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Numerical Analysis for Engineering April 10, 2001 MEAE-4960

Anya Brunschwig Carrie-Anne Rondi

.. 16 Appendix 2 ……………………………………………………………………………17 2 ...10 Comparison of Runge-Kutta and Howarth ………………………………..5 Numerical Approaches …………………………………………………………….…6 ANSYS Method …………………………………………………………….…4 Problem Description and Background …………………………………………….…9 Results and Error Analysis ………………………………………………………….…3 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….…6 Runge-Kutta Numerical Method …………………………………………..10 Results of Runge-Kutta Method …………………………………………….12 Results of ANSYS ……………………………………………………………13 Comparison of ANSYS and Howarth ………………………………………14 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………15 References ……………………………………………………………………………15 Appendix 1 …………………………………………………………………………….Table of Contents List of Symbols …………………………………………………………………….

List of Symbols x = Length of the plate U ∞= Free-stream velocity u = Velocity measured y = Distance away from plate δ = Boundary layer thickness µ = Viscosity ν = Kinematic viscosity t = Time fluid travels ρ = Density f(η ) = Dimensionless stream function du/dy = Velocity gradient ϕ = Stream function α = Constant 3 .

For two-dimensional flow of a fluid with small viscosity adheres to the flat plate. In this project. These equations are : ∂ u ∂ v + =0 ∂ x ∂ y 1 u ∂u ∂v ∂2 u +v =v ∂x ∂y ∂y 2 2 The boundary conditions for these equations are: y=0. assuming that the leading edge of the plate is x=0 and the plate is infinity long. Boundary layer thickness decreases with viscosity and an increasing Reynolds number. These solutions will be compared with the results of Howarth. The boundary layer is defined as the thin layer between the transition from zero velocity at the flat plat to full magnitude at some distance from it. The original 3 Navier-Stokes equations find u. Problem Description and Background The boundary-layer flow across a flat plate can be expressed using boundary-layer equations defined by Blasius. A simplified Navier-Stokes equations yields approximate solutions of viscosity at high Reynolds numbers. This system of equations can be simplified further to an ordinary differential equation. v. and p. two different numerical methods will be used to solve the Blasius equation for laminar flow across a flat plate. To do this we use an equation that reads: ∞ δ~ vx U∞ 3 To make this quantity dimensionless it can be divided by y to obtain: η=y U∞ vx 4 The stream function can be found from the equation of continuity as: ϕ = vxU ∞ f (η) 5 4 . which has been derived by Blasius. y= . This problem can not be solved analytically so a numerical method must be used to get a solution. only uses 2 unknowns u and v. u=v=0. and u= U ∞ . Boundary layer equations for flow along a flat plat have small viscosity or large Reynolds numbers. The simplified version.Introduction Laminar flow over a flat plate is a fundamental problem of fluid mechanics.

These solutions will be compared with Howarth's solutions to assess their accuracy. and when η = ∞ . u = U ∞ f ' (η) Also the transverse velocity component can be expressed as: 7 v =− ∂ϕ 1 = ∂x 2 vU ∞ (ηf '− f ) x 8 Now inserting these equations into the second boundary layer flow equation: 2 2 2 U∞ U∞ U∞ − ηf ' f ' '+ (ηf '− f ) = v f ''' 2x 2x xv 9 and with furthur simplification we have the Blasius ordinary differential equation. Many different people adapted this method to form their own solutions.where f(n) is the dimensionless stream function. So. the Runge-Kutta method for higher order systems and a finite element method using ANSYS will be used to solve for the velocity profile of laminar flow across a flat plate. This particular method is broken down into different subcatigories. Falkners (transformation followed by series expansion). ff ' '+ f ' ' ' = 0 2 10 where the boundary conditions are: when η = 0 . Other methods such as finite element methods can be used to solve these types of problems. One method that we have learned in class is the Runge Kutta method for high order systems. and U∞ ∂η = ∂y vx . Piercy and Preston (Iterative method). Another method is solutions in series. they included Howarth (Power series). The velocity component u which is equal to ∂ ϕ can be expressed as follows: ∂ y u= ∂ϕ ∂ϕ ∂η = ∂y ∂η ∂y 6 since ∂ϕ = vxU ∂η ∞ f ' (η) . f '= . f = 0 and f ' =0 . In this project. 5 . 1 Accuracy in boundary layer solutions can be obtained using numerical analysis methods.

Numerical Approachs Runge-Kutta Numerical Method The Runge-Kutta method for systems of differential equations was used to solve the Blasuis equations for laminar flow over a flat plate. Each of the equations must have an initial condition in order for the program to be able to find a solution. The Blasius equation gives three boundary conditions which are as follows. The third order Blasius equation is: ff ' '+ f ' ' ' = 0 2 First the new parameters are defined: u1 = f u2 = du df = 1 dη dη 11 12 13 u3 = so. f(0)=0. u1u 3 + 2 du 3 =0 dη 15 And splitting it up into three first order equations. The first step in using this method was to formulate the first order differential equations. du 1 = u2 dη 16 17 18 du 2 = u3 dη du 3 uu =− 1 3 dη 2 This yeilds the three first order equations that will be input into the Runge-Kutta program in Maple. f'(0)=0. This method is used to solve higher order initial value problems by transforming the higher order equations into systems of first order differential equations. d 2 f du 2 d 2 u1 = = = f '' dη dη 2 dη 2 d3 f du 3 = dη dη3 f '' = 14 Substituting these new parameters into the original Blasius equation. and f'(∞)=1 19 7 1 8 7 1 1 6 .

By expanding the Blasius equation about the origin. α = F ' (η ) −1 2 23 Taking the third derivative of the equation [20] and putting into the same format as before.08540388. Taking the limit of f' as n goes to infinity it is found. To find F ' ∞ .The first two boundary conditions can be directed placed into the program as the initial values of the first and second (du1/dn and du2/dn) first order equations. The results of this program are as follows. solving for f''(0) with α = F ' (η ) −1 2 as determined above yields. first F ' ∞ must be found. and the three first order equations. and F''(0)=1. the resulting f' is substituted back into equation [26] and the f''(0) initial conditions is found. The initial condition for the last equation must be computed from the third boundary condition of f' at infinity. with the boundary conditions stated above. F'(0)=0 and F''(0) = 1 are the initial conditions of the modified differential equation 2F'''+FF''=0. f''(0)=F'(∞)-3/2 26 To find f''(0). F(0)=0. f ' (η) α = F ' (η) 1/ 2 η→∞ 22 since f ' (η) →1 as η → ∞ so.676 . The corresponding f' is equal to 2. 24 25 f ' (0) = α3 F ' ' (0) F(0)=0. F(0)=0. it is found that. it was found at time = 7. f'' is equal to zero. So. 21 lim f ' (η) = α 2 lim F ' (αη) = α 2 lim F ' (η) = 1 solving for α. > alg057(). Using the Maple program. F'(0)=0. This is the Runge-Kutta Method for Systems of m equations 7 . F'(0)=0. lim f ' ' (η) = α 3 lim F ' ' (αη) = α 3 lim F ' ' (η) when η → 0 . F (η is the solution. f = αF (αη) 20 ) where α is determined from f ' ∞ =1 and when α = 1 . and F''(0)=1. the third initial condition needed to solve the Blasius equation. the Runge-Kutta Maple program will be run using the initial conditions for the modified differential equation. When f'' goes to zero.

08540388 .15127017 3.08540150 .90625589 1. y3) in terms of t and y1 .97158342 2.00000000 8 .89026355 .08540388 .Input the number of equations >3 Input the function F[1](t.08540387 .01698087 .86754610 2. y3) in terms of t and y1 .55543967 2.500 6.96632249 .34780342 2.706 5.09052412 3..265 .08145178 . y3 (For example: y1-t^2+1) > -1*y1*y3/2 Input left and right endpoints separated by blank >09 Input the initial condition alpha[1] >0 Input the initial condition alpha[2] >0 Input the initial condition alpha[3] >1 Input a positive integer for the number of subintervals 34 The output is as follows: RUNGE-KUTTA METHOD FOR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS T W1 W2 W3 0.118 2.00000028 6.23560399 2.13997628 .324 .08540383 .00000008 7.69756048 2.y1 .00000000 1.794 .08516796 .08652078 1.235 6. y3) in terms of t and y1 ..03342601 .588 1..08537744 ..559 9.000 0.98771985 .46835850 .059 .00003875 5.78593809 .00238930 4.52778104 .882 11.22174369 1.85958233 1..21149021 2..26460360 .02617063 3.00000100 6.00093744 5. y3 (For example: y1-t^2+1) > y3 Input the function F[3](t.294 8.61422530 2.95921206 1.08476043 .52360208 2.00001198 6.00034450 5..76350880 2.06669118 ...00343362 2..647 3.15266396 2.41956476 2.24607646 2.00000000 .57545686 1.34259093 2.00011895 5.08539575 .382 2.088 10.63424761 1.31402186 .029 8.00000000 0.y1 .55513367 1.912 3.08532255 .00000001 7. y3 (For example: y1-t^2+1) > y2 Input the function F[2](t.676 13.89954067 2.99845615 .08540322 .147 12.00569038 4.765 7.618 11..05044592 3.176 4.82582072 1..529 .08540388 .79648118 2.04846221 .10745437 2.64284872 .00000353 6.71999825 1.441 4.412 12.59631439 2.46630306 2.y1 .01264218 4.971 5.853 1.00000002 7.824 9.45145279 2.08849678 1.07651920 .353 10.31552744 2.26327257 .78348089 .08375684 .65947187 2.08540370 .03503460 .

lsels.. lsel..all.all ! This sets the boundary conditions for the y-axis at the beginning of the plate ! (the LHS).s..all. ANSYS Method Finite difference methods. such as ANSYS... W1=f. also can be used to solve the original problem of laminar flow across a flat plate.297. !! Number of elements on a side is NSIDE !! Element spacing ratio is RATIO NSIDE = 25 RATIO = 1 ! This defines the computational domain which is a rectangle in which ! the boundary layer exits rect.3....s. 332058372.0 ! This defines the upper boundary condition far away from the plate where the ! velocity is equal to Uinfinity which is defined as 1.0...0.50. plate area and boundary conditions are all set in the input file shown below.0 d.1 lesize. This defines the velocity to be 1 at the furthest distance from ! the plate.0.0 ! This sets the boundary conditions for the plate (x-axis). The final value for W2 is plugged into the equation [26] to get f''(0)= 0.1 d.vy. nsll.1.21 VISC= .0000179 !! !! VARY the VISCOSITY to change the Reynolds number.1. 9 .1 lesize.4.vx. u/Uinfinity) and W3=f'''. W2=f'' (the velocity component..141 ! FLOTRAN element type !This creates the mesh amesh.1 et.1.all..all.4 nsll d.s.0. With this program. DENS=1..0 d. This is the third initial condition for the Blasius equation.3.1. The program then solved using the defined boundary conditions..1.. The grid..2.For this solution.1 lesize.vy.vx..297.50. /PREP7 !! !! This program models laminar flow over a flat plate.25 ! This defines the number of subdivisions on each side of domain ! We have defined a mesh that contains 50 divisions on the x-axis and ! 297 divisions on the y-axis. ! This defines the density and kinematic viscosity of air. The y-axis is divided so that the grid is ! symetric lesize. The last number in each line defines the ! distance between the gridlines. a two dimensional grid was set up on a rectangle that depicted the flat plate and its immediate surroundings. The grid was chosen so that the divisions corresponded to the divisions used in Howarths soluion for n. lsel.

To do this the Reynolds number must be calculated. then substituting back into the formula for Reynolds number. we obtain a Re = 67..the plate length x=1 m..vx. nsll. y3 (For example: y1-t^2+1) > (-1*y1*y3)/2 Input left and right endpoints separated by blank > 0 11 Input the initial condition alpha[1] >0 Input the initial condition alpha[2] 10 .0 ! This defines the boundary conditions for downstream side of the plate. lsel.. It is necessary to check the values picked for plate length.vy. Re = U∞x ν Since we have chosen..50 save fini. freestream velocity and kinematic viscosity to make sure that the fluid is in the laminar flow region.. y3) in terms of t and y1 .s.000.y1 . The results are as follows. y3) in terms of t and y1 .. After the above command file is read into ANSYS the FLOTRAN solver is run.567. The equation for Reynolds number is as follows.. y3 (For example: y1-t^2+1) > y3 Input the function F[3](t. the postprocessor is used to obtain the boundary layer thickness and velocity profile.iter.... y3 (For example: y1-t^2+1) > y2 Input the function F[2](t.332058372. y3) in terms of t and y1 .1 d.. f(0)=0.nomi.2. Laminar flow occurs for Reynolds numbers less than 350.nsll. and the kinematic viscosity..pres.8e6 PA-s..dens..1 d. f'(0)=0 and f''(0)= . Results and Error Analysis Results of Runge-Kutta Method Maple was used with the three first order equations derived previously and the three initial conditions. U ∞ =1 m/s. v=14.1 d. Once the solution is finished. flda.y1 .DENS flda.all.VISC flda..exec. This is the Runge-Kutta Method for Systems of m equations Input the number of equations >3 Input the function F[1](t.all. This confirms that the flow is in laminar regime with the chosen velocity and plate length.y1 ..visc.0 alls ! These commands assign properties and the number of iterations which ANSYS will ! use to compute the solution. > alg057().nomi.all.

250 4.00000148 .16557398 .27922957 1.02998079 .39681501 .98665203 .750 1.01591128 5.00005585 7.000 .00000000 10.500 6.000 5.75126065 .250 .02922924 1.000 4.31463409 1.61307803 .332058372 Input a positive integer for the number of subintervals > 44 The solution is output as follows: RUNGE-KUTTA METHOD FOR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS T W1 W2 W3 0.00000124 .56052036 .00001247 8.84604517 .69360674 .99999306 .16136123 3.77923300 .750 2.00000083 .750 4.250 1.750 7.77923031 1.00002679 8.26675256 2.00022146 7.77922897 1.500 1.88290251 .30575583 .77923183 1.250 5.83770659 .99897284 .00011293 7.000 6.77933603 .00000152 .500 7.99943615 .08300562 .00404180 6.00000563 8.04149384 .37014208 .78058451 .99818312 .50113950 .81557252 .99154097 .500 8.09328397 .000 7.52923145 1.750 8.00000000 11 .97951355 .01037682 .80216870 .13370369 3.000 1.03398442 4.33091202 .99999773 .00658309 5.00000017 9.500 .02361446 5.27923107 1.750 .18966236 3.27925311 .500 2.27963409 .30258158 1.02923020 .27922913 .00000000 0.52922887 .99999987 .21741250 2.79014514 .28328553 .00000105 9.00042113 7.00000000 .250 3.54645949 .250 .02928105 .52922994 1.250 8.48679040 .00000151 .06423635 4.19064044 .95551803 .00000007 9.500 .99998319 .27923259 1.000 2.52944072 .500 .00240566 6.000 3.500 3.65002910 .750 6.00000003 10.99687818 .250 2.00000000 10.99631687 .33205837 .91304074 .250 6.96940482 .99996294 .32300820 1.000 .>0 Input the initial condition alpha[3] > .03597061 .99478769 .62976683 .01039443 5.00000152 .32820678 1.04743541 4.53160594 .99992267 .52923942 .08443083 4.28660027 2.500 4.32978094 .00000141 .16588576 .06908455 .24344437 2.750 .00000152 .99969966 .250 .000 8.000 0.00000043 9.750 9.00138808 6.00000000 11.00000001 10.02923069 1.93700475 .00077649 6.500 5.02923221 1.10777391 3.40955830 .25803537 .250 7.00000152 .99984498 .750 5.00000247 8.750 3.24831956 .00000152 .000 9.33191485 .00000152 .

67E-06 -2.For this solution.65003 1.16E-06 2. First you hit the 'last set' button to ensure that the latest solution version is being used.3E-07 .99992 .16136 0.28E-06 .01591 0.27926 6.62976683 0.30575583 3.4 while Maple converges at η = 10.46E-06 .00022146 1.99999773 1 1 1.52E-06 f''' Howarth 0.99898 .06424 0.00240566 5.99897284 0.97E-06 -9.95552 .16557398 .9E-06 -6.16136123 1.28328553 4.00000000 0 Results of ANSYS After running the input file.25 f Howarth 0 0.23E-06 . This is a vector plot of velocity.00001 0 0 0 f'''.63E-06 .7E-07 0 0 0.00000152 1 1 1.16557 0. Howarth solved the laminar flow over a flat plate problem.98E-06 -9E-07 -5E-06 -4.52E-06 1.47E-06 . The differences between the solutions becomes less as η incrases.83E-06 -1.28329 4.00022 0.99154097 0. u/Uinfinity) and W3=f'''.84605 .00000001 1E-08 .27E-06 1.8E-06 . η 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10.65E-06 .27922913 % error f'' Howarth f''. To generate this plot you need to go into the post processor tab in ANSYS.26675256 2.39681501 2. the post processor is used to obtain a velocity profile plot. W2=f'' (the velocity component. R-K % error 3. In the table below. The maple program is accurate to the 8th decimal place where as Howarth is accurate to the 5th decimal place.32300820 -1.99155 . The Howarth values converge to the solution of f''=1 and f'''=0 at η = 8.27963409 5. Next you click on 'plot results.01591128 1.27925311 6. In the space labeled 'scale velocity vectors' you can change the size of the velocity vectors so that they fit on the plot.66E-06 .32979 .9E-06 -8.25.5E-06 -5. R-K % error 0 -9.95551803 0.56E-06 .30576 3.00000141 1. R-K 0 .0024 0. 12 . This gives you a few choices from which the 'vector plot' option should be choosen.06E-06 -3.32978094 0. From the next menu you pick 'predefined' and then from the resulting window select 'velocity' from the upper right side. One of the reasons for the difference between Maple and Howarth is round off error.26675 0.99992267 .32301 0.27923 f.84604517 0.00000152 .2E-06 -4.65002910 1.39682 2.33206 0. W1=f.06423635 -3.62977 .41E-06 1.03E-06 -7. Comparison of Runge-Kutta and Howarth L.27964 5. This table shows that the two solutions are almost identical.00000043 4. Howarth's solution is compared with the solution obtained using the Runge-Kutta method.17E-06 -4.00001247 2.33205837 -1.

The different colors represent the different magnitudes of velocity. Once the path is defined (done by using the 'define path' command). The results are as follows. a plot of boundary layer thickness and velocity versus distance along the plate was generated. Also. choosing the velcoity vx. To generate this plot first a path was defined as a straight line at a certain distance x away from the beginning of the plate. the velocity and boundary layer thickness can be plotted by selecting 'map onto path'. Also the results can be listed by selecting 'list path results'. 13 . The plot shows the boundary layer thickness grows when traveling down the length of the plate. and then selecting 'plot item on graph'.

32979 0.0316 1. The ANSYS solution has a steeper velocity gradient than the Howarth solution.0.06831 0.021154 0.14362 0.02978 0. the velcoity of the m Howarth.016923 0. Velocity y* from Velocity (f'') Difference between calculated. from ANSYS.002539 0. This output listing is included in the Appendices.95552 0.26471 0.06641 0. The corresponding ANSYS y values can be compared to the calculated y* values from Howarth's solution.07378 0. The solutions are the farthest apart at the intermediate values of n.9 *10e-6 Pa sec. the velocities are picked out to match as closely as possible to the values taken from Howarth.4 0. the user inputs the properties of the working fluid in the desired dimensions. These values are listed below.62977 0.0293 1. the solution output values are studied.025385 0.01263 0.0295 1 0. The values are closest farthest away from the plate where the solution tends toward Uinfinity (1). In this case properties for air at 20 deg C were used (in english units).003385 0.20108 0. From the velocity and position values that are listed in the output.0 while the Howarth solution does not reach the freestream velocity until n~8.00337 0.0253 0.001692 0.000843 0.0297 1.008462 0. η=y U∞ νx where Uinfinity =1 m/s.15431 0. y can be found. To find the corresponding values from the ANSYS solution.13277 0. Both the Howarth and ANSYS solutions are accurate to the 5th decimal place.99155 0.04185 0.00421 0. (f'') from ANSYS. Howarth uses all non-dimensional variables while ANSYS uses actual dimensions.033847 0.20368 0.029616 0.0334 1. n y*.4841 0. These results are found in the table below.0281 0.99992 0. and v=17.0202 0.83345 0. This solution reaches the freestream velocity at n~3.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 This table of results shows that ANSYS has come up with a similar solution to the laminar flow problem as Howarth.39378 0.10009 0.99898 0. Through the ANSYS postprocessor it is possible to get a listing of the velocity values over a given path. increases slowly in a linear fashion as you move down the plate. Substituting all these values in and some chosen values for n.000846 0.0281 0.2 0.0337 0.29903 0.00168 0. Comparison of ANSYS and Howarth In order to compare the solution generated by ANSYS to Howarth's solution some calculations must be made.01684 0.19894 0. The first step in getting comparable values was to re-dimensionalize the value n.10107 0.03466 0.00253 0. This is done using the formula.012693 0.03262 0. In ANSYS.12907 0. x=1 m.84605 0.This plot shows that velocity increases very sharply with distance until it levels off when it reaches the freestream velocity at 1.004231 0.98967 1. 14 . m m/s two solutions m/s 0.6 0. represented by S. The boundary layer thickness. To find a velocity profile the path is drawn as a veritcal line at the end of the plate. as described in the results section.00842 0.

Brooks/Cole. These solutions were then compared another numerical solution completed by Howarth. London. the Runge-Kutta method seemed to follow the Howarth solution more closely. chapter 5.. both Runge-Kutta solution method and ANSYS. 7th ed.. However. McGraw-Hill. R. H. J. Boundary Layer Theory.The Laminar Boundary Layer Equations.D. In this paper. 2001. 1979. 1962. 7th ed. References 1. Oxford University Press. New York. the values were not as close to Howarth's as the values from the Runge-Kutta method.Schlichting.. 15 . L. 3. The results for both methods show that the solutions agree with Howarth's solution. 230-233.. N.. there are a variety of different numerical methods which can be used to solve a high order differential equation problem such as laminar flow over a flat plate. 2.Conclusion As shown in this paper. a finite element solution method were used to obtain a solution for this fluid mechanics problem. Pacific Grove. – Curle. Using two completely different methods gave a well-rounded approach in achieving an accurate solution for the problem.Burden. pp. and Faires. While the ANSYS did predict the same boundary layer and velocity behavior. Numerical Analysis...

Appendix 1. Howarth's Solution 16 .

17 .

Appendix 2 ANSYS List Output (found only in print out of paper) 18 .

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