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Psychology Assignment Job Analysis

Definition of job analysis:

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. It is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job. An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person. The job analysis may include these activities:

reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees, doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs, analyzing the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position, researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs, and articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.

The main purpose of conducting job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification which in turn helps to hire the right quality of workforce into the organization. The general purpose of job analysis is to document the requirements of a job and the work performed. Job and task analysis is performed as a basis for later improvements, including: definition of a job domain; describing a job; developing performance appraisals, selection systems, promotion criteria, training needs assessment, and compensation plans. In the fields of Human Resources (HR) and Industrial Psychology, job analysis is often used to gather information for use in personnel selection, training, classification, and/or compensation.

The field of vocational rehabilitation uses job analysis to determine the physical requirements of a job to determine whether an individual who has suffered some diminished capacity is capable of performing the job with, or without, some accommodation. Professionals developing certification exams use job analysis (often called something slightly different, such as "task analysis") to determine the elements of the domain which must be sampled in order to create a content valid exam. When a job analysis is conducted for the purpose of valuing the job (i.e., determining the appropriate compensation for incumbents) this is called "job evaluation."

Process of job analysis

How to perform / conduct a job analysis? You should do 8 steps as follows for conducting / writing a job analysis. Step 1: Identify purpose of job analysis You should identify purpose of job analysis because that will determine what job analysis method, what data will be collected. Step 2: Selecting the analysts You can choose analyst from professional human resource, line mangers, incumbents or consultants. Step 3: Selecting the appropriate method Select representative positions to analyze because there may be too many similar jobs to analyze, and it may not be necessary to analyze them all. Review background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions of positions selected. Then identify methods of job analysis. There are many methods in job analysis, you should pay attention to advantages and disadvantages of each method in order to choose suitable one. Identify sample size of position. Step 4: Train the analysts If you intend to use internal analysts you have to teach them how to use the selected methods. Step 5: Preparation of job analysis Communicate the project in the organization. Preparing the documentation, for example: interview questions, questionnaires.

Step 6: Collecting data Collecting data on job activities, employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job Using one or more of the job analysis methods to collect data. Step 7: Review and verify Consolidate the results. You must review all data collected. This will help you to confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. How can review information? Review data with incumbents by interview. Review data with his or her immediate supervisor. Review data by technical conference (is a job analysis method). Step 8: Develop a job description and job specification Implement the results into the company procedures according to the goal-setting. Develop a job description and job specification from the job analysis information. A job description is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job, working conditions and safety and hazardsA job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting the job done.

Job analysis methods

Methods of collecting job analysis information include: OBSERVATION METHODS Methods of observation includes direct observation, work methods analysis, critical incident technique. 1. Direct observation Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behavior / events / activities / tasks / duties while something is happening. 2. Work methods analysis Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and micro-motion analysis.

3. Critical incident technique (CIT model). Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviors that classify in good and poor performance. 4. INTERVIEW METHOD Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured Interviews, unstructured interview, open-ended questions. QUESTIONNAIRE METHODS Questionnaire methods includes 6 techniques as follows: 5. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model) PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by McCormick, Jeanne ret, and Meacham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that describe generic human work behaviors. 6. Functional job analysis (FJA model) FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. It includes 7 scales (numbers) that measure: 3 worker-function scales: measure % of time spent with: data, people, things; 1 worker-instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics, language. 7. Work Profiling System (WPS model) WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered system for job analysis, developed by Seville & Holds worth, Ltd. 8. MOSAIC model MOSAIC model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis used to collect information from incumbents and supervisors. It contains 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance for effective job performance and 22 competencies rated in terms of importance, and needed proficiency at entry. 9. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ model) CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a worker-oriented job analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of exempt and nonexempt jobs. It includes 41 general questions of background

section, 62 questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting. 10. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS model) FJAS model is is a technique of job analysis that describe jobs from the point of view of the necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory ability, each of the categories consists of two parts an operational and differential definition and a grading scale.

OTHER METHODS 11. Task Inventory A task inventory is a list of the discrete activities that make up a specific job in a specific organization. 12. Job element method This method is same the critical incident technique. It focuses on work behaviors and the results of this behavior rather than more abstract characteristics. Job element method developed by Ernest Prim off. 13. Diary method This method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask worker maintaining and keeping daily records or list of activities they are doing on every day. 14. Checklists and rating scales Checklist is job analysis method base on an inventory of job elements. You can ask question about purpose of position; key responsibility areas; organization; relationships; decision making; authority; Skills, knowledge, experience; working conditions. 15. Competency profiling Competency modeling is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are characteristic of high performance and success in a given job. Contents of competency modeling include skills, knowledge, abilities, values, interests, personalities.

16. Examining Manuals/reference materials Manuals/reference materials such as quality manual, human resource manual, procedures, instruction, forms, job descriptionare useful for analyst in job analysis. These documents are available for organizations applied to ISO 9000 standard. 17. Technical conference Technical conference is a useful tool of job analysis base on Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). SMEs conduct brainstorming sessions to identify job elements. SMEs can use all job analysis methods in here. 18.Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) is a method of job analysis, was developed in 1970 by Felix Lopez. Threshold traits analysis system include a standard set of 33 traits: ability traits are can do factors and attitudinal traits are willing to do factors.

Combination of methods In process of job analysis, analyst can use and associate all methods to collecting job information. For example, when you use direct observation, then you always do interview method.

Information sources of job analysis

Sources of job information to conduct a job analysis are: 1. External sources of job analysis Job analysis information from competitor such as job description and specification Dictionary of Occupational Titles U.S. Standard Occupational Classification System Other on-line job descriptions 2. External sources of job analysis Job incumbents: observation, interview, questionnaire Supervisor of job: interview, questionnaire Job analyst Experts SMEs (Subject Matter Experts): people who have in-depth knowledge of specific job under analysis, job skills, and abilities Outside consultant

Records/file/manuals Plans and blueprints HR information management system Existing job descriptions Manuals, publications

Job analysis sample

It includes 6 types of question based on methods as follows: 1. Sample questions of critical incident technique It is a job analysis form that includes factors: Context Questions Behavior question 2. Job analysis interview questions It is a job analysis form that includes factors: Job purpose: Job duties Job criteria / results Records and Reports Supervisor Authority Responsibilities Knowledge Skills/ Experience Abilities required Working instruments Health and safety Working conditions 3. Job analysis interview questions for management positions It is a job analysis form that includes factors: Management by functions Management by activities 4. Position analysis questionnaire It is a job analysis form that include includes 195 items of job elements includes six categories. These questions are designed base on Position Analysis Questionnaire model (PAQ model).

5. Functional job analysis questions This sample include questions designed base on FJA method. 6. Job Analysis Questionnaires It is a job analysis form that includes factors: Employee info Key tasks and responsibilities: Problem solving Decision making Management responsibilities. Contacts Job complexity Work environment Physical demands. Mental requirements. Education: Working experience Skills and/or licensing/certification required


In Selection Job analysis can provide specific information about the skills, knowledge and abilities required to perform successfully on the job. This information can be used to formulate job-related selection criteria and screening tools such as interview questions. Job analysis can provide information necessary for classifying positions and for making objective determinations about the relative value of a specific job in comparison with other jobs. Job analysis can create a detailed, objective description of the position that allows both the supervisor and the employee to have a shared understanding of the job. It can also provide the information necessary to develop concrete performance standards.

For Classification Purposes

In Performance Appraisals

For Planning Career Ladders Job Analysis can provide the understanding of a job and it's relation to other jobs needed to initiate career ladder development. For Training Purposes Job Analysis can assist in developing objectives, standards and curricula for individual and group training.

Practical problems with job analysis

Problems with job analysis include as follows: 1. Lack of top management support Role of top management is to communicate to incumbents that purpose of job analysis is to enhance performance in organization. 2. Lack of training of the analyst and incumbent Incumbent should be trained about job analysis as purpose of job analysis, if not, incumbents distort data of job analysis because employee think that process seen as a threat to employee. 3. Use of only one method Each method also has advantage and disadvantage so you should use at least 2 methods for job analysis. Note that job analysis includes both collecting of data and review data so that you should not use only one method. 4. Use of single source of data only Information source of job analysis include many one from internal one to external one One can not reflect all data about position so that you should use at least 2 ones of job analysis information. 5. Other problems are: Lack of participation of all stakeholders Job-based rather than person-based. Lack of reward for providing quality information

Insufficient time allowed for the process Intentional or unintentional distortion from incumbent Absence of a review Time spent of job analysis too lengthy.

Use the job analysis to write a job description and a job specification. Drawing from these concepts, you can then create your recruitment materials, such as a classified ad. The job description is basically an outline of how the job fits in to the company. It should point out in broad terms the job's goals, responsibilities and duties. First, write down the job title and whom that person will report to. next, develop a job statement or summary describing the position's major and minor duties. Finally, define how the job relates to other positions in the company. Which are subordinate and which are of equal responsibility and authority? For a one-person business hiring its first employee, these steps may seem unnecessary, but remember, you are laying the foundations for your personnel policy, which will be essential as your company grows. Keeping detailed records from the time you hire your first employee will make things a lot easier when you hire your 50th. The job specification describes the personal requirements you expect from the employee. Like the job description, it includes the job title, whom the person reports to, and a summary of the position. However, it also lists any educational requirements, desired experience and specialized skills or knowledge required. Include salary range and benefits. Finish by listing any physical or other special requirements associated with the job, as well as any occupational hazards. Writing the job description and job specifications will also help you determine whether you need a part- or full-time employee, whether the person should be permanent or temporary, and whether you could use an independent contractor to fill the position.