Shah Jahan General Developments: • • • • •

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Golden era of Mughal domination was achieved. It was the age of marble in the building art. Architecture received a new impressiveness during this regime All buildings were of a more polished type All sand stone buildings were transformed into marble pavilions Marble gave scope for delicate ornamentations & fine moldings Enrichment was attained by means of inlaid patterns in coloured stones Noticeable alterations in the character of the arch The arches and curves were foliated. The dome also assumed another form – the bulbous Persian type The system of double doming was also derived Introduction of pillars with tapering baluster shafts with vaulted bracket capitals and foliated bases The major contributions of Shah Jahan are as follows  The Taj Mahal – Agra  Red Fort – Delhi  Diwani i khas  Diwani i amm  The Jamma Masjid – Delhi

RED FORT - DELHI • • • • Shah Jahan resolved to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi He began to layout the city of Shahjahanabad in 1638 The site was on the right bank of river jamuna The project consisted of a palace fortress in a more comprehensive scale • It was formed on the concept of a city within a city

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The whole scheme was executed according to the requirement of one authority The scheme was carried out in a systematic & uniform manner The most important portions were designed and executed under the personal direction of Shah Jahan himself The Delhi fort in plan is an oblong shape with 3100 ft in length and 1650 ft wide It is aligned from north to south The fort enclosed is enclosed within a high and strongly fortified wall There are 2 main gateways, one on the west and the other on the south side The western entry was called ‘Lahore Gate’ and was used as a ceremonial entry The southern entrance was a more private one From these gateways two thoroughfares pass into the fort interior These two thoroughfares intersecting at right angles towards the centre of the entire composition The Lahore Gate on the west is in the form of a broad gate vaulted arcade - most imposing The two thoroughfares directly link with a large rectangular area and itself contained within the surrounding walls. This gives the effect of an enclosure within an enclosure The inner area measures 1600’ by 1150’ It aligned along the eastern rampart overlooking the river Jamuna This accommodates the royal and private apartments Outside this on west within the rectangular spaces are the service quarters, barracks etc. The palace enclosed nearly symmetrical in its arrangements resolves into four parts 1. A large central quadrangle with Diwani i amm 2. & 3. Two square spaces open on each side for ornamental gardens and courtyards 4. The range of marble palaces

• Every feature in this plan is formal and regular and most of it laid out in a square

• There is no oblique or curve in the entire scheme  The range of marble palaces  The Hammam Mahal  The Rang Mahal or the hall of audience  Diwani i khas  Diwani i amm The range of marble palaces: • These palaces are located on the eastern side on a high rampart • One side facing the gardens on the west and the other facing the river jammuna on the east • Originally six palaces were planned with irregular intervals • Their balconies, oriel windows and other similar openings with their pillared frontages overlooking the river gives a picturesque appearance • The outer side of these pavilions were closed with marble screens • The more stately architectural effect was given to the inner facades which overlooks the gardens to the west • The in between spaces were used a terraces with grape gardens with graceful balusters The Hammam Mahal : • It is a luxurious bathing embellishment • It had a continuous supply of water distributed throughout the enclosure • This was brought by means of a conduit called the Naha I Bashist • The Hammams were ornamented with fountains, cascades, waterfalls and pools • All were enchantingly designed and furnished • All located near places to furnish the extensive requirements • The water supply was arranged under and around the marble pavements of royal pavilions • Each apartment had all the accompaniments of a water palace

They made the best use of flowing water with their age old experience of irrigation for agricultural and the inherit artistic nature of the craftsmen of India

The Rang Mahal : • The rang mahal – or the painted palace is the more lavishly decorated one • It may be regarded as the crowning jewel of Shah Jahan’s work at Delhi • It measures 153’ x 69’ • It consists of a main hall in the centre and smaller compartments at each corner • The central hall is divided into 15 bays , each 20 sq ft by means of ornamental piers • Originally the exterior arches were filled with marble screens • Triple arched placed across the centre of each exterior side for its complete privacy • It also consists of a lotus fountain • It occupies the entire central bay • It has a shallow marble basin sunk in the pavement • The water was perfumed and bubbling out of a lotus ( in silver ) rising from the centre • The form of the fountain was also like a lotus • Both the rang mahal and the audience hall are of similar and common features Diwani I Khas : • Diwani i Khas is the hall of private audience – it was called so only for the royal people and noblemen • The hall measures 90’ x 70’ • The façade consisted of five equal arches • The interiors were cool and airy • There was no part enclosed or covered with screens • Interiors has 15 bays of square shape • This was divided by square marble piers supporting arches on top

• Flooring of polished marble reflecting the piers and arches • Piers of inlaid flowers in colour stones • Arches were foliated with gold and coloured inlaid decoration Diwani I Am : • • • • • • •

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This was used as the hall of public audience Not much of decorative treatment unlike the other halls It was purely official and was designed specifically to suit its purpose It was originally planned around a square courtyard with a pillared colonnade all around Now only the main structure remains – it measures 185’ x 70’ and was built with sand stone It had arches with double pillars between each arch and a group of four at each corner There were huge oblong recesses in the plain back wall The walls were shell plastered and ivory polished This was a special plaster called Mughal plaster The entire building is brilliant in white colour Back wall alcove was used as the emperor’s seat which was the famous peacock throne in gold, studded with the world’s largest ruby

THE JAMMA MASJID - DELHI • This was a large congregational mosque near the red fort citadel • This was constructed at the same time as the red fort outside the red fort complex • The mosque has a lofty plinth • The elevation seems to be a complete composition • It has three noble gateways on the northern, southern and eastern sides • It is approached by a majestic flight of steps • All these elements add height and dignity to the exterior • The public entered the mosque only through the north and south entrances • The east was the royal entrance • East gateway was connected to the fort by a processional route •

• The sanctuary was a building of large size and imposing appearance remarkable for its bold treatment in red sand stone • It surface is outlined in black and white marble •

Jami masjid, Agra • It was erected by Shah Jahan in 1648 in honour of his daughter ‘Jahanara Begum’ • It measures 130’X100’(less than half the size of the mosque at Delhi), yet well balanced and proportioned. • The arches used were of the Tudor type. There were no foliations on the building and there were no tall minarets • The Frontage is forged by a pleasing distribution of arches. • There were slender pinnacles alternating with kiosks along its parapets. Taj Mahal, Agra • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Taj Mahal on a bend in the river Jamuna at Agra. It was dedicated to the emperor Shah Jahan’s well beloved consort the empress Arjund Banu Begam. Mumtaz Mahal-means ‘chosen of the palaces’. Taj Mahal -means ‘Crown of the palaces’. which has been abbreviated as the ’Taj’. Many schemes were prepared and finally decided and altered by Shah Jahan himself. Many master builders presented their designs, one being a Venetian jeweler and silversmith. The main inspiration deriver from Humayun’s tomb at Delhi and tomb of Khan Khanan-a noble man of Delhi. On the traditions of the Humayun’s tomb and with the experience of the tomb of Khan Khanan, Shah Jahan’s architects evolved this master piece of builder’s art. The main tomb building actually occupies only a portion relatively smaller than the whole architectural scheme. The plan of the whole concept takes the form of a rectangle. This rectangle measures 1900x1000’ and is aligned north-south. The central area is divided into a square garden of side 1000’. This division leaves an oblong space at each end of the rectangle. The southern side is laid out with roads and service dwellings.

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The northern side consists of a raised terrace containing the white marble tomb building with two supplementary structures, all overlooking the Jamuna below. The entire garden is enclosed within a high wall boundary with octagonal pavilions at each corner. There is a monumental entrance gateway in the centre of the southern side. This scheme extends even beyond with stables, out-houses and bazaars etc. outside the premises. No subsequent amendments or after thoughts were made. All its parts were initially perfected with every need anticipated. The approach could be made equally well by roads or river. Landing stages with steps were provided on the north-west corner of the terrace. The ornamental garden were so planned to prepare the spectator for the exquisite appearance and lovely dignity of the central structure. In addition there were water courses with fountains and elevated lotus pool, all arranged to mirror its beauties from various point of views. The plastic delicacy, soft moulding of its contours, super-fine treatment of its decorations, the texture and the subtle colouring of its materials all combined with a gracious and poetical nature of the building as a whole. The structures on the terrace of the northern end consist of the tomb buildings at the centre and two detached subsidiary buildings one on each side. The one on the west is a mosque and the other one is only a replica without any purpose just for the sake of symmetry. The white marble tomb structure was meant to be the focal point of attraction in the entire scheme. This tomb itself is elevated on a plinth of 22’ height, square in plan 186’ side, with chamfered angles. The building height is 108’ with a great bulbous dome on top, and the total height measures 187’. On each corner of this plinth a tall minaret was built in three stages to a height of 137’ The central dome extends and distributes the architectural effect. Its proportions also are as simple as its shape for example; the entire width is equal to the total height. The height of the façade in the centre is equal to the height of the dome. All these were carefully considered to achieve the dramatic effect. The crowning glory lies in the shape and volume of the dome. A large bulbous dome with a lofty drum with the lower part slightly truncated. There are smaller cupolas on the four sides of the main dome. All four minarets have a kiosk on the top. The interior arrangements of compartments are like that of Humayun’s tomb at Delhi.

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A huge central octagonal hall with subsidiary chambers in the angles of the octagon which are all connected with radiating passages. The exterior has a two storey treatment. The main hall is also of two stories of arcade over which the inner shell of the double dome stands. The dispositions of rooms are very simple with similar rooms on the upper storey. Perforated marble screens enclosing the cenotaph are of high quality workmanship. The charm of the building is produced by the quality and texture of the material used- the white marble from Markrana. An underground cenotaph chamber was provided and the main level cenotaph chamber being a false one. The queen’s cenotaph in the centre and the emperor’s cenotaph on one side both enclosed with perforated marble screens. For every hour of the day and for every atmospheric condition the ‘Taj’ has its own colour values.     Soft dimness at dawn. Dazzling whiteness at mid-day. Cold splendorous in the moon light Enchanting tint of pale and lovely rose at evening.

The dome appears as thin as air, hangs among the stars like a great pearl.

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