 Gracious (a) (of people or behavior) kind, polite and generous, especially to sb of a lower

social position

 Greenery (n) attractive green leaves and plants The room was decorated with flowers and greenery  Dare (v) to be brave enough to do sth He didn’t dare to say what he thought  Aside (adv) to one side, out of the way  Surf (n) large waves in the sea or ocean, and the white foam that they produce as they fall on
the beach, on rocks, etc

The sound of surf breaking on the beach  Tempt (v) to attract sb, or make sb to do sth or have sth, even if they know it is wrong He was never tempted to look out at the ocean or the private white-sand beach that stretched to three hundred feet or more along the shore  Shore (n) the land along the edge of the sea or ocean, a lake or another large area of water  Dazzle (v) if a strong light dazzles you, it is so bright that you cannot see for a short time  Adversely (a) negative and unpleasant 25000 people and 11000 buildings could be adversely affected.  Thaw (n) a period of warmer weather after following one of cold weather, causing snow and ice to melt The river doubles in size during the spring thaw  Upstream (adv) along a river, in the opposite direction to the way in which the water flows  Tributary (n) a river or stream that flows into a larger river or a lake The river and its tributaries have caused massive flooding upstream  Folk (n) people in general  Procedure (n) a way of doing sth, especially the usual and correct way Making a complaint is quite a simple procedure  Contentment (n) a feeling of happiness or satisfaction  Vase (n) a container made of glass, etc, used for holding cut flowers or as a decorative object A vase of flower  Justify (v) to show that sth/sb is right or reasonable  Rape (v) to force sb to have sex with you when they do not want to do by threatening them or using

 Contender (n) a person who takes part in a competition or tries to win sth  Assault (n) the crime of attacking sb physically  Decay (n) the process or result of being destroyed by natural causes or by not being cared for

drink that you take into your body To reduce your daily intake of salt  Fatal (a) causing or ending in death During this 20-year period.035 of the men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. 5.Tooth decay  Chew (v) to bite food into small pieces in your mouth with your teeth to make it easier to swallow  Plaque (n) a soft substance that forms on teeth and encourages the growth of harmful bacteria Remove plaque by brushing your teeth regularly  Accuse (v) to say that sb has done sth wrong or is guilty of sth She accused him of lying  Competence (n) the ability to do sth well Incompetence (n) The government was accused of incompetence  Call on (v) to order or request to undertake a particular activity Called on our friends to help/ Austrian finance minister called on him to consider his position  Meanwhile (adv) while sth else is happening  Remand (v) to send sb away from a court to wait for their trial which will take place at later date  Custody (n) the legal right or duty to take care of or keep sb/sth  Notorious (a) well known for being bad  Jail = prison  Bail (n)  Outcome (n) We are waiting to hear the final outcome of the negotiation  Detention (n)the state of being kept in a place. especially in a prison. such as preparing food. and prevented from leaving Police powers of arrest and detention  Appliance (n) a machine that is designed to do a particular thing in the home. that produce a liquid in which sperm is carried  Aggressive (a)  Intake (n) the amount of food. including 642 fatal cases . heating or cleaning They sell a wide range of domestic appliances – washing machines. near the bladder. dishwashers and so on  Prostate (n) a small organ in men.

a good method The trick is to pick the animal up by the back of its neck  Attendance (n) the number of people present at an organized event  Rash (n) an area of red spot on person’s skin. embarrassed or unwilling  Attendant (n) a person whose job is to serve or help people in public place  Patron (n) a person who uses a particular shop/store. the process of being destroyed . etc. enthusiasm. food or materials Gas and oil consumption always increase in the cold weather  Hesitant (a) slow to speak or act because you feel uncertain. the stains should come out  Televise (v) to broadcast sth on TV The speech will be televised live  Trick (v)a way of doing sth that works well. Patrons are requested not to smoke  Stool (n) a seat with legs but with nothing to support your back or arms  Rinse (v) to remove soap or dirt from sth with clean water after washing it  Soak (v) to put sth in liquid for a time so that it becomes completely wet If you soak tablecloth before you wash it. fatal/ causing or able to cause death A lethal dose of poison/ a lethal weapon  Validate (v) to prove that sth is true To validate a theory  Habitual (a) usual or typical of sb/sth His habitual place at the table  Consumption (n) the act of using energy. restaurant. caused by an illness or a reaction to sth  Passion (n) a very strong feeling of love. anger.  Circumvent (v) to find the way of avoiding difficulty or a rule They found the way of circumventing the law  Refinance (v) to borrow money in order to pay a debt  Destruction (n) the act of destroying sth. Peel (n) the thick skin of some fruits and vegetables  Sundae (n)  Dressing (n) What kind of dressing would you like to have with your salad?  Caffeinated (a) containing caffeine  Compound (n) a thing consisting of two or more separate things combined together  Lethal (a) deadly. etc.

She split the money she won with her brother/ the rent for housing near campus was a little steep.  Lease (n) a legal agreement that allows you to use a building. building. gas. etc. so we decided to find a roommate to split the costs. The emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere/ the global carbon emissions reach record . The decorating was done by the previous tenant  Trade-off (n) the act of balancing two things that are opposed to each other There is a trade-off between the benefits of the drug and the risk of side effects  Desperate (a) Doctors were fighting a desperate battle to save a little girl’s life  Stove (n)a piece of equipment that can burn various fuels and is used for heating room  Sturdy (a)  Emission (n) the production or sending out of light. etc. a song or musical number  Partial (a) not complete or whole It was only a partial solution to the problem/ a partial eclipse of the sun  Furnish (v) to supply or provide sb/sth with sth  Deposit (n) a sum of money that is given as the first part of a larger payment They normally ask you to pay $100 deposit  Steep (a) too much. etc. etc. to the person who owns it. a piece of equipment or some land for a period of time.Destruction of property  Surplus (n) an amount that is extra or more than you need  Leaky (a) having holes or cracks that allow liquid or gas to escape A leaky roof  Hailstone (n) the small ball of ice that falls like rain  Soothe (v) to make sb who is anxious. to feel calmer The music soothed her for a while/ you should try listening to classical music to soothe your nerves. usually in return for rent Be sure to read carefully the terms of the lease before you sign it because you will be bound to the agreement  Tenant (n) a person who pays rent for a use of a room. unreasonable ~ expensive $2 for a cup of coffee seems a little steep to me  Split (v) to divide sth into two or more parts and share it between different people. land. activities. It works for me  Tune (n) usually. upset. heat.

that is usually eaten raw  Worsen (v) We hope the number will go down. there is not enough of it and it is difficult to obtain it . water and energy/ the government seems to think that international problems are pressing more than domestic ones  Spiral (v) to increase rapidly The spiralling cost of health care  Scarcity (n) if there is a scarcity of sth. including doing repair on it or making changes to it A radical overhaul of the tax system is necessary  Pressing (a) needing to be dealt with immediately.v) an examination of a machine or system. but we fear it will worsen  Contaminate (v) to make a substance or place dirty or no longer pure by adding a substance that is dangerous or carries disease A river contaminated by pollution  Urge (v)to recommend sth strongly  Grocery (n) supermarket  Receipt (n) a piece of paper that shows that goods or services have been paid for  Essential (n) sth that is needed in a particular situation or in order to do a particular thing Having your own computer is an essential for this kind of work  Speechless (a)  Radical (a) concerning the most basic and important parts of sth The need for radical changes in education  Crop (n) a plant that is grown in large quantities. spiraling food prices and the scarcity of land. Curb (n.v) sth that controls and puts limits on sth Curbs on government spending  Attain (v) to succeed in getting sth especially after a lot of effort  Edge (v) to put sth around of the edge of sth  Cucumber (n) a long vegetable with dark green skin and light green flesh. urgent The food system must be overhauled if we are to overcome the increasingly pressing changes of climate change. especially as food Sugar is an important crop on the island  Acceleration (n) It is the acceleration of a trend which has already seen food prices double in the last 20 years  Overhaul (n.

a piece of furniture. piece of baked clay. so that it is in good condition again Renovation (n) Buildings in need of renovation  Amenity (n) a feature that makes a place pleasant. or for a job or an award . comfortable or easy to live in Many of the houses lacked even basic amenities  Illusion (n) a false idea or belief. carpet or other material that is used in rows for covering walls and floors  Clog (v) to block sth or to become blocked The narrow street was clogged with traffic/ the sink is clogged  Renovate (v) to repair and paint an old building. smaller. etc. better. especially about sb or about a situation She’s under illusion that she’ll get a job  Betray (v) →betrayal (n)  Scar (n) a permanent feeling of great sadness or mental pain that a person is left with after unpleasant experience His years in prison have left deep scars/ my husband died 4 years ago and the scar hasn’t healed yet  Former (a) that used to exist in earlier times In former time  Kitchenette (n) a small room or part of a room used as kitchen  Sauna (n)  Manicure (n) the care and treatment of a person’s hands and nails  Trim (v) to make sth neater. usually square. by cutting parts from it  Hair trimmer (n)  Drum up (v) to try hard to get support or business  Nomination (n) the act of suggesting or choosing sb as a candidate in an election. Poverty (n) the state of being poor Many elderly people live in poverty/ rising food prices are pushing millions of people into extreme poverty  Sniff (v) smell Sniffing the fresh morning air  Mull over (v) to spend time thinking carefully about a plan or proposal I need some time to mull it over before making a decision  Tile (n) a flat.

Nominate (v) Leading candidates to become international monetary fund (IMF) are trying to drum up support ahead of the deadline for nomination later  Sweat shirt (n)  Malicious (a) having or showing hatred and a desire to harm sb or hurt their feelings  Confidential (a) meant to be kept secret and not told to or shared with other people Your medical records are strictly confidential  Involvement (n) the act of taking part in sth  Back (v) support Her parents backed her in her choice of career  Shortage (n) a situation when there is not enough of the people or things that are needed The challenge to food security presented by water shortages and climate change  Impending (a) (usually of an unpleasant event) that is going to happen very soon Warning of impending disaster/ doubling supply is one option to the impending food shortage  Absurd (a) completely ridiculous. similar hair that grows on animal Bearded (a)  Wavy (a) having curves. usually given by one person or a small group To give a piano recital  Rewarding (a)  Footage (n) part of a film showing a particular event  Rob (v) to steal money or property from a person or place The gang had robbed and killed the drugstore owner  Beard (n) hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of a man’s face. not straight  Catchup (n) . not logical and sensible That uniform makes the guards look absurd  Doze (v) to sleep lightly for a short time Doze off (v)  Bizarre (a) very strange or unusual  Snore (v) to breathe nosily through your nose and mouth while you are asleep I could hear Paul snoring in the next room  Recital (n) a public performance of music or poetry.

especially among crops or garden plants The yard was overgrown with weeds  Considerate (a) always thinking of other people’s wishes and feelings. include If you buy the sofa. careful not to hurt or upset others She is always polite and considerate towards her employees  Butter sbup (v) to say nice things to sb so that they will help you or give you sth He’s always trying to butter up the boss  Encounter (v) to experience sth. especially of bread or cake. that has fallen off a larger piece  Throw in (v)add. filtering techniques can be tricky  Pathogen (n) a thing that causes disease The spread of pathogens by insect  Insect (n)  Retention (n) the action of keeping liquid. we’ll throw in this coffee table  Vacuum (n. while you are trying to do sth else . harmful or not wanted  Ordinary (a) not unusual or different in any way But with ordinary sand. especially sth unpleasant or difficult.v)  Scrub (v) to clean sth by rubbing it hard. used for gathering fallen leaves and making soil smooth  Milk shake (n)  Weed (n) a wild plant growing where it is not wanted. perhaps with a brush and usually with soap and water  Rake (n) a garden tool with a long handle and a row metal points at the end. especially because it is their job  Crumb (n) a very small piece of food. provide. Diabetes (n)  Purify (v) to make sth pure by removing substances that are dirty. heat inside sth rather than letting it escape  Bacon (n) meat from the back or sides of a pig  Sausage (n)  Pepperoni (n) a type of spicy sausage  Pineapple (n)  Flesh (n)  Shrimp (n)  Promptly (a) exactly at the correct time or at the time mentioned  Negotiator (n) a person who is involved in formal political or financial discussions.

the president decided to act Unease (n) the feeling of being worried or unhappy about sthx` Deficit (n) Deadlock (v.n)a complete failure to reach an agreement or settle an agreement They had been deadlocked over finding a way to cut spending and raise the debt limit as the Tuesday deadline approached Amount (v) to add up to sth . often in a manner that causes or expresses anxiety There is mounting evidence of serious effects on people’s health/ in the face of mounting pressure.We encountered a number of difficulties in the first week  Plaster cast (n)stookie  Surgeon (n) Surgical (a)  Ligament (n)a strong band of tissue in the body that connects bones and supports organs and keep them in position  Brace (n)  Immobile (a)not moving. difficult to please  Appeal (v)a quality that makes sb/sth attractive or interesting The Beatles have never really lost their appeal  Promote (v) to help sell a product. Run time (n) a length of time a movie plays Lay bare (v) Mounting (a) increasing. unable to move His illness has left him completely immobile Immobilize (v) to prevent sth/sb from moving or from working normally Some snakes inject their prey with poison in order to immobilize it  Rigid (a)very strict and difficult to change  Rehabilitation (n)  Picky (a) (of a person) liking only particular things and difficult to please She’s very picky about her cloths  Choosy (a) careful in choosing. service or make it more popular by advertising it or offering it at the special price          The band has gone on tour to promote their new album Parental (a) connected with parent or parents PG (abbreviation) parental guidance.

smoke. gas.v) a slight unsteady movement from side to side  Obligation (n) the state of being forced to do sth because it is your duty. especially a change or sth unpleasant My mother underwent major surgery last year/All patients undergoing cancer treatment should be told to do 150 minutes of physical exercise every week  Intervene (v) to become involved in a situation in order to improve or help it She might have been killed if the neighbors hadn’t intervened  Wobble (n. into your lungs as you breathe She closed her eyes and inhaled deeply . etc. or when an agreement is valid  Treasury (n) the government department that controls public money  Decisive (a) very important for the final result of a particular situation Climate was a decisive factor in establishing where the tournament should be held  Boost (v) to make sth increase or become better or more successful He urged congress to now look to boost economy through measures to create jobs and increase consumer confidence  Prescribe (v) to tell sb to take a particular medicine or have a particular treatment He may be able to prescribe you something for that cough  Herbal (a)  Stuffy (a) warm in an unpleasant way and without enough fresh air It gets very hot and stuffy in here in summer  Undergo (v) to experience sth. Bummer (n) a disappointing or unpleasant situation It’s a real bummer that she can’t come  Dumb (a) unable to speak She was born deaf and dumb  Cop (n) (informal) a police officer  Ceiling (n) the highest limit or amount of sth  Avert (v) to prevent sth bad or dangerous from happening A disaster was narrowly averted  Expiry (n) an ending of the period of time when an official document can be used. or because of a law  Blame (v) to think or to say that sb/sth is responsible for sth bad She doesn’t blame anyone for her father’s death  Inhale (v) to take air.

 Refrain (v) to stop yourself from doing sth. you will receive a full refund of the price of your trip Shrink (v) That sweater will shrink if you put it in the dryer Stitch (v) to use needle and thread to repair. join or decorate piece of cloth The pocket was stitched to the front of the jacket Bargain (n) a thing that bought less than the usual price I picked up a few good bargains in the sale Fine print (n) the an important detail of an agreement or a legal document that are usually printed in small type and are therefore easy to miss . especially sth that you want to do Please refrain from smoking  Refund (n) a sum of money that is paid back to you. especially because you paid too much or because you returned goods to a shop/store      If there is a delay of 12 hours or more.

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