Hortulus Style Guide Citation Practice The contributor is responsible for the accuracy of quotations and citations, which

should be verified before the article is submitted. The guiding principle for citations is maximum clarity for the reader rather than brevity. When in doubt, the author should err on the side of providing more rather than less information. Arabic numerals are to be used for volume, part, and section numbers. This is true for journal volume numbers, for volume numbers and other subdivisions in a series, and for volume numbers in a multivolume work. It is also true for the subdivisions of classical and medieval texts. Retain roman numerals when the original work uses them for page numbers. They are also retained for manuscript shelf marks, where as much as possible the usage of the library should be followed. Hortulus style in general follows the format of Speculum. For matters not covered in the following style guide, the author is advised to consult previous volumes of the journal or the email the editors at hortulus@hortulus.net Primary sources Models for the citation of classical and medieval works are the following: 1. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, ed. Editor (City: Publisher, 1990), p. 135. 2. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, ed. Editor, p. 135. 3. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1. 4. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, line 5. 5. Medieval Author, Opus 2.4.1, p. 135. 6. Matt. 5.21; 1 Cor. 2.12. Note 1 is a standard first citation. The subdivisions of the medieval work follow the title without intervening punctuation, in descending order, separated by periods. For example, Opus is divided into books, sections, and chapters, and the sample citation should be read as book 2, section 4, chapter 1. Once the edition of a work has been provided in the first citation, subsequent references are shortened as in note 2, or even more as in notes 3, 4, or 5. The nature of the work and its editorial history will determine which version is required. Note 6 shows standard biblical citations, which likewise use periods as the divider between subdivisions, in this instance between chapter and verse.


If the reader might have difficulty deciphering this system as it applies to a given work, the reference should be spelled out in full. Secondary works Models for the citation of secondary works are the following: 7. John Doe, Book Title (City: Publisher, 1995), pp. 27–31. 8. Jane Smith, ―Article Title,‖ Journal 24 (1992), 2–14. 9. Doe, Short Title, p. 76; Smith, ―Short Title,‖ p. 9. The abbreviations ―p.‖ and ―pp.‖ are almost always used with page references to modern printed works. The most notable exception is full citations of journal articles, where the convention of providing in sequence the volume number, publication date, and page numbers is so well established that further specification is unnecessary. Provide inclusive pages rather than ―f.‖ or ―ff.‖ Book Citations Authors’ names should be cited as they appear on the title page. Do not abbreviate given names to initials. Publishers are to be included. Shortened names are acceptable (―Clarendon‖ rather than ―Clarendon Press‖) except for university presses, which should be fully spelled out (―University of Chicago Press‖; ―Harvard University Press‖). If the publisher lists more than one location, it is usually sufficient to cite only the first location in the list. The conventional English form of place-names should be given (―Turin‖ not ―Torino‖; ―Munich‖ not ―München‖), with the addition of the country or state if required (―Cambridge, Mass.‖ or ―Cambridge, Eng.‖). Simplest form Jesse L. Byock, Viking Age Iceland (London: Penguin, 2001), pp. 18–19, 92–93, and 118–19. Later editions and reprints Frederic Cassidy and Richard Ringler, eds., Bright’s Old English Grammar and Reader, 3rd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, 1971), pp. 224–26. Charles H. Beeson, A Primer of Medieval Latin: An Anthology of Prose and Poetry (1925; repr. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1986), pp. 25–27. Multiple volumes Appianus, Appian’s Roman History, trans. Horace White, 4 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972–79), 2:189. [The citation is to volume 2, page 189. The following citation is equally correct.]


Appianus, Appian’s Roman History, trans. Horace White, 2 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972), p. 189. [See ―Edited or translated works‖ below for an explanation of ―trans.‖] Monographs in a series Arno Borst, Die Katharer, Schriften der Monumenta Germaniae Historica 12 (Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 1953), pp. 112–15. [Series information is sometimes essential for locating books and ought to be included in such cases, but the editor(s) of series can usually be omitted.] Edited or translated works Pierre Bourdieu, The Logic of Practice, trans. Richard Nice (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1980), pp. 34–35. [Here the abbreviation ―trans‖ means ―translated by‖ and does not change when there is more than one translator.] Emil Friedberg, ed., Corpus iuris canonici, 2 vols. (Leipzig: Tauchnitz, 1879–81), 2:lxiv. [Here the abbreviation ―ed.‖ means ―editor‖; the plural is ―eds.‖ The citation is to volume 2, page lxiv.] Peter Hallberg, The Icelandic Saga, trans. Paul Schach (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962), pp. vii and 25. Foreign titles The capitalization rules of each language should be followed. Capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and proper adjectives in Latin titles. In Spanish, French, and Italian titles capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. In German titles all nouns are capitalized. Foreign language titles may be translated. The translation appears in roman type inside square brackets after the title. Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns and adjectives. Boris Porshnev, Feodalizm i narodnye massy [Feudalism and the masses] (Moscow: Nauka, 1964), pp. 22–50. Subsequent references Duby, Art and Society, p. 9. Short titles are preferred to ―op. cit.‖ The use of ―ibid.‖ is recommended only when the same work is continually cited in a list of immediately successive notes. If successive references are not contiguous, the reader will benefit from this more detailed form: Duby, p. 9.


If the work in question is repeatedly cited throughout the article, it is helpful to include in the first note reference ―hereafter cited as Duby.‖ Subsequent note references then takethe form ―Duby, p. 9.‖ Articles Do not abbreviate journal titles. One of few exceptions is PMLA, where the abbreviation has become the main title of the journal. John D. Niles, ―Exeter Book Riddle 74 and the Play of the Text,‖ Anglo-Saxon England 27 (1998), 169–207. [Book titles within article titles are italicized.] Donald G. Scragg, ―The Nature of Old English Verse,‖ in The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature, eds. Malcolm Godden and Michael Lapidge (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 55–70. Robert Bourgeois, ―La théorie de la connaissance intellectuelle chez Henri de Gand,‖ Revue de philosophie, n.s. 6 (1936), 238–59. Subsequent references Niles, ―Exeter Book Riddle,‖ p. 189. Manuscripts Both in the text and in the notes the abbreviation ―MS‖ (plural ―MSS‖) is used only when it precedes a shelfmark. Cite the shelfmark according to the practice of the given library. Folio numbers should include a recto/verso reference, abbreviated and written on the line. Do not use a superscript. The abbreviation of ―folio‖ is ―fol.‖ (plural ―fols.‖). The first, full reference to a manuscript should give the name of the library and the shelfmark: British Library, MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv, fols. 129v–198r. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Vat. lat. 6055, fols. 151r–228v. Exeter Cathedral Library, MS 3501, fols. 115r–v. Subsequent references MS Cot. Vit. A.xv, fol. 129v. Vat. lat. 6055, fol. 151r. MS 3501, fol. 115v. Ancient Works, Medieval Works, and the Bible The system of citation used in the following examples is explained above under ―Citation Practice.‖ For canonical collections, registers, etc., the prevailing abbreviations and style of citation should be used. Bede, Historia ecclesiastica 2.3, ed. and trans. Bertram Colgrave and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford: Clarendon, 1969), p. 142. Prov. 6.7 [Do not italicize books of the Bible. Use a period, not a colon, between chapter and verse.]


Marie de France, Le Chaitivel, lines 231-32, ed. Jean Rychner, Les Lais de Marie de France, Les Classiques Français du Moyen Âge 93 (Paris, 1966; repr. 1971). Subsequent references Bede, Historia ecclesiastica 2.3, p. 142. Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae 12.1.59. [Page numbers of the edition are often not required.] Series Series titles and abbreviations thereof are not italicized. Many series are familiar enough to allow the use of standard abbreviations, and it is often permissible to eliminate the name of the editor and the place and date of publication. If in doubt, use the full title. The volume number and page number are separated by a colon, with no space between the elements. PL 123:347. MGH SS 13:229. If the series is subdivided MGH LL 2/1:263. [Section 2, volume 1, page 263.] Full citation of an edited work in a series Alcuin, Vita Willibrordi, ed. Wilhelm Levison, MGH SSrerMerov 7 (1920), pp. 113–41.

Other Matters 1. References to modern authors. The first mention of a modern author in the text should include the given name (or initials, if that is the author’s preferred form). 2. Notes. Notes should be concise and should be confined to material necessary to support assertions in the text. They will be printed as endnotes. Notes are not to be used in reviews. 3. Abbreviations. A period should follow after abbreviations. French place-names containing ―Saint‖ are normally spelled out, and the hyphen is essential: ―Saint-Denis.‖ 4. Acronyms. Sometimes writers may find it convenient and necessary to use acronyms. All acronyms should be spelled out on first reference with the acronym, in parentheses, following. For example: ―When Kirk and Dobbie compiled the Anglo Saxon Poetic Records (ASPR) for publication.....‖ The exception to this rule is PMLA which can stand alone on first reference. 5. Italics and quotation marks. Isolated words and phrases under forty words in foreign languages should be italicized. Do not italicize foreign language quotations in excess of -5-

forty words. Direct quotations of texts in foreign languages should be placed in quotation marks. Single quotation marks are reserved for quotations within quotations. 6. Quotations. Quotations under forty words should be integrated into the text. Quotations longer than forty words should be treated as block quotations (single-spaced and indented, no quotation marks). When citing verse or drama, the first reference should include a footnote providing all bibliographical information pertinent to the text. Subsequent references to the text can be shortened as follows: “he could not speak like a man” (ll.66-67).

7. Translations. Authors are expected to translate all foreign languages, including Latin. As per above, the first reference to a primary source should provide all relevant bibliographical information in a footnote. Subsequent references can be cited in-text where appropriate. For single foreign language words or phrases under forty words (inclusive of the translation), the translation should follow the word or phrase in question in parentheses with no quotation marks:
He is described as a 'wyrresta wilddeor' [worst wild beast] (ll.37-38).

As always, punctuation is placed outside the parenthesis. Translations longer than forty words should be formatted as longer quotations as outlined above. Forst sceal freosan, fyr wudu meltan, eorþe growan, is brycgian, wæter helm wegan, wundnun lucan corþan cibas. An sceal inbindan forstes fetre felameahtig god; winter sceal geweorpan, weder eft cuman, sumor swegle hat, sund unstille. (ll.71–77)
[Frost freezes, fire destroys wood, the earth grows, ice forms a bridge, water wears a covering, the shoots of the earth are wondrously bound up. God the almighty, alone, shall unbind the fetters of frost; winter will be cast off, and weather comes again, summer hot with the sun, the ocean restless].


If the author does not provide a translation, then the editors will provide one. In such instances, the translation will end with a triple hyphen (and ―Eds. translation‖ in italics, placed inside the bracket. Thus, ―Porcus pigrus sit!‖ [May the pig be lazy!—Eds. translation] 8. Scholarly reference words. Words and abbreviations such as ―et al.,‖ ―ibid.,‖ ―idem,‖ ―passim,‖ ―e.g.,‖ ―i.e.,‖ ―[sic],‖ and ―ca.‖ should not be italicized. Note that ―cf.‖ means ―compare‖ and should not be used when ―see‖ or ―see also‖ is the accurate expression. 9. Dates. The correct form is ―1390s‖ not ―1390’s.‖ Centuries should be spelled out; the adjectival form requires a hyphen, as in ―twelfth-century manuscript.‖ 10. Capitalization. ―Middle Ages‖ is capitalized but ―medieval‖ is not. On religious names and terms see Chicago Manual, 15th ed., p. 347. ―Church‖ is generally lowercase, unless it is part of the official name of a denomination or building, or unless it refers to the universal Church. ―Bible‖ is capitalized but ―biblical‖ is not. 11. Psalm numbering. Psalm numbering should follow the Vulgate numbering system. British vs. American Conventions: Some of the articles submitted for publication may have British spellings or punctuation. All punctuation will be regularized to American usage. British spellings, however, may be retained on articles submitted by those other than Hortulus staff. If an article is submitted with British spellings and is accepted for publication, the Submissions editor needs to advise the Copy editor of this fact. Copy will then ensure that word usage in the article is consistently British and not a combination of British and American spellings. (MS Word X can spell-check in multiple languages, including “English (US)” and “English (UK).”) As Hortulus is based at an American university, Hortulus staff will follow American spelling conventions for all in-house articles/copy. Computer Nomenclature: ―Web‖ meaning the World Wide Web is always capitalized: Hortulus is a Web-based journal. ―Web site‖ is two words; ―site‖ is not capitalized. ―Online‖ is one word with no hyphen (―online,‖ not ―on-line‖). The word ―e-mail‖ is hyphenated and not capitalized (―e-mail,‖ not ―email‖ or ―E-mail‖). Hyphens:


Prefixes which are not words in themselves, such as “pre,” “non,” “multi,” “re,” “sub,” and “pro,” can often be attached to other words without a hyphen, as in “preindustrial,” “nonscholarly,” “multivolume,” “reconsider,” “subcategories,” or “prochurch.” (But at times dictionaries will give both forms as correct, such as “preexist” and “pre-exist.”) Words that are also prefixes, such as “out,” “post,” “over,” and “under,” often don’t need hyphens when combined with other words, as in “outthink,” “postmedieval,” “overemphasize,” or “underrated.” Other words used as adjectives are not hyphenated if the meaning can be understood. “A better prepared scholar” means the same as “a better-prepared scholar.” But hyphenate the words if the meaning is not otherwise clear: “Her reply was thought-provoking,” meaning conducive to thought, versus “Her reply was thought provoking,” or considered to be provoking Centuries are hyphenated in the adjectival form, as in “thirteenth-century France.” Some terms such as “pre-Christian” are hyphenated because the second element is capitalized. Use a hyphen if the meaning is misleading without a hyphen, as in “re-create,” to create again, vs. “recreate,” to have fun. When in doubt, consult a modern dictionary. Lists: Do not punctuate the ends of lines in a list of items on separate lines, whether enumerated or set off with bullets. Incomplete sentences should not end in periods in narrative text. Thus, The journal Hortulus has several goals. Among them are  the flowering of academic talent  the cultivation of ideas  no weeds There is no colon after the word “are” in the first line. The following is incorrect: The journal Hortulus has several goals. Among them are:  the flowering of academic talent;  the cultivation of ideas; and  no weeds. It could be rewritten in paragraph form, like so (still with no colon after “are”): The journal Hortulus has several goals. Among them are 1) the flowering of academic talent; 2) the cultivation of ideas; and 3) no weeds. Middle Ages: “Middle Ages” is capitalized but “medieval” is not. The term “dark ages” (or “Dark Ages”) is never appropriate as a synonym for “Middle Ages.” Movie Review Formatting: The title is boldface in quotation marks. The body of the text follows with a single indent for each paragraph. The entire review concludes with a -8-

double-spaced byline consisting of a double hyphen and the name of the reviewer in italics. For example, “King Arthur” Director: Some Guy Though this movie claims to be based on the historical King Arthur, one wonders just how the director of ―King Arthur‖ managed to pull together so many disparate stories steeped in the realm of legend. . . . But if I were to give this another rating . . . – Brian O’Camb Titles: All movie titles should be in quotation marks (―King Arthur‖ not King Arthur). Personal Titles: Do not capitalize titles before names such as director, producer, director of photography, and so on. Thus, When director Mel Brooks wrote ―Blazing Saddles‖ . . . Actor/Actress: Use the appropriate masculine or feminine form of the noun. Book Review Formatting: Book and journal titles are italicized; titles of articles are in regular type in quotation marks. Thus, The movie ―A Knight’s Tale‖ was reviewed in Movie Lover’s Guide in an article titled ―Depictions of Chaucer in Modern Film.‖ Photo/Art Credits: Assuming that we manage to land the occasional picture to accompany a film review, the caption should appear below the picture, justified to the right corner, in 8 point font, as follows: Photo courtesy of UNIVERSAL STUDIOS Photo courtesy of ERIC JAGER Note the CAPS used in the name of the provider (also note that we give no honorifics or titles; Professor Eric Jager is simply listed as Eric Jager). If we post a picture taken by one of our staff, the credit should appear in all CAPS: BRIAN O’CAMB Scholarly Reference Words: Words and abbreviations such as “et al.,” “ibid.,” “idem,” “passim,” “e.g.,” “i.e.,” “[sic],” and “ca.” should not be italicized. Note that “cf.” means “compare” and should not be used when “see” or “see also” is the accurate expression. Be aware of these definitions: ca. (circa, ―around, about‖) designates an approximate date when the exact date is not known. Thus, -9-

The Venerable Bede was born ca. 673. cf. (confer, ―compare‖) precedes a note citation intended to be compared to the material presented. Do not use ―cf.‖ when ―see‖ or ―see also‖ is the accurate expression. e.g. (exempli gratia, ―for example, such as‖) precedes an example illustrating the point just made. Thus, Medieval wise women were skilled in the use of many herbs, e.g., chamomile, feverfew, and verbena. et al. (et alia, ―and others‖) designates additional authors or editors in note citations. Author1, Author2, et al., Title (City: Publisher, 1986). [Not] Author1, A2, A3, A4, and A5, Title (City: Publisher, 1986). ibid. (ibidem, ―in the same place‖) refers to the same author and work cited just prior in note citations. Thus, 7. Author, Title (City: Publisher, 1994), p. 17. 8. Ibid., p. 19. idem (idem, ―the same‖) replaces the author’s name when citing more than one work by the same author in a single note. Thus, 12. Author, Work 1 (City: Publisher, 1994); idem, Work 2 (City: Publisher, 1998); idem, Work 3 (City: Publisher, 2001). i.e. (id est, ―that is‖) explains the idea just expressed in other words. Thus, She found the idea rather strange, i.e., it was something she had not encountered before. passim (passim, ―here and there‖) designates references that appear here and there rather than specific page numbers in note citations. Thus, 12. Author, Title (City: Publisher, 2001), passim. [Not] 12. Author, Title (City: Publisher, 2001), pp. 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 34, 40, [etc.]. [sic] (sic, ―so, thus‖) designates, often in a quotation, a word or phrase that may appear strange or incorrect but that has been taken verbatim from the original. Thus, The poem was written by e. e. cummings [sic].‖ Miscellaneous:  Capitalize “Vulgate” as in “Vulgate Latin” or “the Vulgate.”  Hortulus is always italicized in Word documents and on the Web.  Use a single space, not a double space, after a colon or a period.

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