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Chapter 6

Addressing the Network – IPv4

 The Anatomy of an IPv4 Address


➢ IPv4 Addresses
 At network layer, packets of the comm. Need to be identified with source
& dest. Addresses of the 2 end systems
 Each packet has a 32-bit source address & 32-bit dest. Address in Layer 3
header.
 IPv4 addresses represented using dotted decimal system
• Each octet separated by a dot
 Network – a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network
address
portion of their addresses
 Number of bits used in the host portion determines # of hosts we can
have within the network
➢ Decimal to Binary
 Most Significant Bit – highest bit value in binary (leftmost bit)
 Addressing for Different Purposes
➢ Types of Addresses in an IPv4 Network
 Network address – the address by which we refer to the network
• The lowest address is reserved for the network address
 Broadcast address – a special address used to send data to all hosts in
the network
• Uses highest address in the network range
• Used to send packets to every host in the network that shares the
same network portion of the address
 Host address – the addresses assigned to the end devices in the network
• Each host has a unique address
 Network Prefixes
• The number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion
➢ Types of Communication
 Unicast – the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual
host
• client/server and peer-to-peer
 Broadcast – sending a packet from one host to all hosts on the network
• Generally restricted to local network
• Host receives as it would a unicast packet
• Used for location of special services/devices for which the address is
not known
• Host requests = queries
• Local network restriction based on config. of router
• 2 Types of broadcast
♦ Directed broadcast
➢ Sent to all hosts on a specific network
♦ Limited Broadcast
➢ Used for communication that is limited to the hosts on the local
network
 Multicast – sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts
• Local network or routed through internetwork
• Conserve bandwidth
• One packet sent to multiple hosts
• Multicast Clients – hosts that wish to receive particular multicast data,
subscribe to
♦ Multicast group
• When subscribed to, host processes packets addressed to this
multicast address, as well as packets addressed to its uniquely
allocated unicast address
• Multicast address range subdivided into different types of addresses
♦ Reserved link local addresses
➢ IP address in the range from 169.254.1.0 to 169.254.254.255
➢ Used to auto. Assign an IP address to a device in an IP network
when there is no other assignment method available (DHCP
Server)
♦ Globally scoped addressees
➢ Unique addresses that are public domain addresses
♦ Administratively scoped addresses (limited scope addresses)
➢ Restricted to a local group or organization
• 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 – reserved link local addresses
♦ Packets transmitted with a TTL value of 1
♦ Router should never forward
♦ Typical usage is in routing protocols using multicast trans. to
exchange routing info.
➢ Public and Private Addresses
 Private
• 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0 /8)
• 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0 /12)
• 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0 /16)
• Hosts that do not require access to the Internet at large may make
unrestricted use of Private networks
• Router/firewall at perimeter of network blocks private packets from
going to ISP
 NAT (Network Address Translation) – translation of private addresses to
public domain
addresses
 Public
• Majority of IPv4 unicast host range
➢ Special Addresses
 Network & Broadcast
 Default Route – 0.0.0.0
• “catch all” route when more specific route is not avail.
• Reserves 0.0.0.0 – 0.255.255.255 (0.0.0.0 /8) address block
 Loopback – 127.0.0.1
• Special address that hosts use to direct traffic to themselves
• Ping address to test config. of TCP/IP on local host
• 127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 reserved
 Link-Local Addresses – 169.254.0.0 – 169.254.255.255
• Can be automatically assigned to the local host by the OS in
environments where no IP config. is available
♦ Small P2P network for a host that could not automatically obtain
address from DHCP server
• Only suitable within same network
• A host must not send a packet with an IPv4 link-local dest. Address to
any router for forwarding
♦ Set TTL to 1

 TEST-NET – 192.0.2.0 – 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0 /24)


• Teaching and learning purposes
• Network devices will accept these addresses in their configurations
➢ Legacy IPv4 Addressing
 Class A Blocks (1-127)
• Extremely large networks (>16 million hosts)
• Fixed /8 prefix
• Remaining 3 octets used for host address
♦ Only 128 possible Class A networks (0.0.0.0 /8 – 127.0.0.0 /8)
 Class B Blocks (128-191)
• Moderate to large size networks (>65,000 hosts)
• Used two high-order octets to indicate network address
♦ Other two specified host
• Most significant two bits of the high-order octet were 10
♦ Restricted from 128.0.0.0 /16 to 191.255.0.0 /16
• More efficiency than Class A
 Class C Blocks (192-223)
• Most commonly available
• Maximum of 254 hosts
• /24 prefix
♦ Used only last octet as host address
♦ First three – network address
• Fixed value of 110 for the three most significant bits of high-order octet
♦ Restricted 192.0.0.0 /16 to 223.255.255.0 /16
• 2 million networks
 Limits to the Class-based System
• Classful allocation of address space often wasted many addresses,
which exhausted the availability of IPv4 addressing
• System abandoned in the late 1990s
♦ Computer still determines class & makes appropriate subnet mask
assignment
 Classless addressing
• IPv4 addressing scheme that uses a subnet mask that does not follow
classful addressing rules
• Provides increased flexibility when dividing ranges of IP addresses into
separate networks
• System we currently use
• Address blocks appropriate to the # of hosts are assigned to
companies without regard to the unicast class
 Assigning Addresses
 Allocation of network layer address space within network needs to be well
designed
 Admins should not randomly select addresses used / address assignment
within be random
 Allocation of addresses should be planed for purpose of:
• Preventing duplication of addresses
• Providing and controlling access
• Monitoring security and performance

➢ Monitoring Security and Performance


 Examine network traffic looking for addresses generating / receiving
excessive packets
 Identify device on the network that has a problematic address
➢ Assigning Addresses within a Network
 Different types of hosts
• End devices for users
• Servers and peripherals
• Hosts that are accessible from the Internet
• Intermediary devices
 Each diff. dev. Types should be allocated to a logical block of addresses
within the address range of the network
➢ Static or Dynamic Addressing for End User Devices
 Static
• Network admin must manually configure the network information for a
host
♦ Entering host IP address, subnet mask, default gateway
• Useful for printers, servers and other devices that need to be
accessible to clients on network
• Can provide increased control of network resources
• Time-consuming
 Dynamic
• Using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
• Automatic assignment of IP address, subnet mask, default gateway &
other info.
• Requires a block of addresses (address pool) be defined to be assigned
to DHCP clients
• Preferred method
• Addresses not permanent, “leased” for period of time
♦ When host is powered down, address is released into pool for reuse
➢ Assigning Addresses to Other Devices
 Addresses for hosts that are Accessible from Internet
• Usually servers
• Address should be static
• Each server must have a public space address associated with it
♦ Variations in the address of one dev. Will make dev. Inaccessible
from the Internet
• Private networks –
♦ Router / firewall at perimeter of the network must be configured to
translate the internal address into a public address
 Addresses for Intermediary Devices
• Almost all traffic within or between networks passes through some
form of intermediary device
♦ Network devices provide great location for network management,
monitoring & security
• Most int. devices Layer 3
• Hubs, switches & wireless access pts do not require IPv4 add. to
operate as int. dev.
♦ Need addresses assigned if accessed as hosts
• should be in a different range within the network block than user
device addresses
 Routers and Firewalls
• IPv4 address assigned to each interface
• Concentration point of traffic entering & leaving network
• Major role in security
♦ Filtering packets based on source &/ dest. IPv4 addresses
 Devices IP Address Ranges
➢ ISPs
 ISP Tiers – ISPs are designated by a hierarchy based on level of
connectivity to Internet Backbone
 Internet Backbone – a high-speed line or serios of connections that forms
a major pathway within a network
• Tier 1 ISPs
♦ Directly connect to Internet Backbone
♦ Highly reliable connections & services
♦ Primary advantages for customers: reliability & speed
• Tier 2 ISPs
♦ Acquire internet service from Tier 1 ISPs
♦ Focus on business customers
♦ Serve Tier 3 ISPs
♦ Have IT resources to operate own services – DNS, e-mail servers,
web servers
♦ Slower & lower reliability than Tier 1
• Tier 3 ISPs
♦ Internet from Tier 2 ISPs
♦ Retail & home markets
➢ IPv6
 Expanded addressing capabilities
• Improved packet handling
• Increased scalability and longevity
• QoS mechanisms
• Integrated security
 IPv6 Offers:
• 128-bit hierarchical addressing
♦ Expand addressing capabilities
♦ Expressed as 8 hexadecimal values, separated by colons
• Header format simplification
♦ Improve packet handling
• Improved support for extensions & options
♦ Increased scalability/longevity & improved packet handling
• Flow labeling capability
♦ As QoS mechanisms
• Authentication and privacy capabilities
♦ Integrate security
 New Protocol suite
• New messaging protocol (ICMPv6)
• New routing protocols

 Is It On My Network?
➢ The Subnet Mask – Defining the Network and Host Portions
 32-bit pattern
 Represented by
• Binary 1 in each network position bit
• Binary 0 in each host position bit
 Prefix and subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing
– network portion
 If submask is represented by 255
• All equivalent bits in that octet of address are network bits
 If submask is represented by 0
• All equiv. bits in that octet of address are host bits
➢ ANDing – between host address & subnet mask gives network address
 Reasons to use AND
• Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming
packet
• Originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a
host in the local network or be directed to the gateway
➢ Subnetting
 Calculating Subnets
• 2^n; n = number of bits borrowed
 Number of Hosts
• 2^n – 2; n = number of bits left for hosts
 Dividing Networks into Right Sizes
• Determine the Number and Size of the Networks
•Consider size required based on common groupings of hosts
•Address planning in a network diagram
♦ Allows us to see the networks and make a more accurate count
• Plan carefully to ensure address blocks assigned to subnet do not
overlap
➢ Subnetting a Subnet
 6.5.3.1