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Theory of Entropy and Structure in Cryptography.

Entropy and Structure are the currencies of cryptography. Structure provides the readable textual form of a natural language and is the property of an arrangement of characters that changes otherwise senseless raw alphanumeric data into meaningful information. In vector cryptography Alice wants to create cipher-text however instead of the plaintext form of her typed message that she will then send to Bob as a secure message so she studiously destroys the finished structure of her plaintext message in a controlled way. She injects entropy into the cipher-text by means of a cipher to achieve this. Entropy is a collective name for something that may be made up of many stumbling blocks such as bits of information technology, mathematics, randomness, obfuscation. Entropy is best understood as being the opposite of structure. It is the destruction of structure and a sufficiency at least of entropy must be supplied by the cipher for injection into the plaintext of a message so as to neutralise the amount of structure that is present in the unsecured plaintext message. This structure is 1) structure that is naturally present in a data-type being used by Alice in her encryption process and 2) the additional formatting structure she gives to the data to make it into meaningful information in her message while typing it. Unfortunately, it is impossible for Alice to achieve this objective completely when scalar numbers are being used as the raw encryption data and something less that perfect has to be the accepted outcome this is always a foregone conclusion in scalar cryptography. The reason for this is that our number system is simply so brimful of structure that all traces of structure can never be completely concealed in cipher-text. Secondly and more importantly, the all-important one-way function that is needed to achieve the necessary intractability for theoretically unbreakable status is not present in scalar methodology. Despite this apparent drawback numbers have been used for centuries to encrypt information into cipher-text. Entropy destroys structure by adding confusion and disorder to the data during an encryption process - it is the complete converse of ordered structure. In these notes entropy has no units except that qualitatively it is the negative of structure, it works in cryptography a bit like acid and alkalis that may neutralise each other as a basic mutual effect but they exist separately as opposites in many other forms. Entropy negates structure and converts plaintext into the state of neutral latency that is ciphertext thus making it meaningless, by direct inspection at least, to adversaries. That ambition is not always fully realised in secure communications however due to the cunning skills of the cryptanalyst whose job it is to believe that there is still some residual structure still there in the cipher-text even after Alice has done her best to conceal it and which he must find. Unfortunately it seems that this will always be

possible when the method of encryption uses scalar numbers as the raw encryption data. It is a fascinating and challenging pursuit for cryptanalysts to do this and one that they will never give up. They know quite rightly that there is residual structure in the cipher-text, there for the finding and are very well aware of the limitations of datatype and cipher limitations to completely conceal structure and will exploit this relentlessly. Arguably cryptanalysts have a much more difficult task than cryptographers but they have kept pace with cryptographers right down through the ages, breaking ciphers as often as they are invented. They are a constant threat that is almost too difficult to overcome.

To Alice, Data is the abstract of her plaintext message.

To a Cryptanalyst, Data is the hard copy ciphertext message.

Then, to both of them Data + Structure => visible information Entropy (-ve) Structure Data + Structure + Entropy => minimises visible information. Make Entropy equal to Structure => no visible of information.

Alice must give entropy to plaintext. Adversary tries to give structure to ciphertext. Cryptanalysis of systems that use scalar data. There is a constant question mark over Alices ability to completely hide the structure of her encrypted message as cipher-text. This is especially true of numbers as a raw encryption data-type. The point has already been made in Resume of Entropy in Cryptography elsewhere on this site that the use of scalar integer numbers as the raw encryption data means Alices task is very difficult. Because there is no one-way function in scalar data that will give outright protection to any algorithm that she may ever use, Alice has to combine intractability as well as efficient information formatting in her cipher algorithm an extremely difficult task, one that will categorically never achieve theoretically unbreakable rating, because of the perceived limitations of scalar numbers. The reason for this is the supremely perfect order of the set of integers in our numbers system that Alice is using as encryption data. These numbers are very good at what they are supposed to do in everyday living by accounting and regulating matters in

management but they are not very good as data at for concealing information when that is the subject matter required. Eve on the other hand has available to her many very powerful analytical tools of numerical analysis that she can apply to the cipher-text coming from Alice. This is a windfall to Eve that she uses to the full. Cryptanalysis on systems that use vector data The vector data in vector cryptography comes from the vector space of non-parallel vectors. This rider of a non-parallel requirement needs some explanation. Taking a simple day-to-day definition of randomness as equally likely means there is no repeat of elements in a set of anything for maximum randomness. In the case of vectors the definition of repeats means there are two elements that have the same properties and are therefore equal vectors in a set of vectors. For two vectors to be equal they must have the same magnitude and the same direction. That in turn means they are parallel because of having the same direction and are therefore bad data by the definition of non-parallel. By ensuring that she always uses non-parallel vectors be they equal in magnitude or not but different in direction she will always have nil repeats and therefore maximum randomness as an automatic property of her datatype. Maximum randomness in the domain of selection means maximum innate entropy for this data-type. No externally contrived randomness is required by a cipher that uses non-parallel vectors as the raw encryption data type. Hence the stipulation of the data type being non-parallel vectors so as to ensure maximum innate entropy. In addition to this, the vector product of two parallel vectors is always zero (0) and that would not be suitable for our purposes in any cipher unless it was a deliberate trap for adversaries. The vector space of non-parallel vectors is very easily serviced by the methods of vector factoring described in Raw Encryption Data Foundations. The vector factors being substituted as analogues of scalar numbers are all non-parallel vectors and are in plentiful supply to be used as encryption raw data as described. Unlike scalar data where a repeat of a number in a set would be undesirable, Alices vectors may have subsets of vectors as data that have equal magnitude but different direction (same scalar number) and not be bad data remember the rule is that they are non-parallel. Having the same magnitude but different direction means they are still non-parallel and this does not breach the rule of the data-type so it is quite in order. It is much more than adherence to rule for its own sake here however and indeed when a cryptanalyst tries to decrypt a piece of non-parallel vector cipher-text he runs into obstacles that are impossible to overcome. As well as finding the magnitude of a

vector that of course is a scalar quantity, he must also find the direction of the vector. The direction of a vector is not defined absolutely as in everyday usage with reference to the cardinal points N, S, E, W or the angle it makes with some datum but instead is j expressed as ratios of the components to each other on their respective axes of i , , k . Because the public key item is the resultant of the cipher-text vector + a change-oforigin vector it is impossible for any adversary to get as far as knowing the coefficients of the cipher-text in the first place in order to start cryptanalysis so the problem of direction is almost trivial. It is mentioned here only in the context of a last ditch stumbling block. Bob of course restores all of the structure that was removed in Alices encryption of the plaintext into cipher-text and decrypts the cipher-text back into plaintext, often called message-text at this stage. Entropy Entropy is the planned disorder given to the set of cipher-text in a message. It might be made up of several things that are mainly randomness, mathematical disfiguration, obfuscation. A case has been made here showing how maximum randomness is implied when the data type is the vector space of non-parallel vectors. The randomness component and indeed all of the available entropy in the vector data is dwarfed by the addition of the change-of-origin vector at the end of the encryption transformation and a question might be why bother with intrinsic entropy it when it is going to swamped later on by the change-of-origin ploy. This latter is likened to a flood fill of entropy in the process of preparing the cipher-text. In principle it is a thought to be good thing to continue to use available randomness and mathematical entanglement just the same as parts of the core algorithm albeit they become swamped by the change-of-origin eventually. It means that a quite simple algorithm is all that is required for information management because the cipher-text it generates will be totally concealed within a larger resultant vector that of course will be impossible to resolve into its specific original components by any adversary. Obfuscation means block ciphers to the writer in the present context. In vector cryptography, the cipher-text is impossible to analyse by means of statistical methods of frequency measurement. This is because of 1) the randomness present in the data and 2) the entanglement with other unseen variables within the publicly visible data keys. The final randomness + entanglement of the cipher-text is so great that unbreakable status is claimed on the basis of demonstrable statistical independence between the plaintext and the cipher-text according to the official definition of theoretically unbreakable status of a cipher. -----------------------------------------