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FUNCTIONS: Set of ordered pairs of real numbers (x, y) in which no two distinct ordered pairs have the same

first coordinate. (Meaning: x values can never repeat)


Passes the vertical line test - where the graph and the line should only intersect at one point Ex

A Function

Not a Function

1. Linear

A line is formed by connecting two points General form: ax + y + c = 0 Standard form: y = mx + b where m = slope of the line & b = y intercept Domain: All real numbers Range: All real numbers

Other important points:

Given A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2):

Slope :


Distance between A & B:


To get the equation of the line:

Point-slope form:

Two-point form:

* Constant Functions a special type of linear function that is only a horizontal

line Form: y=b

2. Quadratic

General form: ax2+bx+c=0 where a, b, c Real Numbers and a 0 Standard form: y= (x-h)2+k where Vertex(h, k) Domain: all real numbers

Range: For parabolas facing upward: [k, +) For parabolas facing downward: (-, k]

3. Radical semi circle

Standard form: y = Domain: r2- (x-h)20


Range: For (+) semi circle: [k, k+r] (-) semi circle: [-r+k, k]

4. Absolute value Standard form: y = |x-h|+k Domain: all real numbers Range: dependent on k and where the graph is facing

5. Rational Function

General Form:

Domain: all real numbers except any x value that will make Q (x) = 0 Range: * see the graph

For Graphing: 1.) Identify the vertical asymptotes


Values of x that will make the denominator equal to zero

2.) Find the horizontal asymptotes o If degree of P(x)> Q(x), then no H.A.

If degree of P(x) = Q(x), then H.A. is

o If degree of P(x) < Q(x), then H.A is y = 0 3.) Plot the asymptotes and test points. Then, graph.

6. Piecewise Combination of everything Domain: dependent on the domains specified in each part

Range: see graph

7. Polynomial Functions whose degree exceeds 2

Other Important Points:


ODD & EVEN Functions:

Even if f(-x) = f (x) or symmetric along y-axis Odd, if f(-x) = -f(x) or symmetric along x-axis and passes through the origin * y = 0 is a function that is both odd and even


Inverse Function: Symmetric along y=x


f (x) f-1(x)

How to get the inverse:


f(x) = 5x+4

1. Change x into y and y into x. x = 5y+4 2. Solve for y in terms of x. y = (x-4)/5

f-1(x) = (x-4)/5

Domain f(x) = Range f-1(x) Range f(x) = Domain f-1(x)


Operations on Functions A. (f+g) (x) = f(x) + g(x) B. (f-g) (x) = f(x) g(x) C. (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x) D. (f/g) (x) = f(x) / g(x) E. (fg) (x) = f(g(x))

* (f f-1) (x) = x