No Magnetic Field | Electromagnetic Induction | Magnetic Field

# 2011 International Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics(ICAPM 2011

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On True Face of Magnetic Field

Department of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606, India e-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com
Abstract—In the present work we reanalyzed the fields of magnetic materials on the instance of absence of magnetic monopoles. First we reanalyzed the field of a current carrying conductor which determines its true face as an electric field which is parallel to the wire having zero divergence and nonzero curl. The force exerted on a charged particle by this field has unique direction and does not depend on the direction of the motion of the particle. The non-zero curl of the field causes the force to be asymmetric in nature because of which a charged particle, placed in it, never moves along a straight path and follows a curved path. The study explores a basic difference between the real force and the supposed magnetic force in the fields of magnetic materials suggesting that there is no magnetic field which we have been considering. The real force in fields of all magnetic materials is electric and exerts in terms of field-field interaction. Experimental evidences for the same are reported. The interaction between poles of bar magnets, the induction of emf and Lenz’s law are explained on the basis of curled electric fields. Keywords- Electric field; Magnetic field; Magnetic monopoles; Field-field interaction; Maxwell's equations; Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction; Lenz's law.

the static curled electric field produced by two oppositely charged electric plates. Such deflections are not allowed in Maxwellian electrodynamics. Using this force we have successfully explained the attraction and repulsion between poles of bar magnets, production of emf in a secondary circuit and the Lenz’s law. Section II gives the reanalysis of the field of a direct current carrying conductor using an electrons beam. Section III consists of an experimental arrangement for acceleration of thermally emitted electrons. These electrons are accelerated by the parallel electric field produced by direct current carrying wires. Section IV consists of an additional experiment showing deflection of a current carrying coil in a static electric field having non-zero curl. Section V discusses the attraction and repulsion between magnetic poles of bar magnets on the basis of electric field. Section VI shows how the electric field is responsible for the production of emf in a secondary circuit. It also discusses the Lenz’s law. A discussion and concluding remarks are in the last section. II. ANALYSIS OF FIELD OF A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR

I.

INTRODUCTION

Magnetic monopoles have been a curiosity for physicists, and many of them believe that they ought to exist. The detection of magnetic monopoles is thought to be an open problem in experimental physics. Since a long period its discovery is awaited. Recently found that some condensed matter systems show a structure superficially similar to a magnetic monopole, known as a flux tube. The ends of the flux tube form a magnetic dipole, but since they move independently, they can be treated for many purposes as independent magnetic monopole quasiparticles [1] but not as predicted by Dirac [2]. Such an endless race has forced us to reanalyze the concept of magnetic field. We have reanalyzed the field of a direct current carrying conductor using an electrons beam. It determines a parallel electric field around the wire in which the force is asymmetric and exerts in terms of field-field interaction. A particle subjected to such type of force cannot move along a straight path but follows a curved path. We have confirmed this field by accelerating electrons thermally emitted. To confirm the exertion of the electric force in terms of fieldfield interaction, we have designed another experiment in which a deflection of a current carrying coil is obtained in

Aim of our work is to verify the realism of the magnetic field on the instance of absence of magnetic monopoles. We first decided to reanalyze the field of a current carrying conductor since it was led to develop the first mathematical expression for magnetic field in terms of electrical charges. A cathode ray tube (CRT) is used for that.

Figure 1. (a), (b), (c) and (d) show deflections of electrons beam in the field of a direct current carrying conductor.

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First we kept the CRT parallel to the current carrying conductor like in Fig. 1(a) and noted that the electron beam goes away from the conductor. Next we reversed the direction of the CRT and found that the beam comes close to the conductor. From these observations immediately one concludes that there cannot be an electric field since it is not a temperament of an electric field. This conclusion could be a big mistake in understanding the field and can keep us away from the reality. We must be firm on our determination. We decided to go for next. Next we kept the CRT perpendicular to the conductor like in Fig. 1(c) and found that the beam is deflected along the direction of the current. From this we concluded that the force on the electrons in the beam can be parallel to the conductor. To confirm the exact direction of the force, we shifted the CRT in vertical direction like in Fig. 1(d) and noticed the deflection. The deflection was still parallel to the conductor but decreased. It implied that the force on the beam was again parallel to the wire. Our determination was that the force should be an electric force since the involved particles were electric in nature. Thus we got a parallel electric field around the conductor pointing in opposite direction of the current and decreasing away as shown in figure 2(a). The divergence of the field was zero whereas curl was non-zero. This was unexpected. Now there was a big question to give answer to the deflections in Fig. 1(a) and in Fig. 1(b). If we could succeed then the obtained field structure might be accepted otherwise no alternatives could be left other than to accept the magnetic field. In Fig. 1(a) the electrons must be accelerated while acceleration, they are going away from the conductor and in Fig. 1(b) the electrons are decelerated and while deceleration they are coming close to the conductor. Immediately we concluded that this can happen only if the force on these electrons is asymmetric. Essentially the field was decreasing way from the conductor and could result into asymmetric force if the electron has substantial size. Because of this ambiguity we could not

justify this proposition. No doubt, the force was electric and asymmetric but we were not getting any clue. After conscious brooding, we concluded that the force can be asymmetric if and only if it exerts in terms of a field-field interaction, i.e., the electric field of the conductor applies force on the electric field of the electron and vice versa. Using this concept we could successfully explain the deflections in Fig. 1 as reported below. To explain the deflection in Fig. 1(a), we divide the electron’s field, placed in the conductor’s field, into two parts through its centre, one is up to the conductor as field A and the other is away from the conductor as field B. Obviously, the conductor’s electric field applies a greater force on field A than on field B. It results to move the field A faster than that the field B. Therefore, the electron should go away from the conductor while accelerating. In case of Fig. 1(b), the electrons are decelerated by the conductor’s field. While decelerating, field A of the electron must be more decelerated than that the field B. It results into electron to come closer to the conductor. Thus, the usual force equation, F = q E, inferring the charge-field interaction, cannot work. Another equation for the force inferring the field-field interaction needs to be developed. The deflection of an electron beam, shown in Fig. 3, is an interesting case on the view of electric field. While the electron is going away from the conductor in a perpendicular direction, the field A of the electron is pushed faster along the direction of the current than the field B. This tends to move the electron along the curved path. Thus the electron moves in opposite direction of the force which is unexpected in the electric field. One question arises from the above proposition is that why the current carrying conductor should produce a parallel electric field? This may be because of maintaining the surrounding space electrically neutral. We must notice on a mechanism that it works always to maintain the space electrical neutral. The space surrounding the conductor was neutral before the current. The flow of current should have disturbed it. If one brings another conductor close to the first, of same length carrying same amount of current in opposite direction, then the net electric field should be reduced. If there is no current in the second conductor then the mechanism should try to produce a current in it in opposite direction so that the disturbed space will become again electrically neutral. For that the parallel electric field is essential which is produced. The Coulomb force may also be generated through this mechanism. Same types of

Figure 2. (a) Electric field produced by a long current carrying conductor, (b) an electron in the field of the conductor.

Figure 3. Deflection of an electron beam in the field of a direct current carrying conductor.

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2011 International Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics(ICAPM 2011)

charges have same types of electric fields and if they are brought close, the net electric field is increased, therefore, the mechanism should try to keep them away from each other. When they are opposite types then the mechanism should try to bring them close to each other so that the net field reduces or the space becomes more neutral. III. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PARALLEL ELECTRIC FIELD PRODUCED BY A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR An experimental arrangement used to notice the acceleration produced in electrons in the field of direct current carrying condors is shown in Fig. 4(a). It consists of a vacuum glass tube. At one end cathode and filament are fitted and at the other end an anode is fitted. The tube is uniformly surrounded by number of parallel wires as indicated in Fig. 4(b). The wires are connected to each other in series such that current through them flows in one direction. An ammeter is connected between anode and cathode to record the anode current. No external source is connected between anode and cathode. A direct current is passed through the wires to create a parallel electric field in the tube. Initially the cathode is heated by the filaments, which emits the electrons but the ammeter does not record any current as there is no any means to accelerate these electrons towards the anode. Now the current in the parallel wires in the shown direction is passed and increased in small steps and at each step the anode current is noticed. It is found that initially the current is zero indicating that the field produced by the parallel wires is not sufficient to accelerate the electrons. When the current through the wires is increased, the anode current also increases. A stage is reached at which further increases in the current through the wires does not cause to increase in the anode current indicating the saturation stage is reached. There is no anode current on the reversion of the current through the wires since the direction of the field is now to repel the electrons from anode side. A low potential battery may be introduced in the series of the anode circuit to overcome path resistance if any. This experiment is plainly an evidence for the parallel electric field produced by the direct current carrying wires. IV. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR FIELD-FIELD INTERACTION

zero divergence. Existence of such type of static electric field is restricted by Maxwell’s third equation in classical electrodynamics [3], and same mechanics permits also to produce such type of electric field on the axis of an electric dipole, as shown in Fig. 5. The electric field at point p is
E= 1 k 2qa 4πε0 a 2 + y 2 3 / 2

(

)

(1)

All the symbols have their usual meanings. The curl of this field is
curlE = −1 i 6qay 2 4πε 0 a + y 2 5 / 2

(

)

(2)

Maxwell’s third equation in electrodynamics is
curlE = − ∂B ∂t

It gives
B = − ∫ curlEdt

With using equation (2), we obtain
⎞ ⎛ 1 i 6qay ⎟×t B=⎜ 5/ 2 ⎟ ⎜ 4πε0 2 2 a +y ⎠ ⎝

(

)

(3)

Equation (3) shows that the dipole should produce a magnetic field at point ‘p’ which should increase with time. This is against the experimental observations. Thus the theory contradicts to itself. As the curled component of the electric field of the dipole is non zero, we must get deflection of a current carrying conductor in it. It can help to emphasize the fieldfield interaction. In fact, such deflection is not allowed by the classical electrodynamics. The experimental arrangement and its results are as reported below.

One has to note that the electric field produced by a direct current carrying conductor has non zero curl but

Figure 4. (a) A glass tube in which cathode and anode are fitted at ends. (b) Illustration of parallel wires carrying current in the same direction fitted uniformly on the glass tube.

Figure 5. Electric field of a dipole..

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Figure 6. Experimental arrangement for deflection of a current carrying coil in static electric field.

A coil, parallel to the metallic plates, is suspended at centre but to one side of the plates as shown in Fig. 6. The metallic plates and the coil are enclosed in a vacuum chamber. The plates are charged by a battery. The electric field, produced by the charged plates, links to the coil and is pointed in upward direction decreasing away from the plates. The curl of this electric field is non zero. A direct current in the shown direction is passed through the coil. The electrons constituting the current through arm ‘a’ of the coil are going away from the plates. The electric field produced by the plates applies a force on these electrons in downward direction but because of the field-field interaction these electrons and hence arm ‘a’ moves in upward direction. To explain it we divide the field of an electron constituting the current into two parts, one up to the plates as field A and the other away from the plates as field B. Obviously field A should be pushed down more heavily than that of the field B since the applied field in the region of field A is more strong than that of in the region of field B. Because of this the electron follows a curved path in upward direction. In arm ‘b’, the electrons constituting the current are coming towards the plates. The applied electric field tries to push the electric field A of these electrons more heavily in downward direction than the field B. Because of this these electrons are forced to follow a curved path in downward direction which results to move arm ‘b’ in downward direction. When direction of the current through the coil is reversed, arm ‘a’ gets pushed down and arm ‘b’ up. In this way the experiment demonstrates a new character of the electric field which must be understood in terms of field-field interaction. V. INTERACTION BETWEEN MAGNETIC POLES The magnetic property acquired by a bar magnet is due to the spin alignment of the unpaired electrons from it. If we have two bar magnets with facing opposite poles to each other (Fig. 7(a)) then the spin motion of the unpaired electrons from both magnets are oriented in the same directions as shown. This spin motion causes to produce a curled electric field around each magnet as shown. The force imposed by the field produced by magnet M1 tries to decelerate the spin velocity of the unpaired electrons of magnet M2. Though the spins of these electrons could not be disturbed but because of this attempt the unpaired electrons from magnet M2 are pulled towards the end of magnet M1 since the field is strong near the end. In the same way the reacts with magnet M1. magnet M2

Figure 7. Two bar magnets, (a) attraction, (b) repulsion.

In this way the attraction of the two ends of the bar magnets occurs. We infer that the two ends of the bars have acquired opposite magnetic poles. Here one has to note that the net electrical force on each magnet is zero as the total number of positive and negative charges are equal in them. Therefore, there is no rotation of magnets with respect to each other. If the spin motions of the unpaired electrons from both magnets are oppositely directed as shown in Fig. 7(b), then the electric field produced by each magnet tries to accelerate the spin motions of the electrons from the other magnet which results into pushing away these magnets from each other. Thus the two ends are repelled from each other. We infer that the two ends of the bars have acquired same types of magnetic poles. A significant outcome of this proposition is that there is no any force acting along the line of attraction or repulsion between the magnetic poles. The force is always perpendicular to that line. The attraction or repulsion gets produced only because of its asymmetric nature. VI. EXPLANATION OF FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND LENZ’S LAW ON THE BASIS OF ELECTRIC FIELD The production of emf in a secondary circuit is one of the significant phenomena in classical electrodynamics. Faraday stated it in terms of magnetic field [3]. As we have discovered the magnetic field is nothing but a curled type electric field, it is essential to look this phenomenon on this basis. To study this phenomenon, we start with two circuits as shown in Fig. 8(a). Lower circuit is a primary circuit and the upper is a secondary one. The direction of the electric field produced by the conductor AB due to current in it is shown by the arrow. This electric field links to the conductor CD and tries to push the electrons towards point ‘D’ resulting into excess of electrons at point ‘D’ and deficiency of electrons at point ‘C’. But these points are connected to each other through a current meter, therefore, the excess of electrons at point ‘D’ should have moved towards point ‘C’ through the current meter. The current meter records this transient current. Further there is no current. Generally, we expect that there should be a

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from point ‘D’ to point ‘C’ through conductor CD. The conventional direction of the current is from point ‘C’ to point ‘D’. Note that from point ‘L’ to point ‘N’, the electric field linked to the conductor CD increases positively. At point ‘L’ the rate of increase is zero indicating the corresponding induced emf is zero. Further the rate increases and becomes max at point ‘M’. With the rate the induced emf also increases which can be seen by point ‘m’ at which it is maximum. Further from point ‘M’ to point ‘N’ the rate decreases which causes to decrease in the induced emf. At point ‘N’ the rate of increase is again zero, therefore, the induced emf is also zero indicated by point ‘n’. Now the linked electric field increases in negative direction from point ‘N’ to point ‘P’ which corresponds to the induction of emf from point ‘n’ to point ‘p’. From these facts, we note the following points. 1. The induced emf in the circuit is proportional to the time rate of change of linked electric to the circuit. 2. The induced emf leads the linked electric field by angle 90 degree. Taking these points into consideration the equation for induced emf should have the form
Figure 8. Circuit arrangement for demonstration of Faraday’s law, (a) with dc source, (b) with ac source, (c) waveforms of linked electric field and induced emf.

emf = k

∂ E .dl ∂t ∫

(3)

continuous current but it is not so. It may be because of by application of the external electric field to the conductor CD the charges in it gets rearranged. While they are getting rearranged a transient current flows. Further there is no current once they get settled. No doubt, there can be continuous current if the secondary circuit is made up of a superconductor. When we break the current in the primary, the electric field produced by it vanishes. Now the charges are to be resettled again to get the previous electrical configuration. This settlement also results into a transient current but in opposite direction. Thus, it suggests that to have a continuous current in the secondary circuit a break and make arrangement should be provided in the primary circuit or an alternating current source should be connected. In Fig. 8(b), we connect the primary circuit to an ac source and the secondary circuit to a CRO for visual representation of the induced emf. The waveforms observed are plotted in Fig. 8(c). The linked electric field to the secondary circuit and the alternating current in the primary circuit has a phase difference of 180 degree. The explanation for these waveforms is given below. Consider point ‘L’ on the waveform of linked electric field. At that instant the current through conductor AB is maximum flowing in the direction from point ‘A’ to point ‘B’ producing maximum electric field in the direction from point ‘D’ to point ‘C’. At this moment the atoms in the conductor CD should be polarized at their maximum levels and are in steady state condition. Therefore, there is no current. It corresponds to point ‘l’ on the waveform of the induced emf. After that when the current in the primary circuit starts to fall, the polarization level of the atoms in the conductor CD starts to reduce resulting into flow of electrons

where k is the proportionality constant, E, the linked electric field and dl, the small length element of the conductor along the length. If we consider
E = ∫ E .dl

(4)

where E is the net electric field linked to the secondary circuit. Using it, equation (3) takes the form
emf = k ∂E ∂t

(5)

Equation (5) is analogous to Faraday’s equation of induced emf except the total magnetic flux linked to the circuit is replaced by the net electric field linked to it and does not involve the minus sign. The net linked electric field linked to the secondary circuit is proportional to minus of the current in the primary circuit. Therefore, equation (5) can take the form as
emf = −k' ∂i ∂t

(6)

where i is the current in the primary circuit, k′, the new proportionality constant. According to Faraday’s statement, the electromagnetic induction is because of the rate of change of total magnetic flux linked to the circuit. Therefore, one expects that the magnetic force should play a vital role in this phenomenon. According to the present theory, the conductor AB should produce a magnetic field around itself as a cause of the

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current through it. This field should link to the conductor CD and must apply a magnetic force on the charged particles in it. If the electrons constituting the induced current are displaced by this force along one side implies that these electrons were either coming up to the conductor AB or going away then and only then they are deflected in one direction. This situation never occurs. Thus the magnetic force does not support to the induced current. Because of that we had no option other than to accept Faraday’s statement as a law. Such acceptance hides the true philosophy behind such phenomena. Lenz’s law states that there is an induced current in a closed conducting loop if and only if the magnetic flux through the loop is changing. The direction of the induced current is such that the induced magnetic field always opposes the change in the flux. Explanation of the first statement is given in the above paragraph. To explain the second statement, we consider the circuit arrangement shown in Fig. 8(a). If we keep a constant current in the primary circuit and bring it close to the secondary circuit steadily, it causes to produce induced current in the secondary circuit in opposite direction to that of primary circuit. The electric field produced by the induced current is in such a way to accelerate the electrons constituting the current in conductor AB. As the electric field produced by conductor CD decreases away from itself, the electrons constituting the current through conductor AB or conductor AB itself experiences an outward push. Similarly, when we move the primary circuit away from the secondary circuit, it should cause to produce induced current in conductor CD in the same direction as that of in conductor AB. Now the field produced by the conductor AB is in such a way to decelerate the electrons constituting the current in conductor AB. This causes to produce attraction between these two conductors. Thus the induced current again does not allow the secondary circuit to move away from it. The production of emf by bringing the two circuits close or moving away from each other supports to the Lenz’s law. This law is also supported by induced emf produced in a coil by motion of a permanent magnet near it. But we face difficulty in applying this law to the circuits used in Fig. 8(b), in which the emf is produced because of changes in the primary current. To oppose the changes in the primary current, the induced current in the secondary circuit must be in same phase with the primary current which is not. Thus Lenz’s law is not satisfied by the circuit arrangement used in Fig. 8(b). VII. DISCUSSION From the history we note that the entry of magnetic field caused by Oersted’s experiment was incidental. Due to its continued existence, issue of how motion of a charged particle could be in curled type electric fields has not been noticed. Representation of the curled type electric field by magnetic field caused to become the assumption conventional that curled static electric field does not exist. Another reason to strengthen the assumption is that the curled electric field, in the same seen around direct current carrying conductor, cannot be created by a static distribution of electric charges, otherwise it would have been revealed.

However, magnetic field could be continued as an alternative for curled type electric fields because we have come far ahead if the force told by the magnetic field and the real force found in the curled electric field are same. But there is a big difference between these two forces; therefore, we should not continue to use the magnetic field or force otherwise it will hide the exploration of the true behavior of the nature. Further there is a wide use of the concept of magnetic field from home appliances to the space science. Therefore we should not compromise with its proper knowledge at all. No doubt, it will require a formulation of new theory of electricity at large scale. In the conclusion of the properties of the electrical force in curled electric fields, we note the following points. 1. The field produced by a current carrying conductor is not magnetic but electric. It is parallel to the conductor having divergence zero and curl non-zero. 2. The force produced by a curled electric field on a charged particle is asymmetric in nature because of which the particle does not move along a straight path but follows a curved path 3. There is no any force acting along the line of attraction and repulsion between magnetic materials. The attraction and repulsion get produced because of the exertion of the asymmetric force on the charged particle in these materials. This force is always perpendicular to the line of attraction and repulsion. 4. There is no any magnetic field what we consider and hence there is no any cause to exist magnetic monopoles in the universe.

REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] C. Castelnovo, R. Moessner & S. L. Sondhi, Nature 451, p42-45 (3 January 2008) Paul Dirac, "Quantised Singularities in the Electromagnetic Field". Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 133, 60 (1931). Jackson J. D., Classical electrodynamics, Singapur, Wiley, (1975).

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