown in Fig. We want to compute the load voltage vB (t) that is produced by a generator with open circuit voltage e (t).Chapter 8 Time domain analysis of transmission lines 8. 8. By this technique. in the language of system theory.1 Introduction In the previous chapters we have discussed in detail the frequency domain analysis of transmission line circuits. because these parameters do not depend on time. as well as the impedances Zg and ZL are independent of the voltages and currents in the circuit.

tv(t) TV(ω) vB(t) Linear system interpretation of the circuit of Fig. such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).4) Obviously. except for the multiplication by a complex number.2) yields the solution to our problem in the form vB (t) = 1 2π VB (ω) ejωt dω = 1 2π +∞ −∞ TV (ω) E (ω) ejωt dω (8. 8.2 The group velocity In general. • since the system is LTI. the output signal is still harmonic. We ﬁnd TV (ω) = ZA (ω) 1 e−jk(ω)l (1 + ΓB (ω)) ZA (ω) + Zg (ω) 1 + ΓA (ω) (8. hence we simplify the model 122 . the integral (8. Time-harmonic signals ejωt are “eigensignals” of LTI systems.6) 8. in the sense that they travel through the system unchanged.1.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Zg e(t) + ZL A B Figure 8.4) must be evaluated by numerical techniques.5) It is useful to note the following interpretation of (8. This property explains the usefulness of the Fourier transform technique in the analysis of LTI systems. which is the transfer function evaluated at the frequency ω. the transfer function TV (ω) is obtained without diﬃculty by the methods described in the previous chapters. connected by a transmission line AB e(t) Figure 8. (8. 1 2π +∞ −∞ E (ω) ejωt dω (8. • vB (t) is obtained by summing all these signals. Circuit consisting of a generator and a load.1 Eq.4): • the input is decomposed into a linear combination of harmonic signals ejωt e (t) = each with amplitude E (ω) dω. However. here we wish to focus on the role of the transmission line.2. with amplitude VB (ω) dω = TV (ω) E (ω) dω.

of the type shown in Fig.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines e(t) t Figure 8. as it can be ascertained by computing its spectrum. However. Requiring that the envelope is slowly varying with respect to the carrier is equivalent to assuming ωc ω0 . its spectrum is hermitian.10) and the spectral integral can be limited to the positive omega half-axis. i.1.3. we assume that the signal e (t) is not too diﬀerent from a time-harmonic signal.4) as an integral over both negative and positive frequencies. We ﬁnd E (ω) = = {m (t) cos ω0 t} = 1 2π {m (t)} ∗ {cos ω0 t} = 1 M (ω) ∗ π {δ (ω − ω0 ) + δ (ω + ω0 )} = 2π 1 1 = M (ω − ω0 ) + M (ω + ω0 ) = (8. is amplitude modulated and. since vB (t) is real. This signal. Indeed. Example of an amplitude modulated signal. in these conditions. is quasi-monochromatic.e. where ωc is the highest frequency present in the spectrum of m(t). by assuming that the generator is ideal (Zg = 0) and the line is matched (ZL = Z∞ ). Note that the envelope is slowly varying in comparison with the carrier of Fig. so that the transfer function becomes TV (ω) = e−jk(ω)l (8. by decomposing the integration domain into two parts. we have vB (t) = 1 2π 0 −∞ VB ω ejω t dω + 1 2π +∞ 0 VB (ω) ejωt dω (8. 8.3.9) 2 2 where M (ω) is the Fourier transform of m (t).8) where m (t) (envelope) is a slowly varying signal that is almost constant in a period T = 2π/ω of the cosine (carrier).11) 123 .7) Moreover. In particular. we choose e (t) = m (t) cos ω0 t (8. These functions are plotted in Fig. Hence the signal e(t) is indeed quasi-monochromatic. ∗ VB (−ω) = VB (ω) (8.4. 8. 8. Observe that vB (t) is computed from (8.

is justiﬁed by the actual behavior of k(ω) in the usual cases..13) vB (t) Re ej(ω0 t−β(ω0 )l) e−α(ω0 )l 1 2π +∞ 0 α (ω0 ) This truncation. Letting Ω = ω − ω0 . Letting now ω = −ω and using (8.14) k (ω) = k (ω0 ) + dω ω0 2 dω 2 ω0 In general.15) α (ω) Substitute (8. (8. i. apparently asymmetrical.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines |Ε(ω)| Μ(ω) −ω0 −ωc ωc ω0 ω0 .e.16) where actually the integral receives contribution only in the support of M (ω − ω0 ). which is by hypothesis a small neighborhood of ω = ω0 . M (ω − ω0 ) e−jβ (ω0 )(ω−ω0 )l j(ω−ω0 )t e dω (8. Figure 8.17) 124 . k (ω) = β (ω) − jα (ω).. we can think of substituting the function k (ω) with its Taylor expansion around ω = ω0 1 d2 k dk (ω − ω0 ) + (ω − ω0 )2 + . that is the support of its spectrum is a small neighborhood of ω0 .13) Taking into account that the signal is quasi-monochromatic. the previous equation can be rewritten vB (t) Re ej(ω0 t−β(ω0 )l) e−α(ω0 )l 1 2π +∞ −∞ M (Ω) e+j (t−β (ω0 )l)Ω dΩ (8. Since ωc e (t) is almost time-harmonic where the integration variable in the ﬁrst integral has been called ω .15) into (8.12) This transformation is equivalent to introducing the analytic signal associated to vB (t). Also the spectrum of m (t) is shown. whose spectrum is zero for ω < 0 and 2VB (ω) for ω > 0.4. Suppose we truncate the previous expansion at the second term for the real part and at the ﬁrst term for the imaginary one. Spectrum of e (t). we ﬁnd +∞ +∞ 1 1 ∗ vB (t) = VB (ω) e−jωt dω + VB (ω) ejωt dω = 2π 0 2π 0 = 2Re 1 2π +∞ 0 VB (ω) ejωt dω (8.10). the propagation constant is complex. assume β (ω) β (ω0 ) + β (ω0 ) (ω − ω0 ) (8. At this point the problem is reduced to the evaluation of vB (t) = Re 1 2π +∞ 0 M (ω − ω0 ) e−jk(ω)l ejωt dω (8.

at least in the band of the signal that is propagating.20) β(ω0 ) These quantities get their names from the fact that the signal e (t) consists of a “group” of frequencies.14) are responsible for the distortions. everything happens as if the envelope m (t) moved at the group velocity and the carrier with the phase velocity. the information is associated to the envelope.19) = dω dβ (8. in the limit in which (8. In general terms.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines where the lower limit has been shifted to −∞. as required by the theory of relativity. Hence. Note. Recalling (8. eq.22). they cannot be neglected when the bandwidth of e (t) is not small. Consider a dispersion curve as the one sketched in Fig. so that we can recognize the inverse Fourier transform of M (Ω) evaluated in t − β (ω0 ) l: vB (t) Re{ej(ω0 t−β(ω0 )l) e−α(ω0 )l m t − β (ω0 ) l } = (8. On the basis of the previous deﬁnitions. It turns out to be always smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. The higher order terms in the expansion (8.24).21) and of the corresponding phase delay τph (ω0 ) = β (ω0 ) l/ω0 = l/vph (ω0 ).22) = m (t − τg (ω0 )) e−α(ω0 )l cos (ω0 (t − τph (ω0 ))) This equation has the following interpretation. each of which appears in the point B weighted by the transfer function. The general deﬁnition is in fact d τg = − arg (H (ω)) (8. The signal e (t) is not monochromatic but consists of a “packet” of harmonic components. If we recall the deﬁnitions of phase velocity vph (ω0 ) = ω0 β (ω0 ) (8. ﬁnally. 8. that the concept of group delay can be deﬁned both for lumped and distributed devices.18) = m t − β (ω0 ) l e−α(ω0 )l cos (ω0 t − β (ω0 ) l) The quantity β (ω0 ) l has the dimensions of a time and is called group delay τg (ω0 ) τg (ω0 ) = β (ω0 ) l = with the consequent deﬁnition of the group velocity vg (ω0 ) vg (ω0 ) = 1 dβ dω ω0 l vg (ω0 ) (8.7). we can write vph (ω0 ) = tan ϕph vg (ω0 ) = tan ϕg (8. Obviously a resistor network has a real transfer function and τg = 0 according to (8. it is the propagation velocity of information and of energy on the line.15) hold. the transfer function has constant magnitude and linear phase. the envelope in B is an attenuated and delayed replica of the envelope in A. In the applications. this is only an interpretation of (8. we observe that (8. without changing the value of the integral. 125 .5. since envelope and carrier are not signals with an independent existence.18) can be rewritten vB (t) m t− l vg (ω0 ) e−α(ω0 )l cos ω0 t − ω0 l vph (ω0 ) = (8. As a consequence of the constructive and destructive interference phenomena that here take place.24) dω where H (ω) is the transfer function of the device. The concepts of phase and group velocity lend themselves to a geometrical interpretation. Obviously.19) is in agreement with this deﬁnition. a transmission line does not introduce distortions if. We see also that. a group delay appears in the cases in which the device can store energy. Obviously. so that the propagation can be deﬁned as distortion free. Indeed.23) Note that the concept of group velocity is the most physically important of the two.(8.

but the computation can no longer be carried out for a generic envelope m (t).26) 1 2 ·ej (t−β0 l)(ω−ω0 ) dω We see clearly that the quadratic phase term causes a distortion. Hence. Geometrical interpretation of phase and group velocity 8. By repeating with minor modiﬁcations the computations that lead to (8. its envelope is not distorted) when the group velocity is constant on the bandwidth of the signal itself.3 Distortions In the previous section we have seen that a quasi monochromatic signal is not distorted (more precisely. In this section we will discuss the distortions caused by a transfer function with constant magnitude and a phase curve that is non linear but can be approximated by a parabola. see Fig. This assumption implies that the group velocity (and the group delay) are linear functions of frequency.16) we ﬁnd vB (t) Re ej(ω0 t−β0 l) 1 1 2 2π +∞ 0 [M (ω + ω0 ) + M (ω − ω0 )] e−j 2 β0 l(ω−ω0 ) · (8. Making use of the integral √ +∞ δ2 2 2 π − (2α)2 e (8.27) m (t) = exp − 2 2T0 The standard deviation of the gaussian T0 can be used as a conventional measure of the duration of the pulse.28) e−α x ejδx dx = α −∞ we obtain the spectrum M (ω) M (ω) = √ 2 T0 ω 2 2 2πT0 exp − (8. 8.29) 126 .8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines ω ω0 ϕf ϕg β Figure 8. The simplest case for which an analytic expression can be obtained is that of a gaussian pulse.5. we will assume that the propagation constant can be expressed in the form β (ω) = β0 + β0 (ω − ω0 ) + where β0 = β (ω0 ) β0 = dβ dω 1 β0 (ω − ω0 )2 2 β0 = ω0 (8. in which t2 (8.6.25) d2 β dω 2 ω0 and we will assume α (ω) = 0 for simplicity.

28) with α= we ﬁnd vB (t) Re 1 2 1 1 2 2π e− 2 (T0 +jβ0 l)Ω ej (t−β0 l)Ω dΩ 2 T0 + jβ0 l δ = t − β0 l (t − β0 l) 2 2 (T0 + jβ0 l) 2 (8. so that ω0 T0 >> 1 and the ﬁrst term gives a completely negligible contribution.33) If we separate magnitude and phase. t Envelope of a gaussian pulse and deﬁnition of its conventional duration T0 −1 Note that the spectrum of the envelope is still gaussian with standard deviation T0 : in accordance with the uncertainty principle for the Fourier transform.6. the lower limit of the integral can be shifted from 0 to −∞ without changing its value.26) in the form: vB (t) Re ej(ω0 t−β0 l) 1 1 2 2π +∞ −∞ +∞ −∞ M (Ω) e−j 2 β0 lΩ ej (t−β0 l)Ω dΩ 1 2 1 2 2 = (8. we arrive at the following ﬁnal expression vB (t) = T0 T (l) exp − (t − l/vg (ω0 ))2 2T (l)2 cos (ϕ (t)) (8. a short pulse has a large bandwidth and viceversa.31) T0 exp {j (ω0 t − β0 l)} exp 2 T0 + jβ0 l − (8.34) 127 .30) = Re ej(ω0 t−β0 l) By applying (8. Note that the algebraic term can be rewritten as − 1 1 −1 2 2 2 2 β0 l T0 β0 l β0 l exp j arctan = 1+j = 1+ = 2 2 2 2 T0 T0 T0 T0 + jβ0 l = 1+ β0 l 2 T0 1 2 1 2 −4 exp −j 1 arctan 2 β0 l 2 T0 (8. The integrand in (8. Rewrite (8. In normal applications the pulse duration is much larger of the carrier period. as for the second. For the same reason.32) Transform now the expression in the curly brackets in such a way that the real part is obtained simply.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines m(t) 1 e-1/2 T0 Figure 8.26) is the sum of two terms.

it is possible to compress a pulse by exploiting the dispersivity of the line on which it propagates.34) is made to propagate from z = l to z = 0.37) 2 dt T0 1 + 3 (l/ld )2 It changes linearly and increases or decreases depending on the sign of β0 . 128 . Even if the pulse retains the gaussian shape.35) ld = (8. that the maximum value of the envelope becomes smaller and smaller during the propagation: it is simple to verify that the energy in the pulse does not depend on the length of the line l. Obviously it is necessary that the signal to be compressed has a frequency modulation (chirp) and that the sign of β0 is appropriate. Distorted gaussian pulse at the line end. called chirp.7. albeit with imaginary variance. The quantity ld is deﬁned doubling distance because T (ld ) = 2T0 . 8. Observe the spurious frequency modulation where the phase ϕ (t) is l ϕ (t) = ω t − vph (ω0 ) and T (l) = T0 1+3 l ld 2 (t − l/vg (ω0 ))2 + 2 2T0 √ 3(l/ld )sign (β0 ) 1 − arctan 2 2 1 + 3 (l/ld ) 2 √ T0 3 |β0 | √ 3l ld (8. Moreover it increases if the line dispersivity becomes smaller.36) Note that the signal at the far end of the line is still gaussian: this is related to the invariance of gaussians with respect to Fourier transforms and to the fact that by expanding the phase constant k(ω) to the second order also the line transfer function turns out to be a gaussian. the compression is obtained by removal of the frequency modulation. i. hence if the signal (8. Note that ld increases with the initial pulse duration T0 . Indeed. if |β0 | decreases. Compute the instantaneous frequency √ t − l/vg (ω0 ) 3(l/ld )sign(β0 ) dϕ ω (t) = = ω0 + (8. in accordance with the fact that the line has been assumed to be lossless. because its bandwidth becomes narrower. depicted in Fig. it gets distorted because its standard deviation increases. 2 The envelope moves at the group velocity but its variance increases from T0 to T 2 (l). Note that the transmission line is a symmetric device. the output signal will be vA (t) = exp − (t − l/vg (ω0 ))2 2 2T0 cos(ω0 t) In other words. moreover. Consider now the phase term and note the quadratic dependance on t − l/vg (ω0 ).e. Note.7.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Figure 8. The output signal is aﬀected by a spurious frequency modulation.

8. Let BT be the bit rate. it is diﬃcult to deﬁne precisely the pulse duration.36) 1 1 BT ≤ BT max = = (8. consider an optical ﬁber link using a digital modulation such that the transmission of a pulse is associated to the logical value 1 and the absence of a pulse to the value 0. recalling (8. i. since the pulse form changes. Basically.38) T0opt = |β0 | l 1 |β0 | l BT max (T0opt ) = √ 2r 129 . an intersymbol interference can take place such that pulses are no longer recognized by the receiver. we can try to select the pulse duration in such a way as to maximize BT max . 8. Fig. if T0 is large the doubling length is large. Clearly. At the other extreme. the pulse duration increases during the propagation. there is an optimum pulse duration that can be found by setting to zero the derivative of (8. Received pulses are so distorted that the transmitted word is no longer recognizable The considerations made for the gaussian pulse hold qualitatively for any pulse waveform. the number of bits transmitted per second. Intersymbol interference in a digital link on a dispersive optical ﬁber. the doubling length ld is also small. The general characteristics of the plot are easily explained. suppose that the receiver is able to recognize two pulses provided their time separation is greater than the pulse duration multiplied by a factor r typical of the receiver. If in the course of the propagation pulses suﬀer a distortion and increase their duration. as shown in Fig.9 shows a plot of BT max (T0 ). hence the bit rate must be kept very low if the intersymbol interference is to be avoided.8. The condition of good operation can be written 1 ≥ rT (l) BT that is. To quantify the phenomenon.e. If T0 is small. however.38) 2 rT (l) β0 l rT0 1 + 2 T0 If the characteristics of the line and of the receiver are speciﬁed.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines z=0 t z=l t Figure 8. 8. in order to avoid the interference already at the transmitter side. hence the distortion is small. however the bit rate is trivially low.4 Digital communication As an example of the results presented above. 8.

Unfortunately.55µm. i.5 Mismatched ideal transmission lines In the previous sections we have discussed the behavior of transmission lines alone. it is always convenient to operate the link at this wavelength. let us obtain ﬁrst of all the general solution of the time domain transmission line equations. non dispersive. Obviously. here we obtain the desired result by the Fourier transform technique.e. but if β0 = 0 it is necessary to take into account at least the cubic term. so that the doubling length becomes inﬁnite.5.2 dB) in the third window. In any case. Various technological solutions have been devised to unify at the same wavelength the properties of low losses and low dispersion.25).4 we presented the classical d’Alembert solution. 8. T0 Plot of the maximum bit rate BT max on a digital link versus the pulse duration Note that T0opt does not depend on the receiver characteristics. if β0 = 0 it is possible to neglect the higher order terms in (8. In this section we examine the eﬀects of load and generator mismatch but.ω) I (z.ω) with = = V0+ (ω) exp(−jkz) + V0− (ω) exp(jkz) (8. A remarkable property of silica optical ﬁbers is that the parameter β0 is zero at the wavelength λ = 1. and for this reason the band centered around λ = 1.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines BTmax T0opt Figure 8.39) Y∞ V0+ (ω) exp(−jkz) − Y∞ V0− (ω) exp(jkz) C L (8. based on a suitable change of variable. the pulse duration increases by the factor 2 in the propagation between transmitter and receiver. centered at λ = 1. ordinary silica ﬁbers show their minimum attenuation (about 0. 8. We know that the general solution in the ω-domain is V (z. in the assumption that the terminations were matched.3µm is called second window for its importance in the optical communications. In these √ conditions. this does not mean that the pulse are not distorted. In section 1.9. we assume ﬁrst that the line is ideal.40) √ ω k = ω LC = vph Y∞ = 130 . which gives rise to a diﬀerent type of distortion.1 General solution of transmission line equations As an example of the technique that we are going to use. but that the analysis carried out above is no longer applicable. in order to proceed by small steps. Indeed. but only on those of the ﬁber.3µm.

10. since Y∞ does not depend on ω.1.ω) exp(jωt)dω = −∞ = = 1 2π V0+ (ω) exp(−j z z ω) + V0− (ω) exp(+j ω) exp(jωt)dω = vph vph z vph z vph ω + V0− (ω) exp j t + − + v0 t + +∞ −∞ V0+ (ω) exp j t − z vph ω dω = (8. as for the current. 8.44) 131 . In the ω-domain this behavior is indicated by the fact that the two wave components have a phase proportional to ω.43) ZA (ω) 1 e−jωτ (1 + ΓB (ω)) ZA (ω) + Zg (ω) 1 + ΓA (ω) (8. we have obtained again. it is straightforward to write + i (z. Compute then the time domain voltage as v (z.4. In turn.5. Note that for simplicity we have assumed that both the generator internal impedance and the load impedance are pure resistances. Moreover. the same expressions of section 1. Note that the general solution is clearly constituted by two waves propagating in opposite directions. this is a consequence of the fact that the phase velocity is frequency independent.2 Mismatched ideal lines Consider now the main problem of this section. Note that V0+ (ω) and V0− (ω) are two arbitrary constants with respect to z ma can certainly depend on the parameter ω.t) = 1 2π +∞ −∞ 1 2π +∞ V (z.41) + = v0 t − z vph ± where v0 are the inverse Fourier transforms of V0± (ω). shown in Fig.42) Hence. Suppose we want to compute the load voltage vB (t). we obtained vB (t) in the form of an inverse Fourier transform: vB (t) = with TV (ω) = 1 2π VB (ω) ejωt dω = 1 2π +∞ −∞ TV (ω) E (ω) ejωt dω (8.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Rg e(t) + l Z∞ . vf A Figure 8. Their explicit expression can be deﬁned when the load and generator are speciﬁed. RL B Basic circuit. comprising a mismatched ideal line. In section 8. hence frequency independent. 8.10. by the Fourier transform technique.t) = Y∞ v0 t − z vph − − Y∞ v0 t + z vph (8.

we are interested to compute vB (t) for 0 ≤ t ≤ tmax . To interpret the ﬁrst factor (1 − Γg )/2 it is convenient to rewrite it in terms of impedances. Hence.. g B and taking the inverse Fourier transform termwise. i. with n + 1 reﬂections at the far end B (load) and n at the near end A (generator). Hence. we obtain: vB (t) = 1 − Γg (1 + ΓB ) e(t − τ ) + Γg ΓB e(t − 3τ ) + Γ2 Γ2 e(t − 5τ ) + .47) we ﬁnd VB (ω) = E(ω) 1 − Γg (1 + ΓB ) exp(−jωτ )· 2 (8.. within a certain observation window.. It is convenient to eliminate the latter to obtain a homogeneous expression. i. Obviously.47) Note that because of the assumptions we made on load and generator.51) represents a wave that has travelled 2n + 1 times the length AB in the forward and backward direction. because in this case |Γg ΓB exp(−j2ωτ )| < 1. Deﬁne Rg = Z ∞ 1 + Γg 1 − Γg ZA = Z∞ 1 + ΓA 1 − ΓA (8.50) Apparently the solution is given in the form of an inﬁnite series. g B 2 (8. for a ﬁxed time t ≤ tmax .45) where Γg is the voltage reﬂection coeﬃcient of the generator internal impedance. The ﬁrst displays the dynamic evolution of the phenomenon. by noting that each term of the sum 1 − Γg n n Γg ΓB e(t − (2n + 1)τ ) (1 + ΓB ) 2 (8.47) and note that it can be expanded by the binomial theorem: (1 − Γg ΓB exp(−j2ωτ ))−1 = 1 + Γg ΓB exp(−j2ωτ ) + Γ2 Γ2 exp(−j4ωτ ) + . Moreover.52) 132 . i. The previous equations contain both reﬂection coeﬃcients and impedances.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines where E(ω) is the Fourier transform of the open circuit generator voltage e(t) and τ = l/vph is the transit time on the line. in general.. This is easily explained. two alternative routes can be followed. It can be veriﬁed that the following relation holds ZA 1 − Γg 1 + ΓA = (8. Γg and ΓB are frequency independent. it is zero for negative argument... In reality. the function e(t) is causal.e. if n is suﬃciently large. there is only a ﬁnite number of terms that contribute.46) ZA + Zg 2 1 − ΓA Γg and. To compute the inverse Fourier transform. of stationary states.49) · 1 + Γg ΓB exp(−j2ωτ ) + Γ2 Γ2 exp(−j4ωτ ) + . the factor (1 + ΓB ) originates from the fact that the total voltage in B is the sum of the forward and backward components. we obtain VB (ω) = E(ω) 1 − Γg 1 (1 + ΓB ) exp(−jωτ ) 2 1 − Γg ΓB exp(−j2ωτ ) (8.e. recalling that ΓA = ΓB exp(−j2ωτ ). The lattice diagram Consider the last fraction in (8.e.48) The expansion is certainly convergent if the load is passive. which give rise to two radically diﬀerent forms of writing the solution. Substituting the expansion into (8. tmax − (2n + 1)τ is negative and this and the subsequent terms do not give any contribution. the second yields a description in terms of resonances. g B (8. We ﬁnd Z∞ 1 − Γg = 2 Rg + Z ∞ (8.

8. This circuit is applicable also in the case of Fig. overlap partially: 2 this is called a reverberation condition. 8.54) whereas the voltage vC (t) is given by: vC (t) = 1 − Γg {e(t − τc ) + ΓB e(t − (2τ − τc ))+ 2 +ΓB Γg e(t − (2τ + τc )) + Γ2 Γg e(t − (4τ − τc )) + .12. for successive values of n. even if it has reached the far end B. 8.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Rg e(t) + Figure 8. are disjoint: this 2 is called a multiple echo conditions. 8. Depending on the line length. which allows to write directly the expression of the transient response without computing ﬁrst the frequency response and then evaluating the inverse Fourier transform of it. We can say that Z∞ is the input impedance of the line but only for t ≤ 2τ and this justiﬁes the name of ”surge impedance” that sometimes is used to denote Z∞ .e. B (8.10. two diﬀerent situations can appear. .55) 133 . but only for t ≤ 2τ .50) can be rewritten vB (t) = (1 + ΓB ) vA0 (t − τ ) + Γg ΓB vA0 (t − 3τ ) + Γ2 Γ2 vA0 (t − 5τ ) + . Having introduced (and proved) the lattice diagram method for the computation of vB (t). .53) On the basis of this interpretation it is possible to draw a space-time plot.15 shows the relevant diagram. because the common ratio of the geometrical series is smaller than one. Suppose that the open circuit voltage of the generator is a signal of duration T0 .11. i. the generator cannot ”know” if the line is inﬁnite or not. B (8. The voltage vA (t) is written immediately vA (t) = 1 − Γg {e(t) + ΓB (1 + Γg )e(t − 2τ )+ 2 +Γ2 Γg (1 + Γg )e(t − 4τ ) + . g B (8. 8. Fig. on the transit time τ . . for successive values of n.13 and 8. Figs. we can use it for the computation of the voltage at the near end A and in a generic intermediate point C.. we can introduce the voltage in A at the time t = 0+ Z∞ vA0 (t) = e(t) Rg + Z ∞ so that (8. − If τ < 1 T0 the supports of the functions e(t − (2n + 1)τ ). The continuous line is the plot of the load voltage vB (t) when the transmission line is present. called “lattice diagram”. Note that the successive echoes have decreasing amplitude. produces an echo that reaches A no sooner than t = 2τ .11 in which the line is inﬁnitely long. . In this light. The dashed line is the plot of the voltage on the load if this were directly connected to the generator. Deﬁnition of the surge impedance This function is clearly the partition factor vA (t) /e(t) for the circuit of Fig. Its length is deducible from the delay τ of the pulse front.14 show the two conditions in the case e(t) is a rectangular pulse with value 1V. Hence.. − If τ > 1 T0 the supports of the functions e(t − (2n + 1)τ ). before this time. shown in Fig. because in this case the signal launched from A.

the solution is readily found by reconsidering eq. Note that the forward and backward voltages in C are not simultaneous and this explains the absence of a factor of the type 1 + ΓB o 1 + Γg . B (8. Lattice diagram for the circuit of Fig. Sometimes we can be interested in computing the current in the load iB (t).57) 134 . by applying the Kirchhoﬀ loop law: e(t) − vA (t) iA (t) = Rg where vA (t) is computed by (8. Indeed.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Zg e(t) + ZL A 1-Γg e(t) 2 Γg ΓB Γg t B z ΓB Figure 8.8.10 where τC = lAC /vph is the travel time from A to C.56) RL with vB (t) given by (8.(8. where C is an intermediate point.55) and noting that this expression consists of forward and backward waves.50). The current at the near end iA (t) can be found similarly.12. Not so easy is the case of iC (t). . However. The relevant impedance relations are i+ (t) = C + vC (t) Z∞ i− (t) = − C − vC (t) Z∞ hence we can write the desired current as iC (t) = 1 − Γg {e(t − τc ) − ΓB e(t − (2τ − τc ))+ 2Z∞ +ΓB Γg e(t − (2τ + τc )) − Γ2 Γg e(t − (4τ − τc )) + . The easiest method is just to apply Ohm’s law: vB (t) iB (t) = (8. . here it is not possible to apply Kirchhoﬀ laws.54).

6 0. .60) 135 .58) i.3 0. We must evaluate vB (t) = 1 2π +∞ −∞ exp(jωt) E(ω) (1 − Γg ) (1 + ΓB ) exp(−jωτ ) dω 2 1 − Γg ΓB exp(−j2ωτ ) (8.2 0.7 0.1 0.56). .9 1 Figure 8.5 t / T0 0.Z∞ = 150Ω. } (8. Load voltage in (Zg = 10Ω.8 0. but if the reﬂection coeﬃcients in (8.13.47) and compute directly the inverse transform integral by the complex analysis methods. it should hold also if C −→ B: iB (t) = 1 − Γg {e(t − τ ) − ΓB e(t − τ )+ 2Z∞ +ΓB Γg e(t − 3τ ) − Γ2 Γg e(t − 3τ ) + .e.ZL = 300Ω) the multiple echo conditions (τ > 1 T ) 2 0 Since this is a general formula.59) are substituted with their expressions in terms of impedances. B (8. Solution in terms of resonances Consider again (8. the identity of the two expression is readily proved. If the circuit contains more discontinuities. .4 0.59) This expression is apparently diﬀerent from (8. the lattice diagram complexity increases exponentially and the method becomes useless.5 VL(t) (nat) 0 -0. . iB (t) = 1 − Γg (1 − ΓB ) {e(t − τ ))+ 2Z∞ +ΓB Γg e(t − 3τ ) + .5 -1 0 0.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Time domain response Max [ Vg(t) ] = 1 1 0.

8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Time domain response Max [ Vg(t) ] = 1 1 0. On the contrary.14.62) ω − ωn 1 1 = lim = ω→ωn −Γg ΓB e−j2ωτ (−j2τ ) 1 − Γg ΓB e−j2ωτ j2τ (8. This half circle does not yield contribution to the integral (Jordan’s lemma) and the residue theorem can be applied. Observe that when ΓB Γg > 0 (i.1 0. are indicated by a cross. in the case ΓB Γg < 0 (i.9 1 Figure 8. 1 Load voltage in the reverberation conditions(τ < 2 T0 ) (Zg = 10Ω. coherently with the absence of gain in the system.4 0. which is non negative. RB ]). but can be transformed into a closed path by the addition in the upper halfplane of a half circle with radius tending to inﬁnity. ±1. They are simple poles.8 0. Applying the de l’Hˆspital rule. beyond those of E(ω). have all the same imaginary part.2 0. the poles are in symmetrical positions with respect to the imaginary axis and thei separation is π/τ . Z∞ belongs to the interval [Rg .7 0. .e. 8.5 VL(t) (nat) 0 -0.Z∞ = 150Ω. The singularities of the integrand.5 -1 0 0. we ﬁnd o Rn = lim ω→ωn (8.60) vanishes: 1 − Γg ΓB exp(−j2ωτ ) = 0 The solution of this equation is ωn = = with n = 0. located in those ω values in which the denominator of (8.61) 1 [log |ΓB Γg | + j (arg (ΓB Γg ) + n · 2π)] = 2jτ 1 1 (arg (ΓB Γg ) + n · 2π) − j log |ΓB Γg | 2τ 2τ (8. ±2 . Compute now the residues in the poles ωn . inﬁnite in number.63) 136 . .6 0.ZL = 300Ω) The integration path runs along the real axis as indicated in Fig.e.5 t / T0 0. so that these singularities. the pole for n = 0 has zero real part.16. Remember that |ΓB Γg | ≤ 1.3 0. if Rg and RL are both greater or smaller than Z∞ ).

16. ωn ) = (8.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines A τC C B z 1-Γg (1+ΓB)e(t-τ) 2 1-Γg ΓB(1+Γg)e(t-2τ) 2 1-Γg ΓgΓB(1+ΓB)e(t-3τ) 2 1-Γg Γ2 Γ (1+Γ )e(t-4τ) g B g 2 t Figure 8. C). B. i. It is an alternative representation that is completely equivalent to that of (8. Integration path in the complex ω-plane and position of the singularities of the integrand function If we assume that E(ω) is an entire function.e.15.50) in terms of multiple reﬂections.64) When the solution is expressed in this way. the dynamical response of the system is represented in terms of the system normal modes. then there are no other singularities and the response vB (t) can be written 1 (1 − Γg ) (1 + ΓB ) E(ωn )e+jωn (t−τ ) 2τ n=−∞ +∞ vB (t) = 2πj n Res(Integranda. 137 . without singularities in any ﬁnite region of the complex ω-plane. Lattice diagram showing the computation of the voltages in various points of the line (A. ℑm ω ℜe ω Figure 8. which happens if e(t) has ﬁnite duration.

which we have considered separately.17. if the loads that terminate the lines are non linear. A typical example is that of a line connected to a logical gate. hence the time constant of the RC group is CReq . diﬀerent types of distortion arise.17. in which cross-talk eﬀects appear. characterized by an input capacity. which in general can be studied only by sophisticated numerical techniques 138 . as shown in Fig. are simultaneously present.3 Real interconnections In a real world interconnection problem the various distortions mechanisms. In general we can say that the echoes have rising and descending fronts smoother than those of the incident pulse. both the signal incident on the load and the successive echoes suﬀer distortions in the course of their propagation.5. • If the line is not ideal. as in printed circuit boards (PCB) there are several lines on the same board. A more accurate model describes them as multiconductor transmission lines. 8. • Often. Transmission line connected to a logical gate 8. These lines can be considered as independent only in a ﬁrst approximation. since the load behaves essentially as a low pass ﬁlter. • Finally.8 – Time domain analysis of transmission lines Z∞ C RL Figure 8. we can mention: • The load which terminates the line is not frequency independent. Limiting ourselves to a short list. This implies that the various echoes have a diﬀerent shape one from the other and from the incident signal. The resistance in parallel to C is Req = (RL Z∞ ) / (RL + Z∞ ).

[2] D. Reading: Addison-Wesley. 139 . Pozar. H Golub. Matrix computations. 1983. Microwave engineering. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1990. F. Van Loan. [4] G. Visual complex analysis. Needham. Collin . New York: McGraw-Hill 1992. C. Foundations for microwave engineering. E. [3] R. 1997.Bibliography [1] T. M. Oxford: Clarendon.

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