You are on page 1of 48



YEAR 2009




Project By:-

Roll No.DPG-123 Raebareli -229406 Arjun Singh Center for Distance and Open Learning Jamia Millia Islamia Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar Marg New Delhi-110025


Name of Guide :Er. Chhabi Prakash Pant Dy. Manager(C&I)

Project By:G.P.YADAV Roll No.123



This is to certify that the project title STUDY OF CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM OF THERMAL POWER STATION is an original & joint group work of the student and is being submitted partial fulfillment for the award of the Diploma In Power Generation Engineering of JAMIA MILLIA ISLAMIA, NEW DELHI. This report has not been submitted earlier either to this university or to any other university/institution for the fulfillment of the requirement of a course of study.




Place : NTPC Unchahar Date :

Place : NTPC Unchahar Date :

Control and instrumentation in any process industry, can be compared to the nervous system in the human being. The way the nerve system controlling the operation of various limbs of human being, C & I in the same way controlling and operating various motors, pumps, dampers, valves etc. and helping us to achieve our targets. This report contains not only theoretical aspect but it is full of long practical experience of my life in power plant about twenty five years. We try to write on every small device used in power plant instrumentation, but due to limitation of time could not so. Because of micro chip revolution and advancement in industrial electronics controls & instrumentation system Control and instrumentation, as the name indicates, is a branch in engineering which deals with various measurement, indication, transmission and control in different technical fields. The latest development made in the area of instrumentation is so wide that it has become humanly impossible to master over all the system individually. Even in instrumentation there are further sub groups now. The term instrument means A device or combination of devices used directly or indirectly to measure and display a variable.In modern power plants replaces old type of primary sensing devices as example old big size transmitters has been replaced by the mini size SMART type this type there are no any mechanical part only contains electronics card perform all required application , which easy in maintenance and low cost.and reliable Instrumentation is a measurement if various parameters with comparison to set standards. We have been using for ages different instruments suck as weights, yard stick, scales, measuring tapes, standard container for liquid measurement Each of these equipments is an instrument. Similarly, in industries and Process plants, Instrumentation makes use of various measuring components designed to suit the process and the purpose. As some of the big industries and process plants needs to control different process variable from a remote distance control room, the further measuring, transmitting indicating, In modern NTPC plants all old system of controlling the process variables are renovated by latest technologies based on digital and centralized computer controlled. Only we pick ups analog signals from field converting into digital form and manipulating it as our plant requirement. At last we also give the brief description of MAX DNA 2000 system. This system incorporates the latest advancement in the field of control and instrumentation of a modern power generating station

ACKNOWLEGEMENT It is the matter of great pleasure and privilege our profound gratitude the higher management of NTPC and Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi to provide us opportunity to developed technical skill through distance learning programme(DPGE). Our team is thankful to Mr. B.L. Swami, Head of Institution, Sri A.K. Singh, Programme Incharge and Mr. Sushil Srivastava and other staff member of EDC for their continues moral support ,who encourage us at every step. At last but not least we are thankful to our project coordinator Er. Chhavi Prakash Pant and C&I Department team who guide every where, when our team faces problems. Our team overcomes from all problems because of their friendly cooperation and valuable suggestions due to over whelming support we are all able to prepare this report in a very short time, which include our long practical work experience in the field of repair and maintenance of measuring instrument and control system of Feroz Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Station. The purpose of this report is to solve the problems of our field and developed our self to compete in this fast developing technological global world.



Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


To study the subject of industrial process control effectively you must first gain a general understanding of its basic principles. To present these control principles clearly and concisely, an intuitive approach to process control is used. First, however, some basic definitions and concepts of process control are presented. The operations that are associated with process control have always existed in nature. Such natural process control can be defined as any operation that regulates some internal physical characteristic that is important to a living organism. Examples of natural regulation in humans include body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Early humans found it necessary to regulate some of their external environmental parameters to maintain life. This regulation could be defined as artificial process control or more simply as process control, as we will refer to it in this book. This type of process control is accomplished by observing a parameter, comparing it to some desired value, and initiating a control action to bring the parameter as close as possible to the desired value. One of the first examples of such control was early mans use of fireto maintain the temperature of their environment. The term automatic process control came into wide use when people learned to adapt automatic regulatory procedures to manufacture products or process material more efficiently. Such procedures are called automatic because no human (manual) intervention is required to regulate them. All process systems consist of three main factors or terms: the manipulated variables, disturbances, and the controlled variables. Typical manipulated variables are valve position, motor speed, damper position, or blade pitch. The controlled variables are those conditions, such as temperature, level, position, pressure, pH, density, moisture content, weight, and speed that must be maintained at some desired value. For each controlled variable there is an associated manipulated variable. The control system must adjust the manipulated variables so the desired value or set point of the controlled variable is maintained despite any disturbances. Disturbances enter or affect the process and tend to drive the controlled variables away from their desired value or set point condition. Typical disturbances include changes in ambient temperature, in demand for product, or in the supply of feed material. The control system must adjust the manipulated variable so the set point value of the controlled variable is maintained despite the disturbances. If the set point is changed, the manipulated quantity must be changed to adjust the controlled variable to its new desired value. For each controlled variable the control system operators select a manipulated variable that can be paired with the controlled variable. Often the choice is obvious, such as manipulating the flow of fuel to a home furnace to control the temperature of the house. Sometimes the choice is not so obvious and can only be determined by someone who understands the process under control. The pairing of manipulated and controlled variables is performed as part of the process design.


To study the measuring instruments for various parameters. To study the various control systems in thermal plant. To study about the modern technologies in the field of control and instrumentation. To over come from the day to day problem related to control and measurement. To educate our self about the latest technologies which would be used in the future. In this way we all are able to compete in the fast developing globalize world



Sl. No.

Name of Group Members

Enrol No.

Roll No.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


D-06-590 D-06-593 D-06-607 D-06-622 D-06-630 D-06-640 D-06-650 D-06-660 D-06-674 D-06-688 D-06-692

D-06-DPG-091 D-06-DPG-094 D-06-DPG-108 D-06-DPG-123 D-06-DPG-131 D-06-DPG-140 D-06-DPG-150 D-06-DPG-160 D-06-DPG-175 D-06-DPG-189 D-06-DPG-193


Under the guidance of Er. C.P. Pant

Counsellor, JMI Unchahar NTPC




F.G.U.T.P.S. is located in UP 120 Km from state capital Lucknow . It is located on Lucknow Allahabad highway, 35 km from raibareily,85 km from Allahabad. Foundation stone was laid by late Smt .Indra Gandhi on 27.06.1981. Unchahar project was taken over by NTPC From UP government on 13.02.1992. On 06.12.2006 Smt Sonia Gandhi dedicated to the nation (5 X 210 MW ) . Total land area of project including township is 4156.7 acres.Coal sourses of project are Central coal field Ltd, Bharat cocking coal Ltd, Eastern coalfield Ltd. Water Source is Sarada sahayak canal is main and Dalmau pump canal from river Ganga .


SYNCHRONIZATION DATE Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 21.11.1988 22.03.1989 27.01.1999 22.10.1999 28.09.2006

Power Evacuation a) Unchahar to Lucknow two transmission line b) Unchahar to Fatehpur Two Lines c) Unchahar to Kanpur Four Lines d) Unchahar to Raibareily Single Line









Flow measurement of solids, liquids and gases are required in Thermal Power Stations. Though the liquid flow measurements are made very accurately, the gas flow measurement cannot be so, water flow measurements are done fairly easily and accurately whereas steam flow measurement requires density correction under varying pressures. The air and flue gas flow measurements suffer accuracy and reliability due to variation in pressure, temperature, duct leakage, dust accumulation etc. The solid flow measurement is very difficult and only on a rough area is arrived at about the P.F. flow through inferential means. In Power stations flow measurement are based on inferential principles. Differential pressures are created by placing suitable throttling devices in the flow path of the fluids in the pipes/ducts. The throttling devices are suitably selected depending upon the media, flow quantity etc. from among office, venture, flow nozzle dall tube etc. the differential pressure developed across such sensing devices is proportional to the square of the flow quantity. DP TYPE ROTAMETER ULTRASONIC Measured process variable. This section describes the nature of flow and factors affecting it. Devices commonly used to measure flow are presented, as is a discussion on accuracy and how it is typically specified. For quick reference, a table listing the primary characteristics of flow metering devices is included along with a conversion chart for the various measurement units encountered in dealing with flow. Flow is generally measured inferentially by Measuring fluid flow is one of the most important aspects of process control. In fact, it may well be the most frequently measuring velocity through a known area. With this indirect method, the flow measured is the volume flow rate, Qv, stated in its simplest terms: Qv = A * V In this equation, A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe and V is the fluid velocity. A reliable flow indication is dependent upon the correct measurement of A and V. If, for example, air bubbles are present in the fluid, the area term .A. of the equation would be artificially high. Likewise, if the velocity is measured as a point velocity at the center of the pipe, and it is used as the velocity term .V. of the equation, a greater Qv than actual would be calculated because V must reflect the average velocity of the flow as it passes a cross-section of the pipe. Of the many devices available for measuring fluid flow, the type of device used often depends on the nature of the fluid and the process conditions under which it is measured. Flow is usually measured indirectly by first measuring a differential pressure or a fluid velocity. This measurement is then related to the volume rate electronically. Flowmeters can be grouped into four generic types: positive displacement meters, head meters, velocity meters, and mass meters.


Positive Displacement Meters

Positive displacement meters measure the volume flow rate (QV) directly by repeatedly trapping a sample of the fluid. The total volume of liquid passing through the meter in a given period of time is the product of the volume of the sample and the number of samples. Positive displacement meters frequently totalize flow directly on an integral counter, but they can also generate a pulse output which may be read on a local display counter or by transmission to a control room. Because each pulse represents a discrete volume of fluid, they are ideally suited for automatic batching and accounting. Positive displacement meters can be less accurate than other meters because of leakage past the internal sealing surfaces. Three common types of displacement meters are the piston, oval gear, and nutating disc. Head Meters Head meters are the most common types of meter used to measure fluid flow rates. They measure fluid flow indirectly by creating and measuring a differential pressure by means of an obstruction to the fluid flow. Using well-established conversion coefficients which depend on the type of head meter used and the diameter of the pipe, a measurement of the differential pressure may be translated into a volume rate. Head meters are generally simple, reliable, and offer more flexibility than other flow measurement methods. The head-type flowmeter almost always consists of two components: the primary device and the secondary device. The primary device is placed in the pipe to restrict the flow and develop a differential pressure. The secondary device measures the differential pressure and provides a readout or signal for transmission to a control system. With head meters, calibration of a primary measuring device is not required in the field. The primary device can be selected for compatibility with the specific fluid or application and the secondary device can be selected for the type or readout of signal transmission desired. Orifice Plates A concentric orifice plate is the simplest and least expensive of the head meters (Figure 2). Acting as a primary device, the orifice plate constricts the flow of a fluid to produce a differential pressure across the plate. 17

In the result is a high pressure upstream and a low pressure downstream that is propo-rtional to the square of the flow velocity. An orifice plate usually produces a greater overall pressure loss than other primary devices. A practical advantage of this device is that cost does not increase significantly with pipe size. Venturi Tubes Venturi tubes exhibit a very low pressure loss compared to other differential pressure head meters, but they are also the largest and most costly. They operate by gradually narrowing the diameter of the pipe, and measuring the resultant drop in pressure. An expanding section of the meter then returns the flow to very near its original pressure. As with the orifice plate, the differential pressure measurement is converted into a corresponding flow rate. Venturi tube applications are generally restricted to those requiring a low pressure drop and a high accuracy reading. They are widely used in large diameter pipes such as those found in waste treatment plants because their gradually sloping shape will allow solids to flow through.

Flow Nozzle


Flow nozzles may be thought of as a variation on the venturi tube. The nozzle opening is an elliptical restriction in the flow but with no outlet area for pressure recovery (Figure 4).

Pressure taps are located approximately 1/2 pipe diameter downstream and 1 pipe diameter ups. The flow nozzle is a high velocity flow meter used where turbulence is high (Reynolds numbers above 50,000) such as in steam flow at high temperatures. The pressure drop of a flow nozzle falls between that of the venturi tube and the orifice plate (30 to 95 percent). Pitot Tubes In general, a pitot tube for indicating flow consists of two hollow tubes that sense the pressure at different places within the pipe. These tubes can be mounted separately in the pipe or installed together in one casing as a single device. One tube measures the stagnation or impact pressure (velocity head plus potential head) at a point in the flow. The other tube measures only the static pressure (potential head), usually at the wall of the pipe. The differential pressure sensed through the pitot tube is proportional to the square of the velocity. Pitot tubes are primarily used to measure gases because the change in the flow velocity from average to center is not as substantial as in other fluids. Pitot tubes have found limited applications in industrial markets because they can easily become plugged with foreign material in the fluid. Their accuracy is dependent on the velocity profile.



Rotameters (also known as variable-area flow meters) are typically made from a tapered glass tube that is positioned vertically in the fluid flow. A float that is the same size as the base of the glass tube rides upward in relation to the amount of flow. Because the tube is larger in diameter at the top of the glass than at the bottom, the float resides at the point where the differential pressure between the upper and lower surfaces balances the weight of the float. In most rotameter applications, the flow rate is read directly from a scale inscribed on the glass; in some cases, an automatic sensing device is used to the float and transmits a flow signal. Velocity Meters When using velocity to measure a fluid flow rate, the primary device generates a signal proportional to fluid velocity. The equation QV = A * V illustrates that the generated signal is linear with respect to the volume flow rate. Velocity meters are usually less sensitive than head meters to velocity profile, some are obstruction less, and because they provide linear output with respect to flow, there is no square-root relationship as with differential pressure meters. This eliminates the potential inaccuracies associated with square-root extraction and explains the greater range-ability of velocity meters in comparison to most head meters. Turbine Meters


A turbine meter uses a multi-bladed rotor that is supported by bearings within a pipe section perpendicular to the flow. Fluid drives the rotor at a velocity that is proportional to the fluid velocity and, consequently, to the overall volume flow rate. A magnetic coil outside the meter produces an alternating voltage as each blade cuts the coil.s magnetic lines of flux. Each pulse, therefore, represents a discrete volume of liquid. Since the rotor is usually made of stainless steel, it is compatible with many fluids. However, the bearings, which are necessary to support the rotor and which must allow it to spin freely at high speeds, require a fairly clean process.

Ultrasonic Flow Meters Ultrasonic flow meters use sound waves to determine the flow rate of fluids. Pulses from a piezoelectric transducer travel through a moving fluid at the speed of sound and provide an indication of fluid velocity. Two different methods are currently employed to establish this velocity measurement.The first ultrasonic meters used a transit-time method, in which two opposing transducers are mounted so that sound waves traveling between them are at a 45 degree angle to the direction of flow within a pipe.


The speed of sound from the upstream transducer to the downstream transducer represents the inherent speed of sound plus a contribution due to the fluid velocity. In a simultaneous measurement in the opposite direction, a value (determined electronically) is representative of the fluid velocity, which is linearly proportional to the flow rate. While the transit-time method works well in most fluids, it is essential that they be free of entrained gas or solids to prevent scattering of the sound waves between transducers.

Ultrasonic Flow Meters ( Doppler Effect ) Another type of ultrasonic meter uses the Doppler effect. This type of ultrasonic meter uses two transducer elements as well, but each is mounted in the same case on one side of the pipe. An ultrasonic sound wave of constant frequency is transmitted into the fluid by one of the elements. Solids or bubbles within the fluid reflect the sound back to the receiver element. The Doppler principle states that there will be a shift in apparent frequency or wavelength when there is relative motion between transmitter and receiver. Within the Doppler flow meter, the relative motion of the reflecting bodies suspended within the fluid tends to compress the sound into a shorter wavelength (high frequency). This new frequency measured at the receiving element is electronically compared with the transmitted frequency to provide a frequency difference that is directly proportional to the flow velocity in the pipe. In contrast to the transit-time method, Doppler ultrasonic meters require entrained gases or suspended solids within the flow to function correctly. While ultrasonic meters have several advantages, including freedom from obstruction in the pipe and negligible costsensitivity with respect to pipe diameter, their performance is very dependent on flow conditions. A fair accuracy is attainable with ultrasonic flow meters when properly applied to appropriate fluids.

Level measurement is generally carried out as differential pressure measurements. In power stations, level measurement in open tanks such as DM storage Tank and Fuel Oil and Lub Oil tanks and in closed tanks such as dearator, condenser hot well, boiler drum and L.P. & H.P. Heaters are to be made. Gauge glasses and floats are used for local indication of levels and the transmitters used for measuring the differential pressure are used along with the secondary instruments for remote level measurements. The measurement of the boiler drum poses many problems because of varying pressure and temperature and many computations and corrections are to be made in order to get correct levels. A recent development in this area is the Hydra step. Though it is very costly it improves the accuracy and the reliability of this measurement. Other problem area is the solid level measurement where the coal bunker levels and dust collector hopper level are required. In both these cases continuous level measurement is not possible. 22

However fairly reliable and accurate provisions are available to indicate the extreme level on either directions (low or high). The nucleonic level gauges or the capacitance and resistance type sensors serve in these areas very well. Dp type Capacitance Ultrasonic Radar Leveltrols 1) Direct Methods A) Hook Type B) Sight Glass C) Float Gauging 2) Servo Level Gauging 3) Capacitive Probes 4) Pressure Operated Gauging 5) Nucleonic Gauging 6) Ultrasonic Gauging




MEASUREMENT OF LEVEL BY GAUGE GLASS In many industrial process it is very important to know the level of liquid in a tank or vessel it is essential to know the level of the water in the boiler while it is in use and under pressure ,but it is impossible to view it directly .Level measurement is therefore describe under the followings



4 20 mA + _

Open to Atm.

In open vessels a pressure transmitter mounted near the bottom of the tank will measure the pressure corresponding to the height of the fluid above it. The connection is made to the high pressure side of the transmitter. The low pressure side is vented to atmosphere. If zero point of the desired level range is above the transmitter, zero suppression of the range must be made.

Closed Vessels
In closed vessels, the pressure above the liquid will affect the pressure measured at the bottom. The pressure at the bottom of the vessel is equal to the height of the liquid multiplied by the specific gravity of the liquid plus the vessel pressure. To measure true level, the vessel pressure must be subtracted from the measurement. This is accomplished by making a pressure tap at the top of the vessel & connecting this to the low pressure side of the dp transmitter. Vessel pressure is now equally applied to both high & low pressure sides of the transmitter. The resulting differential pressure is proportional to liquid height multiplied by the specific gravity.



As the level changes capacitances of the probe changes. in this type of measurement capacitance probe is used. Expressed in mathematical relationship,the capacitance of two parallel plate capacitor,in microfarads may be found from
c=0.225ka/d where, c= capacitance a=area of the plate, inch sqr. d=distance between plates,inch k=dielectric constant.

Remote Amp

4 20 mA

As the level changes, the capacitance of the probe also changes. In this type of measurement capacitance probe is used. Expressed in mathematical relationship, the capacitance of two parallel plate capacitor, in microfarads may be found from c=0.225ka/ where, c= capacitance A=area of the plate, inch sqr. D=distance between plates,inch K=dielectric constant. The capacitance, which varies directly with the level of the liquid in the tube, can be measured in many ways and related to the height of the liquid. The capacitance of the probe will be minimum when medium between tube and vessel wall is air and maximum when medium between tube and vessel wall is liquid which works as the dielectric.


Ultrasonic level measurement is well established in many processing industries as a medium-priced solution for level, flow and contents measurement. Sensors operate by transmitting an ultrasonic signal to the surface of the liquid and measuring the time taken for the reflected signal to return. Because the speed of ultrasound in air is known, the distance to the surface of the liquid can be calculated, and hence the level or volume. For consistent accuracy, a reference pin version can be used to measure the actual speed of the signal from the sensor to a known reference point, so that the effects of ullage conditions can be minimised.


In above hydrastep red colour shows steam and green colour shows the level of water in boiler drum .The working principle of hydrastep is based on the density difference of water and steam is widely used in modern steam power plant of NTPC .


The pressure measurement in thermal power station ranges from 1 Kg/cm2 (nearly) at condenser to hydraulic test pressure of boiler. Here again many medias exist such as steam/water, lubricating oil, fuel oil, air, fuel gases, hydrogen etc. For local indication of pressure and differential pressure, bourdon tube, type and diaphragm type gauges or liquid monometers either electronic or pneumatic coupled with a secondary instrument indicator/recorder. Many varieties of transmitters are in use. In these transmitters the mechanical movement of sensing elements such as bourdon, bellows, diaphragm etc. due to the pressure causes an electrical property change such as current, voltage, resistance, capacitance, reluctance, inductance etc. which is utilized as a measure of pressure in the secondary instruments. The secondary instruments are either indicators or recorders.

Manometers 28

Mechanical Transducers Bourdon Element Bellow Elements

Diaphragm Elements Electronic Transducer Strain Gauges Variable Reluctance Variable Capacitance MANOMETER Manometer are often used for process pressure application exept occasionally for low pressure services where measurement are in low pressure range PRINCIPLE OF MANOMETER IS GIVEN AS p= height * density where pin per sq.foot/inch height in feet/ inch density in pound`s/cubic foot/inch

TypesU-Tube manometer


Well Manometer Inclined manometer Mercury float manometer Bell manometer

BOURDON TUBE It is the twisted tube whose cross-sectional isn`t circular. The application of internal pressure causes the tube to unwind or straighten out. The movement of free end is transmitted to a pointer or other indicating element. Phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, steel, chrome alloy & stainless steel are commonly used. They are the most widely used type of pressure gauge. They are the c-type, helical & spiral type. They should be filled with oil to limit the damage caused by vibration.



In thermal power station we are carried out repair as following manner Open the pressure gauge. Cleaning and servicing with petrol. If any gear found defective then replaced it with new part. Check the healthiness & movement assembly. Do proper oiling in all moving part. Calibrate it with standard pressure gauge and comparator We gradually increase the pressure from 0%. 25%,50%.75%,100% of full range. Now gradually we decreases the pressure 100%,75%,50%,25%,0% of full range. We compare the readings of under calibration gauge with standard gauge. If find any error adjust it till readings of both gauges are equal. Prepare calibration report

Generally broken glass found Needle off from its place Defective gear assembly Dirty glass causes visibility problem Bourdon tube rapture very rare



It is a series of circular part so formed or joined that they can be expanded axially by pressure. A wide range spring is employed to limit the travel of bellows. The measurement is limited from .5 to 70 psi. It is greatly used as receiving elements for pneumatic recorders, indicators & controllers & also as a differential unit of flow measurement. STRAIN GAUGES Transmitter for Pressure, Absolute-Pressure, Differential Pressure, Flow and Liquid Level

Conventional and smart all in one device PROFIBUS-PA Can be configured on site High accuracy 0.1% (incl. hysteresis + repeatability) High long-term stability of 0.25% over 5 years


Measuring spans of 1 mbar to 400 bar Also applicable in applications with aggressive media Types of protection: intrinsically safe EEx ia, flameproof EEx d (CENELEC, FM and CSA)

The Measuring Principle

Pressure acts on the separating diaphragm Silicone liquid (or an inert liquid) transmits the pressure to the sensor four piezoelectric resistors in the measuring diaphragm in bridge connection change their resistance value - the bridge output voltage is therefore proportional to the pressure ADVANTAGES Good accuracy,stability & shock & vibration characteristics high output signal strength overrange capacity & speed of response wide rangeability vaccum to 200,00 psig small & easy to install DISADVANTAGES Electrical read out necessary Require constant voltage supply Temp compensation Variable reluctance



Separating diaphragm

Central diaphragm

This transmitter operates on the principle of a moveable element changing position within a magnetic field. As a result, inductance changes to produce an output voltage that is proportional to the pressure applied to the movable element. The transmitters are small & accurate but they have complicated circuitry & mechanical overpressure protection is required. The application of diaphragm seals to electronics pressure transmitters. The measurement of process and differential pressure is not always a simple procedure. For reason of temperature attack, clogging, sanitation, or non-contamination, transmitters often can not be allowed to come into direct contact with the process fluid. When such condition exists, diaphragm seals are frequently insatlled to solve the problem. Calibration & maintenance of pressure transmitter In electronics or hart type transmitter no such any preventive maintenance is required only cleaning is advisable Only we check the calibration by two ways : By hart protocol device By manually


Fluid-Expansion Temperature Measurement Devices Infrared Temperature Measurement Devices

Temperature Measurement Sensors Fluid-expansion devices, typified by the household thermometer, generally come in two main classifications: the mercury type and the organicThermocouple Temperature devices. They Infrared sensors are noncontacting liquidtemperature Sensors Measurement by measuring the thermal of infer type. Versions employing gas instead liquid areemitted by a material. is considered an radiation also available. Mercury environmental hazard, so there are regulations governing the shipment of devices that contain or Thermocouples consist essentially of two stripsit. Fluid-expansion sensors do not require electric wires made of different metals and joined at one power, do not pose temperature at that juncture end. Changes in theexplosion hazards, and are stable a change repeated cycling. On (emf) induceeven after in electromotive forcethe other hand, they do not ends. As temperature goes between the other generate data that is easily up, Bimetallictransmitted, and they cannot make spot recorded or Temperature Measurement this output emf of the thermocouple rises, though Devices or necessarily linearly. notpoint measurements.
Bimetallic devices take advantage of the difference Change-of-State Temperature in rate of thermal expansion between different Measurement two metals are bonded together. Devices Resistance Temperature Devices(RTD) metals. Strips of When heated, one side will expand more than the Change-of-state temperature sensors consist of Resistive temperature devices capitalize on the fact other, and the resulting bending is translated into a labels, pellets, crayons, lacquers or liquid crystals that the electrical resistance of a material changes temperature reading by mechanical linkage to a whose appearance changes once a certain as its temperature changes.portable and they do not pointer. These reached.are Two key types are the temperature is devices They are used, for metallicadevices supply, but they are usually not as (commonly referred to require with steam traps - when a trap as RTDs), instance, power exceeds a and thermistors. As their name indicates,they do accurate as thermocouples or RTDsaand RTDs certain temperature, a white dot on sensor label relyreadily lend themselves to metal, with the not on resistance change in a temperature time attached to the trap will turn black. Response resistance rising more or less linearly with recording. typically takes minutes, so these devices often do temperature. Thermistors are based on resistance not respond to transient temperature changes. And change in a ceramic semiconductor; the resistance accuracy is lower than with other types of sensors drops nonlinearly with temperature rise. of liquid-crystal displays. Even so, change-of-state sensors can be handy when one needs confirmation that the temperature of a piece of equipment or a material has not exceeded a certain level, for instance for technical or legal reasons during product shipment.


Type T 1, 2 J
1, 3

Materials* Copper (Cu) vs Constantan Iron (Fe) vs Constantan Chromel vs Alumel Chromel vs Constantan (Pt-10%Rh) vs Pt (Pt-13% Rh) vs (Pt6% Rh) (Pt-13%Rh) vs Pt (Ni-Cr-Si) vs (Ni-SiMg)

Typical Range C -270 to 400 -210 to 1200 -270 to 1370 -270 to 1000 -50 to 1768 0 to 1820 -50 to 1768 -270 to 1300




What is HART? HART is the global standard for smart process instrumentation and the majority of smart field devices installed in plants worldwide are HART-enabled. The global installed base of HART-enabled devices is the largest of all communication protocols at more than 20 million. HART technology is easy to use and very reliable. There are several reasons to have a host communicate with a field instrument. These include: Device Configuration or re-configuration Device Diagnostics Device Troubleshooting Reading the values of additional measurements provided by the device Device Health and Status And much more! A host system can be a Distributed Control System, PLC, Asset Management System, Safety System or a handheld device. HART is a master-slave field communications protocol developed in the late 1980's to facilitate communication with Smart field devices. HART stands for Highway Addressable Remote Transducer. The HART protocol makes use of the Bell 202 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) standard to superimpose digital communication signals at a low level on top of the 4-20mA:


This enables two-way field communication to take place and makes it possible for additional information beyond just the normal process variable to be communicated to/from a smart field instrument. The HART protocol communicates at 1200 bps without interrupting the 4-20mA signal and allows a host application (master) to get two or more digital updates per second from a field device. As the digital FSK signal is phase continuous, there is no interference with the 4-20mA signal. HART is a master/slave protocol which means that a field (slave) device only speaks when spoken to by a master. The HART protocol can be used in various modes for communicating information to/from smart field instruments and central control or monitoring systems. HART provides for up to two masters (primary and secondary). This allows secondary masters such as handheld communicators to be used without interfering with communications to/from the primary master, i.e. control/monitoring system.


Multidrop Configuration HART Communication is a bi-directional industrial field communication protocol

The HART protocol permits all digital communication with field devices in either point-to-point or multidrop network configurations:

Point- to Point Configuration


There is also an optional "burst" communication mode where a single slave device can continuously broadcast a standard HART reply message. Higher update rates are possible with this optional digital communication mode and use is normally restricted to point-to-point topologies.


Various control system

A block diagram of a PID controller The PID controller calculation involves three separate parameters; the proportional, the integral and derivative values. The proportional value determines the reaction to the current error, the integral value determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors, and the derivative value determines the reaction based on the rate at which the error has been changing. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element. By tuning the three constants in the PID controller algorithm, the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error, the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint and the degree of system oscillation. Some applications may require using only one or two modes to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. A PID controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are particularly common, since derivative action is very sensitive to measurement noise, and the absence of an integral value may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action.

Control loop basics

A familiar example of a control loop is the action taken to keep one's shower water at the ideal temperature, which typically involves the mixing of two process streams, cold and hot water. The person feels the water to estimate its temperature. Based on this measurement they perform a control action: use the cold water tap to adjust the process. The person would repeat this inputoutput control loop, adjusting the hot water flow until the process temperature stabilized at the desired value.


Feeling the water temperature is taking a measurement of the process value or process variable (PV). The desired temperature is called the setpoint (SP). The output from the controller and input to the process (the tap position) is called the manipulated variable (MV). The difference between the measurement and the setpoint is the error (e), too hot or too cold and by how much. As a controller, one decides roughly how much to change the tap position (MV) after one determines the temperature (PV), and therefore the error. This first estimate is the equivalent of the proportional action of a PID controller. The integral action of a PID controller can be thought of as gradually adjusting the temperature when it is almost right. Derivative action can be thought of as noticing the water temperature is getting hotter or colder, and how fast, anticipating further change and tempering adjustments for a soft landing at the desired temperature (SP). Making a change that is too large when the error is small is equivalent to a high gain controller and will lead to overshoot. If the controller were to repeatedly make changes that were too large and repeatedly overshoot the target, this control loop would be termed unstable and the output would oscillate around the setpoint in either a constant, growing, or decaying sinusoid. A human would not do this because we are adaptive controllers, learning from the process history, but PID controllers do not have the ability to learn and must be set up correctly. Selecting the correct gains for effective control is known as tuning the controller. If a controller starts from a stable state at zero error (PV = SP), then further changes by the controller will be in response to changes in other measured or unmeasured inputs to the process that impact on the process, and hence on the PV. Variables that impact on the process other than the MV are known as disturbances. Generally controllers are used to reject disturbances and/or implement setpoint changes. Changes in feed water temperature constitute a disturbance to the shower process. In theory, a controller can be used to control any process which has a measurable output (PV), a known ideal value for that output (SP) and an input to the process (MV) that will affect the relevant PV. Controllers are used in industry to regulate temperature, pressure, flow rate, chemical composition, speed and practically every other variable for which a measurement exists. Automobile cruise control is an example of a process which utilizes automated control. Due to their long history, simplicity, well grounded theory and simple setup and maintenance requirements, PID controllers are the controllers of choice for many of these applications.


PID controller theory

This section describes the parallel or non-interacting form of the PID controller. For other forms please see the Section "Alternative notation and PID forms". The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting terms, whose sum constitutes the manipulated variable (MV). Hence:

where Pout, Iout, and Dout are the contributions to the output from the PID controller from each of the three terms, as defined below.

Proportional term

Plot of PV vs time, for three values of Kp (Ki and Kd held constant) The proportional term (sometimes called gain) makes a change to the output that is proportional to the current error value. The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp, called the proportional gain. The proportional term is given by:


Pout: Proportional term of output Kp: Proportional gain, a tuning parameter e: Error = SP PV t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)


A high proportional gain results in a large change in the output for a given change in the error. If the proportional gain is too high, the system can become unstable. In contrast, a small gain results in a small output response to a large input error, and a less responsive (or sensitive) controller. If the proportional gain is too low, the control action may be too small when responding to system disturbances. In the absence of disturbances, pure proportional control will not settle at its target value, but will retain a steady state error that is a function of the proportional gain and the process gain. Despite the steady-state offset, both tuning theory and industrial practice indicate that it is the proportional term that should contribute the bulk of the output change.

Integral term

Plot of PV vs time, for three values of Ki (Kp and Kd held constant) The contribution from the integral term (sometimes called reset) is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error. Summing the instantaneous error over time (integrating the error) gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain and added to the controller output. The magnitude of the contribution of the integral term to the overall control action is determined by the integral gain, Ki. The integral term is given by:


Iout: Integral term of output Ki: Integral gain, a tuning parameter


e: Error = SP PV t: Time or instantaneous time (the present) : A dummy integration variable

The integral term (when added to the proportional term) accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a proportional only controller. However, since the integral term is responding to accumulated errors from the past, it can cause the present value to overshoot the setpoint value (cross over the setpoint and then create a deviation in the other direction). For further notes regarding integral gain tuning and controller stability, see the section on loop tuning.

Derivative term

Plot of PV vs time, for three values of Kd (Kp and Ki held constant) The rate of change of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time (i.e., its first derivative with respect to time) and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term (sometimes called rate) to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd. The derivative term is given by:


Dout: Derivative term of output Kd: Derivative gain, a tuning parameter e: Error = SP PV t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)


The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller output and this effect is most noticeable close to the controller setpoint. Hence, derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral component and improve the combined controller-process stability. However, differentiation of a signal amplifies noise and thus this term in the controller is highly sensitive to noise in the error term, and can cause a process to become unstable if the noise and the derivative gain are sufficiently large. Summary The proportional, integral, and derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID controller. Defining u(t) as the controller output, the final form of the PID algorithm is:

and the tuning parameters are: Proportional gain, Kp larger values typically mean faster response since the larger the error, the larger the Proportional term compensation. An excessively large proportional gain will lead to process instability and oscillation. Integral gain, Ki larger values imply steady state errors are eliminated more quickly. The tradeoff is larger overshoot: any negative error integrated during transient response must be integrated away by positive error before we reach steady state. Derivative gain, Kd larger values decrease overshoot, but slows down transient response and may lead to instability due to signal noise amplification in the differentiation of the error.


Set point



Control system

Process value +

Vo= - Kp x e PB (proportional band) = 1 / KpdVo/dt = -Ki x e


This report covers all important parameter measurement devices and control system in simple way .such as level, Pressure, Flow, Temperature measurements in thermal power plant. Now a days, old technology is being obsolete and new state of art solid state microprocessor based technology is being adopted , Such as DDCIMS, field bus technology. All technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. In eighties there was pneumatic controls having their own limitations. Old types transmitters were heavy in weight creating problem in handling, required more frequent calibration, sensitive to vibration causing malfunction. Having more frequent maintenance but simple in technology. In pneumatic signal there was also limitation of distance beyond few hundred metres as signal gets weak or useless. In new technology there is electrical analog signal. We manipulate it as our process requirements. Smart type transmitters are small in size there is no any preventive maintenance and periodic calibration is requires. in this way we overcome the problem of malfunction due to to vibration and shocks. Now in digital signal data transferring no problem we can send data to any where in the globe. Due to incorporation of digital technology in measurement we get more accurate value than analog readings due to human errors. In this way we are try best of my effort to covered all topic but may be some thing is missing in my report due to limitation of time because this field has no limit, and in electronics every seconds revolution takes place.