Unemployment in India

Unemployment India as a nation is faced with massive problem of unemployment. Unemployment can be defined as a state of worklessness for a man fit and willing to work. It is a condition of involuntary and not voluntary idleness. Some features of unemployment have been identified as follows:
1. The incidence of unemployment is much higher in urban areas than in rural areas. 2. Unemployment rates for women are higher than those for men. 3. The incidence of unemployment among the educated is much higher than the overall unemployment. 4. There is greater unemployment in agricultural sector than in industrial and other major sectors.

Economists and social thinkers have classified unemployment into various types. Generally unemployment can be classified in two types: (1) Voluntary unemployment In this type of unemployment a person is out of job of his own desire doesn't work on the prevalent or prescribed wages. Either he wants higher wages or doesn't want to work at all. It is in fact social problem leading to social disorganization. Social problems and forces such as a revolution, a social upheaval, a class struggle, a financial or economic crisis a war between nations, mental illness, political corruption mounting unemployment and crime etc. threaten the smooth working of society. Social values are often regarded as the sustaining forces of society. They contribute to the strength and stability of social order. But due to rapid social change new values come up and some of the old values decline. At the same time, people are not is a position to reject the old completely and accept the new altogether. Here, conflict between the old and the new is the inevitable result which leads to the social disorganization in imposed situation. In economic terminology this situation is voluntary unemployment. (2) In voluntary unemployment In this type of situation the person who is unemployed has no say in the matter. It means that a person is separated from remunerative work and devoid of wages although he is capable of earning his wages and is also anxious to earn them. Forms and types of unemployment according to Hock are.
a. Cyclical unemployment - This is the result of the trade cycle which is a part of the capitalist system. In such a system, there is greater unemployment and when there is depression a large number of people are rendered unemployed. Since such an economic crisis is the result of trade cycle, the unemployment is a part of it. b. Sudden unemployment - When at the place where workers have been employed there is some change, a large number of persons are unemployed. It all happens in the industries, trades and business where people are employed for a job and suddenly when the job has ended they are asked to go. c. Unemployment caused by failure of Industries - In many cases, a business a factory

e. When the season has ended the workers are rendered unemployed. Recently UPA Government has come up with Rural Employment Guarantee program which aims to provide minimum days of employment to people living in the villages. there is deterioration. floods etc. This deterioration may be due to various factors. In efficiency of the employers. Our educational system has its own irreparable defects and its contribution to the unemployment is an open truth. Today young people are not ready to take jobs which are considered to be socially degrading or lowly. This is a laudable programme if implemented sincerely because it will provide employment to people during natural calamities like drought. vocational unfitness and physical disabilities which restrict the people. sometimes. Business field is subject to ups and downs of trade cycle and globalization. The problem of unemployment has becoming a colossal. The computerization and automation has led to technological unemployment. Unemployment caused by deterioration in Industry and business .But unplanned and uncontrolled growth of technology is causing havoc on job opportunities. There are individual factors like age. The remedial measures for reducing unemployment may lay greater emphasis on creation of opportunities for self -employment. Every year India adds to her population afresh.Certain industries and traders engage workers for a particular season. Various problems have caused this problem. augmentation of productivity and income levels of the working poor. d.Our education does not prepare the minds of young generation to become self-employed on the contrary it makes them dependent on government vacancies which are hard to come. Technological advancement contributes to economic development . External factors include technological and economic factors. Seasonal unemployment . Since workers do not get any salary or wages during the strike period they suffer from economic hardships. keen competitions less profit etc. trades or business. Sugar industry is an example of this type of seasonal unemployment. . There is enormous increase in the population. Strikes and lockouts have become inseparable aspect of the industrial world today. Economic depression or sick industries are often close down compelling their employees to become unemployed. the business may give huge loss or the business may not turn out to be useful and so on. More than this every year about 5 million people become eligible for securing jobs. Our State right from the beginning of Five year plans has introduced several employment generating schemes and programmes over the years but in the absence of proper implementation and monitoring have failed to achieve the required targets. Due to these industries often face economic loses and production comes down. They become permanently or temporarily unemployed. There may be various factors responsible for it there may be dispute amongst the partners. are some of the factors responsible for deterioration in the industry and the business.In various industries. shift in emphasis from creation of relief type of employment to the building up of durable productive assets in the rural areas and instead of attempting to revert somewhat to protectionist policies the pace of privatization may be accelerated.or an industry has to close down.

there are many factors. If cyclical . which contribute to unemployment. class.Causes Of Unemployment In the set up of a modern market economy. Higher the GDP. ethnicity.  Ability to look for employment The above factors may be categorized into the following: (I) Cyclical Unemployment Cyclical unemployment goes hand in hand with the business cycle. color and race).      Attitude towards employers Willingness to work Perception of employees Employee values Discriminating factors in the place of work (may include discrimination on the basis of age. This may in turn lead to decline in demand for certain services as well as products. lower will be the cyclical unemployment at the peak of the business cycle and the vice versa is true when the economy is in the trough of the business cycle. Causes of unemployment are varied and it may be due to the following factors:       Rapid changes in technology Recessions Inflation Disability Undulating business cycles Changes in tastes as well as alterations in the climatic conditions.

(IV) Hard Core Unemployment Hard core unemployment usually results when a worker is disabled and is not in a position to work.unemployment rate stretches for an extended period. . As a result. It has also been observed that if the labor market in the economy does not work in an optimum manner. This may also be regarded as one of the factors in unemployment. (II) Structural Unemployment It is a well-known fact that everyday new products are being launched in the market. (III) Agricultural Activities It has also been observed that if there are undulations in the agricultural sector (due to factors like low production. the effects are felt in agribusiness. re employment may be possible if the worker relocates or migrates to other sectors (in demand). drought. the demand for certain goods and services also changes. famine or natural disaster). Under these circumstances. This leads to increase in unemployment rate in certain sectors of the economy and creates jobs in yet others. Unemployment at any given point of time may be either due to one of the factors mentioned above or a combination of several factors (mentioned above). it leads to unemployment. The worker may also give up his job after a few days due to dissatisfaction with the wage. it may cause irreparable damage to the labor force in the country. which point at the tempo of an economic activity in a region. There are other factors.

assisting in developing enhanced work habits are some of the measures. which may be taken to deal with unemployment. which aims at providing financial assistance to the workers till the time of recovery in the economy. India's employment perspective . improving labor mobility.Measures For Reducing Unemployment Rate Causes Of Unemployment Page 2 of 2 Framing economic policies. the government has introduced the macro-economic stabilization policy. Extending unemployment insurance benefits is also a means of rendering financial protection to the unemployed. Macro Economic Stabilization Policy In order to cater to the needs of the unemployed. This system was first introduced during the period of Great Depression (1930s).

i. many of whom remain very poor." In the rural areas. Only about 10 per cent are regular employees. This was not unexpected. But the boom has not created jobs. they work only when they are able to get jobs and remain unpaid for the rest of the days).5 per cent annually. the combined sales of the world's top 200 MNCs is now greater than the combined GDP of all but the world's nine largest national economies.e. or only marginally. sectors which don't provide with the social security and other benefits of employment in the "organised sector. contract and sub-contract as well as migratory agricultural labourers make up most of the unorganised labour force.Overview of unemployment Sector-wise absorption of labour Trends in Labour Force Participation Labour Force Projections by Age Groups Projections of work opportunities Home Underemployment Age structure of population: 1997-2002 Participation in labour force by age & sex Population & Labour Force: 1997-2012 Population. Sixty per cent of India's workforce is self-employed. The absence of unions in the unorganised sector does not provide any opportunity for collective bargaining. In urban India. Yet. but also clearing the backlog. but employment is growing at only 2. the country is faced with the challenge of not only absorbing new entrants to the job market (estimated at seven million people every year). Thus. agricultural workers form the bulk of the unorganised sector. of which two-fifths are employed by the public sector. Over 70 per cent of the labour force in all sector combined (organised and        . According to a report by the Washington-based Institute of Policy Studies (IPS).8 millions -one-hundredth of one per cent of the global workforce. More than 90 per cent of the labour force is employed in the "unorganised sector". India's Ninth Five-Year Plan projects generation of 54 million new jobs during the Plan period (1997-2002). India's labour force is growing at a rate of 2. Unorganised sector is made up of jobs in which the Minimum Wage Act is either not. and few believe that the current Plan will be able to meet its target. the total direct employment generated by these multinationals is a mere 18. Labour Force & Employment Overview  Economic reforms may have given a boost to industrial productivity and brought in foreign investment in capital intensive areas.e. Nearly 30 per cent are casual workers (i.3 per cent. implemented. But performance has always fallen short of target in the past.

characterised as it is by large-scale underemployment and poor employment quality in the unorganised sector. This is because of the change in age structure. it would be just sufficient to absorb the new additions to the labour force. This. with the highest growth occurring in the 15-19 years age group in the Ninth Plan period. it expects the growth rate of the labour force to reach a peak level of 2. is expected to help in creating 54 million work opportunities over the period.unorganised) is either illiterate or educated below the primary level. This would lead to a reduction in the open unemployment rate from 1. the incidence of under-employment and unemployment taken together was as much as 10 per cent that year. with special emphasis on the agriculture sector.7 million.47 per cent in the Plan's terminal year. The acceleration in the economy's growth rate to 7 per cent per annum.59 per cent per annum by the end of the Ninth Plan.9 per cent in 1996-97 to 1. though open unemployment was only 2 per cent in 1993-94. puts the figure for 1995 at 18. Top      .54 per cent per annum over this period. The unemployment figure given in the executive summary of the Ninth Plan. However. for 1995-96.5 million while the annual report of the Labour Ministry.5 million to 6. there appears to be some confusion about the figure of open unemployment. Top Underemployment  Open unemployment is not a true indicator of the gravity of the unemployment problem in an economy such as India. Underemployment in various segments of the labour force is quite high. Kerala and Punjab. The addition to the labour force during the Plan period is estimated to be 53 millions on the "usual status" concept. according to the Plan. For instance. the highest it has ever been and is ever likely to attain. that is.from 7. gives the figure of open unemployment at 7. if the economy maintains an annual growth of 7 per cent. Uttar Pradesh. An internal government paper prepared in 1997 put the unemployment figure at the beginning of the Eighth Plan at 17 millions and at 18. Rajasthan. In other words. the States which face the prospect of increased unemployment in the post-Ninth Plan period (2002. The organised sector contributes only about 9 per cent to the total employment. thus attaining near full employment by the end of the Plan period. from over 2 per cent in the last three decades. by about a million persons . However.2007) are Bihar. which accounts for over 90 per cent of the total employment.  The Ninth Plan projects a decline in the population growth rate to 1.7 million at the end of 1994-95. Perhaps the Planning Commission referred to the current figure while the Labour Ministry figure referred to the accumulated unemployment backlog.63 million. If the economy could grow at around 8 per cent per annum during the Plan period. According to the Planning Commission. in spite of the fact that the incidence of underemployment was reduced substantially in the decade ending 1993-94. the incidence of open unemployment could be brought down by two million persons.

049.182 and Urban Female 0.23% 33. Rural Female 0.59% 15 .499.59 56.70% 7. Urban Male 0.00% Table 2 : Trends in Labour Force Participation Rates (Per Thousand of Population) Age Group Period 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 1977-78 1987-88 1993-94 Male Rural 879 824 804 990 988 990 963 964 968 667 670 699 904 879 877 Urban 746 710 684 990 987 986 940 933 937 517 482 443 831 810 811 515 478 455 619 603 600 538 538 543 221 220 241 517 496 491 Female Rural Urban 257 211 204 324 301 300 291 275 283 130 123 114 269 239 238 15-29 30-44 45-59 60+ All (15+) Note: Constituent shares in labour force in 1993-94 are Rural Male 0.14 37.Sector-wise absorption of labour Agriculture Manufacturing & construction Services Sundry / miscellaneous jobs 62 per cent 16 per cent 10 per cent 12 per cent Top Table 1 : Age structure of population: 1997-2002 Age-group 1997 2002 0 .2012 (per thousand of population) Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 1997 517 871 975 988 996 986 981 961 914 Male 2002 2007 482 447 2012 412 (a) 1997 302 408 454 505 526 538 524 476 411 Female 2002 2007 282 261 2012 241 (a) .07% 59. Table 3: Participation in Labour Force by Age Group and by Sex: 1997 .41% 60+ 6.270.

) 1997-02 3.91 Table 6 : Projections of Work opportunities 1997-2002 Sector Agriculture Mining & Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity Construction Wholesale & Retail Trade Transport.9 7.52 Table 7 : Population.3 4.45 62.22 2002 1028.98 391.62 2.88 2.22 449.54 48.13 2. Labour Force and Employment .32 2.9 6.90 38.91 2.41 562.20 55-59 18.03 2.55 38.03 41.62 2007 1112.15 31.89 61.56 30-34 52.37 15+ 397.24 20-24 55.60+ 637 205 Note: (a) No change in labour force participation in age groups above 20 years.45 3.1st April) Population Labour Force 1997 951.93 17.67 14.5 7.57 5.27 3.87 43.) 15-19 40. Real Estate.68 46.31 45.51 Table 5: Population and Labour Force: 1997 .94 2012 1196.56 1.2 8. Social and Personal Service All Sectors GDP Growth (% p.54 14.30 2002 262.18 397.2 9. Insurance and Business Services Community.60 52. Table 4 : Labour Force Projections by Age Groups 1997 2002 Growth Age Group (Million) (% p.86 22. Storage & Communication Financing.04 3.a.64 2.a.78 11.2012 (million .26 35-39 46.80 2.93 449.41 441.22 1.64 58.1 6.3 8.86 30.99 50-54 25.5 (Million) 8th Plan 1978 (a) 1983 (b) 1994 (a) (1992-97) (f) 9th Plan (1997-02) (f) 10th Plan (2002-07) (f) Work Opportunities (Million) 1997 238.48 3.96 4.55 25-29 56.86 507.47 1.56 46.55 60+ 28.7 7.74 34.08 45-49 32.53 40-44 39.

2 367.0 1.42) 7. (e) Unemployment reduces to negligible level by the year 2007 (f) Labour force.89 951.23) 5. (a) As on 1st January (b) As on 1st July (c) Population at the terminal year of the plan (d) Required to attain near full employment.19) 286.8 249.7 2.2 (2.9 (1.6 (2. Figures in brackets are compound growth rates in the preceding period.1 (e) 0.66 1112.5 (2.2 (2.6 255.4 1.5 (2. 2.1 6.7 (d) 4.42) 361.89) 374. .0 1.58) 478.12) 368.Population (c) Labour Force Employment Unemployment Rate (%) 637.89 895.09) 281.0 1.0 (2. Estimates of labour force and employment are on usual status concept and pertain to 15 years and above.58) 423.8 474.9 (1.86 (e) Notes: 1.4 416.63 718. employment and unemployment are stated as annual averages during the Plan period.2 7.4 7.2 (1.87 1028.

a wide literature of well proved strategies and variegated plans pertaining to. After a considerable part of their development path was covered. social. Profit in Real Time ! www. Parties. The western countries.com Live Best Nightlife 90% off on Clubs.XForex. choosing or executing the plans and strategies pertaining to economic development. emotional and cultural fronts. And Receive 100% Bonus! Apply Now: FxGrant. dexterously formulated and adroitly executed plans are not responding up to the mark and the state of affairs is becoming more depressive and distressing. Concerts & Events.706 | Share Ads by Google Open Live Account. during their development journey crept. 2008 |Comments: 1 | Views: 2. Sign Up Now! SnapDeal. It gives an impression that there is some mistake in formulating. were termed as under developed or developing economies. how the error should be done away.com/India Make Money Trading Learn how to trade currencies and create a second income stream! ForexTime. instead of succeeding to get the overall unemployment problem solved.com/Club-Coupons INTRODUCTION It needs not be defined afresh here the term ‘unemployment’. India belonged to the latter group whereby we were (though still we are) a developing economy. the world political scenario took such a turn that it allowed and rather helped the exploited eastern countries come out of their harness and start development. All strategies and plans formulated to encounter the unemployment problem are not providing satisfactory outcomes whereby the desired level of unemployment mitigation is leading towards becoming a myth in India. just starting their economic development. appears rather to be swinging & dwindling between the rural and the urban unemployment. The western countries. The well chosen. India was over enthusiastic and over ambitious on account . They finally achieved the present level of development after travelling for a long period of time along the whole locus with several acrid and beatific experiences. THE PLAN PERIOD AND EMPLOYMENT SITUATION After getting independence in 1947 India started its planned economic development in 1951 having in hands the experience. used by and created or formulated by the well developed western economies. then walked and thereafter ran on the path of development. In the presently prevailing period unemployment has become a challenge to Indian economy.Unemployment Scenario in India Posted: Oct 06. we would better rethink retrospectively. that time. It is such an embarrassing state of a person which baffles him on all economic. if so. To see if some error has really crept therein and. mental. were called developed economies and the eastern countries. apart from the available natural resources. Discos.com Forex Trading India Learn How to Trade in the Forex Market. The Indian economy.

wage. Agriculture based small and cottage industries became shattered and the villages became ruined. Thus the poor majority and the rural economy became ignored. service centres. an unbalanced and unfair development of Indian economy became resulted therein. this also could not bring about the desired change. The government has become politically weak. instead of overall development. Moreover. The condition of the rural unemployment is more embarrassing than that of the urban unemployment since the rural unemployed people are subsisting in privation. unfortunately. This hampered urban growth and urban life. Therefore its priority has become to please the rich minority so that it may run.48 lac during the next six years’ period and rose to 5. on the other. the state of affairs of rural India still remains almost the same as it was before planning. resulted to unchecked urban growth.02 million in 1993-94. The unemployment situation in both the rural and the urban sectors became almost uncontrollable.18 lac during the five years’ period from 1999-2000 to 2004-05. the formulation of this process was on almost the same footings as those of the Five Year Plans and. There is a big gulf between urban and rural people regarding wealth. To mitigate resentment and dissatisfaction among the general mass it has to play pseudo role to remedy some times the rural and some times the urban mass alternating through various unsuccessful employment programmes and plans.98 million in 1983 to 9. infrastructure. therefore. instead of starting from the very beginning and covering the whole path it. This hindered the rural development whereby agricultural development and rural life remained slang lower. The unemployed persons started migrating to the urban areas in search of job. However. Thus India lost sequences in its development path. Thus. Therefore. being enticed and allured by the surprisingly fascinating fruits of industrialization. in rural areas there emerged acute shortage of energetic workforce. These elites interfered in the formulation and execution of development plans. Thereby the agricultural development lagged far behind the level required for feeding India’s industrialization up to the mark. These figures make amply clear that the average increase per year in the number of unemployed persons is going higher and higher without revealing any effect even of the economic reforms initiated in 1991.of having the ready and well proved weapons sought from the western world for combating the problem of development. It became 2. intellectuals etc. That is why. Thereby Indian development plans became urban oriented and concentrating on rich minority. to 10. even having travelled a long path of planned economic development. the Central Government tried to make the situation better by initiating the process of economic reforms in 1991.51 million in 1999-2000 and to 13. started efforts but having longed for being developed and grabbing fruits thereof in a haste. As a result thereof a mushroom growth of slums came about fast which eventually turned into big slum spots in cities and towns within a no longer period of 20 or 25 years. Ads by Google . In addition to this a considerable number of politically. Consequently a wide spread general unemployment prevailed in both the rural and the urban areas (as per ECONOMIC APPRAISAL 200607. socially and economically sound and effective elites emerged in cities and urban towns.04 lac persons during the ten years’ period from 1983 to 1993-94. education and income. on one hand. the rural-urban migration. But. It ignored agriculture that was the spine of the economy. This raised a huge bulk of unemployed people in the widely spread rural sector. the estimated number of unemployed persons rose from 7. On the other hand. due to the pitiable state of affairs in rural areas. and in the fixation of priorities. The average increase per year in the number of unemployed persons was 1.). The urban development and industrialization there had not sufficient level to absorb the whole migrating mass and to provide them proper urban life facilities.10 million in 2004-05.

To form a complete and effective family planning programme the policy makers should go in full details of why a child is born.6 per thousand per year in 2005) but the birth rate remained slang high (it was 39. . control over epidemics. during the development process in the plan period. the death rate considerably went down (from 27. uplift of living standard due to increased national income. Therefore. The factors making a child take birth can be grouped under three heads (i) Biological Factor. uplift of village life and revival of village industries. whatever the number of employment-opportunities emerged on account of the development process. Therefore population growth attained an increasingly high rate that was however tried unsuccessfully to be lowered through family planning programme.8 per thousand per year in 2005). reselect its programmes and reconstruct its plans so as to make the development move rural oriented.4 per thousand per year during 1941-50 to 7. As regards to the check on high population growth the prevailing family planning programme has been proved insufficient and incomplete. reformulate its strategies. the time of making the mistake good by starting a fresh has gone far back. alleviation of starvation. check on famines. Thus our mistake in the development process and the high rate of population growth are the two factors responsible for the rampant unemployment in Indian mass.9 per thousand per year during 194150 and came down only to 23. Therefore India should better take a drastic turn to re-fix its priorities. SUGGESTIONS To solve this massive problem efforts should be made to rectify the mistake in the development move.CAUSAL FACTORS OF RAMPANT UNEMPLOYMENT Actually the root cause of this today’s stinging situation lies in India’s galloping along the development path instead of travelling along the true locus by creeping. congenial to the micro-level needs of the people. walking and running as and when needed. extension of maternity services etc. akin to the overall development and compatible to the extenuation of economic disparities. As far as the rectification of mistake in the development move is concerned. On account of extended medical facilities. This will bring about fast agricultural development. it was gulped by a rather high increase in population. and to mitigate the high population growth. artisanship and handicraft to check the massive rural-urban migration. Moreover the rapid population growth has added a lot to make the unemployment situation a mammoth. on the other. (ii) Socio-cultural and Religious Factors and (iii) Economic Factors. on one hand.

if given on the basis of family units in a way that even a divided family would be considered as a single family unit during the survival of the pre-division head of the family. Therefore in an unplanned and rather instant sex. Surgical operations were undergone by 4. The unintended childbirths on account of purely the biological factor can well be checked by making contraceptives so affluently prevail in the society that use of a suitable contraceptive in every case of mating is generally made sure when mating is purely for gratification.83 million males and pills were used by 8. There is a wide range of contraceptives in vogue. However education or literacy is advocated to be instrumental in the extinction of such beliefs from people’s mind. physically wasted and worn-out parents and to provide safety to the family in case of conflicts or death of some of them. commonly used and comfortable due to the fact that other contraceptives have limitations and side effects of their own. The barrier contraceptives and IUCS but have the main drawback that their application needs a specific time period before starting intercourse. there are two main beliefs. Apart from economic uplift certain schemes or programmes launched by the government may be proved rather fruitful in instilling the importance of small family among the people. Therefore. The tendency of producing more sons due to the social security factor can be limited to a great extent by old-age-house system.75 million females.88 million males/females and IUCD implantation was conducted to 6. But poverty alleviation is the most powerful instrument since an economically sound man generally dares to break religious orthodoxy for enjoying the fascinating mirth of luxury of materialistic life. The best way of checking such an unintentional childbirth as a result of sexual intercourse is either the use of contraceptives or the termination of pregnancy. dependent minors allowance. One speaks of higher spiritual gain or place in heaven after death for a person having more sons. The second relates the production of more children to religious service and the duty of woman as being sent by God for increasing progeny. Sons are believed to care their old. As regards to the religious factor. life insurance. expensive and risky too. unemployment allowance etc.08 million females. other types of contraceptives should be made prevail in slums and poor localities. will certainly attract people towards small family size provided the facility covers almost all consumable items for a member family unit and that too at a very low price in comparison to the market price.1-Biological Factor:On account of this factor the child is born as a byproduct of sexual gratification. some times unethical. The condom as mechanical contraceptive among males and the pills as oral contraceptive among females have been proved most acceptable. that is generally performed in the poor families where separate accommodation is not available for husband-wife mating. During 2003-04 condoms were used by 17. The latter is painful. For example (1) Fare-price-shop facility. there is no room for the use of barrier and IUCS contraceptives. . 2-Socio-cultural and Religious Factors:The main social factor inducing a person to have more sons is the social security. Therefore the use of contraceptives is more preferable.

cheap and some times free entertainment sources from him.(2) Various schemes of bounties. will comparatively benefit more to small families whereby big families will be discouraged. 3-Economic Factors:Economic factors are very effective factors like the biological factor. Therefore a poverty stricken person has to search the way of entertainment in sex and that too being circumstantially unprotected whereby childbirth goes on taking place one after one successively. (iii) If a person is owner of a series of units of small scale industries. a child in a poor family is proved an asset rather than liability in its stead. The expenditure on his feeding is considerably lower than the wage he earns. A person in acute economic privation leaves even deeply instilled social. CONCLUSION The whole length of discussion concludes that to solve the unemployment problem of India the development plans and the family planning programme. some are found fully adopting family planning. bank-loans. Therefore. That is why a poor man tends to produce more children for the uplift of family’s living standard. similarly as in the state of aggravated sexual agitation he can leave all social. subsidies or economic help for poor families if launched on the per undivided family unit basis instead of per capita or per divided family unit. (i) The currently prevailing media based fascinating means of entertainment are not only out of the reach of poor man but these have also snatches the old socio-cultural. cultural and economic gains for sexual gratification. Similar is the position in a single cottage industry unit where margin of profit is low and hired labour makes the profit uncertain. Moreover. who mainly contribute to high birth rate. The child births on account of this tendency can be checked by making child-labour totally banned and by making child-education free and compulsory. Therefore the requirement of man power is tried to be met out by producing more children in the family. Poverty generates three causes of more childbirth as given below. cultural and some times the biological allurements too for economic gains. the modern media based means of entertainment should be so designed that these may be easily available to poor people. unfaithful and nondevoted. should be reformed on the lines . (3) Among poverty stricken people. both. small business units etc. If a family member is deployed at each such unit the safety and profitability is increased. (ii) In poor families a child becomes earning hand at the age of seven or eight years. The population increase due to this reason can be mitigated to a marked extent by making such family occupations joint ventures of more than one family. subsidy schemes and market protection schemes for such family occupations will help a lot by increasing and preserving the profit margin therein. candidature in local body elections etc. Such persons may be taken out and established as poor elites by providing them reservation and priority in various activities like education. employment. the hired managing persons generally prove costlier. These elites can better instill the advantage of small family through demonstration effect among the people. cottage industries. To check population increase due to this factor.

on one hand. in such a way that growth of employment opportunities would considerably exceed to the population growth . and population growth will be checked.suggested herein above whereby the extra employment opportunities will be generated fast. on the other.

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