19.

13 Messenger Lipids: Eicosanoids
An eicosanoid is an oxygenated C20 fatty acid derivative that functions as a messenger lipid. The term eicosanoid is derived from a greek word eikos, which means “twenty.” Almost all cells, except red blood cells, produce eicosanoids. These substances, like hormones have profound physiological effects at extremely low concentrations. Eicosanoid are hormone like molecules rather than true hormones because they are not transported in the bloodstream to their site of action as true hormones are. Instead, they exerts their effects in the tissues where they are synthesized. Eicosanoid usually have small life. Physiological effects od eicosanoids include mediation of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The inflammatory response, a normal response to tissue damage The production of pain and fever The regulation of blood pressure The induction of blood clothing The control of reproductive functions, such as induction of labor The regulation of the sleep/wake cycle

Three principal types of eicosanoids: prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.  Prostaglandins A prostaglandin is a messenger lipid tha is a C20-fatty-acid derivative that contains a cyclopentane ring and oxygen-containing functional groups. Prostaglandins name after the prostate gland, which was first thought to be their n the variety of only source. Today, more than 20 prostaglandins have been discovered in a variety of tissues in both males and females.

Human egutalory functions of prostaglandins are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Rainsing body temperature Inhibiting the secretion of gastric juices Relaxing and contracting smooth muscle Directing water and electrolyte balance Intensifying pain and Enhancing inflammation responses Thromboxanes A thromboxane is a messenger lipids that is a C20-fatty-acid derivative that contains a cyclic ether ring and oxygen-containing functional groups. As with prostaglandins, the cyclic structure involves a bond between carbons 8 and 12. An important functions of

Various inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses are associated of elevated levels of leukotrienes.thromboxanes is to promote the formation of blood clots. The fatty acids are found in biological waxes generally are saturated and contain from 14 to 36 carbon atoms.14 Protective-Coating Lipids: Biological Waxes A biological wax is a lipid that is monoester of a long-chain fatty acid and a longchain alcohol. Biological waxes are monoester. Leukotriens are found on leukocytes. unlike fats and oils which are trimesters.  Leukotrienes A leukotriene is a messenger lipids that is a C20-fatty-acid derivative that contains three conjugated double bonds and hydroxyl groups. .\ 19. Their source and the presence of the three conjugated double bonds account for their name. Thromboxanes are produced by blood platelets and promote platelet aggregation.

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