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WHITE BLOOD CELL DIFFERENTIAL COUNT Definition: Determines the percentage of the five kinds of white blood cells

in the white blood cell count. Normal value NAME Neutrophil NORMAL VALUE 55%-70% CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Increased due to bacterial infection or inflammatory response. Decreased neutrophil levels may be the result of severe infection or other conditions, such as responses to various medications, particularly chemotherapy. Can increase in response to allergic disorders, inflammation of the skin, and parasitic infections. They can also increase in response to some infections or to various bone marrow disorders. Decreased levels of eosinophils can occur as a result of infection. Can increase in cases of leukemia, chronic inflammation, the presence of a hypersensitivity reaction to food, or radiation therapy.

Eosiphil

1%-4%

Basophil

0.5%-1.0%

Lymphocyte

20%-40%

can increase in cases of viral infection, leukemia, cancer of the bone marrow, or radiation therapy. Decreased lymphocyte levels can indicate diseases that affect the immune system, such as lupus, and the later stages of HIV infection. can increase in response to infection of all kinds as well as to inflammatory disorders. Monocyte counts are also increased in certain malignant disorders, including leukemia. Decreased monocyte levels can indicate bone marrow injury or failure and some forms of leukemia.

monocytes

2%-8%

Purpose: The white blood cell differential assesses the ability of the body to respond to and eliminate infection. It also detects the severity of allergic and drug reactions plus the response to parasitic and other types of infection. It is essential in evaluating the reaction to viral infections and response to chemotherapy. It can also identify various stages of leukemia. The white blood cell differential count determines the number of each type of white blood cell, present in the blood.

Indication: A WBC differential count is normally ordered as part of the complete blood count. Contraindication: None Procedure Preprocedure: Explain to client about the procedure. Wash hands. This test requires a 3.5 mL sample of blood. Vein puncture with a needle is usually performed by a nurse or phlebotomist, a person trained to draw blood.

During: choose vascular puncture site (e. g. the side of an adults finger) .Wrap the finger with warm cloth for 30 mins.,or hold in dependent position and massage the site. These will increase the blood flow to the area. Clean site with antiseptic .Inject the syringe and withdraw the necessary amount of blood.

After: Support puncure site with cotton swab. Discomfort or bruising may occur at the puncture site. Pressure to the puncture site until the bleeding stops reduces bruising; warm packs relieve discomfort. Some people feel dizzy or faint after blood has been drawn and should be allowed to lie down and relax until they are stable.

Complication: Other than potential bruising at the puncture site, and/or dizziness, there are no complications associated with this test.