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What is ping? Why you use ping?

PING Stands for Packet InterNet Gopher. PING is used for connectivity checking of any network or any host or device of any or other networks.

Routers are always preferable for routing services. Routers work at which OSI layers?

Router works at network layer for providing routing services between or among several networks.

A gateway works in which layer?

Transport layer of OSI model.

How can you check the connectivity of any network?

By using ping command.

What is a gateway? A gateway acts a door for the packet to reach the outside of the internal network.

What are the differences among router, switch, bridge and hub?

Router, switch, bridge and hub are network devices. Yet there are some differences among them. The main differences are:

Router: A layer 3 device, can work on physical, data and network layer. Switch: A layer 2 device, can work on data link layer Bridge: A layer 2 device, can work on data link layer. Hub: A layer 1device, just a multi-port repeater and works on physical layer

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What is the range of class A address?

0-127 is the range of class A address.

Tell an IP which has class C range. Also tell why that IP is an class C address.

IP of Class C: Why this is a class C address: Class C addresses have the range of 192 - 223

Name a device which can operate at physical layer of OSI model.


Note: Remember, hub is the device that can work only into the physical layer of OSI model. But switch, router can also be used instead of a hub. So, all the answers hub, switch or router are all correct.

What is the major differences between a router and a switch?

A router can divide the broadcast domain and collision domain. But a switch can only divide the collision domain. Router can communicate among different networks where as the switch can not communicate different networks.

Hub operates at which layers of OSI model? Is it wise to use a hub for huge networks? Why or why not?

Hub operates at only physical layer of OSI model. No, it's not so wise to use hub for a huge network.

Hubs can't divide the broadcast domain or the collision domain. So, if we use hubs then there creates huge broadcast domain. When there are huge broadcast, the network gets problem time to time. So, it's not wise to use hubs to support a huge network.

How many layers are in OSI model? Name them

There are seven layers of OSI model. The layers are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer

Note: You can remember the seven layer model by a simple sentence. Please Do Not Touch Steven's Pet Alligator. See, the starting of each word forms the layer.

Why do you need to use a router?

Router can easily divide the broadcast domain and collision domain. So, to communicate among several networks, routers are used.

What is the second layer of OSI model?

Data Link layer.

Name two network devices which can work as layer 2 device.

Switch and router

What is OSI model?

OSI revers for Open System Interconnection Reference Model. It is an abstract model for layered communications and computer network protocol design. There are seven layers of OSI model which, from top to bottom, are the Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-Link, and Physical Layers.

OSI model also referred as OSI layered model, OIS layered technology, 7 layer model, OSI seven layer model, OSI reference model.

What is the data unit of Data Link layer?


What are the difference between TCP and UDP?

TCP: Connection oriented protocol, acknowledged one, Point to point communication. UDP: Connection less protocol, unreliable, less traffic

What is the port no of DNS and Telnet?

DNS port no: 53 Telnet port no: 23

What is the port no of SMTP and POP3?

SMPT port no: 25 POP3 port no: 110

What is the functionality of network layer? Name the data unint of network layer.

Functionality of network layer: Path determination and logical addressing Data unit of network layer: Packet

Which three layers of OSI model is treated as "Media Layers"?

Physical layer, data link layer and network layer are treated as "Media Layers".

What is deadlock?

Deadlock is a situation when two or more processes are waiting indefinitely for an event that can be caused by only one of the waiting processes. The implementation of a semaphore with a waiting queue may result in this situation.

Mention the advantages and disadvantages of a router.


Router can limit the collision domain and broadcast domain Router can function both on LAN & WAN. Different media & architectures can be connected among themselves through router. Router can determine best path/route for data to reach the destination. Router can filter the broadcasts. For communicating different networks, routers must be used.


Router is more expensive than any other networking devices like Hub, Bridge & Switch. Router only work with routable protocols. Routing updates consume some bandwidth. Increase latency due to greater degree of packet filtering. Routers function as software based and so it's slower compared to switch.

Mention the private IP address rannge of class B and C.

For Class B: For Class C:

What is the IP range of class C IP address?

What is the default subnet mask of class C IP address?

Why do you need subnet mask?

Subnet mask is required to divide a large network into several small networks.

Tell the full name: DNS, FTP

DNS: Domain Name System FTP: File Transfer Protocol

What is the functionality or ARP?

ARP refers to Address Resolution Protocol. ARP is a computer networking protocol for determining a network host's link layer or hardware address when only its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address is known.

Which one is reliable: TCP or UDP?

TCP is reliable and UDP is an unreliable service.

How DHCP works?

DHCP works by four-steps: (1) IP request, (2) IP offer (3) IP selection and (d) Acknowledgement.

What is POP3? Why you require POP3?

POP stands for Post Office Protocol. This is used to describe how e-mail clients interact with mail servers. The POP3 Server is a type of mail server used for incoming mail. POP is only used to receive messages.

What is the difference between Layer 2 Switch and Layer 3 Switch?

Layer 2 switch is based on MAC addresses which operates on Data Link Layer of OSI mode. And Layer 3 switching is based on network topology table populated and works on Network layer. We have one router,we r using two routing protocol eigrp 90 net, ospf 110 net on same router, Is it possible? Yes this is possible if we want all routing protocol run with a time but it works according to Ad value.if eigrp & ospf work with a time then its takes automatically eigrp route according to AD value. what is a routing ?what is the use of routing? when the data packets travel bewtten router to router then we call this prosess routing. routing is use for data communication in our network Which port are used by Viruses? TCP or UDP? it is using udp protocal port 137 is using vires What is router? router is used to make different networks to communicate. router uses best path for communication. router wont allow broadcast. explicitly we can do broadcasting in router router is a intelligent devise. router understand packet. Each interface in the router is in different network. In router if you see there is a wan ports through which we can make connection with wan technology router is like a pc ..........processor,ram,flash,cpu fan...etc many more .................. What is a (Flash) BIOS ? Pronounced "bye-ose," BIOS is an acronym for basic input/output system. The BIOS is built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions. What are the five stages in a DLX pipeline? The instruction sets can be differentiated by * * * * * Operand storage in the CPU Number of explicit operands per instruction Operand location Operations Type and size of operands

How can you clear your BIOS with the DOS DEBUG command ? 1.for AMI and Award BIOSs: C:DEBUG (at a clear DOS prompt, don't do this in DOS-box in Windows) -O 70 17 -O 71 17 Q 2.for Phoenix BIOSs: C:DEBUG (at a clear DOS prompt, don't do this in DOS-box in Windows) -O 70 FF -O 71 17 Q What?s the difference between Write-Through and Write-Back Caches? Explain advantages and disadvantages of each. The comparison can be made out of two factors 1) Performance and 2) Integrity of Data Write through is better in integrity as it will flush for each writes. Write back holds up the write till the same cache line has to be used up for a read, which question the data integrity when multiple processors access the same region of data using its own internal cache. Write Back - gives a good performance, as it save many memory write cycles /write. Write Through - Doesn't give this performance compared to the write-back. How can I determine what BIOS is on my PC and if there is an update? The easiest way to determine this is to run the eSupport BIOS Agent scan. It'll tell you which motherboard you have and if there is any update available. An alternative manual way is to identify your motherboard manually by using the Award or AMI Numbers page to compare your BIOS id string to the ones in our database.

How to get into your computer BIOS? To change BIOS settings, you'll need to get into the computer BIOS first. This is done via a certain key or combination of keys Most of the time during boot-up the key (combination) will be shown. If it is not, then you could try the following key combinations: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Del F1 F2 F10 Ins Esc Ctrl+Alt+Esc Ctrl+Alt+Enter Ctrl+Alt+Ins after Ctrl+Alt+Del Ctrl+Ins Ctrl+Alt+S Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift+Esc Shift+Ctrl+Alt + Num Pad Del Ctrl+Esc Ctrl+Alt and +

What is a Snooping cache? Snooping is the process where the individual caches monitor address lines for accesses to memory locations that they have cached. When a write operation is observed to a location that a cache has a copy of, the cache controller invalidates its own copy of the snooped memory location. Snarfing is where a cache controller watches both address and data in an attempt to update its own copy of a memory location when a second master modifies a location in main memory Why 8085 processor is called an 8 bit processor? Because 8085 processor has 8 bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Review). Similarly 8086 processor has 16 bit ALU. What is the difference between 72 bit and 64 bit memory? 72 bit memory is commonly known as ECC memory. It has an additional 8 bits for Error Correction Check 64 bit memory is non-ECC. 72 bit or 64 bit configuration are typically found in 168 pin DIMMs. What's the difference between RDRAM and SDRAM? RDRAM stands for Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory. SDRAM stands for Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory. The two memories are completely different memory technologies and are not compatible with each other. RDRAM is a unique design developed by a company called Rambus, Inc. RDRAM is extremely fast and uses a narrow, high-bandwidth "channel" to transmit data at speeds much faster than SDRAM. Difference between static and dynamic RAM? Static RAM: No refreshing, 6 to 8 MOS transistors are required to form one memory cell, Information stored as voltage level in a flip flop. Dynamic RAM: Refreshed periodically, 3 to 4 transistors are required to form one memory cell, Information is stored as a charge in the gate to substrate capacitance. How to clear Computer Motherboard CMOS password? To clear Computer Motherboard CMOS password we will do these steps. Since CMOS is a special chip with its own battery, the best way to clear out a CMOS chip is to disconnect it from its power supply. What is cache memory? Cache memory is a small high-speed memory. It is used for temporary storage of data & information between the main memory and the CPU (center processing unit). Thecache memory is only in RAM. What is a Microprocessor? Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor are single- chip devices. Give examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor? 8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486. What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor? The processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32 bits. What is the difference between primary & secondary storage device? In primary storage device the storage capacity is limited. It has a volatile memory. In secondary storage device the storage capacity is larger. It is a nonvolatile memory. Primary devices are: RAM / ROM. Secondary devices are: Floppy disc / Hard disk. Differentiate between RAM and ROM? RAM: Read / Write memory, High Speed, Volatile Memory. ROM: Read only memory, Low Speed, Non Voliate Memory. What is meant by a bus? A bus is a group of conducting lines that carriers data, address, & control signals. Name the processor lines of two major manufacturers? High-end: Intel - Pentium (II, III, 4), AMD - Athlon. Low-end: Intel - Celeron, AMD - Duron. 64-bit: Intel - Itanium 2, AMD Opteron.

What is Stack Pointer? Stack pointer is a special purpose 16-bit register in the Microprocessor, which holds the address of the top of the stack. SP is a register in a microprocessor which points to the address of next instruction to be fetched Which interrupt has the highest priority? TRAP has the highest priority What is the meaning of "8086" 8006 is nothing but a microprocessor which is use in electronic devices to controlits programs.

Give an example of one address microprocessor? 8085 is a one address microprocessor. Name 5 different addressing modes? Immediate, Direct, Register, Register indirect, Implied addressing modes What are Software interrupts? RST0, RST1, RST2, RST3, RST4, RST5, RST6, RST7. What does Quality factor mean? The Quality factor is also defined, as Q. So it is a number, which reflects the lossness of a circuit. Higher the Q, the lower are the losses. In 8085 name the 16 bit registers? Stack pointer and Program counter all have 16 bits. What does EU do? Execution Unit receives program instruction codes and data from BIU, executes these instructions and store the result in general registers. What?s the speed and device maximum specs for Firewire? IEEE 1394 (Firewire) supports the maximum of 63 connected devices with speeds up to 400 Mbps. Where?s MBR located on the disk? Main Boot Record is located in sector 0, track 0, head 0, cylinder 0 of the primary active partition. Can an RC circuit be used as clock source for 8085? Yes, it can be used, if an accurate clock frequency is not required. Also, the component cost is low compared to LC or Crystal Give two ways of converting a two input NAND gate to an inverter. One way is shorting the two inputs of the NAND gate and passing the input. truth table: A B output 1 1 0 0 0 1 The second way is passing the input to only one input(say A) of the NAND gate.Since the other input(say B) is floating, it is always logic one. truth table: A B output 1 1 0 0 1 1 What are the different Adder circuits you studied? Adders are generally of five types: 1) Ripple Carry Adder: The Ripple carry adder(RCA) consists of a building block named Half Adder(HA) which is cascaded to form a Full Adder(FA). These building blocks HAs and FAs are also the building blocks of all types of adders.The n full adders are cascaded to form n bit RCA. The full adder has three input pins(input Ai,input Bi,carryin Ci) and two output pins(Sum and Ci+1).Its equations are: Sum=Ai^Bi^Ci Ci+1=Ai.Bi+Bi.Ci+Ai.Ci 2)Carry Lookahead Adder: The Carry Lookahead Adder(CLA) reduces the delay as that in RCA. Let Gi=Ai.Bi, and Pi=Ai^Bi, then Ci+1=Gi+Pi.Ci. The expressions for Sum and Ci+1 is then defined completely in terms of input pins rather wait for input carry to appear. 3)Carry Select Adder: The carry select adder uses duplicate modules for each combination of input carry(i.e. 1 and 0).The multiplexers then select the appropriate sum and carry output according to the carry output of the preceding stages. What is the difference between SYNONYM and ALIAS? Sequence detector : A sequence detector gives an output of 1 on detecting the given sequence else the output is zero. Ex : if the given sequence to be detected is 111 and input stream is 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 the output should be 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1. Soln: One of the different possible ways to detect a sequence is using a Mealy type FSM. Using the following table the State machine can be designed. since the number of bits in the sequence 1101 is 4 we have 4 states -----------------------------------------------------|PS | Seq detected by the state | NS/output | | | |---------------| | | | X=0 | X=1 | |----------------------------------------------------| S1 | - | S1/0 | S2/0 | |----------------------------------------------------| | S2 | 1 | S1/0 | S3/0 | |----------------------------------------------------| | S3 | 11 | S4/0 | S3/0 | |----------------------------------------------------| | S4 | 110 | S1/0 | S2/1 | |----------------------------------------------------|

when in state S4 (PS),and input(X) from the sequence is 1,the sequence "1101" has been detected once and (to find the next state select the longest "seq identified by a state" column that matches part of the sequence 1101--ie.,1 or 01 or 101 ....)the NS is S2 since the sequence detected by the state S2 is 1(in 1101- 01 or 101 ,etc are not present in the seq identified by the state column ,) How many logical drives is it possible to fit onto a physical disk? Maximum of 24 logical drives. The extended partition can only have 23 logical drives. Where?s MBR located on the disk? Main Boot Record is located in sector 0, track 0, head 0, cylinder 0 of the primary active partition. Which is the tool used to connect the user and the computer? Interpreter is the tool used to connect the user and the tool. the operating system is used to connect the user and computer. If we r getting in disc boot error. At initial stage what We need 2 check. Pls detail in steps. 1.Enter into the BIOS and check whether your hard disk drive is set as first boot device,if not then set it as first boot device in the boot device priority. 2.If the problems exists,then you have to boot the system with a new operating system cd and install a new one. 3.Side by side check the RAM also for the connection What is SIM and RIM instructions? SIM is Set Interrupt Mask. Used to mask the hardware interrupts. RIM is Read Interrupt Mask. Used to check whether the interrupt is Masked or not. Logic calculations are done in which type of registers? Accumulator is the register in which Arithmetic and Logic calculations are done.

Cache memory is a temporary memory.At the time of installation it will stores the required files to install.

# Following eight commands to repair Window XP by console command.<br><br>C: CD .. <br>C: ATTRIB -H C:root.ini <br>C:ATTRIB -S C:root.ini <br>C:ATRIB -R C:root.ini <br>C: del boot.ini <br>C: BOOTCFG /Rebuild <br>C: CHKDSK /R /F <br>C: FIXBOOT <br> # A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. Its function is to hide differences in hardware from most of the operating system kernel, so that most of the kernel-mode code does not need to be changed to run on systems with different hardware.

# BIOS - Basic Input Output System, Power On Self Test (POST) and Loading Bootloader from the Hard disk drive Boot Sector is being done by BIOS. It initiates the system for operation