AIM: To investigate habituation of snails of snails.
PROBLEM STATEMENT: Can snails become habituated to a stimulus?
HYPOTHESIS: Time taken for tentacles to re-extend decreases with the increase of number of times stimulation been given to the snail.
VARIABLES: Fixed variable : Same type of snail, Interval of time Responding variable : Time taken for tentacles to re-extend Manipulated variable : Number of times the snail has been stimulated
APPARATUS and MATERIALS: One giant African land snail One dampened cotton wool bud Suitable clean, firm surface for the snails Stopwatch
The snail is touched between the eye stalks with the dampened cotton wool bud and the stopwatch is immediately started. The procedure is repeated for a total of 10 touches.
RESULTS: Number of times the snail has been stimulated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time taken to tentacles re-extend (second)
Table 1 Time taken to tentacles of snail to re-extend
. 2. 3. firm surface. The results are recorded in a suitable table and are presented in an appropriate graph. The time taken for the tentacles to re-extend is measured. The same area is touched again after a specific amount of time which is within 1 to 2 minutes. A cotton wool bud is dampened with water. timing how long the snail takes time to reextend its tentacles each time. 7.PROCEDURE: 1. 4. 5. The snail is allowed to get used to its new surrounding for a few minutes until it has fully emerged from its shell. The length of time between the touch and the snail’s tentacles to be re-extended is recorded. A giant African land snail is collected and placed on a clean. 6.
10.65 15.02 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of times the snails has been stimulated 5.03 3.Graph of time taken for snail's tentacle to re-extend vs stimulation number
18 16 Time taken for snail's tentacle to re-extend 14 12 10 8 6 4.86 15.61
Graph 1 Time taken to re-extend vs. stimulation number
4.31 10.42 8.76 2.
Therefore.34 seconds. stimulation must be given by the same person throughout the experiment and by poking with a same force each time. The time taken for its tentacle to re-extend after each stimulation is recorded and after a constant time-interval. The habituation response can re-occur after a period of time where stimulus was not presented to the snail. Meanwhile. Besides that. This is based on further test on snail after a spontaneous recovery.65 seconds. it should be ensure that stimulation is applied at precisely the same area between snail’s eye stalks. However.
Sources of error and modifications Degree of response of snail which is the length of tentacle retracted during the stimulation may varied with degree of force used when touching its head. A total if ten stimulations had been given to the snail during the experiment. the habituation is a short term memory. Even though degree of force is constant for every
. It takes place as memories formed and may be relatively short term but can become long term so that a response is lost permanently. As snail’s response is a living organism. data shows the longest time it took to re-extend its tentacle is after the first stimulation which 15. its response can be unpredictable at times. Habituation is important for animals learn and differentiate between dangerous stimulus and harmless touch around them. Habituation is defined as decreased response to a stimulus that is repeated without reinforcement. as different spots of the snail may have different sensitivity. The difference between the first and last reading is as much as 13. From the graph. in this experiment. its reaction may be different from its usual in the wild habitat. the shortest time recorded is 2. However. the trend can be seen to be declining from first stimulation to tenth stimulation.
Limitations The condition during experiment is different compare to environment of snail’s habitat.DISCUSSION: Data evaluation The results are tabulated as in Table 1. The overall result follows the principal of habituation hence positive result of experiment. From Table 1. Graph 1 shows a fluctuated trend of line graph. Therefore.31 seconds which is after the last (tenth) stimulation given to snail. it has already been shown. stimulation is re-applied. generally.
It can be investigated whether age of snails is a factor in habituation. snail is the most suitable living organism to be use in this study. In addition. Daphnia might suffer unnecessary stress due to experimental procedures which include being poke many times on its head.
. what we can do is reduce any possibilities of Daphnia suffering from this experiment such as suing damp cotton bud and placing the snail on a slightly wet table. 2. snail is used as a main subject to be studied for the sake of science study. Investigation can be carried out to record time taken for foot to be extended after a touch. If an aged snail is used. the age of snail used in this experiment can be a factor related to habituation result. However. during this experiment.
Further exploration 1.stimulation. Nevertheless. Other than that. Force or stimulus is applied to different part of snail body. Experiment can be repeated with snails of different age. ethical issue arose.
Ethical issues In this experiment too. how far the body retracts for each stimulates may still varies. In this experiment. the result will significant decrease as older snails habituated faster. since the experimental data are obtained from experiments with living organism which is giant African snail. the snails used on this experiment should be release instantly to its original habitat after the practical. As we should respect it as one of God’s creation. Observations are done on habituation to stimulation applied.
65 15.03 3.44 4. the other variable (time) decrease .31
81 49 25 9 1 9 4 36 25 81
( ( (
) ) )
: There is a strong negative correlation showing that the relationship is inverse which means when one variable ( number of stimulation) increase.02 5.86 10.FURTHER WORK: Correlation analysis using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient Number of times the snail has been stimulated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank stimulation (x) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time/second Rank time (y) 10 9 8 7 6 3 5 2 4 1 Difference/d (x – y) -9 -7 -5 -3 -1 3 2 6 5 9 d²
15.76 4.45 10.42 8.
Stimulus should cause no harm to the snails.
CONCLUSION: The time taken for snail’s tentacle to re-extend decreases with the increase of number of stimulation given to it.
Conclusion: From table of critical values. At 0.Hypothesis testing for Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient H₀ : ρ = 0 (there is no correlation between variables) H₁ : ρ ≠ 0 (there is correlation between variables) Level of significance.939 < -0.animalbehavioronline.6485 and -0. α/2 = 2.5% or 0. -0.au/aqis/quarantine/pests-diseases/plants-products/giant_african_snail
. Habituation occurs therefore hypothesis is accepted.daff. Test statistic is less than critical value. the critical value is 0.6485.025 Test statistic = -0. Null hypothesis is accepted. α = 5% Level of significance on each tail.6485 . there is no significant correlation between two variables.html http://www.025 significance level.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: Hands should be washed thoroughly for disinfection after touching the snails once all the equipment has been put ready.