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the 9/11 Attacks: A Changed Country, an Emotional Toll August, 2011 This CBS News/New York Times Poll explores the impact and aftermath of the September 11th attacks ten years ago, and includes interviews with Americans overall, residents of New York City, and those who report a close friend or family member was killed in the attacks on 9/11. • • • More than 4 in 5 say the country has changed as a result of the attacks. Most commonly, Americans think people have become more cautious and fearful. The 9/11 attacks are still on the minds of many Americans and New Yorkers. 27% of the public thinks about it at least every week, as do 31% of New Yorkers. Among close friends and family members of those killed that day, a majority says their lives returned mostly to normal within five years, but just three in ten have completely recovered emotionally from the attacks; 57% say they have recovered partially. One in four Americans think the first responders who worked at the World Trade Center immediately after the attacks have not been treated fairly since the attacks; that rises to 58% among New Yorkers. While most New Yorkers don’t see a lot of progress at the Ground Zero site, three in four approve of what they have seen of the memorial there.
A Changed Country 82% of Americans say the country has changed as a result of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. This view is broadly held by men, women, Democrats, Republicans, and other groups. Has America Changed Since 9/11? Yes 82% No 13 When asked to name specifically how America has changed, 23% say people are more aware and cautious, 16% think the country is more fearful, and 12% point to the heightened security measures. Fewer cite a general change in attitude (4%), restrictions on civil liberties (4%), and pride in their country or more patriotism (3%). How Has America Changed since 9/11? People more aware and cautious 23% Country is more fearful 16 More security 12 General change in attitude 4 Less civil liberties/personal freedoms 4 Proud to be an American/more patriotism 3
After the attacks, the country united around President George W. Bush and against the threat of terrorism. Today, 47% say that patriotism and unity has faded. 31% believe Americans are more patriotic and united today, while 18% think the level is the same. Those in New York City hold similar views. Are Americans Just As Patriotic and United Now As After the 9/11 Attacks? Americans New Yorkers Just as patriotic & united 18% 16% More 31 33 Less 47 45 The Emotional Toll For 27% of Americans, September 11th, 2001, weighs heavily on their minds; even 10 years later, they think about the events of that day at least every week. Among New Yorkers, 31% think about 9/11 every week. How Often Do You Think About 9/11? Americans New Yorkers Every day 10% 16% Every week 17 15 Once in a while 57 55 Hardly ever 15 12 Sadness is the emotion most associated with the events of 9/11; 41% cite that. 25% say anger most expresses their feelings about 9/11, and another one in five still feel disbelief or shock. What One Emotion Most Expresses How You Feel About 9/11? Americans Sadness 41% Anger 25 Disbelief/shock 19 Fear 4 For some, there have been lasting mental and emotional effects due to the attacks. 17% of Americans say they themselves or someone they know has been diagnosed with a mental health issue such as depression, anxiety or post traumatic stress disorder as a result of the terrorist attacks. That number rises to 28% among those in New York City. Know Someone with Mental Health Issue as a Result of 9/11? Americans New Yorkers Yes 17% 28% No 81 69 Among those who know someone who was diagnosed with a mental health disorder, most say they continue to suffer with that affliction today. Person with Mental Health Issue Still Suffering Today? (among those who know someone diagnosed with mental health issue) Americans New Yorkers Yes 70% 65% No 21 23
Friends and Family Members: Their Personal and Emotional Toll Close friends and family members of those killed in the attacks were also interviewed. These respondents were identified in surveys conducted by CBS and the New York Times from late 2010 through July 2011 and called back for this poll. For a majority of those who lost someone close to them on 9/11, life has returned mostly to normal. But it took time – just 32% say their lives returned mostly to normal within a year, while for 54% that process took one to five years. 7% say their lives are not yet back to normal, or never will be. Life Returned Mostly to Normal Within: (Among close friends and relatives of 9/11 victims) A year or less 32% One to two years 24 Two to five years 30 Longer than five years 4 Not yet back to normal 2 Will never be normal 5 Most of those close to someone who died that day have experienced some emotional recovery since the attacks, but few have fully recovered. 57% say they have recovered partially from the attacks, while just 30% have done so fully. 5% say they have not recovered, and 7% say they never will. Recovered Emotionally Since 9/11 (Among close friends and relatives of 9/11 victims) Completely 30% Partially 57 Not at all 5 Never will (vol.) 7 16% of those who lost a friend or family member in the attacks say they themselves suffered from a diagnosed mental health issue such as depression, anxiety or post traumatic stress disorder as a result of the attacks. Did You Suffer From Mental Health Issue as a Result of 9/11? (Among close friends and relatives of 9/11 victims) Yes 16% No 83 Despite the lingering emotional aftereffects of the attacks, 61% of those close to someone who died say they have made no significant changes to their own lives as a result of the attacks. The change reported most often involves attitude towards life; 12% say they appreciate each day more, changed their outlook or just try to live better. 7% say they are more cautious when travelling or travel less. 5% are more aware of people in general.
Life Changes after 9/11 (Among close friends and relatives of 9/11 victims) Appreciate each day more/live better 12% More cautious when travelling 7 More aware of people in general 5 No changes 61 Some have found solace with others who have experienced a loss on 9/11. 24% say they have developed close friendships with the friends and family members of other people who were killed on 9/11. Developed Friendships with Other 9/11 Families and Friends? (Among close friends and relatives of 9/11 victims) Yes 24% No 73 42% say they attended religious services more frequently after 9/11 (most have kept it up). 14% report they moved because of the attacks, and one in ten changed or quit their job. Treatment Since the Attacks Thousands of lives were lost in the 9/11 attacks and many families were impacted. Americans and New Yorkers are more likely to think victims’ families have been treated fairly rather than unfairly, although significant percentages don’t know. Were Families of Victims Treated Fairly in the Years Following 9/11? Americans New Yorkers Fairly 49% 43% Unfairly 17 32 Don’t know 34 21 Friends and family members were asked whether families were compensated fairly; 39% say they were. Were Families of Victims Compensated Fairly in the Years Following 9/11? Friends/ Families Fairly 39% Unfairly 28 Don’t know 25 Views differ, however, on the treatment of workers at Ground Zero. While 40% of Americans think these workers have been treated fairly, in contrast, 58% of New Yorkers feel they have been treated unfairly. 52% of victims’ friends and family members feel they have not been treated fairly by the government, Were Workers at Ground Zero Treated Fairly in the Years Following 9/11? Americans New Yorkers Friends/Families Fairly 40% 24% 32% Unfairly 27 58 52 Don’t know 33 15 16
The Anniversary Ceremonies There is support for continuing to commemorate the September 11th attacks in the future, especially among friends and family members of those killed. Majorities of Americans overall and New Yorkers think 9/11 ceremonies should continue to be held annually. Not surprisingly, even more (73%) close friends and family members agree. After The 10th Anniversary, How Often Should 9/11 Ceremonies Be Held? Friends/ Americans New Yorkers Families Every year 57% 59% 73% Every 5 years 14 17 11 Every 10 years 11 9 6 No longer 7 9 6 58% of friends and family members say they find comfort in the anniversary events that are held on 9/11 as reminders that the victims are not forgotten. Far fewer, just 28%, find them painful reminders that make it difficult to move forward. Feel About Anniversary Ceremonies (Among close friends and relatives of 9/11 victims) Comfort 58% Painful 28 But when it comes to their own commemoration to the person killed, three in four of those close to someone who died on 9/11 prefer to do so in private rather than in public. 32% say they light a candle or have a moment of silence on 9/11. Ground Zero In the years since 9/11, there has been considerable controversy surrounding the plans for the World Trade Center site. More than six in 10 New Yorkers think at least some progress has been made redeveloping the area around Ground Zero, but only 22% say there’s been a lot of progress there. Views of friends and family members are similar. Progress at Ground Zero Site New Yorkers 22% 41 26 Friends/ Families 24% 39 27
A lot Some Not much
A competition was held to design the World Trade Center memorial to those killed on 9/11, and most like what they’ve seen so far. Fully three in four New Yorkers, and a similar percentage of friends and family members, are mostly satisfied with it. Planned Memorial at Ground Zero Friends/ New Yorkers Families Mostly satisfied 74% 74% Mostly dissatisfied 11 14
When asked why they are satisfied with it, 50% of friends and family members of those killed in the attacks cite the recognition of the victims that is included in the memorial, including 17% who like that it includes the names of the victims. Another 24% like the memorial itself. 73% feel that the person they were close to has been properly memorialized. 41% have been to Ground Zero since the attacks occurred. And a 43% plurality of those close to someone who was killed that day thinks the families of the victims had about the right amount of input into how the area around Ground Zero has been redeveloped. 29% think they had too little input. In addition to the memorial, an office building is being constructed at the World Trade Center site which will be the tallest building in the United States when it is complete. New Yorkers divide on whether they would be comfortable going to a high floor in that building: 50% say they would be, while 47% would not. Comfortable Going to High Floor in New Office Building at Ground Zero? New Yorkers Yes 50% No 47 78% of New Yorkers in the poll say they lived in New York City at the time of the attacks and were in the city on September 11th, 2001. Their views on these questions are similar to those of New Yorkers overall. New York City In assessing the lasting impact of the terrorist attacks, most think that New Yorkers themselves have partially recovered both economically and emotionally, but few say New Yorkers have completely recovered in these areas. How Much Do You Think New Yorkers Have Recovered…? ---------------- New Yorkers ---------------Completely Partially Not at all Economically 10% 64 22 Emotionally 7% 67 21 More than 2,700 people lost their lives in the attack on the Twin Towers in New York City, and 56% of New Yorkers say their own life has changed as a result the attacks. Has Your Own Life Changed as a Result of the 9/11 Attacks? New Yorkers Yes 56% No 40 Some of the ways their lives have changed include feeling unsafe or fearful (13%) and being alert and more careful (12%). 8% cite an economic factor such as losing or a job or losing income.
New York City’s mayor at the time of the attacks, Rudy Giuliani, became a national figure in the aftermath of 9/11. Looking back, 71% of Americans approve of the way Giuliani handled the attacks on the World Trade Center. 65% of New Yorkers agree. Mayor Giuliani’s Handling of 9/11 Attacks on World Trade Center Americans New Yorkers Approve 71% 65% Disapprove 8 22 Three in four Americans have a good image of New York City today, a view that has been fairly consistent since the attacks of 9/11. Prior to that, fewer Americans held a positive opinion of the Big Apple. Image of New York City ------------------------ Americans -----------------------8/2006 9/2001 3/1998 7/1996 76% 84% 61% 43% 14 10 29 43
Now Good 77% Bad 14
7/2007 72% 13
Close Friends’ and Family Members’ Ties to the Victims 67% of these friends and family members say the person they knew who was killed on 9/11 was a man; 21% say the person was a firefighter. Just over half say he or she had children. Nearly nine in ten say the person they knew was killed at the World Trade Center, 8% report the person died at the Pentagon and another 3% report their loss occurred in Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The national poll was conducted among a nationwide random sample of 1,165 adults, interviewed by telephone August 19-23, 2011. The error due to sampling could be plus or minus three percentage points for results based on the complete sample. The error for subgroups is higher. The New York City poll was conducted among a citywide random sample of 1,027 adults, interviewed by telephone August 9-15, 2011. The error due to sampling could be plus or minus three percentage points for results based on the complete sample. The error for subgroups is higher. The friends and family poll was conducted among a nationwide sample of 246 adults who say a close friend or family member was killed on 9/11, interviewed by telephone August 11-23, 2011. 854 respondents fitting this description were identified in previous CBS News and CBS News/New York Times Polls conducted since late 2010 and were called back for this survey. The results for the 246 adults responding to the callback were weighted to demographic targets based on all of the 854 who were called. The error due to sampling for results based on the entire sample could be plus or minus six percentage points. The error for subgroups is higher. All three samples included standard land-lines and cell phones. These poll releases conform to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls.
CBS NEWS/NEW YORK TIMES POLL U.S./Americans: Results of national poll conducted August 19-23, 2011 NYC/New Yorkers: Results of New York City Poll conducted August 9-15, 2011 Friends/Family: Results of poll conducted Aug. 11-23, 2011 among Americans with a close friend or family member killed on 9/11. All trend is from national polls unless otherwise noted. US: q1 How do you feel about the future of the United States over the next few years? Would you say that you are generally optimistic about the next few years for the U.S., or are you generally pessimistic about the next few years for the U.S.? Americans % 43 51 6 Dec09b % 56 38 6
Optimistic Pessimistic DK/NA
US: q14 Do you think the country as a whole has changed as a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001 or not?? IF CHANGED, ASK: In what way has it changed? Friends/family: q6 Do you think the country as a whole has changed as a result of the terrorist attacks, or not? IF CHANGED, ASK: In what way has it changed the most? Friends/ Families % 82 14 20 11 2 2 1 4 3 2 3 0 1 4 4 4 1 2 15 3
Yes, changed More aware/cautious More fearful Heightened security General change in attitude Less civil liberty Pride in American/patriotic Stronger communities Economy hurting Loss of trust in gov't People more pessimistic Less travel/less tourism Prejudice/discrimination Prejudice Arab-Americans Polarized Americans/divided War/aggressive militarily More gov't power Other No, not changed DK/NA
Americans % 82 23 16 12 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 13 5
US: q15, NYC: q19 About how often do you think about Sept. 11 -- every day, every week, once in a while, or hardly ever? Americans % 10 17 57 15 1 0 New Yorkers % 16 15 55 12 2 0 Aug06b % 17 27 49 7 0 0
Every day Every week Once in a while Hardly ever Never (Vol.) DK/NA
US: q16 What one emotion most expresses how you feel about what happened on 9/11? Sadness Anger Disbelief/Shock Fear Other DK/NA 41 25 19 4 7 4
US: q19, NYC: q8 Is your image of New York City a good one or a bad one? IF MIXED IMAGE, SAY: Is it mainly good or mainly bad? Jun07c* % 78 72 17 13 5 15 a good image or a bad image of New York City?
Good 77 Bad 14 DK/NA 9 *Wording: In general do you have
US: q32, NYC: q34 It has been reported that sometimes law enforcement officers stop people of certain racial or ethnic groups because they believe that these groups are more likely than others to commit certain types of crimes. Do you think this practice is justified, or not? Aug06b 47 45 5 3
Justified Not justified Depends (vol) DK/NA
40 51 5 4
36 55 5 4
US: q38, NYC: q29, Friends/family: q1 After the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, it was said that Americans became more patriotic and united. Do you think Americans are just as patriotic and united NOW as they were immediately following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, or are they more patriotic and united NOW or less patriotic and united NOW? Friends/ New Yorkers Families % % 16 14 33 14 45 70 1 0 5 2
Just same patriotic/united More Less Never more patriotic (vol.) DK/NA
Americans % 18 31 47 1 3
US: q44, NYC: q60, Friends/family: q24 This year marks the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. In the future, do you think 9/11 anniversary ceremonies should continue to be held every year, or every 5 years, or every 10 years, or should 9/11 anniversary ceremonies no longer be held? Friends/ New Yorkers Families % % 59 73 17 11 9 6 9 6 2 3 0 0 4 1
Every year Every 5 years Every 10 years No longer Depends (vol) Other DK/NA
Americans % 57 14 11 7 3 0 8
US: q45, NYC: q61 Do you think the families of those who died on 9/11 have been treated fairly in the years following the attacks, or have they been treated unfairly? Fairly Unfairly Too well (vol) Mixed/depends (vol) DK/NA 49 17 0 na 34 43 32 0 4 21
Friends/family: q42 Do you think most families of those killed on 9/11 have been compensated fairly, or have they not been compensated fairly? Fairly Not fairly Never enough compensation (vol.) DK/NA 39 28 8 25
US: q46, NYC: q62 Do you think people who worked at the Ground Zero site after the 9/11 attacks have been treated fairly in the years following the attacks, or have they been treated unfairly? Fairly Unfairly Too well (vol) Mixed/depends (vol) DK/NA 40 27 0 na 33 24 58 na 3 15
Friends/family:q40 Do you think people who worked at the Ground Zero site after the 9/11 attacks have been treated fairly by the government in the years following the attacks, or have they not been treated fairly? Fairly Not fairly DK/NA 32 52 16
US: q47, NYC: q63, Friends/family: q5 Looking back, do you approve or disapprove of the way Rudolph Giuliani handled the attacks on the World Trade Center?
Americans % Approved 71 Disapproved 8 DK/NA 21 *Wording omits “Looking back,…”
Friends/ New Yorkers Families % % 65 77 22 15 13 8
Sep01c* * 95 1 4
US: q48, NYC: q64 As a result of the terrorist attacks, have you or has someone you know ever suffered from a diagnosed mental health issue such as depression, anxiety or post traumatic stress disorder? IF YES, ASK: Was that you or someone you know? Yes, self has Yes, someone you know has Both No DK/NA 4 13 0 81 2 4 21 3 69 3
US: q49, NYC: q65 Do you or does the person you know still suffer from that mental health issue? * Among those who know someone in q48 * 70 65 21 23 2 5 7 7
Yes No Some do/some don't (vol.) DK/NA
Friends/family: q52 As a result of the 9/11 attacks, have you ever suffered from a diagnosed mental health issue such as depression, anxiety or post- traumatic stress disorder? Friends/Families 16 83 1
Yes, No DK/NA Friends/family: q53 NOT RELEASED (SMALL SAMPLE SIZE)
US: q50, NYC: q67 Do you or any of your friends or relatives know someone who was killed on 9/11?
Yes No DK/NA
25 75 0
58 41 1
US: q51, NYC: q68 Do you personally have a close friend or relative who was killed on 9/11? Do you personally have a close friend or relative who was killed on 9/11? Americans 18 82 -New Yorkers 39 60 1
Yes No DK/NA
CBS NEWS/NEW YORK TIMES POLL Questions asked in New York City and in Friends/Family poll NYC: q16 Did your own life change as a result of the events on September 11, 2001 or not? IF CHANGED, ASK: In what way has it changed? New Yorkers % Yes, life has changed Feel unsafe/fearful More alert/careful Lost job Psychological impact Lost family or friend Re-evalued life Changed transportation method Lost income/longer hours Other No, not changed DK/NA 56 13 12 6 5 5 5 4 2 4 40 4
NYC: q30 How much do you think New Yorkers have recovered from the ECONOMIC impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks? Have they completely recovered, partially recovered, or not recovered at all? Completely Partially Not at all Never will (vol) DK/NA 10 64 22 1 3
NYC: q31 How much do you think New Yorkers have recovered from the EMOTIONAL impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks? Have they completely recovered, partially recovered, or not recovered at all? Friends/family: q46 How much have you recovered from the EMOTIONAL impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks? Have you completely recovered, partially recovered, or not recovered at all? Friends/ New Yorkers Family % % Completely 7 30 Partially 67 57 Not at all 21 5 Never will (vol) 3 7 DK/NA 2 1
NYC: q57, Friends/family: q19 What is your impression of how the redevelopment of the area around Ground Zero has gone -- has there been a lot of progress, some progress, or not much progress? Friends/ New Yorkers Family % % 22 24 41 39 26 27 11 10
A lot of progress Some progress Not much progress DK/NA
NYC: q58 As you may know, a new office building is under construction at the World Trade Center site. When it is finished it will be the tallest building in the United States. Would you be comfortable or not comfortable going to a high floor in that building - for example to visit an observation deck or an office? Comfortable Not comfortable DK/NA 50 47 3
NYC: q59 From what you have heard or read, are you mostly satisfied with the planned memorial at Ground Zero, or mostly dissatisfied with the planned memorial? Mostly satisfied Mostly dissatisfied DK/NA 74 11 15
CBS NEWS/NEW YORK TIMES POLL Questions asked in Friends/family poll only q20 From what you have heard or read, are you mostly satisfied with the planned memorial at Ground Zero, or mostly dissatisfied with the planned memorial? Friends/ Family % 74 14 12
Mostly satisfied Mostly dissatisfied DK/NA
q21 What makes you most satisfied about the memorial planned at Ground Zero? * Among Friends/family satisfied with memorial * Recognition of victims 33 Memorial itself 24 Names of victims in memorial 17 Rebuild commercial center 3 Waterfall/reflection 3 Artistic/aesthetics 2 Looks to the future 2 Other 6 DK/NA 10
q22 NOT RELEASED (SMALL SAMPLE SIZE) q23 When it comes to how the area of Ground Zero has been redeveloped, do you think the families of people who were killed in the September 11th terrorist attacks have had too much say, not enough say, or has their input been about right? Friends/ Family % 8 29 43 20
Too much say Too little say About right DK/NA
q25 Was your friend or relative who died on 9/11 a man or a woman? Man Woman DK/NA 67 24 9
q26 Was he your husband, son, brother, father, fiancée or friend or some other close relationship? * Among those who said man in q25* 0 6 79 15 0
Husband Brother Friend Other DK/NA
q27 Was she your wife, daughter, sister, mother, o fiancée or friend or some other close relationship? * Among those who said woman in q25* 0 74 25 1
Daughter Friend Other DK/NA
q28 Was your (Relation to 9/11 Victim) a firefighter, police officer, or some other type of first responder? IF NECESSARY: Was that person a firefighter, a police officer, or something else? Friends/ Family % 21 3 10 61 5
Yes, firefighter Yes, police officer Yes, something else No DK/NA
q29 Did your (Relation to 9/11 Victim) die at the World Trade Center or at the Pentagon, or on the plane that crashed in Pennsylvania? Friends/ Family % 88 8 3 1
WTC Pentagon Pennsylvania DK/NA
q30 Do you think that (Relation to 9/11 Victim) has been properly memorialized for having lost his/her life on 9/11? Yes No DK/NA 73 18 9
q31 Have you visited Ground Zero since Sept. 11, 2001? Yes No 41 59
q32 Have you gone to any of the anniversary ceremonies at Ground Zero, the Pentagon or Pennsylvania? IF NECESSARY: Which one?? Yes No DK/NA 10 90 0
q36 In general, do you prefer to observe 9/11 in a private manner or in a public manner? Private Public Both/depends (vol.) DK/NA 73 17 10 0
q37 Is there any particular way that you and your family commemorate the anniversary of the 9/11 terrorist attacks? IF YES, ASK: What do you do? Moment of silence/light a candle Get together with others Follow coverage in media Special ceremony No, Nothing Other DK/NA 32 11 3 2 44 8 0
q38 Will you be doing anything different this year to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the September 11th terrorist attacks? IF YES: How will you commemorate the events of 9/11 differently than you have on other anniversaries? Friends/ Family % 5 4 2 2 2 2 71 8 4
Get together with others Memorial service/fund raiser Visit Ground Zero Follow coverage in media Special ceremony Hang flag No, Nothing Other DK/NA
q39 Do you MOSTLY take comfort in the anniversary events surrounding 9/11 as reminders that the victims are not forgotten, or are the anniversaries MOSTLY painful events that make it difficult to move forward? Comfort Painful Both (vol) DK/NA 58 28 12 2
q41, q42, q43, q45 NOT RELEASED (SAMPLE SIZE TOO SMALL) q47 Did your (Relation to 9/11 Victim) have any children? IF YES, ASK: Were any of your [fill relation]'s children under 18 on Sept. 11, 2001? Yes, under 18 Yes, 18+ No DK/NA 56 7 35 2
q48 How much do you think your (Relation to 9/11 Victim) children's have recovered from the EMOTIONAL impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks? Have they completely recovered, partially recovered, or not recovered at all? *Among those with friend/family who had children* % 9 46 23 10 12
Completely Partially Not at all Never will (vol) DK/NA
q49 As a direct result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, have you chosen to make any major changes in your life? IF YES: What was the most significant change? Friends/ Family % 8 7 5 4 3 3 1 1 61 4 3
Changed outlook/try to live better More cautious when travelling More aware of suspicious people Appreciate each day More aware of surroundings Moved Advocate for peace/tolerance/kinder Career change No change, nothing Other DK/NA
q50 About how long after the 9/11 terrorist attacks did it take for your life to mostly get back to normal? Less than six months Six months to less than a year One to less than two years Two to five years Longer than five years It is not yet back to normal It will never be normal It's a new kind of normal DK/NA 17 15 24 30 4 2 5 1 2
q51 In the ten years since 9/11, have you formed any close friendships with other relatives or close friends of people who were killed in the September 11th terrorist attacks? Yes No Already close (Vol.) DK/NA 24 73 3 0
q54 In the weeks after the terrorist attacks, were you more likely to attend religious services, less likely, or didn't the attacks have much effect on that? More likely Less likely No effect Never attend anyway (vol) DK/NA q55 Are you still attending services more? * Among those who said “more likely” to attend religious services * Still attending more Not attending more 78 22 42 3 53 1 1
q56 As a direct result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, did you move your place of residence? Friends/ Family % 14 86
q57 As a direct result of 9/11, have you changed jobs or quit your job or entered the work force? Changed jobs Quit job Entered the work force Wasn't working before/Don't work Stayed same job Lost job/Laid off/Fired (vol.) DK/NA q58 Have you remarried? No 100 9 1 4 3 69 1 13
Total Americans (National survey) Total New Yorkers (NYC survey) Total Friends/Family of 9/11 victim
Sample size 1165 1027 246
Margin of error 3 pts. 3 pts. 6 pts.
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