Neither the whole or any part of the information contained in, or the product described in, this manual may be adapted

or reproduced in any material form except with the prior written approval of Acorn Computers Limited (Acorn Computers). The product described in this manual and products for use with it, are subject to continuous developments and improvement. All information of a technical nature and particulars of the product and its use (including the information in this manual) are given by Acorn Computers in good faith. However, it is acknowledged that there may be errors or omissions in this manual. A list of details of any amendments or revisions to this manual can be obtained upon request from Acorn Computers Technical Enquiries. Acorn Computers welcome comments and suggestions relating to the product and this manual. All correspondence should be addressed to: Technical Enquiries Acorn Computers Limited Fulbourn Road Cherry Hinton Cambridge CB1 4JN All maintenance and service on the product must be carried out by Acorn Computers’ authorised dealers. Acorn Computers can accept no liability whatsoever for any loss or damage caused by service or maintenance by unauthorised personnel. This manual is intended only to assist the reader in the use of the product, and therefore Acorn Computers shall not be liable for any loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use of any information or particulars in, or any error or omission in, this manual, or any incorrect use of the product.

BBC Microcomputer Service Manual
Contents 1 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Introduction Nature and Purpose of the Manual Technical Specification Model A Specification Model B Specification Expansion Software Machine Operating System BASIC Packaging Mechanical assembly of case etc General Description of Hardware Introduction Hardware description Detailed Circuit Description Processor + clock circuitry + reset circuitry Memory and address decoding CRT controller + video processor + Teletext hardware RGB + PAL encoder + UHF output Cassette + RS423 + serial processor Internal VIA Keyboard Sound + speech + serial ROM interfaces A to D convertors Disc interface Printer + user port interfaces Econet 1 MHz bus Power supply Upgrading the PCB Convert from EPROM MOS to ROM MOS Convert model A to model B Add speech option Add 5 1/4 disc interface to model B Add Econet interface to model A Add 8 inch disc interface to model B Partial upgrading Selection links and circuit changes Selection Link Survey Table of link options. Circuit Modifications from issue 1 to issue 7. Changes from issue 2 to 3. Changes from issue 3 to issue 4. Changes from issue 4 to issue 7. Servicing and Fault-finding Introduction Test Equipment Fault Isolation Most Common Faults

6.5 Test programs and sample waveforms 6.5.1 Test program 6.5.2 Test ROM 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Interfacing Survey Purpose of each interface Interfacing to various printers. Hardware Hints and Tips Component location tables Integrated circuits Transistors Diodes Capacitors Resistors Links Appendices Circuit block diagram Assembly drawing Case Lower Assembly Drawing Main PCB layout Main PCB Circuit Diagram Keyboard circuit diagram Power supply circuit diagram Parts list Glossary of abbreviations

If the socket outlet available is not suitable for the plug supplied. or coloured black. In order to ensure the continued safety of Acorn products.WARNING: THE COMPUTER MUST BE EARTHED IMPORTANT: The wires in the mains lead for the computer are coloured in accordance with the following code: Green and yellow . Ensure that no foreign objects are inserted through any openings in the Microcomputer.Live As the colours of the wires may not correspond with the coloured markings identifying the terminals in your plug. after clearing any faults. the plug should be cut off and the appropriate plug fitted and wired as previously noted. Either replace the moulded plug with another conventional plug wired as previously described. The wire which is coloured brown must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter L. or obtain a replacement fuse carrier from an authorised BBC Microcomputer dealer. proceed as follows: The wire which is coloured green and yellow must be connected to the terminal in the plug which is marked by the letter E. This computer was designed and manufactured to comply with BS 415. In the event of loss of the fuse carrier. Different manufacturers’ plugs and fuse carriers are not interchangeable. cold.Earth Blue . In the event of the fuse blowing it should be replaced.Neutral Brown . The wire which is coloured blue must be connected to the terminal which is marked with the letter N. The moulded plug must be used with the fuse and fuse carrier firmly in place. Do not use the Microcomputer in conditions of extreme heat. The moulded plug which was cut off should be disposed of as it would be a potential shock hazard if it were to be plugged in with the cut off end of the mains cord exposed. or green and yellow. *Not necessarily the same shade of that colour. with a 3 amp fuse that is ASTA approved to BS1362. . The fuse carrier is of the same basic colour* as the coloured insert in the base of the plug. the moulded plug MUST NOT be used. humidity or dust or in places subject to vibration. Do not block ventilation under or behind the computer. or by the safety earth symbol or coloured green. power supplies should be returned to Acorn for repair. or coloured red.

A BNC connector supplies a composite video output to drive a black and white or PAL colour monitor.2. it gives a detailed description of the operation of the whole of the circuit. A standard audio cassette recorder can be used to record computer programs and data at 300 or 1200 baud using the Computer Users Tape Standard tones.1 Nature and Purpose of the Manual The purpose of this manual is to provide technical and diagnostic information about the BBC Microcomputer. A colour television signal. 1.1 Introduction 1. designated. model A and model B. Internal power supply is fully encased and manufactured to BS 415 Class 1. * * 5 . This signal is 625 line. interlaced. The cassette recorder is under full automatic motor control and is connected to the computer via a 7 pin DIN connector. The internal loudspeaker is driven from a 4-channel sound synthesis circuit with full ADSR envelope control. Finally there is a section of hardware hints and tips which is a compilation of ideas from various sources. Information is also given about how to upgrade the various models of microcomputer and the purpose of the various links on the circuit board. further information about interfacing and a few suggestions about possible applications. fully encoded PAL and is modulated on UHF channel 36. The keyboard has two key rollover and auto repeat. powerful self-contained computer system generating high resolution colour graphics and capable of synthesising 3 part music + 1 channel of noise. 50Hz. * * * * 73 key full travel QWERTY keyboard including 10 user definable function keys.2 Technical Specification The BBC Microcomputer is supplied with two levels of hardware provision. The computer is contained in a rigid injection moulded thermoplastic case. There is some guidance about servicing and fault-finding. Some details are also given of the ways in which the circuit has changed in its evolution from issue 1 up to issue 7. is available through a phono connector. 1. the former being fully upgradable to the latter. After giving general information about the technical specification and the mechanical assembly of the BBC Microcomputer. The following are contained within the computer thus ensuring the minimum of connecting wires. for connection to a normal domestic television aerial socket.1 Model A Specification A fast.

The interpreter includes a 6502 assembler which enables BASIC statements to be freely mixed with 6502 assembly language.2). Up to four 16K "sideways" ROMs may be plugged into the machine at any time. * 6 . coloured background and text plus pixel graphics – all to the Teletext standard. resulting in a fast. A 16K Read Only Memory (ROM) integrated circuit contains a Machine Operating System designed to interface easily to high level languages. other facilities such as the Econet may be fitted within the computer system. Text characters can be positioned not only on. with double height. computer aided design software. These four ROMs are "paged" and may include Pascal. A further 16K Language ROM contains a fast BASIC interpreter. Each of these windows may be filled separately and the text window scrolls independently of the rest of the screen. In addition. word processing. has character rounding. Extensive support is provided in the Machine Operating System for the graphics facilities. 2 colour text only (8K) 40 x 25. In these modes. known as mode 7. Teletext display (1K) * * * * * * Mode Mode Mode Mode * * All graphics access is "transparent" (see section 2. 2 colour graphics and 40 x 32 text (10K) 160 x 256. graphics may be freely mixed with text. Separate or overlapping text and graphic windows can be easily user-defined over any area of the display. These facilities include the ability to draw lines very rapidly and to fill large areas of colour. 4 colour graphics and 20 x 32 text (10K) 40 x 25. very rapid changes of areas of colour can be effected by the use of a colour "palette”. flashing. The unit uses a 2 MHz 6502A and includes 16K of Random Access Memory. The full-colour Teletext display of 40 characters by 25 lines. The Model A BBC Microcomputer can be expanded at any time to the Model B. and this is reflected in the BASIC interpreter. In addition. a 40 x 32 grid. for example. The Model A is able to support the following modes:– 4: 5: 6: 7: 320 x 256.* * * An interrupt driven elapsed time clock enables real-time control and timing of user responses. snow-free display. disc and Econet filing systems or Teletext acquisition software. The non-Teletext display modes (modes 0 to 6) provide user definable characters in addition to the standard upper and lower case alpha-numeric font. or as an alternative. but at any intermediate position.

320 x 256. and sync is link selectable as high or low true.2 Model B Specification The Model B BBC Microcomputer is an enhanced version of the Model A Microcomputer with the following differences:– * Mode Mode Mode Mode * 32K Random Access Memory (RAM). but also two-way handshaking using RTS and CTS lines. the user's program and Machine Operating System variables. 80 x 25. IEEE 488 interface. The conversion time for each channel is 10 milliseconds. * * * * * 7 . Winchester disc drive etc. The interface provides not only two-way data transfer.2. The new standard has been designed to be inter-operable with RS232C equipment but offers a considerably enhanced specification – for example in maximum length of cable and maximum data transfer rates. RGB are all high true. Baud rates are software selectable between 75 baud and 9600 baud. The resolution of the ADC chip is 12 bits. then the second processor option may be fitted.8V. this can be extended to the full 12 bits accuracy. Four analogue input channels are provided.2 onwards.1. Each channel has an input voltage range of 0 – 1. If higher resolutions are required with large programs. An 8 bit input/output port with 2 control bits is also provided. A 1 MHz buffered extension bus is provided for connection to a variety of external hardware such as a Teletext acquisition unit.7 microseconds. pulse duration 4. This enables the following extra graphics modes to be used:– 0: 1: 2: 3: 640 x 256. However with suitable averaging. 2 2 colour graphics and 80 x 32 text (20K) 4 colour graphics and 40 x 32 text (20K) 16 colour graphics and 20 x 32 text (20K) colour text only (16K) The installed RAM is divided between the high resolution graphics display. 6 pin DIN connector provides separate RGB and sync outputs at TTL levels. Serial interface to RS423 standard. 160 x 256. The software for implementing this interface is only provided with operating systems 1. These analogue inputs can be used not only as inputs for games-paddles or joysticks but also in laboratory control situations. but its conversion is such that only 9 or 10 bits are significant.

3 Expansion The following expansion options are available. A modular approach has been adopted specifically to ease the interfacing of various high-level languages (such as BASIC and Pascal) to the operating system. The MOS supports the following interrupts (the full implementation only being available from MOS 1.2. serial or parallel interface Teletext acquisition unit enabling Tele-software to be downloaded into the BBC Computer as well as providing access to the normal Teletext services. but all of which could be fitted by Dealers at a later date:– * * * * Floppy disc interface (fitted as an option at purchase) Econet network interface (fitted as an option at purchase) Voice synthesis circuit with cartridge ROM pack interface Various alternative high-level languages in ROM External options which plug directly into the machine include: – * * * * * * Games paddles Cassette Recorder Black and White and colour monitors and televisions 5 1/4” disc drives. some of which may be fitted internally at purchase. 3 MHz 6502 second processor with 64K of RAM. ranging from single-sided single density (100K) to dual double sided double track density (800K). 8 .2 onwards):– *Event Timer (10ms) (used as an elapsed time clock) *4 channel analogue to digital converter *Vertical sync *Keyboard and keyboard buffer *Music tone generation and buffer *Serial interface. Dot-matrix or daisy wheel printers. Z80 second processor with 64K of RAM and a fully CP/M-compatible operating system.1.2. Pages may be "grabbed" and stored for later use.4 Software Considerable attention has been paid to the overall design of both systems and applications software. input and output buffers *Parallel input/output port and 'hooks' are provided to support other devices such as:– *Teletext acquisition *Prestel acquisition *Econet file system *Disk file system *Byte transfer to second processor The majority of the operating system calls are vectored to enable the user to change them if required. IEEE interface Winchester 10 megabyte disc drive Prestel adaptor unit * * * * * 1.5 Machine Operating System A 16K ROM is used for the MOS. 1. This software controls all input/output devices using a well defined interface.2.

Three screws on the underside of the case are undone allowing the unit to be removed. floating point and string arrays *Extensive support for string handling *IF ... two on the rear panel and two underneath.1. 1. The packaging should be kept intact in case it becomes necessary to transport the unit at a later date. NB Do not remove the lid with the mains power connected.2.4 Mechanical assembly of case etc The lid of the Microcomputer case may be removed after undoing four fixing screws. a Welcome Cassette package and a UHF TV lead are also supplied. The power supply unit is connected to the main circuit board by seven push-on connectors which may be unplugged. or pure assembly language programs to be produced.. floating point and string variables *Multi-dimension integer. into which the rear fixing screws locate. press the lid down at the rear whilst tightening the two rear fixing screws. UNTIL *Multi-line integer. 9 .. with *Long variable names *Integer. Take care not to lose the two spire clips pushed onto the case lid. take care to note the positions of the associated washers. in some cases. On reassembly. Unplug the 17 way keyboard connector and the 2-way loudspeaker connector from the main printed circuit board. and the 10 way serial-ROM connector. 1. THEN . undo the two or. The main printed circuit board can be removed after the two wires to SK2 (composite video BNC socket) have been disconnected.6 BASIC The BASIC interpreter is an numerous powerful extensions:– extremely fast implementation. three screws and nuts holding it to the case bottom. a User's Manual. floating point and string functions *Procedures *Local variables *Full recursion on all functions and procedures *Effective error trapping and handling *Cassette loading and saving of programs and data *Full support for the extensive colour graphics facilities *Easy control of the built-in music generation circuits *Built-in 6502 mnemonic assembler enabling BASIC and assembler to be mixed. When reassembling. if fitted.. ELSE *REPEAT . Undo the four fixing screws (five or seven screws on later issue boards) and remove the circuit board from the case by sliding it forwards and then lifting it from the rear.3 Packaging The BBC Microcomputer is supplied in a two part moulded polystyrene packing which is further packaged within a cardboard sleeve. Inside the Microcomputer are three main sub-assemblies: power supply unit. ensure that the same type of screw is used. With the Microcomputer. keyboard and the main printed circuit board.. To remove the keyboard.

reference is made to sections of the following chapter in which more detailed descriptions are given. [See section 3. diodes. 10 . This RAM has to be accessed by both the processor itself and also the CRT controller. When any reference needs to be made to the specific position of a component. General areas and component orientations are referred to by using compass points. and reference is made to the functional block diagram (section 9. A list is given in section 8 of this manual of all the integrated circuits. and apart from providing the addressing for the RAM.1 Introduction This next section gives a general description of the hardware of the computer. In the model A microcomputer. as shown on the block diagram. then X-Y co-ordinates will be used. resistors and selection links by number.2 Hardware description The 6502 accesses an area of just less than 32 Kbytes of ROM. This is also shown on the block diagram. This means that it uses very little RAM (only 1 Kbyte). ROMs or EPROMs. Mode 7 uses Teletext hardware which produces RGB signals by having its own character generator and accepting data from the RAM as ASCII characters. This is done by using a form of "transparent access" in which both the processor and the CRT controller can access the RAM at the full clock speed by interleaving the accesses on alternate phases of the system clock. transistors. the only thing which the CRT controller has to do is to add the cursor information and sync signals. [See section 3. and in this general description we shall move around the 6502 in an anticlockwise direction starting from the SE corner of the PCB.21 The RAM is also divided into two sections of 16 Kbytes. each of which contains eight 16K by 1 bit DRAM chips. and uses two entirely different methods depending on screen mode.1) which is laid out approximately as the components are situated on the printed circuit board. The heart of the hardware is the 6502 microprocessor. (3/4K of this memory allocation is actually used for memory-mapped input/output. although only four sideways ROM sockets are available on the PCB. There is a ROM select facility for accessing up to 16 different memory devices. 2. whilst the other 16K has been organised to give as much flexibility as possible. giving the distances in millimetres from the SW corner.3] The display is extremely versatile. capacitors.) The ROM is arranged in such a way that one group of 16K bytes forms a fixed part of the memory map (15 1/4K ROM for the operating system + 3/4K of I/O). As each section of the hardware is described. including their X-Y co-ordinates on the PCB and on the main circuit diagram. It is expected that the normal way in which these four sockets will be used is to provide 2 MHz access to each of 4 chips which could be either 16K or 8K. only one bank of 16K is present whilst both are present in the model B.2 General Description of Hardware 2.

especially when mixing graphics with text. the option is given of adding colour to the video signal in order to provide a PAL encoded video output.12] 11 . (between 8K and 20K in the different modes) but it makes it extremely versatile. On issue 4 boards onwards. the RGB signals are combined with the sync signals and fed into a UHF modulator. [See section 3. green and blue is produced. This is a sophisticated serial communications device allowing the sending and receiving of data at a variety of speeds between as many as 254 computers. [See section 3. To provide a UHF output. after buffering. These facilities are both provided by a standard ACIA (Asynchronous Communications Interface Adaptor) – the 6850. This processor contains the programmable baud rate generators for transmit and receive which provide the clocks for the ACIA. [See section 3. A video output is also provided which consists of a summing of the RGB signals in such a way as to give an appropriate grey scale. on the RGB connector. and whether or not the colour is flashing. whilst the data itself uses another pair of cables. providing the control lines for the RS423 and generating interrupts. The serial processor also provides data separator and sinewave synthesis circuits for the cassette recorder as well as a means of detecting the presence of the incoming tone from the recorder. which combination of red. whilst the serial processor switches these data and control lines between the cassette and RS423 interfaces. the cassette interface and the RS423.In the other screen modes. but obviously only one computer at a time is able to "broadcast" onto the data highway. and a custom designed circuit referred to as the serial processor. whilst the data is taken from the RAM and serialised by a custom designed circuit.5] The next section is the analogue input port which is a four channel 12 bit converter which is discussed in more detail in section 3. known as the video processor.4] Moving on round in an anti-clockwise direction we come to the two serial interfaces. In the NW corner is the Econet section which centres around a 68B54 Advanced Data-Link Controller (ADLC). The data transfer is synchronised by a clock signal fed to all the computers as a differential signal on one pair of cables.9 and the interfacing survey (see chapter 7). This is expensive in terms of memory usage. This RGB information is presented. for each logical colour number. This determines. Data is both transmitted and received on the same pair of cables. The ACIA itself is responsible for serialising the data. but can be thought of as a set of logical colour numbers which are passed to an area of high speed RAM within the video processor referred to as the colour palette. The video processor is also responsible for selecting either the RGB signals coming from the Teletext chip or the signals coming from the palette and sending them out to the RGB buffers and the PAL encoder. The addressing of the RAM for the different modes is performed by the 6845 CRT controller. the information is stored in RAM as actual bit patterns for every character that is written to the screen. This data is not used directly to produce RGB information.

applications programs.7 and 3.11] The last two sections of the circuit board are the 1 MHz extension bus and the TUBE. whilst PB is used to provide control lines for various functions throughout the circuit board. Of its two internal timers.10] The next device is VIA-B.There are two 6522 versatile interface adaptors (VIA) on the PCB (one on the model A). These provide two different ways of accessing various external devices. The sound is produced by a four-channel sound generator chip (SN76489) whilst the speech is produced by a TMS 5220 which can get its data either from RAM through VIA-A or from a serial ROM. The 1 MHz bus is available for more general use but works at the slower speed of 1 MHz.13] 12 . the first being used mainly for internal control and the second for external interfacing. the TMS 6100. This is responsible for sending out the command signals for a floppy disk drive. [See section 3. It also has two timers which are available to the user for his own. [See section 3. the first is used for generating regular interrupts at one centisecond intervals and the second is used occasionally by the operating system. [See section 3. referred to as the external VIA.6] Of the two ports on this VIA. PA is used to provide a slow (1 MHz) data bus for the sound and speech chips and also for the keyboard. This facility for accessing serial ROMs is also used to provide an external serial ROM facility on the keyboard. VIA-A is used both for control of internal hardware and also for generating interrupts from various devices such as the ADC and the keyboard.8] Moving down to the SW corner we have the disc controller interface based on an 8271 floppy-disc controller. [See sections 3. and for reading and writing the data from and to the disk drive. which is used to provide interfaces for a printer and user applications. [See section 3. whilst the TUBE works at the full 2 MHz but is only intended for use with second processors.

Clock signals for the Case B microprocessor are produced by a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (IC43) in 02 REF conjunction with divider circuitry in part of the video processor (IC6) which produces 8. so that they may be viewed with an oscilloscope. the delay on the 2 MHzE clock is different as illustrated by the diagrams below. 2MHzE but the processor slows down to 1 MHz when addressing slow devices.02 REF Case A 3. the 6845 CRT controller. and the serial processor.start STA &FC00 STA &FC00 JMP start ] CALL &3000 Figure 1 2 – 1 MHz stretching 13 . Depending on the phase relationship between the 1 and 2 MHz clocks at the time of the request. the two VIA’s. viz. The following simple program will produce these conditions alternately. one of the 2 MHz clock cycles is masked off by the D-type (half of IC34) and when this happens the D-type that remembered that a request had been made. At the appropriate time. The 1 MHz signal coming directly from the video processor is REQUEST only used for the Teletext generator chip. Most processing is done at 2 MHz. 2 and 1 MHz signals. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 P%=&3000 [ SEI . 1MHzE A 2 MHz signal of suitable phase is produced at the output of another D-type (half of IC31) which remembers when a 1 MHz cycle has been requested.1 Processor + clock circuitry + reset circuitry REQUEST 1MHzE The microprocessor is a 6502A and runs at either 1 or 2 MHz. the 1 MHz extension bus. the ADC. including accesses to the RAM and ROM. is cleared. as governed 2MHzE by the 2 MHz clock. 4. the ACIA. whilst a D-type flip-flop (half of IC34) divides the 2 MHz clock signal in order to produce the system 1 MHz clock (1 MHzE). Detailed Circuit Description 3.

a two line to four line decoder (half of IC20) is used to select which of the four devices is being addressed by the address lines A12 and A13.1) for more detailed information on this.2 Memory and address decoding 31 1/4 Kbytes of ROM are catered for in the address map. Refer to the link selection survey (5. or a "warm start". ICs 24 and 26 decode the individual devices within this range. 88. Reset A goes low only on power up. 100 and 101) are on the main circuit board. Mixtures of these two cases are allowed for. to provide a signal called Reset A which is fed to IC3. This is in fact a 16K device but 3/4K of it is left unused and it is in this area that the I-O device memory map is situated.A 555 timer circuit (IC16) provides a reset signal both at power up and also when the BREAK key is pressed. some of which are read or write only. 100 and 101 while the BASIC interpreter was located in IC51. This arrangement is abnormal and has been phased out. one pair or the other being selected by the ROM select latch and then the ROM to be used in each pair being selected by the 2-4 line address decoder. 3. 88. IC23 detects when a slow l MHz device is being addressed and it calls for the 6502 to execute a slow clock cycle. 14 . The idea is that although the 555 timer produces a general reset at power up or when the BREAK key is pressed. for instance two pairs of 8 Kbyte ROMs. They may all be 16 Kbyte devices. whilst ICs 20 and 25 are used to mask off the ROM over this range of addresses. four 4 Kbyte ROMs may be in these four sockets in order to fill the 16 Kbyte space assigned. Alternatively. ie power up. 15 1/4 Kbytes of this are contained in the operating system (IC51). the internal VIA. This is decoded by IC22. By interrogating the interrupt register on IC3 on the occurrence of a general reset. Locations from 0 – &7FFF are assigned to the dynamic RAM. Note that in early versions of the BBC Microcomputer. Address decoding for the ROMs is by IC21 which decodes memory addresses &8000 to &C000 and &C000 to &FFFF. if the BREAK key has been pressed when the system has already been in use for some time. In this case. in which case any one of them may be switched into the 16 Kbyte space in the memory map by writing to the ROM select latch (IC76). the microprocessor can discover whether it was a "cold start". There is also a separate reset circuit using a CR combination from the +5 volt power supply (C10 and R20 and Dl). and this is decoded by feeding A15 into pin 4 of IC21. Four other ROMs (ICs 52. All the rest of the hardware is mapped within locations &FC00 to &FEFF. the operating system was contained within 4 EPROMs in IC positions 52.

FEA0 FE1B FE40 VDU FEC0 FEE0 FE60 Start ofscreens Start of user RAM in Model B with disc user FEB0in Model A RAM FE10 OS ROM FE50 ADC -0E00 FE08 FE20 -1900 FE00 TUBE ADLC FDC VIAB VIAA IO devices Ext IO page Ext IO page --INTON INTOFF/ STATID 3 ROMSEL OS ROM VIDPROC SERPROC Paged ACIA CRTC BASIC ROM 0 1 2 DRAM BANK 1 DRAM BANK 0 Figure 2 Memory map. including internal hardware 15 .

D0 to D7. Two octal buffers (81LS95) have to be used to multiplex the appropriate processor address lines onto the RAM address lines. To address 16K bits requires 14 address lines. it accesses it differently depending on whether it is working in the Teletext mode or in one of the other graphic modes. Therefore two more pairs of octal buffers are used. RAM and CRT controller 16 . (ICs 12 and 13). the 6845 CRT controller (IC2) also needs to access the RAM. ICs10 and 11 for the Teletext mode. and ICs 8 and 9 for the other modes.3. the data inputs and outputs of one pair of devices are paralleled for each of the 8 data bits. Figure 3 Block diagram of CPU. and this is achieved on the 4816 by having 7 inputs and latching in the addresses in two halves by using a row address strobe (RAS) and a column address strobe (CAS). However. and what is more. These devices store 16K bits each and therefore in the Model B. the main difference being that in these modes the three least significant address bits are produced by the character row address lines from the CRTC in order to give the bit-mapping of the characters in the RAM memory rather than having the ROM character generator as in the Teletext mode.3 CRT controller + video processor + Teletext hardware Random Access Memory on the Microcomputer is provided by either 8 or 16 dynamic memory devices (ICs 53-68).

control of the RAM address lines is switched between the microprocessor and the CRTC. the microprocessor has two RAM accesses and the CRTC has two RAM accesses.The 6502 microprocessor runs from a constant clock and so its requirements for memory access are predictable. Thus. Because the CRTC generates a sequence of addresses in order to refresh the VDU display. Every 250 nanoseconds. all the row address lines of the RAMs are constantly cycled. in each one microsecond period. The addressing methods have been designed so that in each screen mode the dynamic RAMs are automatically refreshed by virtue of the sequential CRTC accesses. Figure 4 DRAM operation 17 .

with only one bank of RAM. or two bit streams of 4 bits or four bit streams of 2 bits. Thus. display modes varying from 640 pixels in 2 logical colours to 160 pixels in 16 logical colours can be produced. CAS 0 controls the lower 16K and CAS 1 the upper 16K. 640 bits (2 bytes x 8 bits x 40 microseconds) of information per horizontal line are produced from the memory-mapped display. a 40 microseconds active display area is usual. In this way. The two banks of RAM are enabled by virtue of having their column address strobes individually available. In model A computers. This RAS signal then drives all of the dynamic RAMs via R106. the video processor (IC6) latches the byte from the RAM and. serialises the byte into a single bit stream of 8 bits. The second bank of RAMs is selected by a 74LS51 circuit (half of IC28) which controls the 74S139 (half of IC45) producing the CAS signals. The other half of IC45 is used to select between the processor and CRT address lines. according to the display mode in operation. At the end of each 250 nanosecond CRTC access period.The row address strobe signal is produced by a D-type flip-flop connected to the 8 and 4 MHz clock signals (half of IC44). In the model B. When A14 is high the B input is low thus selecting CAS 1. Figure 5 Colour palette operation 18 . Using this technique. With each horizontal line having a period of 64 microseconds. two bytes of information are available per microsecond for refreshing the raster scanned video display. CAS 1 is used.

The definition of these characters is stored in the operating system ROM from C000 to C2FF. Modes 0 to 6 in the Microcomputer use software generated characters. This memory can be programmed to define the relationship between the logical colour number produced by the RAM and the physical colour which will appear on the display. Note that the information in the main RAM is unchanged by changing the palette. that is to say. Figure 6 Video ULA block diagram 19 .The video processor contains a piece of high speed (16MHz) static RAM called a palette. the character font to be produced on the screen is held in the memory-mapped display area of the RAM so that graphics and/or characters may be held. it is its interpretation into physical colours which changes.

The number of address lines &0000 &3000 from the CRTC. the current start of screen address is 65000 with the end of the screen as seen by the CRTC at &5000 plus 20 Kbytes. After an 8 Kbyte scroll. Consider a scroll &5000 of &4FFF 8 Kbytes in a 20 Kbyte screen. The original start of screen for the 20 Kbyte mode was &3000. as illustated below. has to be sufficient RAM to cater for the biggest around in 32K Straight wrap screen (20 Kbytes). Thus in order &7FFF to scroll the screen.HIMEM Add &3000 if address >&7FFF The speed of printing on the screen is much increased by the use of &1FFF hardware scrolling. it is only necessary to increment this register by the number of characters per line and then write to the memory Top of screen Screen address where the last screen data was. Thus 14 address lines have to be used which means that when using the hardware scrolling technique. &3000 Bottom of screen Top of screen 8k Before scrolling After an 8k scroll Figure 7 Memory map to show addition of CRTC addresses 20 . There is a register in the CRTC which is used to define the start of screen address in the screen memory. the picture scrolls around in 32 Kbytes. which comes to &9FFF. used to address the screen memory.

a number which will bring the actual address back up to the area of RAM which is currently being used for the screen ie above HIMEM. The output of this flip-flop is then itself inverted according to the state of the 2 MHz clock signal by an exclusive OR gate (1/4 of IC38). (Confusion may arise when looking at IC 9 on the circuit diagram since it looks as if AA0 to AA2 are being buffered to A0 to A2. The CRTC address line MA12 is used as a "carry" to determine whether zero or the number computed by the AND gates is added to the address lines. in the 16K mode you add &4000 (=16K). Thus for numbers greater than &7FFF you simply add the number &3000 which brings the addresses back to the range &3000 to &4FFF. A 6 MHz clock signal is required for the Teletext character generator (IC5).Since there is only 32 Kbytes of RAM this would mean that instead of accessing addresses &8000 to &9FFF you would be accessing locations &0000 to &1FFF. and computed by some AND gates with the result being added to the higher CRTC refresh address lines by a 74LS283 adder (IC39). A4 to A6. This signal is produced by knocking a reset flip-flop (two quarters of IC40) backwards and forwards from the 8 MHz and 4 MHz clock signals. In the 20K modes you add &3000 (=12K). Glitches on this output are removed by R119 and C48 to produce the 6 MHz clock signal at Pin 8 of IC37. MA4 to MA7 are buffered to A0 to A3. When using this mode. But if you look at the pin numbers and compare them with the other 81LS95's you will see that they are in fact buffered to the top three bits. Therefore when the address produced by the CRTC is greater than &7FFF (ie MA12 = 1) you have to add to the address from the CRTC. This number to be added is defined by the control lines C0 and C1 from the 74LS259 (IC32). only 1K of RAM is devoted to the display memory and the characters are held within it as ASCII bytes.) Display mode 7 is a Teletext mode and to implement this an SAA 5050 (IC5) Teletext character generator Read Only Memory is used. as illustrated in the diagram above. 21 . in the 10K mode you add &5800 (=22K) and in the 8K mode you add &6000 (=24K). The SAA 5050 then translates these bytes into a standard Teletext/Prestel format display. IC15 latches the information coming from the RAM prior to the SAA 5050.

This is used to enable ICs 10 and 11.Figure 8 6MHz clock generation The CRTC is still used to generate the RAM addresses even in the Teletext mode. 22 . but using only 1K means that only 10 address lines are needed hence the top four address lines on he 81LS95 (IC11) are tied to logic 1. The Teletext mode is selected by setting the value of video address start (registers 12 and 13 in the CRTC) so high that an extra "carry" is generated on MA13. disable ICs 8 and 9 and also enable the data latch (IC15).

cyan. the '+/. In order for the receiving television to interpret the colour information.5 Cassette + RS423 + serial processor For both the cassette and RS423 interfaces. The serial processor (IC7). The red. in order to make coloured text displays more readable. Q10 is a 17.433618 MHz. on which the different colours will appear as different shades of grey. 21 and 22 increase the luminance of the darker colours. green and blue logic signals produced by the video processor are buffered by transistors Q4.23 MHz) and this signal is divided further (by l024) within the serial processor to produce the 1200 Hz cassette signal. switching to select either RS423 or cassette operations and also a circuit to synthesise a sinewave to be fed out to the cassette recorder. green and blue lines are summed together by binary weighted resistors to feed Q7 which produces a 1V composite video signal suitable for feeding to monochrome monitors. The PAL signal may be added to the 1V video connector with the addition of a 470 pF capacitor between the emitter of Q9 and the base of Q7. One of these two outputs is switched by the horizontal line frequency in order to produce the alternate phase on each TV line. Q5 and Q6 and fed out together with a composite sync signal to the RGB connector (SK 3). and it is timed by C45 and R109. These signals then drive resistors via a row of NAND gates in order to produce the colour subcarrier signal which is added to the luminance output from Q8 by the buffer Q9. This is provided as a link selectable option on later issues of the PCB (issue 4 on). A burst gate pulse of approximately 5uS immediately after the horizontal sync pulse for each line is produced at pin 4 of IC41. specifies the frequencies for the transmit clock (bits 0-2) and the receive clock (bits 3-5) used by the 6850 (IC4). The control register. IC42 divides the 16 MHz clock signal by 13 (1. suitable for feeding to the aerial input of a domestic television.V' signal.73 MHz oscillator circuit which is divided by a ring counter (IC46) giving 2 outputs at the colour subcarrier frequency of 4. In modulated PAL. The signal coming from the cassette recorder is buffered. contains two programmable baud rate generators. 3. which is memory-mapped at &FE10. A row of exclusive OR gates is used to select different phases of the 'U' and 'V' signals according to whether a red.3. filtered and shaped by a three stage amplifier (IC35). Also available from the main printed circuit board. Colour is provided for domestic televisions by a PAL (phase alternating line) encoder circuit which modulates the colour information on to the colour subcarrier frequency. Thus on IC46 pin 9. Automatic motor control of an audio cassette recorder is achieved by using a small relay driven by a transistor (Q3) from the serial processor. eg blue. diodes D20. The switching between the cassette and RS423 inputs and outputs 23 . magenta or yellow colour is to be produced. green. This output is modulated using a UM1233 for PAL. a 6850 asynchronous communications interface adaptor (ACIA) (IC4) is used to buffer and serialise or deserialise the data. a cassette data/clock separator.4 RGB + PAL encoder + UHF output The red. we have the 'U' signal and on IC48 pin 11. specifically designed for the BBC Microcomputer. This burst gate allows through a standard colour subcarrier signal which the television uses as its reference for the rest of that line. a reference colour burst has to be provided at the beginning of each line. The RS423 data in and data out signals and the request to send output (RTS) and clear to send input (CTS) signals are interfaced by ICs 74 and 75 which translate between TTL and standard RB423/232 signal levels (+5V and -5V). is a UHF TV signal on channel 36. blue.

The value of resistor needed is affected by the output impedance of that pin on the serial processor which has been subject to a certain amount of variation. and so is the motor control (bit7). R75 and C28 provide the necessary timing elements for delay between receiving the high tone run-in signal and asserting the data carrier detect signal to the ACIA. Figure 9 Serial ULA block diagram 24 .is also determined by the control register (bit 6). Thus the value of R75 has changed through the evolution of the circuit.

All of these operations are done by a quad operational amplifier (IC17). on instructions from the Microprocessor. the computer will enter the key reading software. Once read. the microprocessor can interrogate each individual key in turn until it discovers which one was depressed and causing the interrupt. These outputs drive the rows of the keyboard matrix. A low level audio output is provided from PL16 for feeding the auxiliary input of an external power amplifier. IC19 provides audio power amplification to drive a speaker from PL15. Each time the system VIA is written to. A 1 MHz clock signal is fed to a 74LS163 binary counter. the 74LS30 gate will produce an output when that row is strobed and this will interrupt the computer through line CA 2 of IC3. the keyboard and the sound generator chip.7 Keyboard The keyboard circuit (Section 9. the speech system chip and the sound generator. the keyboard assumes its free running mode. 3. Pins 6 and 7 of the addressable latch drive the capitals lock and shift lock LEDs on the keyboard. 25 . On this interrupt.3. If any key is depressed. the microprocessor loads into a 74LS251 data selector. In order to discover which key was pressed. will either produce at its audio output speech from its associated memory (IC98) or from speech data fed to it directly from the Microcomputer's memory. any changes on Port B which should affect the addressable latch are strobed into it by a flip-flop (IC31) which is triggered from the 1 MHz clock signal. the microprocessor loads directly into the 74LS163 the address of each key matrix row allowing it to interrogate each row in turn. Port A of this VIA is a slow data bus which connects to the keyboard. 3. the outputs of which are decoded by a 7445 decoder driver circuit. ie column addresses.8 Sound + speech + serial ROM interfaces The speech system device used is a TMS 5220 (IC99) which. Port B drives an addressable latch (IC32) which is used to provide read and write strobe signals for the speech interface. Also coming from this latch are control lines C0 and C1 which provide the memory address addition for the CRT controller depending on the amount of RAM devoted to the display memory. IC18 is a four channel sound generator chip which may be programmed to give varying frequency and varying attenuation on each channel. In this way. The audio output of the speech system device is filtered by an operational amplifier circuit with a cut-off frequency of 7 kHz. The rest of Port B on the internal system VIA is used to input the two "fire button" signals from the analogue to digital convertor interface and two response lines from the speech interface. the address of each specific key on that row. This summated audio signal is then finally filtered by an 8 kHz low pass filter. each row being driven in turn. Also.6 Internal VIA One 6522 VIA device (IC9) is devoted to internal system operation. This signal is then added to an amplified and level shifted signal from the sound generator by a virtual earth amplifier to which is also added an extra analogue input from the 1 MHz extension bus.5) connects via PL 13. On later issue boards a variable resistor is provided (VR 2) to adjust the clock frequency to give the best effect of the speech.

Port A is used to provide a centronics standard parallel printer interface. to improve on the current driving capabilities of the data lines. PB7 can be used as a programmable pulse output using one of the timers.3. Each time a conversion is completed. but basically. with an octal buffer. These pulses are then fed to the data separation circuits ICs 81 and 82. This circuit has been changed on the various issues of the PCB as explained in section 4. 3. D6. Port B is left uncommitted and is free for user applications as either input or output. apart from being used as a straightforward input/output port. 3. It is asserted low for approximately 5uS to signal that the data is ready. Logic signals from the controller to the disc drive are buffered by two open collector driver packages IC79 and 80. IC70. the microprocessor is interrupted through CB1 of the internal VIA which responds by reading the value and storing it in a memory location.4. 84 and 85 are then used to detect index pulses coming in from the drive which show that the drive is ready for a read or write operation. ICs 83. and CB1 and CB2 can be used for automatic hand-shaking and in conjunction with the VIA's own shift register. For full details of what can be done with the user port you should refer to the 6522 data sheet. 26 . D7 and D8. PB6 can be used as an input to the other timer for pulse counting. Control line CA2 is used as the strobe line having been buffered by part of IC27 and Q11.9 A to D convertors A four channel analogue to digital convertor facility is provided by IC73.10 Disc interface IC78 is a floppy disc controller circuit which is used to interface to one or two. single or double sided 5 1/4 inch floppy disc drives. This device connects straight to the Microcomputer's data bus and is a dual slope convertor with its voltage reference being provided by the three diodes. These form a digital monostable.11 Printer + user port interfaces IC69 is a versatile interface adaptor. IC86 divides the 8 MHz clock signal down to 31. The incoming signal from the disc drive is first conditioned by monostable IC87 producing a pulse train with each pulse of fixed width.25 kHz.

and the detected clock signal is then fed to both receive clock and transmit clock inputs on the 6854. the data link controller is clear to send data over the network.) 27 . Note that when the computer is not connected to the network a collisionlike situation results. When there is a good differential data signal on the network one output of IC95 or the other will be low. and the network clock is detected by the clock monostable. Once the network clock is removed.12 Econet ICs 89 to 96 are concerned with the Econet interface. The received data is then fed back to the data link controller circuit. Collision arbitration software is included in the Econet system and is based on the station ID number. Transmit data then goes through the line driver circuit which produces a differential signal drive to the Econet cables. in which case again the data link controller will not get a clear to send condition. type 6854 which handles the Econet protocol. The data link controller circuit produces interrupts which are fed to the processor's NMI line. type LM319. a situation called a collision can occur and then the transmitting stations should detect the collision and back off before trying again to transmit over the network. in which case the output of IC91 pin 6 will be high. The network clock is detected using the other half of IC94. Received data is detected and converted to a logic signal by one half of IC94 which is a dual comparator circuit. An Econet installation has a single master clock station which provides the clock for the whole of the network. Data to be transmitted on to the network is fed from the ADLC to the line drive circuit (IC93) via an inverting Schmitt trigger circuit (part of IC91). In this case. IC89 is an Advanced Data Link Controller Circuit. This clock signal is transmitted around the network as a second differential line signal and it is used to clock the data in and out of the data link controller circuits. Up to 254 stations may be connected to each Econet with each station being identified by a unique station identification number. the monostable circuit (IC87) is permanently triggered and thus providing a data carrier detect signal for the data link controller chip. This station ID is programmed on the links S11 and the ID can then be read by the octal buffer IC96. When there is a collision on the network both outputs of IC95 will go high and the clear to send condition will cease. The Econet is a broadcast system on which a number of stations may attempt to transmit their data over the network at any given time. These interrupts can be enabled and disabled under software control by using the address-decoded signals.3. In the presence of a network clock. (Writing &FE20 loads the Video processor register. INTOFF which is achieved by reading the station ID at &FE18. Collisions on the network data lines result in the differential signal on the two data wires being reduced and this condition is detected by IC95 which is another dual comparator circuit. and INTON which is generated by reading &FE20. indicating no collision. the monostable immediately drops out and the data carrier is no longer detected. When there are no collisions on the network.

75 amps and -5 volts at 100 milliamps for use on the main circuit board. eg Teletext interface. These points are all connected together electrically. These also should be treated as modules to be exchanged rather than serviced. Some auxiliary power for accessories is also available on an external connector and this includes +12 volts at 1. Most computers in production will have a switched-mode power supply. This is because of the stringent safety regulations relating to such units. Figure 10 BBC auxiliary PSU outputs 28 .13 1 MHz bus The address and data lines. The power supply connects to the main circuit board by seven push-on connectors with the +5 volts being fed to three different points across the main circuit board. though it should be noted that the three outputs are from separate regulators. However. However it is not recommended that attempts should be made to repair this power supply. All accesses to this bus will be at a 1 MHz processor speed. A0 – A7 and D0 – D7. thus it is possible for power to appear say on two out of the three pairs of connectors.25 amps. disc interface. IC72 being enabled only when either "FRED" or "JIM" is accessed (pages &FC00 and &FD00). the circuit diagram for which is given. instead it should be treated as a module to be exchanged. by distributing the power in this way the need for very large copper tracks to distribute power around the board is avoided. although links are provided to increase this to 2 MHz if desired (see the selection link survey). together with two page select lines are available as the 1 MHz extension bus to which various peripheral devices may be connected.3. A small number of early computers have a linear power supply unit with a conventional mains transformer and regulator circuit. but the amount of power available depends on what hardware is connected internally – Econet. The octal buffer (IC71) and the octal transceiver (IC72) are used to interface these signals to the internal data and address buses.14 Power supply The power supply unit produces 5 volts at 3. sideways ROMs etc. 3.

tinned copper wire):– S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S32 S33 – – – – – – – North East North 2 x East/West North West West v) Test using a FIT and. In order to locate the positions of various of the selection links.1 Modification A Convert from EPROM MOS to ROM MOS i) Remove the four MOS EPROMs from their sockets IC52. Econet. PL11 26-way header 3429-1302 PL9 20-way header 3428-1302 PL10 40-way header 3432-1302 PL12 29 . This is made clear within each set of instructions. 4. IC100 and IC101. iv) Set the following link positions using MOLEX jumpers (if fitted or. iii) Insert the MOS ROM into the IC51 socket. Dealers and service centres performing these upgrades must also conform to upgrade procedures and requirements as notified by their supplier. IC88.4 Upgrading the PCB In these instructions about how to add extra hardware to the PCB for disc. a PET (see section 6.2 which gives the X-Y coordinates of each link. if available. speech etc. 4. reference should be made to section 5.2).2 Modification B Convert Model A to Model B i) The following parts are required:– 8 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 off off off off off off off off off off off off off off off off 4816AP-3 IC61 to 68 6522 IC69 74LS244 IC70. some differences may occur depending on which hardware is already fitted. and should refer to any available information updates for latest details. 71 74LS245 IC72 uPD7002 IC73 88LS120 IC74 DS3691 IC75 74LS163 IC76 74LS00 IC77 6-pin DIN socket MAB6H SK3 5-pin DIN socket MAB5WH SK4 15-way D-type socket 164801-1 SK6 34-way header 3431-1302 PL8. ii) Remove the BASIC ROM from the IC51 socket and replace it in the IC52 socket.

vi) On issue 1 and 2 circuit boards only. the emitter in the North pin. a BC239 transistor should be added in place of link S1 as follows:– Cut the track between the centre and South pins of S1 on the solder side of the circuit board. +5v is available at IC85. This modification may have been made. and the collector in the centre pin. a check should be made to ensure that it has been correctly performed. iv) On issue 1. PL9 pin 26 should be cut out of the header. Figure 1 1 Adding R162 on issues 1 and 2 of PCB 30 . Solder the connectors on to the printed circuit board. 2 or 3 circuit boards only. Care should be taken to ensure that the pin is cut right back so that no connection can be made to it. viii) On issue 1 or 2 circuit boards only. cut the track connected to PL9 pin 23 (this may have previously been cut). Insert a BC239 transistor into the S1 position with the base in the South pin. if so. link the North pin of S1 to IC27 pin 7 with a short length of insulated wire. Cut the two tracks connected to the North pin of S1 on the solder side of the circuit board. between PL9 pin using a resistor (33 mm due North 2 or 3 circuit boards only. iii) Cut the wire links at link positions S12 and S13. Finally. and.ii) Insert the above ICs into the sockets provided on the main circuit board. as shown below. add a 2k2 ohm resistor 1 and +5v on the solder side of the circuit board with sleeved leads. then reconnect the ends of these tracks leaving the North pin isolated. Move the MOLEX link at position S25 from South to North. vii) On issue 1 and 2 circuit boards only. v) On issue 1. then link IC69 pin 40 to PL9 pin 19. pin 16 of pin 1). add a 4k7 ohm resistor (R162) between the existing two holes located approximately 5 mm East of IC70 pins 11 and 13.

also on the solder side of the PCB: – Cut the track between IC98 pins 13 and 14. link pin 14 of the edgecard connector to 0 volts. disconnect the LPSTB signal between IC69 pin 18 and PL10 pin 2 by cutting the track on the solder side of the circuit board which is connected to IC69 pin 18. On the solder side of the PCB.3 Modification C Add Speech Option i) The following components are required:– 1 off Integrated Circuit TMS6100 IC98 1 off Integrated Circuit TMS5220 TC99 ii) On issues 2 and 3.) Then. (These operations switch the signal lines to IC3 pins 16 and 17. if available. test for continuity between the following points: 31 . 4. cut the track between pins 14 and 15 of the edgecard connector. On the component side of the main PCB: – Cut the track between IC3 pin 16 and the through-hole 8mm to the west.ix) On issue 1 circuit boards only. the following modifications are needed. then. iii) Issue 1 keyboard PCBs also need modifying as follows:– On the solder side of the PCB. procede as follows:– Reconnect the keyboard to the main PCB. a PET. The pins are those furthest from the speaker. with the computer turned off. – Link IC98 pin 13 to PL14 pin 3 (0 volts). x) Test using a FIT and. – Cut the track between IC3 pin 17 and the through-hole 10mm to the west. On the solder side of the PCB: – Link the through-hole 10mm to the west of IC3 pin 17 to IC3 pin 16 – Link the through-hole 8mm to the west of IC3 pin 16 to IC3 pin 17. (ie further east). Add the new connector for PL14. This can be found on either of the capacitor legs nearer the centre of the PCB. iv) When the modifications are complete.

84 1 off CD4020B IC85 1 off 74LS123 IC87 (Not required if Econet already fitted) 1 off 2764 EPROM (DFS) IC88 (or IC100 if Econet fitted. Repeat the tests for the other edge connector.0:UNTIL0 <RETURN> Now press any alphanumeric key and you should hear the voice synthesis operating. v) Insert ICs 98 and 99. vii) Reassemble the machine. a PET. connect the two pads of link position S8 with a wire link.GET.4 Modification D Add 5 1/4 inch Disc Interface to Basic Model B i) The following parts are required:– 1 off 8271 IC78 2 off 7438 ICs 79. The method for setting the pitch is to connect a frequency meter to pin 3 of IC99 and to adjust VR2 until the mater reads 160 kHz (+ or – 100 Hz). iii) On issue 1 or 2 circuit boards only. viii) Test using a FIT and.86 2 off CD4013B ICs 83. turn the machine on and type: REPEAT SOUND-1. if available. but not required if DNFS already fitted) ii) Insert the ICs listed above into the sockets provided on the main circuit board. If there is no speech. 4. Also check that there are no short-circuits between any of the edge connector pins. 2 and 3 PCBs. thus the polarising key is pin 3 and pins 4 and 5 are "empty". double check the modifications and try again. From Issue 4 PCBs onwards this is a simple matter of adjusting VR2 which is situated just west of IC98.80 1 off 74LS10 IC82 2 off 74LS393 ICs 81. remove the perforated section of the black label above the ROM sockets. remove the two small lugs on the ROM socket cover before fitting. follow the instructions in vi) below. On Issue 1. or as close as is obtainable by changing R32.Edge 6 7 connector 1 3 pin number IC98 pin number 8 4 9 5 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 7 10 11 13 14 Note: On the edge connector. Before fitting the ROM socket cover into the case lid. If the pitch is wrong. 32 . For early version cases (without a rib on the underside behind the keyboard cutout). pin 1 is nearest the speaker.0. vi) The pitch of the speech must be set. It may be necessary to trim the label to match the case cutout. the resistor R32 (between ICs 98 and 99) may need to be changed to achieve the best result.

iv) If the MOS ROM version 0.1 is fitted in position IC51 then it must be replaced by a 1.2 MOS, see modification A. v) If the existing power supply does not incorporate an auxiliary power output socket it must be exchanged for a suitable unit (eg ASTEC type). vi) On issue 1, 2 or 3 circuit boards only, cut the leg of IC27 pin 9 as close to the PCB as possible and the track connected to it on the component side of the circuit board between IC27 and IC89, then reconnect the cut IC leg to the East pad of link S9 with a short length of insulated wire. vii) On issue 4 boards onwards, cut the TCW link at position S9. viii) Set the following link positions using MOLEX jumpers:– S18-North S19-East S20-North S21-2 x East/West S22-North S32-West S33-West ix) Test using a FIT and, if available, a PET. 4.5 Modification E Add Econet Interface to Model A i) The following parts are required: – 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 off off off off off off off off off off off 14-pin DIL IC sockets 20-pin DIL IC sockets 28-pin DIL IC sockets 74LS163 IC76 (already fitted on model B) 74LS123 IC87 (Not required if disc already fitted) 68B54 IC89 74LS132 IC91 75159 IC93 LM319 ICs 94,95 74LS244 IC96 74LS74 IC97

1 off 10uF Tantalum Capacitor C18 1 off 10uF Ceramic Capacitor C23 1 1 1 2 off off off off 5-pin 180 degree DIN socket SK7 SX22K SIL resistor pack RP2 2764 EPROM with NFS IC88 (not required if DNFS already fitted) Rows of 8 MOLEX pins S11

20 off 2% tolerance 1/4W resistors as follows:– R34-10k R40-100k R48-1k R62-56k R35-l0k R41-l00k R51-l0k R63-56k R64-1M5 R44-1M5 R52-1k0 R36-1M5 R45-l0k R59-56k R38-look R46-1k0 R60-56k 33

R39-l00k R47-1k5 R61-1k0 ii) Solder all of the above passive components onto the main PCB. iii) Insert all of the above integrated circuits into their sockets. iv) Cut the wire links at link positions S2, S12 and S13. (S12 and S13 should already have been cut on Model B's) v) Set the following link positions using MOLEX jumpers:– S18-North S19-East S20-North S21-2 x East/West S22-North S32-West S33-West vi) On issue l, 2 or 3 boards only, the following modifications are required: Remove the capacitor C17 and replace the PCB track from IC26 pin 6 to IC96 from IC26 pin 6 to IC97 pin 2 intact. to IC97 pin 4 and link IC26 pin 9 to IC97 pin 4. it with a 2.2nF capacitor. Cut pins 1 and 19 leaving the track Cut the track from IC89 pin 26 IC96 pins 1 and 19 and also to

vii) Test using a FIT and, if available, a PET. 4.6 Modification F Add 8 inch disc interface to Model B (As Modification D – Add 5 1/4 inch disc interface, but add....) x) Set the following link positions by cutting the indicated PCB track and inserting a wire link. LINK S4 S10 S27 CUT TRACK East (Solder side) West (Component side) West (Solder side) WIRE LINK West East East

4.7 Partial upgrading If you want to upgrade a Model A to enable it to run software intended for use with a model B, but do not want all the various interfacing facilities, then it is only really necessary to add the RAM and the 6522 VIA and change link S25. The VIA is needed as some professional software uses its hardware timers. If you want to use sideways ROMs then you will need to add the 74LS163 (IC76) and be sure that links Sl2 and S13 are cut.

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5 Selection links and circuit changes 5.1 Selection Link Survey Here is a survey of the options which may be selected on the Microcomputer by selection links S1 to S39. These links may take the form of tracks on the circuit board which can be cut, soldered wire links, or shorting jumpers, plugging on to the rows of pins. This is followed by a tabular survey of the options selected in production on a standard model B Microcomputer. Option Select Links are as follows:– 1. Used only on issue 4 and succeeding boards to select printer strobe or direct output from CA2. 2. OPEN enables ECONET NMI CLOSED disables ECONET NMI – Do not fit this link with IC91 in place. 3. Clock base frequency selection for ECONET

– Not used after issue 3. 4. EAST selects 5 1/4" disc WEST selects 8" disc. – This changes the pin connection of the "side select" line on the disc interface. 5. NORTH enables ECONET clock SOUTH disables ECONET clock. – Not used after issue 3. 6. NORTH divides ECONET clock by 2 SOUTH divides ECONET clock by 4. – Not used after issue 3. 7. WEST applies +5v to pin 30 of disc controller (IC78). EAST applies 0v to pin 30 of disc controller. – Readable by software, bit 0 of the result register of the 8271. Not used. 8. CLOSED links disc head load signal to PLS. OPEN isolates disc head load signal from PLS. 9. CLOSED disables DISC NMI. OPEN enables DISC NMI. Do not fit IC78 with this link closed. Due to PCB faults, various different modifications are necessary with different issue boards in order to use the disc interface. (See section 4, modification D.)

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10. WEST selects 5 1/4" disc. EAST selects 8" disc. - Changes interface. the pin connection of the "index" line on the disc

11. Selects Econet station ID. (NORTH is LSB) – See Econet upgrade instructions – section 4, modification E. 12. CLOSED ties ROM select line A to 0V. OPEN ROM select line A driven by IC76. – On model A's, IC76 is not fitted because sideways ROM'S are not used. ROM 0 (IC52) is permanently selected. Do not fit IC76 with this link closed. 13. CLOSED ties ROM select line B to 0V at IC20. OPEN ROM select line B driven by IC76. – Do not fit IC76 with this link closed. See comments on link 12. 14. CLOSED disables ROM output from page FD, enables JIM. OPEN enables ROM output from page FD, disables JIM. – If link 14 is open then link 15 must be closed and R72 must be fitted. The purpose of this link was to provide access to an extra page of the OS ROM for development purposes. It is unlikely to be used in production machines as it disables the 1MHz bus. 15. CLOSED disables fast access to page FD via IC23. OPEN enables fast access to page FD via IC23. – Link 15 must be closed if link 14 is open and R72 must be fitted. See comments on link 14. 16. CLOSED disables fast access to page FC via IC23. OPEN enables fast access to page FC via IC23. – Link 16 must be closed if link 17 is open and R73 must be fitted. See comments on link 14. 17. CLOSED disables ROM output from page FC, enables FRED. OPEN enables ROM output from page FC, disables FRED. – If link 17 is open then link 16 must be closed and R73 must be fitted. See comments on link 14. 18. SOUTH forces slow access to IC100 ROM. NORTH allows fast access to IC100 ROM. – To allow the use of 1MHz EPROMs.

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19. WEST forces slow access to ROMs IC52, IC88 and IC101. EAST allows fast access to ROMs IC52, IC88 and IC101. -Diodes D10, D11 and D12 may be selectively added to slow down ROMs IC101, IC88 and IC52 respectively when link 19 is in WEST position, but for any ICs to have slow access, R55 must be added. D10, 11 a 12 and R55 are not fitted from issue 7 onwards. 20. SOUTH connects high ROM select bit to IC20 decoder from A 13. NORTH connects high ROM select bit to IC20 decoder from ROMSEL l. 21. ICs 2 x 52, 2 x NORTH/SOUTH selects blocks 8 to B in IC51 and blocks C to F in 52, 88, 100, and 101. (4 EPROMs for OS) EAST/WEST selects blocks C to F in IC51 and blocks 8 to B in ICs 88, 100 and 101. (OS in IC51)

22. SOUTH connects low ROM select bit to IC20 decoder from A 12. NORTH connects low ROM select bit to IC20 decoder from ROMSEL 0. 23. OPEN RS 423 receiver not terminated (DATA). CLOSED RS 423 receiver terminated (DATA). 24. OPEN RS 423 receiver not terminated (CTS). CLOSED RS 423 receiver terminated (CTS). 25. SOUTH selects CAS 1 only, for 16K RAM configuration. NORTH selects CAS 0 and 1 for 32K RAM configuration. – If removed altogether, this selects CAS 0 only, but this should only be used for testing purposes on a Model B. 26. WEST selects normal video output. EAST selects inverted video output. 27. WEST selects 8 MHz clock for 5 1/4" disc. EAST selects 16 MHz clock for 8" disc. 28. WEST selects base baud rate. (1200 baud) EAST selects 1300 baud cassette rate. – If link 28 EAST position RS 423 baud rate is also changed by the same factor:– 13/12. 29. EAST selects base baud rate. (1200 baud) WEST selects 1300 baud cassette rate. – If link 28 is in the WEST position, RS 423 baud rates are also affected. 30. increase the flexibility used for the addition of extra sideways ROM sockets. This would be in connecton with other links (S20,21,22) to enable a total of 16 sideways ROMS to be selected. 31. WEST selects +ve CSYNC to RGB video output. EAST selects -ve CSYNC to RGB video output.

37

CLOSED adds colour burst signal to the black and white video signal to produce PAL encoded video on the BNC socket.) 38 . 88. (Implemented from issue 4. 34-38. WEST selects A 13 input to pin 26 of ROMs IC100 and IC101. These are used to provide contact with the ROM decoder (IC20) and the chip select lines of ROMs 52. (Implemented from issue 4.32. EAST selects +5v input to pin 26 of ROMs IC100 and IC101. OPEN Black and white video on BNC socket. 33. EAST selects +5v input to pin 26 of ROMs IC52 and IC88. in order to allow the use of extra ROM sockets on an external PCB. – This enables 24 pin ROMs to be used in the 28 pin socket. – This enables 24 pin ROMs to be used in the 28 pin socket. WEST selects A 13 input to pin 26 of ROMs IC52 and IC88.) 39. 100 and 101.

3 13. Some links have been omitted on later issue boards. 17.9 7.128 45. C = closed.10 1.8 9.3 9. 30. PCB position 2.8 9. P = plugable link. 65 127.9 3.8 7. 13. 32. 20 300.9 14. 65 245.108 2. W = wire link.10 7. 20. 97 108.170 295. 33.215 181.8 9.7 14.9 2.10 9. 12 26.6 8. 22. 15 255. 16.195 26.9 9. 27. 28. 15 35.2 Table of link options.6 12.8 14.173 12.9 10. 15. 39. 19. 37.102 123.9 4.9 7. 90 108. 20 270. 8. 2. 67 101. 25. 26. see main PCB circuit diagram). 3. 18. 55 122. 65 32. 6. 52 110. 65 295. 9. 52 102.9 15. The links made in production on a standard model B without disc or Econet interfaces are also given. 29.8 9.3 7. 68 226. whilst others have been added. 38.8 9. 31.10 708 7. 11.8 908 13. 95 237.5 10.8 Options (Model B) T N (Not used on issues 2 and 3) W C – – (Not fitted after issue 4) T E – – (Not fitted after issue 4) – – (Not fitted after issue 4) T E T C W C T W P – (When Econet fitted) W O (Wire link in Model A) W O (Wire link in Model A) T C T C T C T C P N P E P N P 2 x EW P N W O W O P N P W T W T W T E – – (For external connections) P W P W P W T C (From issue 4 onwards) T C (From issue 4 onwards) T C (From issue 4 onwards) T C (From issue 4 onwards) T C (From issue 4 onwards) T O (From issue 4 onwards) 39 . 15 75.1 1. 35. 21.8 9.161 2. 70 100.144 237.7 12. 24.14 1. 20 280.195 215. 10.185 221. 23. T = track. 70 177. 67 200. The following table gives a list of selection links showing their positions on the circuit board (mm E.8 9. 4. O = open. 53 107. 5.5 12. 12.146 284.215 Circuit diagram 2.205 30.210 97.8 13. 20 260.8 9. 34. 36.5. 7.N from SW corner) and on the circuit diagram (grid reference. LINK 1. 14. N S E and W refer to orientation of tracks or plugs.

2. The circuitry associated with S14 to S17. Pin 26 of PL9 was left unconnected to avoid the problem that this pin is used on some printers as the reset line. 5. C42 was at one stage a fixed capacitor with a trimming capacitor in parallel. 7. 1.1 Changes from issue 2 to 3. A 22k resistor (R174) was introduced from pin 20 of IC7. In order to improve the waveform of the 16MHz signal. 2. 1. 40 . we will ignore the changes from 1 to 2 and suggest that if you come across an issue 1 board and cannot solve any fault which occurs on it. see section 4 on the modification for adding the disc interface. Since there are so few issue 1 boards in circulation at the moment. S1 was reinstated. 4. The clock generator and terminator components were removed. This should be checked against the current circuit diagram if it is to be used. which change the 1MHz bus to 2MHz. 3. A. The Econet circuitry was modified in various ways. Therefore various issues of boards will have various different values for C42. 6.3.3. 3. to 0 volts to ensure that if IC74 was absent that the CTSI line was held low. 8. (Changes 1-4 were made retrospectively on most of the issue 1 and 2 circuit boards). VSPRDY and VSPINT were changed over to connect to PB7 and PB6 respectively. 5.5. was moved from pin 23 to pin 19. A 2k2 pull up resistor (R170) was added to the strobe line of the printer port (pin 1 of PL9). The connections from the speech circuit (IC99) to the VIA were changed. 4. The position of D13 was changed to put it in parallel with the relay coil rather than across the collector and emitter of the transistor (Q3). the printer port.4336 MHz + or – 100 Hz. Also the gate used (IC40) was changed from a 74LS00 to a 74S00. 5.3 Circuit Modifications from issue 1 to issue 7. 4k7 resistor (Rl62) was added to the ACK line to pull it up to +5v. The ACK line on PL9. 9. 6. the serial processor. In this next section are listed the more important changes which have taken place in the circuit design as it has evolved from issue 1 to issue 7. R109 became select on test (SOT) with a value between lk8 and 2k7 in order to set the correct colour burst length.2 Changes from issue 3 to issue 4. Q11. Having added the 2k2 pull up resistor (R170) to printer port strobe line and put Q11 in its own position. and so for the correct implementation. certain component values were changed in order to improve circuit performance and the layout was altered in order to improve the shielding and to reduce cross-talk. 5. that you should consult the Technical Services Department of Acorn Computers Ltd. Link S1 was removed in order to put in a transistor inverter. C51 also became SOT at a value between 15pF and 22pF in order to set the colour burst frequency to the correct value of 4. Various modifications were made in the region of S9 and IC27 at various stages. on the issue 3 PCB was incorrect.

A number of changes were made to the Econet control lines in order to speed up software control. C58 from the base of Q7 to the emitter of Q9. At some stage between issues 3 and 4. 1. C34. 16. 4. All other changes from issue 4 to issue 7 were cosmetic changes including some thickening up of the tracks to improve the power supply distribution.) 3. (The reason for the change in value of R75 was to control the data carrier detect delay time to avoid loosing the first bit of the first byte of the first block when recording data. see the section on upgrading the Econet system (section 4. 15. Provision was made for mounting a right-angled phono socket as an alternative to the free-wired BNC socket normally used for video output. (See section 6. Link S39 was added in order to connect the 470pF capacitor. 8. S26 was left unconnected and a wire link was made from the TTX-VDU line (pin 17 of IC2) to the invert input of the videoprocessor (pin 27 of IC6). A 200k potentiometer (VR2) was added in parallel with R32 in order to adjust the operating frequency of IC99 for the appropriate pitch of the speech output. 41 . a modification was necessary. R142. Later versions of the custom IC made this modification unnecessary. 12.7. 5. R114 changed to its present value of 18 ohms 1W. 14. R149. (S34 to 38) 10. A 4k7 resistor (R173) was connected between pin 7 of IC89 and +5v. 9. R125. A resistor (R171) was connected in series with the EOC line of the ADC (IC73) in order to prevent momentary output contention which may occur during power-up. 2. Resistors R104. When the video processor ULA was replaced by the first set of custom-designed ICs. modification E). R75 went to its final value of 82k. (Issues 5 and 6 never went into production).3 Changes from issue 4 to issue 7.3. Links S18 and S19 are made with tinned copper wire. A 10k resistor (R172) was introduced between the analogue input on the 1MHz bus and 0 volts in order to reduce the input impedance and hence improve the signal to noise ratio. A 220nF capacitor (C59) was added in series with R90 in order to AC couple the log amplifier on the cassette interface. as the output is open collector. 13. The diodes and resistors on the ROM select circuitry which can be used to produce 1MHz operation were omitted. and C42 changed to 33pF. the cassette output coupling capacitor was increased from 47nF to 220nF. and R153 which were in series with the ROM chip select lines were replaced by copper links formed on the component side of the PCB.4) 11. 5. For details of how to bring earlier issue boards up to the current issue.

may. Therefore if you have reason to suspect a particular component. it is sometimes helpful to "exercise" the device by the use of these two items. However. this can be slightly misleading in cases where the fault is caused by a timing problem on some device. This is because changing the temperature conditions of one device which may not itself be at fault.1 Introduction Before starting.6 Servicing and Fault-finding 6. it should be realised that attempt at repair by any person other than a registered dealer or service agent will void the warranty. and a few techniques which might be used. It is difficult in a book such as this to do more than give a few general guide-lines as to the sort of problems to look for. This can sometimes show up a fault quite clearly. it is well worth temperature cycling the associated components. Both the PET and the FIT are the subject of entirely separate documents produced by Acorn Computers PLC. The FIT on the other hand is somewhat simpler and its aim is not to isolate a known fault but to check whether an apparently working computer is in fact working in all respects. Whilst the service agent or dealer might be expected to have these pieces of equipment. Two other very useful pieces of "test equipment" are a can of freezer spray and a hair-dryer! It is fairly common for faults in some of the ICs to be associated with temperature conditions. before de-soldering it. 6. The purpose of the PET. Therefore having discovered a device which apparently has a temperature fault.2 Test Equipment The very minimum test equipment required in order to trace even the simplest fault is a digital multi-meter and an oscilloscope (or possibly a logic probe). Acorn Computers Ltd supply two pieces of test equipment which are specifically designed for the BBC Microcomputer which are known as the PET (Progessive Establishment Tester) and the FIT (Final Inspection Tester). is to take an apparently lifeless computer and attempt to find out where the fault lies. which is the more expensive of the two items. by changing the relative timing. 42 . the average user is unlikely to feel that it is worth purchasing them for the limited amount of fault-finding he or she would be likely to do. bring the timing back into a working condition.

memory and VDU will all function normally if the -5 volts is not present. any repair to the power supply. If the power supply is NOT working then you should NOT attempt to repair it. ii) Check that the IRQ line is not permanently in either a low or high state. speech and RS423 interfaces. Voltages can be measured at the terminals on the PCB where the power leads are attached. the first thing to do is to isolate the problem to a particular area of the computer. It would probably be worthwhile reading through most of the circuit description given in this book. Assuming then that the machine appears totally dead even though the power supply unit is apparently working. but also it must successfully program the CRT controller which. then here are a number of things you could check:– i) Check that the reset line on the 6502A (pin 40) is high.3 Fault Isolation Having checked that the apparent fault is not a problem with the program. and must undergo a Dielectric Withstand Test between both live and neutral to ground of 1500 V AC. For example. and only goes low when BREAK is pressed. The simplest fault to check for is malfunctioning of the power supply. The reason is that in order to maintain the safety specification to which the computer was designed. but it is worth checking. (Pin 4 of the 6502A) 43 . Not only must the processor fetch instructions from ROM and process them. This requires specialist equipment and training and should not even be attempted by dealers. it is essential for cassette. However. This kind of problem is made worse on this particular computer because of the technique used to refresh the dynamic RAM. in order to try to gain an understanding of the operation of the computer as a whole before trying to deal with one apparently isolated section of the computer's hardware. the whole system appears completely dead and it is very difficult to locate the specific fault. must begin to produce refresh addresses for the dynamic RAM before the system memory can operate. The worst kind of fault with a microprocessor system is that the processor is unable to fetch instructions from the ROM. if the problem is in loading and saving programs with a cassette recorder then attention should be focussed on the cassette interface itself. must be checked for earth continuity at a current of not less than 10 A. In the case of such faults. including replacement of power supply cable. process them and then produce some sort of result which the operator can see or hear. in turn. sound. this is not as easy as it sounds in some cases because of the links between various sections of the circuit. It is also worth checking that the -5 volts is present because although the processor. particularly with the older linear type power supplies.6. and that you do not have access to a PET. unless they have the necessary equipment and expertise. that the +5 volts is available on each of the three pairs of connectors.

4V or more than 0.8V and logic 0 less than 0. then if you have any spare ICs. iv) A very useful pin to check is pin 7 on the 6502A. the clock input and output on the 6502A (pins 37 and 3). the operating system ROM.4V. it would be worth replacing the internal VIA (IC3). in which case. solder bridges etc on that line. then it may simply be a case of replacing them one by one until the fault reappears. the serial processor (IC7). (Logic 1 must be greater than 2. For example. for example. vi) Check for the horizontal and vertical sync signals coming from the CRTC (pins 39 and 40 of IC2) which will reveal whether or not the CRTC has been successfully programmed at system reset. If so. if the fault disappears. 44 .) Another very useful test with a model B. Then if you remove S25 altogether. the 6502A (IC1). or which have voltage levels which are not within the normal TTL range. having been inverted and re-inverted. 5. If you do detect something abnormal in one of these tests then the next stage would be to remove from the board any devices in IC sockets which are unnecessary to the basic operation of the computer. the 6845 (IC2) and the video processor (IC5). is available at pin 10 of IC33. This is the sync pin and. although it is not actually used in the circuit. 4 and 8 MHz signals on pins 4. it gives an indication of whether or not the 6502A is fetching any instructions.8V. 6 and 7 of the video processor (IC6). It is worth checking these lines both on the 6502A itself and also IC51. the 6850 ACIA (IC4). try to find any waveforms which either have "slack" edges. At this stage the next thing to try is to examine each of the individual address and data lines to see if one or more of these lines is permanently high or low. Having removed these devices. or another machine with which you could exchange ICs. it suggests a problem with the CAS 0 area of RAM.iii) Check for the presence of the various clock signals. If this is permanently high or low then the 6502A is totally stalled. ie sloping rather than square. though normally one would not expect to see voltages of less than about 3. If the fault remains. the ADC Converter (IC73) and the external 6522 (IC69). and the 1. When looking around the board at various points with an oscilloscope. 2. look for short circuits. is to move link S25 to the south position to see if the computer will operate in the 16K mode. v) Check that the read-write line (pin 34) of the 6502A is working normally and also check that the same signal. it puts the machine again into the 16K mode but this time with the CAS 0 area enabled and the CAS 1 area inoperative.

For ICs numbered 2C199E and 2C199E-3. being careful not to exchange the 0 and +5 volt connectors. The optimum value is different for different issues of the serial processor ULA because of the variation in impedence of pin 15 to earth. a smaller value may be necessary. and you would be well advised to use the best quality socket available. R75 should be 100k or 56k as required for consistent loading of data. solder along the area where the wire is crimped by the terminal. and replace them. pull back the insulating sleeves. then this is something to look out for. The resistor is necessary to adjust the relative phase of the two tones of the cassette signal. remove the power leads. For 2C199E-7. This may not have been noticed by quality control if the IC socket was empty at the time of production eg speech IC socket.6. This is sometimes caused by heavy-handed use of the "butterfly" carrier boards which were used at various stages to put two 8K eproms into one single 16K socket. There will be no but reading through all of them faults which are likely to occur. With the later issue boards that have the 220nF output capacitor on the cassette system. provided a 1.23 MHz = 812 ns periodic time). then it is possible to do so by a direct connection. Another problem which sometimes occurs is that the value of R75 needs to be changed. *It is possible for the ROM sockets to develop bad contacts. *One simple problem. This is not an easy task unless you are experienced in the use of desoldering equipment. is that the pins of ICs tend to get bent as they are pushed into the sockets. If this causes the display to flicker then switch off the unit. we shall been colllected from various people servicing and repair work on BBC particular order to the comments should give some useful ideas about try to give some ideas which have who have been doing a good deal of Microcomputers. To check whether they are giving a problem. 45 . It is also not unknown for the IC socket itself to have a pin bent underneath. R75 should be 82k. *If you wish to get two BBC Microcomputers to send programs to each other on the cassette system. Another problem is with the clock input to the serial processor and it is worth checking that this is the correct frequency (ie 1. but unfortunately fairly common.5k resistor is connected between the signal line and ground. *The most common reason for the cassette system becoming inoperative is a damaged LM324. a quick flick with one finger is what the experts recommend.4 Most Common Faults In the following section. This affects the timing between receiving a high tone lead-in and asserting the data-carrier detect on the ACIA. If you have isolated the fault to a particular area. The only solution for this is to replace the ROM socket entirely. *A common reason for getting sound-on-vision effects is that the power leads have become intermittent.

This can be put right by applying firm pressure to the heat sink and also possibly by applying more heatsink compound between it and the top of the integrated circuit. This could be checked quite simply by the use of a meter to test continuity. to the plated-through hole just to the south of that pin. the tracks on the right hand side of the keyboard PCB have become broken in transit. The solution is to connect a 10k resistor across from this line to ground. This occurred more frequently on earlier versions and less so since the newly modified case has been used. before you can successfully solder into it. *A number of people complain of interference on the sound signal. This should only be necessary on issues 1 to 3 of the PCB. then it may well be that the heat sink on the video processor has become dislodged. or smeering of the cursor. but if any of the keys on the right hand side are inoperative then this is a likely cause. Excessively hard use of the keyboard may also cause solder pads to lift. It can be done by connecting the resistor between pin 8 of IC20. which is ground. This is caused by the pick up of digital noise as the track goes from the 1MHz extension bus input to the audio stages. It is necessary to scratch away the solder resist very carefully from around this hole. Figure 12 Reducing noise on 1MHz audio input *One simple problem that sometimes occurs is that of getting twinkling characters in some of the higher modes of graphics. 46 . If this was not originally a problem but has developed after some months of use. A group of non-functional keys would indicate that this has happened.Plated through hole *On a number of occasions.

To check this.*Certain other faults on the VDU display associated with the UHF output can be cured by adding extra decoupling to the supply to the modulator to improve its stability. can sometimes be cured by changing the 6502 processor. 47 . *Unfortunately. *Our service centres tell us that there is a series of rather obscure faults which they have detected which is associated with timing problems with the RAM. or more likely with the RAS signal. *If there are problems associated with the PAL or cassette circuitry. This is well worth doing. especially from certain manufacturers. *It has been noticed that problems can occur with some of the 74LS74 ICs. Also it is worth checking the soldering very carefully. it would be worth checking the output of these ICs to see if they are driving to the full TTL levels. when an A to B upgrade has been done. it is very easy to get resistors in the wrong places. Since there are so many resistors so closely packed together. it is worth checking very carefully whether the correct resistor values have been used. This is because it is easy to get solder bridges over the tracks which are fed in between the pins on this connector. and another is that when playing Acornsoft’s "Defender" (not the later version of "Planetoids") some very strange effects occur as the game continues. One symptom is twinkling characters in mode 7 but not in the other modes of graphics. If there is any problem therefore with the cleaness of the clock pulses applied to the 6502A. it is best to remove the circuit board from the case entirely and use a strong light source in order to view the resistor's colour codes carefully. particularly around the area of the IDC connectors. In particular. or problems with the PAL encoder circuit.7 uF capacitor to earth is usually sufficient. being related to relative timing. These faults. A 10 ohm series resistor with a 4. a number of people seem to get the printer upgrade on the issue 2 board wrong and therefore this should be checked very carefully (see section 4). In particular it seems to be that the Fujitsu RAMs do not mix well with the Mostek or Hitachi RAMs. or the 74LS245 (IC14) and are more often noticed where the RAM in CAS 1 is a different type from the RAM in CAS 0. as it can save a lot of time looking for faults which are basically simple but which would be difficult to diagnose. The worst place seems to be in the area of the tube connector. stopping inexplicably at one particular line and giving a No Room error. a number of problems also arise when people have tried to do their own upgrades and have made mistakes or used bad soldering techniques. Also there is a program of 3D Noughts and Crosses from Beebug which produces a strange fault.

when the above test program is running with address &FEC0 selected. enter a zero address.again LDA M% BCS again ] CALL CODE The following is a reproduction of a photograph showing the waveform on pin 23 of the ADC chip. it will only be low for 500 nanoseconds. To escape.M$ M%=EVAL("&" + M$) IF M%=0 THEN END [SEI SEC . the waveform should be high for 3 microseconds. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 *KEY10 OLD¦MRUN¦M CLS DIM CODE 20 P%=CODE INPUT "ADDRESS".6. It sets up a machine code loop which accesses the address which you specify as hexadecimal number. Scope parameters are 1V/cm. its chip select line should go low for a full microsecond.5. 48 . In either case. 1 us/cm. IC73. Since it is a closed loop. but with a fast device. the only way to escape is to use the break key which is programmed to re-enter the BASIC program. If you are accessing a slow device.1 Test program The following program allows you to test the chip select lines of any of the devices on the computer.5 Test programs and sample waveforms 6.

100ns/cm.The following shows pin 24 of the disc controller chip. IC78. Scope parameters are 1V/cm. and bottom trace is CAS0 pin 7 IC45. Scope parameters are 2V/cm. 49 . lus/cm. The following shows two traces while the test program is running: top trace is 2MHz clock pin 37 IC1. selected by using address &FE80.

Scope parameters are 2V/cm. The following shows two more traces while the test program is running. 100ns/cm. and bottom trace is CAS1 pin 5 IC45. 100ns/cm. 50 .The following shows two more traces while the test program is running: top trace is 2MHz pin 37 IC1. top trace is 2MHz pin 37 IC1. and bottom trace is RAS pin 12 IC43. Scope parameters are 2V/cm.

and soldering on to them three leads terminating in crocodile clips. There are three routines given. For a system that is to be used regularly for fault-finding. it is wise to use either a DIL switch or better still a thumbwheel switch. If there is a RAM fault then the display will not be the succession of ASCII character which you would expect. Then codes 0 to 255 are stored in the first four pages of video RAM. All these routines are working in machine code at high speed and therefore it is easy to use an oscilloscope to probe around the circuit to see what has gone wrong. you should be able to diagnose where the problem lies. being careful not to let them short out. Routine "1": This sets up the teletext mode of graphics by programming the 6845 and the video processor appropriately.2 Test ROM The listing shown below is the object code for a ROM which could prove extremely useful for fault-finding an apparently dead machine. These can then be used to select the address by clipping on to the +5V and 0V rails. The pin numbers at which each pulse should appear are given in the program. especially if you do not have a PET. The idea is that a 2764 ROM is put in place of the operating system ROM and the routine which the system starts on power-up or break is determined by taking the address lines that would normally be connected to A10. This can be done crudely by bending up the three pins so that they don’t engage in the IC socket.6. properly mounted. The three routines given are:– Routine "0": Provides a chip select pulse for each memory-mapped device around the board in turn. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 FOR N% = 0 TO 2 : REM ie 3 tests available PROCtest(N$) NEXT *SAVE ROMIMAG 3000 + 2000 END DEFPROCtest(N%) offset% = &400*N% O% = &3000 + offset% P% = &F800 table% = P% + &200 !(&33FC + offset%) = &F800 : REM RESET vector opt% = 5 IF N% = 0 PROC_strobe_select_lines IF N% = 1 PROC_DRAM_test IF N% = 2 PROC_RNW_exercise 51 . 23 and 2 of the 2764 respectively) and have some means of attaching them to +5 volts or 0 volts. ie if the RAM can be written to but not read then the character at location &7C01 will not cycle through 0 to 255 since the read instruction will be in error. and by careful thought about which characters are in error. All and A12 (pins 21. The pattern is periodically re-written so that intermittent faults will show up and you can try temperature exercising any suspect chips. but you could extend the idea for up to 8 different routines if you wanted to do so. Routine "2": This is similar to the previous routine but by incrementing a location on the screen it checks the combination of reading and writing.5.

setup_6845 LDA table%.restart LDY #0 .X \ table of 6845 data STX &FE00 \ Register number STA &FE01 \ Contents of register DEX BPL setup_6845 LDA #3 STA &FEFE \ send down TUBE .Y STA &7F00.170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 !(&3200 !(&3204 !(&3208 !(&320C ENDPROC + + + + offset%) offset%) offset%) offset%) = = = = &4433283F &1B19021E &13721293 &002C002C DEFPROC_strobe_select_lines [OPT opt% .Y STA &7D00.Y INY BNE loop2 LDA #&42 STA &FE20 \ Write to Vidproc JMP restart ] 52 .loop2 NOP TYA STA &7C00.loop LDA &FE00 LDA &FE08 LDA &FE10 LDA &FE18 LDA &FE20 STA &FE20 STA &FE30 LDA &FE40 LDA &FE60 LDA &FE80 LDA &FEA0 LDA &FEC0 LDA &FEE0 LDA &FC00 LDA &FD00 JMP loop ] ENDPROC \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ IC2 pin 25 (CRTC) IC4 pin 9 (ACIA) IC7 pin 9 (SER PROC) IC96 pin 1 (STATID) or IC97 pin 4 (INTOFF) IC97 pin 2 (INTON) IC6 pin 3 (VID PROC) IC76 pin 9 (ROMSEL) IC3 pin 23 (VIA A) IC69 pin 23 (VIA B) IC78 pin 24 (FDC) IC89 pin 9 (ADLC) IC73 pin 23 (ADC) PL 12 pin 8 (TUBE) PL ll pin 10 (FRED) PL 11 pin 12 (JIM) DEFPROC_DRAM_test [OPTopt% LDX #&0F STX &FE20 \ Write to Vidproc .Y STA &7E00.

Scope parameters are 1V/cm.Y STA &7F00.Y INY BNE write LDA #&42 \ Character "B" STA &FE20 \ Write to Vidproc JMP write ] ENDPROC The following is a reproduction of a photograph showing the waveform on pin 34 of the 6502 (R/W of IC1).Y STA &7E00.X \ table of 6845 data STX &FE00 \ Register number STA &FE01 \ Contents of register DEX BPL setup_6845 LDA #3 STA &FEFE \ send down TUBE LDA #&41 \ Character "A" LDY #0 .write INC &7C01 \ Change character on screen STA &7D00. 2us/cm. 53 .770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 ENDPROC DEFPROC_RNW_exercise [OPT opt% LDX #&0F STX &FE20 \ Write to Vidproc .setup_6845 LDA table%.

7 Interfacing Survey 7. This would of course require the use of an acoustic coupler. It is also possible to get the interface to work at 110 baud. note that connections as shown on the circuit diagram refer to the socket. NB When making up a connector for the RS423. 4800 or 9600 baud. Apart from using the RS423 interface to run a serial printer it is also possible to use it to communicate with other computers. For the plug connections. This provides the red. There are various levels at which this link could be used. by using the telephone network. it is possible to communicate with a mainframe computer either directly within a building on a wired link or. (See section 7. green. The third connector which is provided for video output is a 6-way. but these should not be used for providing more than a few milliamps to external circuits. it may be a help to look at each in turn and talk about possible applications for each. The speed is software selectable at 75. 1200. negative going pulse of 4. it is possible to introduce this signal by adding a simple link. 240 degree DIN plug. This is a standard which has superior drive capabilities to the RS232 interface and is run in this case between +5 volt and -5 volt levels. but this requires a modification which would also change the speed of the cassette interface. the RTS output also working on +5 volt and -5 volt. The sync signal is a 5 volts.7uS duration. S39. 2400. On circuit boards issue 4 onwards. Next is a video output on a BNC connector which is intended to be used with a black and white video monitor. Also provided on this connector are a 0 volt and a +5 volt supply.) The control signals provided are the normal CTS and RTS lines. This capacitor would have to be soldered directly on to the circuit board. which provides a PAL colour TV signal for use with a normal colour television. but this is not guaranteed to be error-free. 150. There is a higher speed of 19200 baud. On previous issue boards it is necessary to introduce a 470pF capacitor from the emitter of Q9 to the base of Q7. Working from left to right on the back of the computer. For example. However it is possible to introduce the colour burst information onto this signal in order to produce a PAL composite video signal. we start with the UHF output. blue and sync signals needed for an RGB monitor. but it can be changed to positive going by changing link S31.3 on hardware hints and tips for more information. The next connector is a serial port of the RS423 standard. Firstly the computer could be used as a "dumb terminal” which would simply be capable of sending characters typed on the keyboard to the mainframe computer and receiving characters from the mainframe and printing them on the screen. to a computer in another building or even another country. 300. The following program will allow you to do so.1 Purpose of each interface Since there are so many different interface connections on the BBC microcomputer. refer to page 504 of the User Guide which gives the connections as seen from outside the case. 54 .

7 *FX 8. The third level then would be to use the graphics facilities of the BBC Microcomputer in addition to its ability to print text.10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 REM Dumb Terminal Program REM Only works on OS 1. There are now a number of such packages commercially available.keyboard LDA #&91 LDX #0 JSR OSBYTE\character in keyboard buffer? BCS RS423 TYA JSR OSWRCH\or OSASCI for CRLF LDA #&8A LDX #2 JSR OSBYTE\Put character in RS423 output buffer JMP RS423 ] NEXT *FX 7.7 *FX 2. REM OSASCI = &FFE3 OSBYTE = &FFF4 OSWRCH = &FFEE CLS DIM CODE 50 FOR J=0 TO 2 STEP 2 P%=CODE [OPT J . All that is needed is for someone to write the appropriate terminal emulation software and put it in sideways ROM. so that the text could be prepared off line. This produces the possibility of using the computer as a colour-graphics terminal to a mainframe computer at a fraction of the cost.RS423 LDA #&91 LDX #1 JSR OSBYTE\character in RS423 buffer? BCS keyboard TYA JSR OSWRCH\or OSASCl for CRLF .0 & following REM Works even if Tube fitted.2 CLS CALL CODE The next level would be its use as a semi-intelligent terminal which would enable you to use some of the processing of the BBC Microcomputer to deal with file handling. stored on disc and then spooled down to the mainframe when the link is made. 55 .

the RTS on one should be connected to the CTS on the other and vice-versa. controllable by software.The other way in which the RS423 can be used is to link two BBC computers together. then it is possible to do so by a direct connection.0 <RETURN> {This enables the RS423 as the output and sends a listing of the program so that.7 <RETURN> LIST <RETURN> *FX3. and in a similar way for the control lines. 1 <RETURN> (This sets the RS423 as input instead of the keyboard. no matter how small the current. and they should not. If you are doing a BBC to BBC link over a short distance and want to use the full speed of the interface then you will have to connect the hand-shake lines as well as the data lines. It has two speeds. If you wish to get two BBC Microcomputers to send programs to each other on the cassette system. be used to switch mains voltages. The "data out" from one computer should be connected to the "data in" of the other computer and vice-versa. and ground and are prepared to work at a slower speed without any handshaking. to the receiving computer. The only software involved in doing this is to type in. provided a 1. then these commands could be programmed onto a single key on each machine. When the program has been sent down. If you want to use the RS423 interface over a long distance at high speed using the hand shake lines. type OLD <RETURN> and then the program is ready for use. If you do not do so. data in. 300 and 1200 baud. 56 . on the receiving computer: NEW <RETURN> *FX2. If you are working over a longer distance and want to use only three cables.) and then on the sending computer you would type in: *FX3. it might be necessary to terminate the receivers by making links S23 and S24.) If you have a number of transfers to do. The cassette interface is a standard CUTS cassette interface. it is as if it were being typed in from the keyboard. then you have to loop back the RTS to the CTS on each of the computers so that each is permanently enabled for sending. The rating of the relay contacts is 24V at 1A DC. under any circumstances. you simply have to press BREAK on the receiving computer. There is also motor control provided on pins 6 and 7 of the 7-way DIN plug. This terminates the line with its characteristic impedance of 180 ohms.5k resistor is connected between the signal line and ground. One reason for doing this would be to enable software to be downloaded from a disc system to another computer which does not have a disc interface. A 15K program can be downloaded using an RS423 link in approximately 20 seconds which is clearly faster than using a cassette to cassette link. the RS423 output buffer fills up and printing stops after a number of characters have been sent to the screen. data out.

the line being buffered by a single transistor (Q11) to improve the current sinking. 57 . However in the 12 bit resolution mode. out of turn. The light pen circuit has to produce a positive-going 5 volt pulse with a duration of greater than 100 ns. you should work on the basis of each line being able to sink 10 mA at logic 0 or to source 400 uA at logic 1. The pin connections are arranged so that the signals are divided into two sets intended for use with two games paddles. Of the two control lines. Also provided on this connector is an input to the light pen strobe on the 6845 CRT controller. or OSBYTE call 128 in machine code. This connector carries the standard connections for a 5. each of which will have two A to D inputs and a voltage reference source as well as the ground and one of the digital input lines. The conversion time for each channel is 10 milliseconds. The hardware involved in setting up a light pen system is quite simple. CA1 is available as an input with a single 4k7 pull up resistor on it. The resolution is software selectable between 8 and 12 bits resolution using OSBYTE 190. However ADVAL(0) in BASIC. If you want to use these lines to drive some other device. However the software involved is quite complicated if you want to do more than identify character blocks.25" disc drive. but you can choose to have as few or as many of the channels working as you wish by using the *FX16 command. On boards from issue 4 onwards. you need to allow 40 milliseconds to be sure of a successful conversion on any one channel. This is because of the way in which the 6845 has been extended beyond its normal memory range in order to provide bit-mapped graphics. can be used to see which channel has just converted. It is probably more realistic to think in terms of a 9 or 10 bit accuracy. The 8 port lines are buffered to provide better drive capabilities. Therefore if all four converters are required. and OSBYTE call 17 allows you to force a particular ADC channel to convert. The next two are a 26-way and a 20-way IDC connector which are used to provide connections to the two ports of the external 6522 VIA. and is arranged in a standard format for use with a Centronics-type parallel printer. First of all there is a 34 way connector for the disc drive(s). Underneath the computer is a set of standard IDC connectors. there is a selection link (S1) which will enable this line to provide direct connection to CA2 so that it can be used as either input or output. the true resolution is somewhat less than 12 bits. whilst the CA2 line is available as an output.The analogue input is on a 15-way D-type connector and provides four A to D converter channels and two digital input lines which work on the internal 6522 VIA. The 26-way connector links to port A. The final connector which is provided on the back of the computer is only available when the unit has been upgraded with an Econet interface. This is a standard 5 pin 180 degree DIN plug to provide the necessary data and clock signals for the Econet interface. but it does mean that they can only be used for output.

If you consult the 6522 data available. It is possible to write your own printer driver routine which works through the operating system. is much simpler in that all connections go on the VIA (PB0 to PB7 and also control lines are using these lines for output you should sheet to establish the amount of drive current The next connector.2 Interfacing to various printers. the RS423 connector can be used and secondly. provides an extremely versatile interface known as the 1MHz extension bus. you will encounter problems since pin 26 is used as a reset line. First of all. another 34-way IDC. for example with the Seikosha GP80A. 7. 58 . In order to link up to teletype printers. This is explained in detail in section 7. One important point to note is that on issue 1 printed circuit boards. By using one of these locations (&FCFF) as a paging register it is possible to extend the memory addressing capability to a full 64K bytes. The final connector is a 40-way IDC which provides an interface known as the "Tube". intended for use with a second processor. It is therefore suggested that any interfacing to the Tube should be done only using products from Acorn Computers Ltd. It is possible to interface to a wide variety of printers using the two interfaces provided. This is more difficult and requires connection not only to the Printer Port. This interface is the subject of a separate Application Note and at this stage it is sufficient to say that it provides two "pages" (2 x 256 bytes) of memory locations mapped between &FC00 to &FDFF. which run at 110 baud. Another problem which may occur on the early issue boards is that there is no pull-up resistor on the CA2 line thus leaving the collector of transistor Q11 open circuit. If you wish to use this interface.3. the hardware on the second processor is extremely complex and it really requires a ULA to incorporate all the hardware necessary to handle the protocol. Although the hardware on the BBC microcomputer side is very simple. the pin connections on the printer port are not quite the same as later issues. It is also possible to link up to various other non-standard printers such as the IEEE 488 printers used for the Commodore Pet computers. for parallel printers the Centronics interface can be used. you have to change the position of link S28.The 20-way User Port directly to the lines CB1 and CB2). for serial printers. but also the User Port to provide extra control lines and also requires extra software within the machine. Pin 19 is the ACK line and pin 26 is not open circuit as it should be for certain printers.

you may want to be able to do a SHIFT break in order to boot the disc. to provide an alternative break key. You could then wire it up to a miniature ON-OFF toggle switch which can be mounted on the back of the case by drilling a suitable hole.1 command in order to set 75 baud and then change the position of link S28. and also makes the cassette port run fast by the same amount. This link has to be broken and a solder link made from the centre pin to the east pin. The disadvantage of doing this though is that if you are using a disc system. This has the effect of speeding up all of the baud rates. which can be done by removing a link from the keyboard PCB. particularly when the computer is being used by very young children. but the break key is more of a problem. This link is made by a track on the PCB. Figure 13 Disabling the BREAK key 59 . so a single pole double throw switch could be wired to S28 in order to select the normal speed or the fast speed for the 110 baud. The position of the link to be removed is shown below. The alternative is to disable the break key electrically. or leave it open circuit and use the contacts at the back of the main PCB marked "RST SW". You could use *KEY10 OLD¦M RUN¦M but even this is not very satisfactory.7.333 but this is near enough for most teletype printers.3 Hardware Hints and Tips Here are a number of miscellaneous hints and tips which have come from various sources. all that has to be done is to use the *FX8. it is most frustrating when the user presses the break key. The actual speed produced is 108. *RS423 at 110 baud In order to get the RS423 interface to work at 110 baud. *Disabling Break For certain applications. It is easy enough to disable the escape key within a program. between the centre pin and the west pin. both send and receive by 44%.

4 4.63 252.5 7.28 22.55 137.93 252.164 151.71 196. IC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Type 6502A 6845 6522 6850 SAA5050 5C094 2C199 81L595 81LS95 81LS95 81LS95 81LS95 81LS95 74LS245 74LS273 LM555 LM324 76489 LM386 74LS139 74LS00 74LS30 74LS30 74LS138 74LS20 74LS139 7438 74LS51 74LS32 74LS74 74LS34 74LS259 74LS04 74LS74 LM324 74LS10 74LS04 74LS86 74LS283 74S00 74LS02 74LS163 74S04 PCB Position 160.10 9.174 Circuit Comments Diagram 10.23 120. These are defined by X and Y coordinates in millimetres.141 187.6 7.6 10.7 4. their positions on the PCB itself are also given.7 7.3 8.7 5.10 10.5 ACID 10.4 5.6 6.8 8.2 4.62 264.6 5.44 52.105 3.4 9.2 5.9 8.85 160.3 8.78 120.10 8.4 12.5 8.1 Integrated circuits NB Some ICs which contain more than one circuit will appear at more than one place on the circuit diagram.122 241.7 8.4 5.102 214.7 9.182 241.2 6.124 50.143 90.6 8.6 5.71 128.75 128.143 78.122 228.143 65.2 Teletext ROM 7.7 13.71 7.149 228.1 5.10 7.143 58.3 5.6 8.62 184.158 187.210 6.6 Sound generator 5.23 120.3 10.5 9.4 7.10 4. For ICs and selection links.149 241.164 71.9 6.145 206.6 5.2 10. 8.143 105.6 10.10 12.8 10.6 5.6 (Previously 74LS00) 4.4 Serial ULA 5.9 10.3 CRT controller 5.205 215.5 4.8 6. measuring from the SW corner of the PCB.80 135.1 Video ULA 12.2 6.2 4.62 241.4 60 .122 197.9 Internal VIA 11.8 Component location tables The following lists of components should enable you to locate any component on the main circuit diagram by its X and Y grid reference (see grid numbers on main PCB circuit diagram).8 2.3 5.6 5.9 10.93 275.55 120.108 137.140 90.

9 9.3 6.5 12.201 207.3 7.2 12.4 14.3 8.2 7.24 12.69 287.185 4.7 10.188 13.44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 74LS74 74S139 74S74 74LS86 74LS86 74LS00 74LS00 (27128) (27128) 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 4816 6522 74LS244 74LS244 74LS245 uPD7002 88LS120 3691 74LS163 74S00 8271 7438 7438 74LS393 74LS10 4013 4013 4020 74LS393 74LS123 2764 68B54 40178 74LS132 74LS74 75159 LM319 LM319 74LS244 74LS74 TMS6100 TMS5220 (27128) (27128) 206.3 14.122 287.4 2.75 42.4 6.29 100.24 82.183 298.146 264.6 13.6 2.3 8.7 14.122 275.8 5.2 8.24 97.7 2.2 13.8 4.4 8.172 252.10 14.122 264.29 199.8 13.2 6.46 97.125 16.8 4.162 27.183 214.24 287.46 82.164 252.46 67.2 8.2 8.7 3.146 298.24 184.122 160.2 8.173 183.68 298.166 16.2 13.1 7.1 8.166 45.171 15.1 13.75 35.8 3.10 12.2 7.122 252.46 57.9 11.9 4.183 264.44 38.174 228.4 10.146 287.2 6.24 290.93 264.199 70.75 272.183 275.7 2.6 13.9 2.146 275.7 12.9 12.9 13.8 13.93 298.8 9.4 2.10 13.146 252.7 2.93 20.21 108.183 286.93 275.24 233.9 2.8 4.9 8.23 43.29 137.93 298.6 2.143 60.9 3.24 15.4 7.9 14.9 Operating system ROM BASIC ROM External VIA ADC convertor Disc controller ADLC – Econet (Not fitted) (Not fitted) Speech ROM See Speech generator Sideways ROM Sideways ROM 61 .9 2.193 82.10 13.

8.1 11.8 4.3 Not fitted Not fitted Not Not Not Not fitted fitted.7 10.2 13.4 8.3 13.7 62 .1 13.3 12.2 14.8 8.5 8.5 6.3 Diodes D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Type 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4002 1N4002 1N4002 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 1N4148 Circuit Diagram 6.2 Transistors Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type BC239 BC239 BC239 BC239 BC239 BC239 BC309 BC309 BC239 2N3906 BC239 Circuit Diagram 13.6 14.5 4. issue 7 onwards fitted.8 10.3 14.1 13.6 14.7 4.5 6.3 11.4 Capacitors C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Type 2n2F Plate ceramic 4u7F 16V Elec 2n2F Plate ceramic Not used l0uF 16V Elec 100nF Disc ceramic 2n2P Plate ceramic 100nF Disc ceramic Circuit Diagram 4.3 13.5 13.6 4.5 13.5 3.1 11.3 12.6 12.1 11.8 8.2 2.8 14.8 13.5 11. issue 7 onwards 8.6 4.6 14. issue 7 onwards fitted.3 3.

6 8.7 13.5 14.5 14.6 12.4 11.5 15.1 5.4 6.1 14.5 5.5 5.5 15.2 11.3 13.1 6.1 63 .5 13.9 14.4 13.1 14.5 3.2 13.5 ceramic 13.1 3.5 5.5 4.7 2.2 4.6 13.9 10 ll 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 10uF 16V Elec 10nF Plate ceramic 2n2F Plate ceramic 10pF Plate ceramic lnF Plate ceramic 47uF 10V Elec 100nF Disc ceramic 47uF 10V Elec 2n2F Plate ceramic 10uF 10V Tant Not used 47nF Disc ceramic 100nF Disc ceramic Net used 10nF Plate ceramic 100nF Disc ceramic 33nF Polyester 47uF l0V Elec luF 35V Tant 4u7P 10V Tant 2n2F Plate ceramic 10uF 10V Tant 820pF Plate ceramic 4n7F Plate ceramic 4n7F Plate ceramic 200/220nF 820pF Plate ceramic 47uF l0V Tant 33pF Plate ceramic 2n2F Plate ceramic 2n2F Plate ceramic 10nF Plate ceramic 220pF Plate ceramic 33pF Plate ceramic 47pF Plate ceramic Not used 10nF Plate ceramic 47pF Plate ceramic 10uF 10V Tant 270pF Plate ceramic 150pF Plate 47pF Plate ceramic 15/22pF Plate ceramic 390pF Plate ceramic 100pP Plate ceramic 47uF 10V Tant 100pF Plate ceramic 39pF Plate ceramic 10uF 10V Tant 470pF Plate ceramic 220nF 4u7F 10V Tant 4.10 3.3 7.5 12.1 14.1 8.5 13.5 6.2 (SOT) 11.6 4.5 13.5 14.8 6.2 11.7 14.7 4.2 14.1 11.8 5.1 14.

4 3.6 3.6 5.5 3.9 4.8 13.6 4.8 14.5 3.8 14.8 13.6 5.6 3.9 3.5 4.6 5.6 5.6 4.8.8 Not fitted. issue 7 onwards 64 .6 4.7 2.5 4.8 6.7 3.8 14.10 12.10 14.9 14.7 8.6 6.5 5.8 14.8 2.8 13.8 14.9 14.5 3.8 13.9 4.2 3.4 6.5 4.8 14.9 13.6 1.5 Resistors R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Value 10k 10k 10k 22k 100k 4k7 100k 10k 39k 3k3 100k 220k 1M 10R 39k 22k 10k 10R Not used 1M 1M 150R 150R 39k Not used Not used 10k 4k7 1k 10k 4k7 150k 1k 10k (2%) 10k (2%) 1M5 1k 100K (2%) 100K (2%) 100K (2%) 100K (2%) Not used Not used 1M5 10k (2%) 1k 1k5 (2%) 1k (2%) 150R 39k 10k (2%) 1k 1k Not used 3k3 Circuit Diagram 4.7 4.8 2.5 3.5 4.

5 7.2 11.9 Not fitted.4 7.10 5.8 13.6 14. issue 4 onwards 8.5 3.56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 Not used 10R 150R 56k (2%) 56k (2%) 1k 56k (2%) 56k (2%) 1M5 3k3 10k 10k 3k3 3k3 3k3 2k7 3k3 3k3 2k2 82k 10k 100k 150k 820k 39k 3k3 150k 4k7 10k 3k3 220k 8k2 8k2 4k7 4k7 820R 820R 3k3 100R 2k2 3k3 2k2 1k2 1k2 1k2 1k0 100R 1k0 100R 100R 56R 1k0 3k3 1k8/2k7 68R 68R 68R 68R 18R 1W 1k0 5.5 10.6 14. issue 7 onwards 7.1 SOT 14.4 14.2 11.S 14.4 7.7 13.2 6.7 13.2 65 .4 13.6 8.7 13.4 5.5 13.6 14.7 13.5 1.5 13.6 14.5 13.5 12.8 Not fitted.5 14.6 8.1 14.3 13.4 13.10 5.5 14.3 14.6 14.10 2.6 7.2 14.5 14.2 9.3 14.7 13.5 10.8 2.4 8.7 10.7 3.4 14.3 12. issue 7 onwards 12.4 15.5 10.9 Not fitted.5 10.

8 12.2 14.5 13. issue 4 onwards 2. issue 4 onwards fitted.1 14.6 fitted.2 13.1 14.4 14.1 14.3 11.2 14.2 13.8 Not 14.1 14.2 14.1 13. issue 4 onwards fitted.1 11.2 11.3 13. 2 14.1 14.1 14. 1 13.5 12.2 8.2 11.2 13.1 14.1 14.3 66 .4 9.5 12.3 14.3 11.2 9.2 14.2 13.2 14.8 Not 14.116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 14S 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 3k9 2k2 1k0 100R 82R 82R 82R 470R 56R 100R 3k9 1k5 470R 68R 68R 56R 120k 120k 1k0 1k0 2k2 3k9 1k5 1k0 1k0 2k7 100R 12k 15k 1k0 1k5 3k9 820R 100R 680R 470R 2k2 100R 1k2 680R 3k3 680R 470R 270k 3k3 5k6 4k7 Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used Not used 2k2 100R 10k 4k7 22k 14.2 9.2 14.2 9.2 7.2 11.8 Not 11.2 7.4 1.1 14.6 12.4 13.8 Not 14.6 4. issue 4 onwards fitted.

3) 4.8 14.8 (From issue 4 onwards) 9.6 8. 39. 4.9 10. 3.9 7. 35.6 12. 12.8 (From issue 4 onwards) 9.144 237.146 284.2.14 (Only fitted on issues 1. 14. 30. 38.20 280. 18.3) 15.9 3. 16. 32.3 7.128 45.3) 1.170 295.8.161 2.8 9.68 226.65 245.8 7.10 7.102 123.6 Links Some links have been omitted on later issue boards. 25.210 97. 27. LINK 1. 19.215 Circuit diagram 2. 23. 24.8 (From issue 4 onwards) 9.90 108.20 270.215 181. 34. 21.97 108. 31.205 30.5 10.20 260.15 35.3 13.65 295.52 102.65 127.15 255.8 (From issue 4 onwards) 67 .8 13. 26. while others have been added. 2.9 (Only fitted on issues 1. 20. 7.8 9.67 101. 22.5 (Not used on issues 2 and 3) 12.95 237. 36. 29. 8. 9.10 7.8 7.173 12.8 (From issue 4 onwards) 9.7 12.108 2.9 (Only fitted on issues 1. 5. 17.55 122.9 14.70 177.9 9.65 32.70 100.7 14.9 7. 37.8 13.195 215.185 221. 13.15 75.2.1 1. 15.10 1.67 200.8 9. 33.8 9.195 26.52 110. PCB position 2. 10.12 26.20 300.9 2.8 (From issue 4 onwards) 9. 28. 11.2.3 9. 6.10 9.53 107.

68 .

9 Appendices 69 .

70 .

1 Circuit block diagram 71 .9.

72 .

9.2 Assembly drawing 73 .

74 .

3 Case Lower Assembly Drawing 75 .9.

76 .

9.4 Main PCB layout 77 .

78 .

5 Main PCB Circuit Diagram 79 .9.

80 .

6 Keyboard circuit diagram 81 .9.

82 .

7 Power supply circuit diagram 83 .9.

84 .

988 882. CONNECTOR 75R WIRE 7/0.914 882.2 WHITE PVC No 8 x 9.343 POWER SUPPLY UNIT 4 BA INTERNAL T00TH SHAKEPR00F WASHER 4BA NUT FULL 4BA x 5/8" PAN HD POSIDRIV 1 2 2 2 ASTEC SMPS 85 .N.600 870.004/A A1/103.001 A2/201.644 882.986 DESCRIPTION CASE LOWER 1 MAIN PCB ASSEMBLY HDDEL B+ECONET+DISC CASE LOWER ASSY KEYBOARD ASSEMBLY (INC SPKR) CUT RIGID PVC LABEL BOTTOM ACCESS CUT RIGID PVC LABEL REAR ACCESS STICK ON FEET 4 B.9.500 A1/103.109 882.5 FLANGE HEAD POSIDRIV No 4 x 7/16" PAN HD SUPERDRIVE NYLON WASHER I/D 5mm 1 2 5 2 5 PANEL MOUNT 2" LENGTH BLACK SELF PLASTITE QTY 1 REF 1 1 1 REMARKS 'STANDARD' 882.111 A2/201.712 882.000 800.232 A2/103.C.098 890.003 882.8 Parts list CASE LOWER ASSEMBLY MDDEL B + ECONET + DISC ITEM 1 2 3 DRG 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 SK2 11 12 13 TAP 14 15 16 17 18 19 24 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 PART No A2/210.022 M3 x 5mm CHEESE HEAD POSI DRIVE 3 USE WITH ITEM 103.

131 R110.21 R36.7.182/272 505.332 RESISTOR 1K2 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 1K5 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 2K2 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 2K7 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESTSTOR 3K3 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 2 2 7 1 12 500.37.S.P. PRESET RESISTOR 1K8/2K7 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR 1K 1/4W 2% CARBON 1K5 1/4W 2% CARBON 10K 1/4W 2% CARBON 56K 1/4W 2% CARBON 100K 1/4W 2% CARBON CAPACITOR 10pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 15/22pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 33pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 39pF PLATE CERAMIC 86 .64 RP1 RP2 VR1 VR2 R109.139.680 500.140.T.154 500. 107.682 590.274 500.28.393 500. 135.76.18.61.100 500.170 R71 R10.33.471 500.104 631. 156.89.65.102 505.103 500.96.015/022 631.153 500.117.35.MAIN CIRCUIT BOARD MODEL B + DISC + ECONET ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 PART No 203000 103.45.152 505.127 R138.103 505.102.100 R154.50.151.158 R150.99.222 500. 81.155 590.I.146 R74.157 R91.85.182 500.223 500.51 R59.30.49.31.162.86 R159 R79 R13.821 500.84.69.033 631.115.102 DESCRIPTION PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY DRAWING MODEL B +DISC+ECONET RESISTOR 18R 1W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR 10K 1/4W l0% CARBON FILM 56R 10% CARBON FILM 68R 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 82R 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 100R 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 150R 470R 680R 820R 1/4W 1/4W 1/4W l/4W 10% 10% 10% 10% CARBON CARBON CARBON CARBON FILM FILM FILM FILM QTY 1 1 1 3 3 6 3 5 4 4 3 3 20 REMARKS PER WORKS ORDER R114 R14.92.124 500.70.174 R9. ON BATCH BASIS R48 R47 R34.16.173 R161 R87.103.122 R94.560 500.58 R123.88 R1-3.823 500.83.101. PRESET POTENTIOMETER 200K VERT.24.23.97.80 R75 R5.223 580.108.129. 53.104 500.134.20.039 RESISTOR 1K8 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 3K9 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 4K7 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 5K6 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 8K2 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 10K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR RESISTOR 12K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 15K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 22K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 39K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 82K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 100K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 120K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 150K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 1 4 8 1 2 12 1 1 3 5 1 4 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 1 1 2 1 RESISTOR 220K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 270K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 820K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM RESISTOR 1M 1/4W 10% CARBON RESISTOR 1M5 1/4W 101 CARBON RESISTOR PACK S.151 500. 90.272 500.63 R38.95.57 R106.172 R143 R144 R4.472 500.I.500/A 520.27.68.010 631.40.105.119. 136. 98. ON BATCH BASIS C37.820 500.133 78.105 500.160 R141 R116.137.93.148 R29.8. 66.P.O.11.128.180 500.822 500.392 500.145.103 580.155.60. 22K x 8 POTENTIOMETER 10% VERT.S.152 500.147 R6.118.41 C12 C51.681 500.77 R132. MIN.39. 171 R22.82 R12.46.52.I.562 500.123 500.124. 6K8 x 8 RESISTOR PACK S.113.62.126.130 R120.17.824 500.42 C56 RESISTOR 1K 1/4W 10% CARBON FILM 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 500.152.122 500.563 505.121.44.224 500. MIN.101 500.O.15.204 500.67.

15.I.69.16.17.032 742.8.7.11.72 IC32 IC15 810.C.95.139 742.46 C58 C13 C1.60 C2 C18.C.100 631.I.80 IC40 IC21.047 629.309 783.100 610.I.98.94.004 742.37 IC36.005 635.9 C36.L. 13-l5.45 C25 A C20 C6.23 IC29 IC28 IC46 IC30.101 IC1-3.29 C32.047 610.004 629.93 IC14 IC6. SOCKET D.002 794.001 628.65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 631.004 742.39 C59 C27 C28.78 IC27.005 820.259 742.C.100.44.047 633.54 C14.204/224 699.039 630.35 C43.55 C49 C41 C48 C52 C31.114 800.177 794.047 621.239 780.51.34.76 IC70.148 CAPACITOR 47pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 100pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 150pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 220pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 270pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 390pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 820pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 47pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 470pF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR lnF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 2n2F PLATE CERAMTC CAPACITOR 4n7F PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 10nF PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 33nF POLYESTER CAPACITOR.074 742.26 IC42.244 742.038 741.150 631.2.L.50.57 C5.100 610.52.074 742.17. SOCKET D.000 742.I.086 742.333 680.77 IC41 IC43 IC33.31.3.21.470 651.23.139 742. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 40 PIN 7438 74S00 74LS00 74LS02 74S04 74LS04 74LS10 74LS20 74LS30 74LS32 74LS51 74S74 74LS74 74LS86 74LS138 74S139 74LS139 74LS163 74LS244 74LS245 74LS259 74LS273 1 8 2 1 4 1 11 5 3 1 4 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 5 3 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 87 . 20 PIN I.273 RELAY 5V TRANSISTOR BC 239 TRANSISTOR BC309 TRANSISTOR 2N3906 I.6.97 IC38.C.101 634.163 742.001 860.120 800.8 Q16 55.C33 C10.71.128 800.49.30. SOCKET D.010 635.002 741.270 630. DECOUPLER 33/47 nF CAPACITOR 47nF DISC CERAMIC CAPACITOR 100nF DISC CERAMIC CAPACITOR 2n2F PLATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR 220nF CAPACITOR luF 35V TANTALUM CAPACITOR 4u7F 10V TANTALUM CAPACITOR 4u7F 16V RADIAL ELEC CAPACITOR 10uF 10V TANTALUM CAPACITOR 10uF 16V RADIAL ELEC CAPACITOR 47uF 10V TANTALUM CAPACITOR 47uF 10V AXIAL ELEC CAPACITOR 200/220nF TRIMMING CAPACITOR 2-22pF CHOKE 33 uH CRYSTAL 16 MHz CRYSTAL 17.7345 MHz DIODE IN 4002 DIODE IN 4148 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 6 2 4 1 76 1 5 2 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 12 C50 C53.99.002 634.220 631.245 742. 89.26 C34 VC1 L1 X1 X2 D16. 14 PIN I.47.8.001 780.7.82 IC25 IC22.160 820.96 IC14.047 631.138 241.001 629.48 IC24 IC45 IC20. 28 PIN I.9.47.002 651.030 742.051 741.082 632.906 800.40.79.000 742.224 613.010 742.19-22 RL1 Q1-6.L.73.140 740.7. SOCKET D.11 Q7.L.18 D1.24 C36.020 742.010 650.470 628.

001 800.19(E) PL8.095 739.120 706.040 201.25.055 800. 7 'D' TYPE WAY WAY DOMINO WAY 15 WAY IC 39 IC17.816 201.132 742.319 201.009 800.22.008 800.000 800.050 201.029 870.691 705.304 800.I.N.059 800.I.070 800.39 S20.271 770.143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 742.020 708.S11(7) S11 FIT TO R114 FIT TO IC6 IF 201.N.393 735.324 770.502 706.522 706.11 PL9 PL10 PL12 IC87 IC91 IC81.013 754.31-33.N.051 800.35 IC19 IC16 IC12.159 706.004 825.854 754.095/097 706.84 IC85 IC78 IC94.845 706.283 770.69 IC2 IC4 IC75 IC5 IC6 IC7 IC73 IC53-68 IC51 (OPERATING SYSTEM) IC52 (BASIC) SK7 SK1 (UHF MODULATOR) SK3 SK4 SK5 SK6 PL13 (KEYBOARD) PL14 (SERIAL ROM) PL15 S21(2).629 201.200 800.25.95 IC88 (DNFS ROM) 17 WAY 10 WAY 2 WAY 3 WAY 34 26 20 40 WAY WAY WAY WAY 74LS123 74LS132 74LS393 75159 68B54 4013 4020 8271 LN319 27128* CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT 88 .601/647 201. 6 D.601 18(N).007 742.26. 26.050 300.21(2). 31-33 S20.002 704.489 738.628 800. 5 D.666 INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT 74LS283 LM324 LM386 LM555 81LS95/97 76489 81LS95 88LS120 6502A 6522 6845 6850 3691 SAA5050 VIDEO PROCESSOR SERIAL PROCESSOR 7002 4816 23128 1 2 1 1 2 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 7 16 2 A/R 1 A/R 7 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 23128 SOCKET D.86 IC93 IC 89 IC83.602/648 707.850 733.003 800.002 800.123 742.054 880.006 800.555 738.13 IC18 IC8-11 IC74 IC1 IC3.I.I.386 770.420 800. 5 WAY SOCKET UM1233-E36 SOCKET SOCKET SOCKET SOCKET PLUG PLUG PLUG PLUG SHUNT PLUG 8 WAY SLEEVING BLACK NEOPRENE HEATSINK WIRE TCW FASHION TAB CONNECTOR IDC CONNECTOR IDC CONNECTOR IDC CONNECTOR IDC INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED INTEGRATED D.N.32.

9 Glossary of abbreviations ACK ACTA ACKnowledge line on the printer port Asynchronous Communications Interface Adaptor – serial to parallel and parallel to serial converter (6850) ADC Analogue to Digital Converter ADLC Advanced Data Link Controller – Econet control IC (68B54) ADSR Attack. RGB socket etc DRAM Dynamic RAM EPROM Erasable Programmable Mead Only Memory FIT Final Inspection Tester FDC Floppy Disc Controller (8271) IC Integrated Circuit ID IDentity – refers to the unique number of a given Econet station IDC Insulation Displacement Connectors – parallel cable connectors underneath the computer IEEE488 A parallel interface usually associated with automatically controlled test instruments I/O Input Output IRQ Interrupt ReQuest – control line on the 6502 processor LK PCB link MA0-13 Memory Access – control lines out of the CRTC MOS Machine Operating System MPU Microprocessor Unit NMI Non-Maskable Interrupt – control line on the 6502 processor PA Port A – One of the two ports of a VIA PAL Phase Alternation Line – coding method used for combining separate colour information into a single signal PB Port B – The other port of a VIA PCB Printed Circuit Board PET Progressive Establishment Tester PL Header plug PSU Power Supply Unit Q1 etc Transistor numbers 89 .Z80 based operating system CPU Central Processor Unit (6502) CR Capacitor Resistor network CRT Cathode Ray Tube CRTC Cathode Ray Tube Controller IC (6845) CSYNC Composite SYNChronisation pulse from the CRTC CTS Clear To Send – control input on the RS423 port CUTS An American standard for frequency shift keying – ie using two different tones to represent logic levels DIN Connectors such as the cassette socket.9. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BNC Bayonet-Neill-Concelman – the type of bayonet connector used for the video output CA1/2 Control lines associated with the PA port on a VIA CAS Column Address Strobe – control line for the dynamic RAM CAS0 Refers to the area of RAM selected by the CAS0 line CAS1 Refers to the area of RAM selected by the CAS1 line CB1/2 Control lines associated with the PB port on a VIA CP/M Control Program for Microcomputers . Sustain. Decay. Release – defining the envelope of a sound ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange – binary code for representing alphanumeric characters.

QWERTY RA0-2 RAM RAS RC RGB ROM ROMSEL RS423C RTS SK SOT SW TCW TTL UHF ULA VDU VIA VR Z80 1MHz 1MhzE 2MhzE These are the upper left keys on the keyboard ie refers to the standard keyboard layout Row Address lines from the CRTC to access the RAM Random Access read/write Memory Row Address Strobe – Control line for the DRAM Resistor Capacitor network Red Green Blue – individual colour signals for the VDU Read Only Memory ROM SELect latch An internationally defined convention for serial transmission of data Ready To Send – control output on RS423 port Socket Select On Test South West Tinned Copper Wire Tranistor Transistor Logic – a standard type of digital IC (74.series) Ultra High Frequency – signal for input to a TV aerial socket. Uncommitted Logic array – semi-custom IC Visual Display Unit Versatile Inter ace Adaptor (6522) Variable Resistor a commonly used 8 bit microprocessor 1 Megahertz – usually refers to the interface bus running at that speed Strobe to which the processor is synchronized when accessing "slow" devices such as 6522 VIA and 1Mhz bus Strobe to which the processor is synchronised when accessing "fast" devices such as ROM and DRAMs. 90 .

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