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Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 1 Workbook

Confidence-In-Context
A. Words about Careers
The five words in this section might all be used when discussing jobs or careers: curriculum vitae, tenure, hiatus, elucidate, sinecure.

Your career words explained


The first word well define is actually a Latin phrase: curriculum vitae, meaning literally the course of life. Like a resume, your curriculum vitae, or CV, gives the details of your work and professional history, but also includes your academic background, personal achievements, and any awards and recognitions you have received. The terms curriculum vitae and resume are often used interchangeably, but you might be more likely to hear curriculum vitae in an academic setting, such as a college or university. Example: To help you get the best job, be sure to list your professional certifications on your curriculum vitae. Tenure is another word that is often associated with the world of education. This noun has the same roots as the French tenir, or to hold, and means holding or possession of a job, status, or position. Tenure can refer to a specific period of time for example, He accomplished a great deal during his tenure as chairman. In academics, tenure is used to denote an indefinite period of time: a teacher who gets tenure has their position guaranteed from then on. Example: The organizations membership list doubled in size during her tenure as president. Our third word is the noun hiatus. A hiatus is a pause or break in something that is otherwise ongoing. For example, a newspaper editor might write a column each week for publication, but when the editor is away on holiday, the column goes on hiatus that is, there is a gap in the regularly-scheduled publishing. You could say that both the editor and the column are on vacation. Hiatus is both singular and plural, though its also correct to say hiatuses. However, since the term is most frequently used when talking about one instance in time, you generally wont be faced with the problem of which form to use. Example: The offices are closed while the department is on hiatus. 2

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Was that last word confusing? If so, perhaps I should elucidate. The fourth word in our list is elucidate, which means to make clear or to shed light on. A synonym of elucidate is explain. If youre a teacher, this is something youll be doing quite often. Example: His clear explanation helped elucidate the details of the complicated instructions.

The final word in this section is the noun sinecure. This might be your ultimate goal when using a curriculum vitae to find work a sinecure is a job where you dont have any duties or responsibilities, but you still get paid. Example: Rather than being a sinecure, this job has me doing something every minute of the day!

B. Peaceful Words
Heres a set of words that will give you a peaceful, easy feeling: equanimity, affable, mitigate, congenial, serendipity.

Your peaceful words explained


Equanimity means calmness, especially during stressful situations. Its a characteristic of someone who maintains his or her composure. Its often used to refer to a persons way of speaking as well as their attitude for example, Although his tone was very aggressive, she answered him with equanimity. Equanimity also refers to stability or steadiness, in a mental or emotional sense. Example: His exercises in meditation and prayer helped him view the chaos in his life with perfect equanimity. An affable person is someone who is sociable and easy to talk to, and also someone who finds it easy to talk to other people. Affable means friendly, but in a quiet, calm way. Affable people are not necessarily the life of the party or the centers of attention. Instead, theyre the ones who listen as much as they talk. Everybody feels comfortable talking to them, because theyre comfortable talking to anyone. Other adjectives that describe this 3

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type of person are amiable and cordial that is to say, polite and willing to go along with others, in a spirit of friendship. Example: Alex is invited to every outing shes so amiable, she can get along with anyone. If theres conflict between two people in a group, one thing an amiable person can do is help decrease, or mitigate the tension. Mitigate means to reduce or decrease the effect of something negative. Sometimes that negative thing is more tangible, like a migraine: medication can mitigate the pain of a headache. Sometimes its a negative emotion or feeling. Have you ever given someone flowers when theyve had bad news, because you want to mitigate their sadness? Example: Construction workers are often required to wear earplugs to mitigate the noise of the machinery they operate. There wont be much tension to mitigate when youre with someone congenial. Congenial means having the same likes and dislikes. You and your best friend are likely congenial kindred spirits. If youre in a group of people who enjoy the same thing for example, an activity like skiing, or singing in a choir then youre in congenial company. You can also be in a congenial situation: one where youre completely in your comfort zone, surrounded by affable people, even if youre not a part of any particular group. Example: Being a music lover, I found myself in congenial company at the opening of the Sydney Opera Houses new season. Do you love opera? Imagine that one day you have to walk home by a different route, because theyre doing construction on the main street to mitigate the traffic congestion. You walk by a small restaurant youve never seen before, and go in for a look. Inside, you find delicious food, and singing waiters who serenade you with beautiful arias from your favorite operas. If you hadnt been forced into this different path, youd never have found this restaurant. Thats serendipity the accidental discovery of something good or beneficial. In fact, serendipity is sometimes called a happy accident. Example: She met her future husband through serendipity, when they were seated together at a friends wedding party. 4

Confidence-In-Context
C. Words for Difficult or Dangerous Situations

Look out! These five words might be used when youre dealing with difficult or dangerous situations: pandemic, virulent, detrimental, sequester, stringent.

Your words for difficult or dangerous situations explained


Pandemic means widespread that is, covering a large geographic area and affecting many people. Youll usually hear this in relation to an illness. In fact, an epidemic is promoted to pandemic status when it spreads beyond the usual range of infection. For example, the so-called bird flu is considered an epidemic if it affects many people in one country, but if it spreads across the globe, it will become pandemic. Example: With all of the air travel being done these days between continents, medical researchers are afraid that some diseases may become pandemic if people return home after being infected. An illness like this, which can spread quickly and easily between populations, is often said to be virulent, especially if it results in many deaths. Virulent means highly infectious and deadly. The Ebola virus, which kills over half of the people who catch it, is a virulent disease. Lets hope that particular illness doesnt become pandemic. Example: The pandemic of 1918 was caused by a particularly virulent strain of influenza, resulting in the deaths of over 20 million people worldwide. The effects of such an illness are detrimental to a population. Detrimental means causing harm or damage. Synonyms of detrimental are destructive, harmful, and unfortunate. Example: Because most of the victims of the 1918 pandemic influenza were adults between 20 and 45 years old, many countries lost a large percentage of their workforce within a short period of time, which proved detrimental to their economies, already damaged by World War I. One way of fighting a pandemic illness is to sequester the people who are infected, to make it harder for the disease to spread. The verb sequester means to isolate and 5

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make separate from outside contact. When you sequester someone, you are putting them in seclusion, or isolation. Example: The doctors suspected that the child had been infected with measles, so they sequestered him in an isolated area, rather than putting him in the common ward with the other patients. Some stringent measures might be needed if you have to sequester an entire population due to the possibility of a pandemic illness. Stringent means keeping strictly to specific rules or standards. The underlying sense of the word is that these rules are difficult to follow, but that there would be negative consequences if you didnt follow them. Stringent can also mean severe, rigorous, or rigid. Example: The hospital established a stringent policy that all visitors had to follow when visiting patients, including a complete change of clothes and hourly hand-washing.

D.

Words for Amusing, Funny and Quirky Characteristics

You might find this section rather entertaining. Youll be learning words that are often used when speaking of things that can be amusing or funny, but in a slightly strange way: foible, droll, hyperbole, parody, potter.

Your words for amusing, funny and quirky characteristics explained


The first word is foible. A foible is an unusual habit or mannerism, particularly one that creates vulnerability. The word comes from the French word faible meaning feeble and implies a weakness, specifically in a persons character. Its a small weakness, but it can cause them harm. Think of a suit of armour that protects a knight. Lets say this knight polishes his armour every day, but puts extra effort into making the right knee shiny, because he thinks that will bring him luck. Unfortunately, all that polishing makes the knee area weaker, and the next spear goes right through it. This little chink in the armour is a metaphorical foible the real foible is the knights habit of over-polishing that spot.

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Example: He insisted on always sitting at the head of the table when he played poker. This foible prevented him from competing in the big tournaments, where seating is assigned randomly. You might find this previous example of a foible somewhat droll. Droll means wry or whimsical or odd, in a humorous way. Its a quieter, subtle humour. The Three Stooges and Benny Hill are generally not described as droll. Example: We all enjoyed her droll presentation on Shakespeare; it was full of witty comments comparing his plays characters to mode3rn movie stars. In fact, I laughed so hard at her presentation that my teeth fell out! Well, no, that was hyperbole. Hyperbole means an exaggeration or overstatement, used in order to emphasize a point. Its often done in order to create a humorous effect. Many comedians rely on hyperbole for their acts, saying things like I was so thin as a child my parents didnt bother giving me a key to the front door. I just went in through the mail slot. Advertisers make their living off hyperbole. Not every product can be the best, but they all claim to be. Example: The studios statement that millions of people went to the movie premiere on Friday is sheer hyperbole ticket sales show that only a few thousand people attended. Some movies are parodies, like This Is Spinal Tap, a mock documentary about a heavy metal band and its concert tours. A parody is an imitation of a person, place, or thing, done in order to poke fun at them. The Australian television show CNNNN made fun of 24-hour cable news networks, and The Colbert Report does the same for news programs in the USA. Sometimes this is done just to be humorous, but other times a parody can be sharper, mocking someones mannerisms in a way intended to be hurtful. Example: Janes parody of her French professors lectures had everyone laughing, but when the teacher walked into the classroom, she was not amused. A typical parody of an absent-minded professor includes wandering around aimlessly, doing things randomly, without very many results. The word potter means to mess about doing nothing in particular. In parodies, this is a common foible of an older person, or one whos not altogether mentally sound.

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Example: After he won the lottery, Bruce quit his job and spent every day just pottering around in the garden.

E.

Words for Describing Truth and Lies

Sometimes its hard to tell truth from fiction. All of the words in this section deal with truth and lies: fabrication, verbatim, erroneous, chimera, specious.

Your words for describing truth and lies explained


The first word well be looking at is fabrication. You might be familiar with this word in the sense of making something often machine parts or tools and the meaning were talking about is similar. A fabrication is something thats made up that is, a lie. A fabrication is a story, a fiction, a falsehood. Example: Steven was four hours late, but his explanation that his late arrival was due to an escaped circus elephant was obviously a fabrication. Now, lets say Steven really was caught in traffic for four hours, during which time he heard on the radio that the problem was due to an escaped elephant. The radio announcer was having a bit of fun with his audience but Steven didnt know this. Hell still give the same reason for arriving four hours late, but now his reason isnt a fabrication, its just erroneous. Erroneous means based on false information, in error, mistaken. Example: When the zoo reported a missing elephant, the city closed all of the schools, in the erroneous belief that the lions had also gotten loose. On the other hand, Steven might have been driving slowly home, imagining himself riding on the back of an elephant at the head of a circus parade. He was lost in his daydream, caught in a fantasy, a chimera. A chimera is a creation of the imagination, a foolish fancy, or an imaginary thing. Example: Early European travellers to Africa brought back descriptions of giraffes and elephants that were dismissed as chimeras by people who didnt believe such things could exist. 8

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Something that seems believable and reasonable at first glance, but is easily proven false when examined closely, is said to be specious. This term is often used to describe argument, or reasoning. A good example of specious reasoning is the following: - God is love. - Love is blind. - I am blind. - Therefore I am God. On the surface, this seems perfectly logical, where A leads to B leads to C back to A, but when you look at the statements, they lead to a completely illogical conclusion. Another word for a specious argument is a fallacy. Example: The lawyer tried to prove that the woman was guilty by quoting her previous statements about the incident, but as she hadnt said anything incriminating, this was a specious argument. Quoting something that someone previously said can sometimes help you separate truth and fiction, but only if youre quoting them verbatim. Verbatim means word for word, exactly as it was said. Example: The court reporter read back the lawyers words verbatim, and the judge realized that his arguments were based on false evidence.

F.

Difficult Words that Appear Easy

The most difficult words to learn are sometimes the ones that look the simplest. But its easy to confuse words that seem familiar, when their meanings arent what you expect. In this section, well look at three familiar words - champion, brook, and pedestrian and discover their Ultimate Vocabulary definitions. Well also learn two words that might describe the confusion surrounding these words: quandary and abstruse.

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Your familiar but perhaps difficult words explained
Lets start with the word champion. Its a word you hear frequently in sports, when youre talking about a winner, someone whos made it to the top. The meaning were going to learn is actually very similar. As a verb, to champion means to promote, to talk up, or to advertise positively. You can champion a person or a cause, trying to get people to support them. Advertisers champion their product, trying to convince you to use it. In other words, youre trying to get something or someone to the top, to make it or them a winner. Example: After the terrible earthquake that nearly destroyed the city, local officials and celebrities championed the movement to replace the wooden buildings with reinforced concrete. The next word in this section is brook. Were not talking about the noun referring to a small stream, but rather a verb that means to tolerate or put up with, specifically with something negative. Example: I have been teaching school for over thirty years, and I will brook no interference in my classroom from parents who disagree with the grades I give the students. The third word that well look at for its hidden meaning is pedestrian. When youre walking down the street, youre a pedestrian thats a noun. But unless youre doing a very silly walk, youre also being pedestrian an adjective. The adjective pedestrian means unremarkable or ordinary. Example: The lives of the people around him seemed so pedestrian that the would-be author couldnt use them for inspiration when writing his first novel. Before you knew these words had meanings other than the ones everyone knows, you might have been in a quandary when you saw them being used in ways you didnt expect. Our fourth word in this section is quandary, meaning uncertainty, or difficulty in knowing what to do. Example: Two of his friends asked him for a recommendation to the same job, and hes in a quandary because he cant sponsor one of them without alienating the other.

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And now that youre comfortable with these old words and their new meanings, you wont find their usage in these contexts so abstruse. Something that is difficult to understand, perhaps even so much that you feel you cant begin to try, is abstruse. Example: I picked up a book on recent discoveries in physics, but it was so abstruse that even my university classes in higher mathematics were no help in understanding the text.

Tests for Reinforcing What you have Learnt

A.

Words about careers

Now that youve heard and read these five words in use, can you think of conversations youve had recently where you might have been able to use them? Here are some sample sentences with one of these target words missing. See if you can fill in the correct word in each sentence.

Test Sentences:
1. She tried to tell me how to do it, but her directions were too vague, and I had to ask her to _________________________. 2. During the two-day ____________________ in broadcasting caused by the loss of power after the storm, the television stations news reporters filed their stories over the telephone. 3. A professional _________________________ should always include the locations where you worked, and details about what you did there. 4. Because the office is only open to the public one day a week, the receptionists job is mostly a _______________________. 5. What do you want to accomplish during your ___________________ as president?

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Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. She tried to tell me how to do it, but her directions were too vague, and I had to ask her to elucidate. The directions were vague, meaning that it was not clear what to do. Elucidate means to make clear. 2. During the two-day hiatus in broadcasting caused by the loss of power after the storm, the television stations news reporters filed their stories over the telephone. The station was not able to broadcast without power, so there was a break in programming. A hiatus is a break or gap in something that is otherwise ongoing. 3. A professional curriculum vitae should always include the locations where you worked, and details about what you did there. Where you worked, what you did, and who you worked with these things all describe part of your life. When you put them together, youve created a curriculum vitae, the course of your life. 4. Because the office is only open to the public one day a week, the receptionists job is mostly a sinecure. A receptionist who rarely has anyone coming to the office has nothing to do. A job where you get paid for doing nothing is a sinecure. 5. What do you want to accomplish during your tenure as president? A president is chosen or elected for a specific period of time. The time spent in a job, status, position, or elected office is called tenure. Unless your current job is a sinecure, you might be thinking of changing jobs. If so, its a good time to review your curriculum vitae. Be sure to elucidate the reasons for any hiatus in your career, and note the beginning and ending dates of your tenure in each position. And when youre done, check off five more words on your Ultimate Vocabulary list: 12

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elucidate curriculum vitae tenure hiatus sinecure

B.

Peaceful Words

What do you talk about when youre with your friends? Perhaps you can use some of these new words youre learning to describe your feelings of calm and contentment in being in such congenial company. Here are some sample sentences, each with one of our key words missing. Fill in the correct word in each sentence.

Test Sentences:
1. This new vaccination is not a complete cure for malaria, but it definitely ______________ the side effects of the disease. 2. Everything was going wrong during the dress rehearsal the spotlights didnt work, the curtain fell down, and the actors couldnt remember their lines but even so, the producer managed to direct the performance with __________________. 3. Alexander Flemings discovery of penicillin in 1928 was a matter of _______________, when he noticed that a bacteria culture had been accidentally contaminated by bacteria-killing mould from another laboratory nearby. 4. Bob is such an _______________ person. He finds something to talk about with everyone he meets. 5. I find this group of people to be very ________________ - we all enjoy listening to jazz, and then talking about the performances afterwards.

Answers: 1. This new vaccination is not a complete cure for malaria, but it definitely mitigates the side effects of the disease.

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The vaccination decreases the side effects of the sickness. Mitigate means to lessen or decrease, specifically when referring to something negative, such as illness. 2. Everything was going wrong during the dress rehearsal the spotlights didnt work, the curtain fell down, and the actors couldnt remember their lines but even so, the producer managed to direct the performance with equanimity. In the middle of a stressful, chaotic situation, the producer kept her composure, and was able to speak calmly while directing the actors. Equanimity means calmness under stress or steadiness of mind. 3. Alexander Flemings discovery of penicillin in 1928 was a matter of serendipity, when he noticed that a bacteria culture had been accidentally contaminated by bacteria-killing mould from another laboratory nearby. If the mould hadnt been blown by the breeze into Flemings laboratory and if he hadnt noticed how it killed the bacteria in the petri dish he might never have discovered penicillin. This is serendipity, when something happens by accident that results in the discovery of a good thing. 4. Bob is such an amiable person. He finds something to talk about with everyone he meets. Bob enjoys interacting with people, and is easy to talk to. Someone who is amiable is sociable and friendly, and has the ability to put other people at ease in conversation. 5. I find this group of people to be very congenial - we all enjoy listening to jazz, and then talking about the performances afterwards. Not everyone likes the same type of music. People who like or dislike the same things are congenial.

Sometimes its just serendipity when you end up in a group of strangers and find that, after all, theyre congenial company, affable people, and now new friends. Having good friends does a great deal to mitigate the stresses that can happen in daily life, and can help you deal with your problems with greater equanimity.

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And now, calmly check off five more words on your Ultimate Vocabulary list: serendipity congenial mitigate affable equanimity

C.

Words for Difficult or Dangerous Situations

Infection can spread quickly, but so can information, especially in this world of instant internet communication. When youre reading the news from around the globe, keep an eye out for these words in stories about new diseases and cures. But right now, listen to these sentences, and fill in the missing word in each with one of the five Ultimate Vocabulary words from this lesson.

Test Sentences
1. The port authorities put ________________ guidelines in place to prevent people from smuggling animals out of the country. 2. While she was recovering from her bout of pneumonia, Alice was _______________ in a private room at the hospital. 3. Be careful with your prescription medication: taking too much or too little might have a _____________ effect on your health. 4. When the European explorers came to the New World, they often brought smallpox and other illnesses with them which proved _______________ to native populations lacking any resistance to those diseases. 5. Experts fear that unless more study is done on the causes and control of the West Nile virus, we may be facing a _______________ illness in the near future.

Answers: 1. The port authorities put stringent guidelines in place to prevent people from smuggling animals out of the country.

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The guidelines set by the port authorities are very specific rules, and people who break those rules will be punished. Stringent means severe, rigorous, and strict. 2. While she was recovering from her bout of pneumonia, Alice was sequestered in a private room at the hospital. Someone in a private room is isolated from others. Sequestered means secluded, withdrawn, separated from outside contact. 3. Be careful with your prescription medication: taking too much or too little might have a detrimental effect on your health. If you take too much aspirin at one time, it may damage your hearing and cause a ringing in your ears. Something that is damaging, that causes harm, is detrimental. 4. When the European explorers came to the New World, they often brought smallpox and other illnesses with them which proved virulent to native populations lacking any resistance to those diseases. Smallpox spread rapidly among the native populations, who had never encountered this disease, and had no immunity to it. Virulent means highly infectious, and usually deadly. 5. Experts fear that unless more study is done on the causes and control of the West Nile virus, we may be facing a pandemic illness in the near future. When several children in a school have chicken pox or a similar contagious illness, the school will often shut down for a while to prevent a wider spread of infection. An illness that spreads beyond a region, and even a country, is called a pandemic illness. Even though modern medicine has effective drugs and treatments for many illnesses, there are some virulent diseases in the world for which no-one has discovered treatment. These diseases are very detrimental to the regions where theyre found, but rather than sequestering those populations and ignoring the problem, we should make it a stringent requirement of any pharmaceutical research program to devote time and money to finding cures. Its in our best interest to eliminate these diseases, and prevent a possible future pandemic illness that will affect all of us, no matter where we live.

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I hope you have a healthy respect for the power of words by now. Youve learned a set of five useful words from your Ultimate Vocabulary list: stringent pandemic detrimental sequester virulent

D.

Words for Amusing, Funny and Quirky Characteristics

Its important to know how to say things, as well as what to say. Learning these Ultimate Vocabulary words will give you the confidence to use them in their correct context. To practice, listen to these five sentences and fill in one of this sections target words in the appropriate place.

Test Sentences:
1. One of that actors ___________________ is his ritual of eating half a banana exactly one-half hour before each performance. 2. I found his choice of music to be very _____________; not many people would request the songs of Dead Can Dance to be played at a funeral. 3. Children frequently use ___________________, saying things like My dog is a million times smarter than your brother. 4. The schoolchildren performed a wonderful ________________ of Gilbert and Sullivans operetta The Mikado, setting it in a sushi restaurant in New York City. 5. The librarian spent so much time ________________ around the rare books section, she was rarely available to help the students with their research.

Answers: 1. One of that actors foibles is his ritual of eating half a banana exactly one-half hour before each performance.

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A foible is a personal quirk or unusual habit, and often one which creates a weakness in the person who has it. What would the actor do if there were no bananas available that day? 2. I found his choice of music to be very droll; not many people would request the songs of Dead Can Dance to be played at a funeral. Unless you really like their music, it might be seen as an odd but humorous choice of bands for a funeral. Droll means oddly humorous or whimsical, and perhaps something that not everyone would even recognize as humour. For example, if theres no mention of the bands name, only those people who know their music would get the joke. 3. Children frequently use hyperbole, saying things like My dog is a million times smarter than your brother. If you use exaggeration or overstatement to make a point, you are using hyperbole. Its often used deliberately for a humorous effect, saying something thats obviously impossible, but funny in context. Dogs are only a hundred times smarter than people, by the way. 4. The schoolchildren performed a wonderful parody of Gilbert and Sullivans operetta The Mikado, setting it in a sushi restaurant in New York City. The schoolchildren used the basic premise of the operetta, but changed the location and the words to make a version that pokes fun at the original. A parody is an imitation that mocks the original, usually gently. However, if you parody a specific persons foibles, you may end up hurting them. 5. The librarian spent so much time pottering around the rare books section; she was rarely available to help the students with their research. The librarian is wandering between the shelves, forgetting what time it is, and not even aware that there are people who might be looking for her. Shes not doing anything in particular, just picking up a book here and there. Shes pottering around the rare books section. To potter means to wander aimlessly, not accomplishing much, and doing what little you do in a random fashion.

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Humour, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. But with your growing vocabulary of powerful words, youll be able to use them to create exactly the effect you want. Theyre so powerful; they can change the orbit of the moon! No, sorry, that was: hyperbole potter foible droll parody

E.

Words for Describing Truth and Lies

Believe me when I say that knowing the correct words to use and when to use them is a powerful tool. Lets see if you can get to the true meaning of the five vocabulary words in this section by filling in the blanks in these example sentences.

Test Sentences:
1. The boys told their mother that a passing car had splashed mud all over their sisters dress, but she knew it was a __________________ when she saw how dirty their hands were. 2. Some people buy a lottery ticket every day; the __________________ of instant and unlimited wealth is always in their mind. 3. Its a _____________________ argument to say that if a child is three feet tall when shes three, shell be ten feet tall when shes ten. 4. Your conclusion that cows are a leading cause of global warming is based on _____________ information. 5. Even if you could recite the works of Shakespeare ___________________, I wouldnt cast you as the leading role in this play.

Answers:

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1. The boys told their mother that a passing car had splashed mud all over their sisters dress, but she knew it was a fabrication when she saw how dirty their hands were. Children dont lie very well sometimes, and its obvious when theyre making things up. A fabrication is a made-up story or a lie. 2. Some people buy a lottery ticket every day; the chimera of instant and unlimited wealth is always in their mind. The odds of winning a lottery are so high, its more of a fantasy than a reality, and most people will spend their winnings in their minds before they even buy a ticket. A chimera is a fantasy or an imaginary creation. 3. Its a specious argument to say that if a child is three feet tall when shes three, shell be ten feet tall when shes ten. Trying to make a logical argument out of illogical statements can lead you to create a specious line of reasoning. Specious means based on false premises. 4. Your conclusion that cows are a leading cause of global warming is based on erroneous information. Specious arguments are often based on erroneous information. Erroneous means inaccurate or mistaken; something that is assumed to be true, but is in fact false. 5. Even if you could recite the works of Shakespeare verbatim, I wouldnt cast you as the leading role in this play. An actor who knew all of Shakespeares plays verbatim would normally be a valuable addition to a theatre. Verbatim means exactly as written, word for word. Once you know the true meaning of these words, they wont play you false. Review the Ultimate Vocabulary word lists daily and your dream of using these powerful words in everyday situations will turn from a chimera into a reality. Remember these words and definitions verbatim: fabrication chimera specious erroneous 20

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verbatim

F.

Difficult Words that Appear Easy

Even if youre no longer in school, its a good idea to keep your brain stimulated by learning new things. Youve learned five new words in this section now see if you can fit them into their proper places in the following sentences.

Test Sentences:
1. That actress brought down the energy level of the entire cast with her ________________ interpretation of the character. 2. The class in linguistics might seem _________________ at first, but once you learn all of the terminology; it will be easier to understand. 3. The head of the purchasing department would ____________________ no dispute about where the money should be spent. 4. Sometimes the people who are most effective at ________________ the cure for a disease are the ones who have suffered from it. 5. Ive fallen in love with someone from another country, which presents a _______________, because I dont want to live so far away from my family.

Answers: 1. That actress brought down the energy level of the entire cast with her pedestrian interpretation of the character. A dull, uninspiring performance by one person can affect everyone else on stage. Pedestrian means dull, unexceptional, uninteresting. 2. The class in linguistics might seem abstruse at first, but once you learn all of the terminology, it will be easier to understand. When youre first learning about something, it might seem so complicated that its impossible to comprehend. The word abstruse means difficult to understand. 3. The head of the purchasing department would brook no dispute about where the money should be spent. 21

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This purchasing department makes all of its budget decisions six months in advance, and hates to change the spreadsheets. They dont want to hear about other peoples opinions on money matters, and wont listen to any objections. To brook means to tolerate, but in a negative sense; use this verb when youre talking about something you WONT tolerate. 4. Sometimes the people who are most effective at championing the cure for a disease are the ones who have suffered from it. Its often easier to raise funds for a cause when you can relate a personal experience that explains your reason for being involved. If youre trying to raise support for a movement or a person, you are championing their cause. 5. Ive fallen in love with someone from another country, which presents a quandary, because I dont want to live so far away from my family. Wanting to be with your family, but also wanting to live with your love on the other side of the world thats a dilemma. And thats the meaning of quandary: a difficult decision, a state of perplexity and uncertainty. Now that the meanings of these five words are no longer abstruse, youll be able to champion their use by more people. No more pedestrian conversations youll brook no resistance to adding these powerful words to your vocabulary. And you wont be in a quandary about when and how to use these words, because youve added them to your Ultimate Vocabulary checklist: champion abstruse pedestrian quandary brook

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Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 2 Workbook

Confidence-In-Context
A. Words For Undesirable Personal And Business Practices
The words in this section are ones you might not like hearing applied to yourself but its useful to know how to apply them. The five not very nice words well look at next are sycophant, fatuous, neophyte, infamous, and negligible.

Your words for undesirable personal and business practices explained


Weve all known someone who was always flattering the boss, being a perfect yes-man in general just a complete suck-up that no-one wanted to eat lunch with. But how often did we see that irritating person somehow end up with the plum job or the award at the company banquet? Theres a not very nice name for that person: sycophant. A sycophant is someone who hangs around powerful people, using flattery to advance themselves. Theyre often rewarded with favors or promotions. Youll see them around politicians, movie stars, even football heroes. Theyre hangers-on, lackeys, brown-nosers. Example: A good leader relies on people who question her decisions, not on sycophants who praise every word she says. One danger of being surrounded by sycophants is thinking that youre truly as talented, beautiful, and praiseworthy as they say you are. Some people, however, have no problem believing false flattery. Theyre completely unaware of the fact that theyre making fools of themselves. Theyre fatuous. They see themselves as absolute perfection, completely oblivious to their flaws. Not only that, fatuous people tend to act as their own sycophants, bragging and talking themselves up, while putting other people down. Example: Unaware that half of the dinner guests were professional winemakers, Uncle George had a fatuous smile on his face as he criticized the choice of champagne served with dessert. Sometimes people make mistakes or act foolishly because they are so new to a situation they havent had a chance to learn the correct information. A person like this is a neophyte literally newly planted, from the Greek root neo meaning new. While this word merely means beginner or novice, its often used in a derogatory fashion, implying that because the person is new, theyre also lower in social status than the speaker.

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Example: That secretary is such a neophyte she cant even operate the fax machine. If someone has a habit of talking down to others and insulting them, theyll probably get a reputation for being not a very nice person. Theyll be infamous. Infamous is an adjective meaning having a bad reputation or notorious. Dont get it confused with the adjective famous, though theyre very similar: if youre famous, youre well-known in a good way, but if youre infamous, youre well known for the bad things you do. Some famous people are also infamous for certain things think of movie stars who have trouble staying out of jail. If two people have a reputation for acting badly in the same way, one may be more infamous than the other. Example: Although Howard is extremely wealthy, hes infamous for never paying his staff on time. There might be several reasons why Howard doesnt pay his staff on time. Perhaps he has the fatuous belief that they dont care about the money, because theyre so glad to be working for him. Maybe hes a neophyte millionaire, and he hasnt really figured out his payroll system yet. But he might just think that the amounts are too negligible to deal with right away. Negligible means so small it doesnt matter. Something thats negligible is easy to ignore because it has little impact on the situation. Thats a matter of perception, of course to the people on Howards payroll, those salaries are quite important indeed. Example: The monthly total of all staff salaries is a huge sum, but compared to the rest of the budget, the figure is negligible.

B.

Words For Higher Powers

Are you worried that you wont be able to remember these Ultimate Vocabulary words? Relax the words in this section are a gift from above: five words that are heaven-sent to bless your vocabulary and inspire you to use them. Theyre all words that relate to higher powers or seem to. In this section, well study the words catholic, trinity, aegis, harbinger, and proselytize.

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Your words for higher powers explained
The first word, catholic, is potentially the most confusing. Were not referring to the Catholic religion, or any religion for that matter. Catholic is an adjective meaning broad in scope and comprehensive. Example: Her reading list is quite catholic; she has books on everything from astrology to zoo-keeping, and the complete Harry Potter series. Another word you might be familiar with in a religious sense is trinity. The Christian belief in the Holy Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost is well-known even to nonChristians. But as a general term, it merely refers to three things or people that are considered as a unit, inseparable. In the southern United States, Cajun cooks have their own holy trinity of onions, celery, and bell pepper that forms the basis of almost any dish. Example: Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the trinity of countries known as the Axis during World War II. Powerful countries sometimes provide protection for smaller countries, guarding their borders against enemies. The smaller countries are under the aegis of the larger ones. Aegis means protection or shield. The word originally referred to the armored breastplate worn by the goddess Athena, the Greek goddess of knowledge and military power. Example: The star football player saw the other students teasing the new boy, so he took him under his aegis and kept the bullies away. If the leaders of a country notice that their neighbors are increasing the size of their armies and stockpiling large supplies of food and weapons, they might see this as a harbinger of war. Harbinger means a sign of things to come. Some synonyms for harbinger are portent and omen. Its not always negative, though the things to come can be good as well as bad. Example: Thought nearly covered by the two inches of snow that had fallen overnight, the early blossoms of the crocuses were a harbinger of spring. Isnt it wonderful, learning these fantastic new words? You might be so enthusiastic about the program that you want everybody to learn the Ultimate Vocabulary way. Go ahead and

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proselytize we wont mind. Proselytize means to preach or talk about something, with the goal of converting other people to your way of thinking. Missionaries proselytize to convert people to their religion. Members of a political party sometimes proselytize to get more people to agree with their platforms and vote for them. Example: People who give up cigarettes are often the ones who proselytize most about the dangers of second-hand smoke.

C.

Words About Words

By now were sure youve realized the power of words. In this section well learn some words about words: polyglot, laconic, loquacious, saw, rhetoric.

Your words about words explained


This Ultimate Vocabulary course is focused on teaching you how to use powerful words in English in everyday conversation. Perhaps youre perfecting your English as a second language, or even third. If youre fluent in more than one language, youre a polyglot. A polyglot is someone who can read, speak, and write in several languages. Example: The translators who work for the diplomats have to be polyglots, because they deal with ambassadors from many countries. Just because a person can speak in many languages doesnt mean they talk all the time. Translators, of course, have to speak constantly as they interpret conversations between people. But off the job, they might be quite laconic. Laconic means brief or to the point, referring to someones speaking style. A laconic person uses just enough words to say what they mean, and no more. Example: He has a reputation for being laconic at work, but I think its because hes so busy he just doesnt have time to chat. The opposite of laconic is loquacious. A loquacious person is one who talks all the time. Synonyms for loquacious are chatty, talkative, and garrulous. Example: I tried to study at my desk, but my roommate is so loquacious I couldnt concentrate, and I went to the library instead.

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Its usually not a good idea to be talking all of the time. You know what they say: a closed mouth catches no flies. Thats an old Italian proverb, or saw, on the wisdom of keeping quiet. A saw is a saying, usually one thats been around for a long time. And even if the saw is no longer much used in modern life, it still describes something thats true. Another saw, or saying, that you might know is you cant teach an old dog new tricks. Were certainly teaching you some new words, though! Example: My grandmother always used her teabag twice, quoting that old saw waste not, want not. Using words in just the right way can be a powerful tool for influencing other people. Creative and effective use of words is called rhetoric. While this can refer to writing, its more often used to describe a way of speaking, or a speech. Make sure that when youre speaking youre not getting too creative; rhetoric also refers to a speech thats so full of flowery language and unnecessary or misleading detail that its hard to find the meaning in it. Example: Many politicians rely on paid writers to create the rhetoric they use when giving speeches at campaign events.

D.

Words About Things That Are Difficult To Define

The words in this section are easy to define, but theyre all used when talking about things that are hard to define. The five words well be looking at next are diffident, nebulous, implicit, putative, and hypothesis.

Your words about things that are difficult to define explained


Diffident means timid or bashful. Its used to describe someone who lacks selfconfidence or who is excessively modest. Shy people tend to be diffident, afraid to offer an opinion, even then theyve got the right answer. Example: Jane is so diffident, its hard to believe she runs her own company; when shes in a group, she never takes the lead. Something thats hard to see clearly is nebulous. You might be familiar with the astronomical term nebula, which refers to a fuzzy cloud of gas and stars; a nebula is 6

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nebulous, because its hazy, vague, not clearly defined. An idea can be nebulous as well as an image or object. Example: The goal of the proposed project was too nebulous, and the planning committee rejected it until the organizers could provide more details. The third word were looking at also describes something that is not explicitly defined. But unlike nebulous, something implicit is very clearly seen or understood, just not obviously or openly. Implicit means understood and agreed on, but not stated openly. Example: The people she hired knew there was an implicit understanding that theyd join in the companys volunteer projects from time to time. Another word for something that is understood without being directly stated is putative. However, while implicit means the underlying substance is unstated but agreed on, putative refers to something that might not really be agreed on, but that no-one wants to bother to dispute. For example, if someone in a group takes charge and starts making all of the decisions, the other members of the group might allow that person to become the putative leader. They might disagree privately, and even not go along with some of the decisions, but they dont do anything to take that person out of a leadership role. Example: Michael was the only person who researched the mountain trails and access routes, so he became the putative leader of the Sunday hiking club. The final word in this section is hypothesis. A hypothesis is something that is assumed to be true, for the sake of argument. In a hypothesis, the known facts are sometimes ignored in order to provide material for further discussion. You might say that a hypothesis is a what if ...? statement. Example: Her hypothesis that global warming could be slowed significantly by eliminating all air travel is interesting, but not practical in this age of global commerce.

E.

Words That Show Their Origins

Many words in English can be traced back to their roots in Ancient Greek or Latin. Here are five words and phrases that clearly show their origins: ad hoc, chronology, de facto, erudite, neologism. 7

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Your words that show their origins explained
Youll frequently find Latin words and phrases being used in situations where law is involved not surprising, as many of the worlds modern legal systems are based on principles and laws codified by the Romans. Two of the Latin phrases that are well-known are de facto and de jure. De jure means by law that is, what should be done and de facto means In fact or in reality what actually is done. For example, it might be the rule on a road to only use the express lane if youre traveling over the minimum speed limit, but if everyones driving above the speed limit, all lanes become de facto express lanes. De jure is usually only used in the courtroom, so only de facto is part of your Ultimate Vocabulary list right now unless youre a lawyer, of course. Example: Although Keith was the elected chairperson, he was never at the meetings, and Thomas became the de facto head of the committee. The other Latin phrase well look at is ad hoc, meaning for this. Ad hoc refers to something that has been created for a specific purpose or goal, often existing only until that goal has been achieved. Example: The school board needed more information on enrollment, so it called for an ad hoc panel to gather statistics about the current student body. Both ad hoc and de facto are phrases that have been in use for thousands of years. Other words are newer: think of spam and wi-fi and telecommute. Changes in society require changes in vocabulary, and these neologisms are created to describe them. Neologism means new word, from the Greek roots neo (new) and logos (word). Example: It takes several years for the Oxford English Dictionary to officially add a neologism like fembot or webmaster to its word list. It takes a while for a word or phrase to become part of the common vocabulary. First its usually only used in a specific segment of society, like the hip-hop word bling. As it gains widespread exposure, more and more people use it, and it becomes part of popular culture. Finally, the word either goes out of use do you call anyone a hep cat these days? or it settles into our standard vocabulary with a universally-understood meaning. This sequence of events, or chronology, can take months or years, though with the internet, it might only take days to get a new word into popular use. The word chronology

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comes from the Greek root kronos meaning time. A chronology is a series of events, or timeline. Example: Deep waterways like the Grand Canyon show the chronology of geologic deposits in the strata revealed on the cliff walls. Regular use of these powerful words will convince your friends that youre erudite. Someone who is erudite is learned and scholarly, and has read many books to get that education. Erudite is from the Latin verb erudio or to train. You can use the Ultimate Vocabulary training course to become more erudite. Example: Kate has spent years studying and traveling abroad; shes so erudite, she can talk knowledgeably about almost anything.

F.

Words Necessary For Developing Your Vocabulary

The five words in this section were very carefully chosen as necessary for developing your vocabulary. These essential words are pertinent, requisite, adroit, assiduous, and judicious.

Your important vocabulary development words explained


One important aspect of increasing your vocabulary is knowing which word is pertinent to your situation. Pertinent means relevant and to the point, something that is logically connected. These Ultimate Vocabulary words wont be powerful if you use them incorrectly, so these lessons showing the words in context will help you a great deal. Example: Karen doesnt always speak up in the weekly meetings, but when she does, she always has something pertinent to contribute. Knowing the pertinent words to use in any context is requisite to being a good speaker. Requisite means essential or necessary. Many schools have classes they call prerequisites these are classes that it is necessary to take before moving on to a higher-level class. A synonym for requisite is indispensable. Example: The two candidates were both very skilled, but only one had the requisite qualifications for the position.

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Once youve mastered the requisite vocabulary and know which words are pertinent to any topic, youll be adroit at using them. Adroit means skillful or adept. Someone who is adroit makes the best possible choices in any given situation. Example: His adroit use of humor kept the debaters calm, even though the topic was very controversial. It does take time and effort to learn these words and their proper usage, but with assiduous study, youll soon master them. The word assiduous means with care and persistent effort. The best students are usually the ones who are assiduous in their study habits. Example: She is devoted to her mother and is assiduous in caring for her and her three cats. You dont have to spend all of your time studying, though; a judicious amount of relaxation in your day is healthy. Judicious means with good judgment or using common sense. A judicious balance of work and play is good for you. Example: The chef used a judicious blend of sweet and hot spices to season the grilled fish.

Tests for Reinforcing What you have Learnt A. Words For Undesirable Personal And Business Practices
Test Sentences:
Managers might be surprised at whats being said in the lunch rooms at their companies. Your co-workers might be surprised when you start using these Ultimate Vocabulary words though perhaps you shouldnt use these words about them. Practice with these five sentences, and fill in the correct word for each. 1. The presidents decisions were harming the economy, but because he only listened to the ________________ in his cabinet, he ignored the evidence from the economists.

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2. The contractor made most of his profit by cheating his customers, and was _____________ for using low-grade lumber for the floorboards and beams in his houses. 3. The _____________________ ballet dancers find it hard to remember to keep their heads up and their arms in a graceful arc at all times, even during rehearsals. 4. The pond is still frozen, but the ice is so thin that even the __________________ weight of a landing bird will break it. 5. My brother doesnt even bathe regularly, but hes so _________________ hes convinced that every woman he sees would love to date him.

Answers: 1. The presidents decisions were harming the economy, but because he only listened to the sycophants in his cabinet, he ignored the evidence from the economists. The economists were trying to tell the president that he was making bad choices, but he only listened to the people who were telling him that everything he was doing was correct. A sycophant is a person who flatters people in power, hoping to get favors from them in return. 2. The contractor made most of his profit by cheating his customers, and was infamous for using low-grade lumber for the floorboards and beams in his houses. Replacing high-quality materials for low-grade lumber and plywood will give a contractor a bad reputation. Someone who is infamous has a reputation for doing bad things; they are notorious. 3. The neophyte ballet dancers find it hard to remember to keep their heads up and their arms in a graceful arc at all times, even during rehearsals. The dancers are new to the rules of formal ballet. They are neophytes. Neophyte means a beginner, someone who is newly planted in a position, a role, or a situation. 4. The pond is still frozen, but the ice is so thin that even the negligible weight of a landing bird will break it.

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Small birds with their hollow bones are very light; their weight is negligible. Negligible means small and insignificant. 5. My brother doesnt even bathe regularly, but hes so fatuous hes convinced that every woman he sees would love to date him. A person who has faults but is completely unaware of them, believing themselves to be better than everyone else, is a fatuous person. A fatuous person is foolish and silly because they dont see in themselves what everyone else sees. Even if youre a neophyte to the Ultimate Vocabulary system, once you start practicing these words daily the amount of time it takes to learn their correct usage will be negligible compared to the time you might spend using a regular dictionary or other resource. Take the time now to check off these five words that youve just learned: sycophant neophyte fatuous negligible infamous

B.

Words For Higher Powers

Whether youre talking about art or religion, culture or careers, youll find these words useful in many conversations. Practice using these words by picking the correct one to go in one of each of the following five sentences.

Test Sentences:
1. I enjoy going out to eat with my brother; his tastes are so __________________ we can go to any ethnic restaurant, and hell willingly try whatevers on the menu. 2. The sounds of pipes and drums heard faintly in the distance were a _________________ of the Scots Pride festival parade that would soon pass in front of the house. 3. Chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla make up the _______________ of flavors in Neapolitan ice cream.

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4. Speakers Corner in Londons Hyde Park has long been a traditional place for activists, missionaries, and would-be politicians to __________________ in hopes of getting followers. 5. Because the migratory routes of the snow geese go through several national parks, they come under the ________________________ of the Wildlife Department, and hunting them is severely restricted.

Answers: 1. I enjoy going out to eat with my brother; his tastes are so catholic we can go to any ethnic restaurant, and hell willingly try whatevers on the menu. My brother will try any food at least once, and he enjoys many different spices and dishes. His taste in food is catholic, meaning that its wide-ranging, comprehensive, and broad in scope. 2. The sounds of pipes and drums heard faintly in the distance were a harbinger of the Scots Pride festival parade that would soon pass in front of the house. A harbinger is a sign of things to come. If you can hear the sounds of a parade, the parade will soon be in view - if youre waiting on the parade route, that is. 3. Chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla make up the trinity of flavors in Neapolitan ice cream. Since the mid-nineteenth century, these three flavors have been put together to make Neapolitan ice cream, and if you take one of them away, its no longer Neapolitan. A set of three things that are always seen together is a trinity. 4. Speakers Corner in Londons Hyde Park has long been a traditional place for activists, missionaries, and would-be politicians to proselytize in hopes of getting followers. The speakers talk as persuasively as they can to convince people to change their opinion and agree with the speakers point of view. A person who is working hard to convert someone else to their way of thinking or believing is proselytizing.

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5. Because the migratory routes of the snow geese go through several national parks, they come under the aegis of the Wildlife Department, and hunting them is severely restricted. The birds are protected by the Wildlife Department from being hunted in the national parks. An aegis is a protection or a shield. We hope you find the words in this section to be a harbinger of better vocabulary in the future. We know that youll soon discover for yourself that youre able to use these powerful vocabulary words in your everyday conversations: catholic trinity aegis harbinger proselytize

C.

Words About Words

When Polonious asks Hamlet what hes reading, Hamlet answers Words, words, words. Lets stop talking about words, and start using them. See if you can put the appropriate word into each of the following sentences.

Test Sentences:
1. The ministers ______________ was so compelling it convinced me to go back to seminary and study religious history. 2. Living in Spain with a French father and a Swedish mother, that child was a ________________ by the time he was six years old. 3. The old fisherman was famous for his ___________________ answers to the tourists who tried to engage him in conversation. 4. The idea of think twice, speak once appears in the ___________ repeated over the generations in many countries around the world. 5. Shes so _________________________ that shes been asked to leave concert halls during performances, after the people seated around her complained to the management.

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Answers: 1. The ministers rhetoric was so compelling it convinced me to go back to seminary and study religious history. Powerful speech that persuades you to a new or different way of thinking and believing is called rhetoric. 2. Living in Spain with a French father and a Swedish mother, that child was a polyglot by the time he was six years old. Children learn languages easily, and a child who attends school in Spanish and speaks French and Swedish with his parents will quickly know all three languages fluently. A polyglot is someone who is fluent in several languages. 3. The old fisherman was famous for his laconic answers to the tourists who tried to engage him in conversation. The tourists tried to have a conversation with the fisherman, but he gave them short answers to their questions, and didnt volunteer any information. Someone who uses the minimum number of words is laconic though to others, they might also appear somewhat rude. 4. The idea of think twice, speak once appears in the saws repeated over the generations in many countries around the world. In Turkey, they say Having two ears and one tongue, we should listen twice as much as we speak. A Middle Eastern saying is Listen a hundred times; speak once. These sayings are saws; well-known proverbs that have a message that stays true over the years. 5. Shes so loquacious that shes been asked to leave concert halls during performances, after the people seated around her complained to the management. This person just cant stop talking, even when there are performers on the stage playing beautiful music. Thats the meaning of loquacious talkative, chatty, a non-stop conversationalist.

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Mark Twain said The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug. Bring some power to your next conversation with one of the five words youve just learned: rhetoric loquacious saw polyglot laconic

D.

Words About Things That Are Difficult To Define

To help you use these Ultimate Vocabulary words effectively in your future, here are five practice sentences with one of the target words left out in each. Fill in the correct word in each sentence.

Test Sentences:
1. That politicians platform is so _____________________ that Im not sure what legislation he does or doesnt support. 2. When you vote for a politician, youre giving ____________________ approval for the way they represent your interests. 3. Hell never get elected; hes got great ideas but hes so __________________ about presenting them that his opponents all seem more capable than he is. 4. Many autobiographies of famous movie stars were actually written by other people, even though the stars are the ______________ authors of the books. 5. She did years of research to prove her ____________________ that the dissolved minerals in seawater can be linked to algae blooms around the world.

Answers: 1. That politicians platform is so nebulous that Im not sure what legislation he does or doesnt support.

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It was impossible to tell where the politician stood on important matters because his speeches were so vague and hard to pin down. Nebulous means vague, hazy, not well defined. 2. When you vote for a politician, youre giving implicit approval for the way they represent your interests. Even if you only have a nebulous idea of what sort of policies a person in government supports, your vote for that person implies that you also support those policies. Implicit means something that is implied indirectly. In this example, youre not necessarily saying out loud that you agree with certain policies, but your vote speaks for you, by allowing the government to continue them. 3. Hell never get elected; hes got great ideas but hes so diffident about presenting them that his opponents all seem more capable than he is. Someone who is diffident is shy and unwilling to speak up, so its easy for other people with louder voices and stronger presentations to completely overwhelm them. Diffident means lacking self-confidence and refers to a timid person, or one who is overly modest. 4. Many autobiographies of famous movie stars were actually written by other people, even though the stars are the putative authors of the books WIth so many books being written by ghostwriters, its hard to tell sometimes if the name of the author on the cover is really the name of the person who wrote it. But if a movie star claims to have written their own book, well accept what they say, even though we might not believe it. Putative means commonly accepted as true, but without real reason. 5. Although she proposed the idea at a scientific conference a decade ago, she did years of research to prove her hypothesis that the dissolved minerals in seawater can be linked to algae blooms around the world. At first, she had no proof that minerals in seawater caused algae bloom, but she thought it was possible, and presented it as a hypothesis as a topic for discussion at the conference. A hypothesis is something that is accepted as true, in order to make more exploration and discussion possible. 17

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Our hypothesis is that the more you practice these Ultimate Vocabulary words, the more comfortable youll be in using them. You might think the meanings of some of the words are nebulous and hard to define, but dont be diffident about using them in conversation right away. Your powerful new words are: diffident nebulous implicit putative hypothesis

E.

Words That Show Their Origins

Heres some food for thought: the more you practice these words, the easier it will be to use them in conversations. Fill in the blanks in these five sentences with the correct word.

Test Sentences:
1. The spread of on-line communication and increased global access to the internet has given rise to many _____________________ like emoticon. 2. That man must be very _________________; hes there every day the library is open, reading books on a wide range of topics. 3. The food advisory board called for an ______________________ panel to study the effect of the newest artificial sweeteners before they are released for public use. 4. When books are written as a series, its important to read them in the right order to keep the _________________ straight. 5. Because the rules were unclear on that point, rather than merely interpreting the legal code, the judges became _________________ lawmakers when reaching a decision.

Answers: 1. The spread of on-line communication and increased global access to the internet has given rise to many neologisms like emoticon. A new way of communicating leads to new words to describe it. Emoticon is a new word, a neologism, that stands for emotional icon. 18

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2. That man must be very erudite; hes there every day the library is open, reading books on a wide range of topics. Someone who has read a great many books and learned from them is erudite. 3. The food advisory board called for an ad hoc panel to study the effect of the newest artificial sweeteners before they are released for public use. When a new product is proposed for sale, its often tested for safety by a panel that is put together for that specific purpose. Ad hoc means for that purpose. 4. When books are written as a series, its important to read them in the right order to keep the chronology straight. If you read the third book in a series before you read the first book, you might not understand the plot, if it refers back to things that happened in the first two books. Most books describe a sequence of events, or a chronology. Another word for chronology is timeline. 5. Because the rules were unclear on that point, rather than merely interpreting the legal code, the judges became de facto lawmakers when reaching a decision. A judge is not supposed to create laws, but uphold them. However, in this situation, the law itself was unclear, and the judges had to decide on the meaning of the rule by themselves, and therefore created a new law by doing so. In reality, the judges became lawmakers. De facto means in reality or in practice. Whether the words are old or new, youll benefit by knowing how to use them in conversation. Youll sound quite erudite as you use these five Ultimate Vocabulary words: chronology ad hoc neologism de facto erudite

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F. Words Necessary For Developing Your Vocabulary
Weve given you a lot to chew on with this set of words. And weve cooked up this set of five sentences for you to practice using each of these powerful vocabulary words. See if you can put each word in its proper place.

Test Sentences:
1. The house painters cleaned the elaborate molding around the windows with ________________ care before starting to paint. 2. We cant contact these people who applied for the job, because they havent followed the instructions to include the _____________ references and telephone numbers in their applications. 3. The artist was known for her __________________ use of color in her paintings. 4. He made a _________________ choice of team members when he created his committee, trying to pick one person from each department to keep a balance between management and production. 5. Thats an interesting observation, but its not really ___________________ to the discussion; can we keep on topic, please?

Answers: 1. The house painters cleaned the elaborate molding around the windows with assiduous care before starting to paint. The plaster molding around the windows was easily damaged, so the painters were very careful when they were cleaning it. Assiduous means with care and persistent effort. 2. We cant contact these people who applied for the job, because they havent followed the instructions to include the requisite references and telephone numbers in their applications. The instructions said to list references and telephone numbers, and the applicants did not do what was necessary. Requisite means essential, necessary, or indispensable.

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3. The artist was known for her adroit use of color in her paintings. This artist is a very skillful painter. Adroit means skillful or adept, making the best possible choice. You could also have chosen the word judicious in this case, if what you meant to say was that the artist only used as much color as was necessary to achieve the effect she wanted. 4. He made a judicious choice of team members when he created his committee, trying to pick one person from each department to keep a balance between management and production. He used good judgment and common sense when making his committee selections, therefore he was judicious in his selections. However, you could also have used the word adroit here, if you wanted to imply that he was very skilled in making his selection of team members. 5. Thats an interesting observation, but its not really pertinent to the discussion; can we keep on topic, please? If youre in the middle of a conversation, and someone says something that has no relevance to what youve been talking about, what they said was not pertinent to the conversation. Pertinent means relevant or logically connected.

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With assiduous study, youll soon have the requisite knowledge of these Ultimate Vocabulary words and will be adroit at including them at pertinent places in your conversations with other people. The five words youve learned in this section are: judicious adroit pertinent requisite assiduous

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A.

Words for the Good Times

We at Ultimate Vocabulary want to make sure youre comfortable using these powerful words in context, no matter where you are. So lets go to a party! You might use these next five words to describe the scene when a large group of people are having a good time: ribald, cacophony, milieu, eclectic, plethora.

Your words for good times in a large group of people explained


The first word well look at is ribald. This adjective means vulgar, but in a humorous way. It can be applied to off-color jokes, or to the person who tells them. Another word for ribald is bawdy. Example: The stand-up comic was known for his ribald jokes about his girlfriend. If the jokes are a little too vulgar or insulting, the audience might respond with a cacophony of boos and catcalls. Cacophony means a loud confusion of sound, where the level or type of noise or both are unpleasant. Usually there are so many different sounds at once that no single part is easy to distinguish. Example: I dont really like most modern jazz; all I hear is a cacophony of notes with no real melody or rhythm. A nightclub is one milieu where you might hear a cacophony of sounds as well as ribald jokes. Milieu means environment or surroundings. This word refers to both physical and metaphysical space. Here are two examples: Example 1: A rose garden is the perfect milieu for a wedding. Example 2: Her years in the political milieu have made her comfortable with people in all walks of life. Some people are only comfortable around people who are very similar, while others prefer a more eclectic group of friends. Eclectic means from a variety of sources. If youre at a nightclub with a very creative DJ, youll hear an eclectic blend of music.

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Example: Her wardrobe was an eclectic mix of vintage lace and 70s polyester, and a different pair of shoes for every day of the year. 365 pairs of shoes is more than most people usually own its a plethora of shoes. Plethora means more than enough. It refers to a large number in general, but specifically means an amount in excess of what is necessary. Example: There was a plethora of choices at the dessert table; there were sixteen different pies, and too many tarts and confections to count.

B.

Words in a Calm Environment

If learning all of these new vocabulary words has you feeling nervous and tense, dont worry. This section covers five words that will calm you down: accord, pragmatic, transcend, panacea, and catharsis.

Your words in a calm environment explained


We believe that learning how to use these Ultimate Vocabulary words in daily conversation will give your career a boost. You must agree, because youre listening to this CD. So we both agree: we are in accord. Accord means agreement or harmony. This noun can refer to specific agreement on an issue, or a general like-mindedness. Example: Faced with a potentially devastating flood risk, the city officials quickly reached an accord on which riverbanks needed the most reinforcement. In larger cities, the officials often each represent their own districts, and argue about issues while trying to get the most benefit for their communities. But in a crisis situation, political fights are set aside for a more pragmatic policy of working together. Pragmatic means realistic or practical. Someone who is pragmatic is down-to-earth, and focuses on the essentials of a problem without getting bogged down in unnecessary detail. Example: Realizing that not all of the librarys books could be moved to the new facility, the libraries took the pragmatic approach of first moving only the books that had been checked out in the last five years.

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Some librarians would argue that the older, perhaps more valuable books should be first on the list. Others might say that the best thing to do would be to expand the books on tape collection, because more people are listening to books or downloading them. There might not be a panacea for all of the problems a modern library faces. A panacea is a solution or remedy, something that cures all problems. Example: Some people say that gene therapy and designer drugs are the panacea that will solve the problem of AIDS and other diseases. In order to get a true understanding of a problem like the AIDS crisis, you need to be able to transcend the political and ideological issues that surround it. To transcend means to rise above or go beyond. You might have heard of transcendental meditation, where people try to go outside of their earthbound minds and become a part of a larger consciousness. To transcend means to be able to cross boundaries, or remove them by rising above them.

Example: Yo-Yo Mas Silk Road project transcends cultural boundaries by unifying people through their shared musical history. Shared experience can also unify people, especially if the event is stressful or frightening. Even watching the event second-hand can cause us to experience the same strong emotions. We can get so wrapped up in a movie about doomed lovers that we feel their sadness like its our own. And if someones in their own broken relationship, watching the movie might bring on all of the tears theyve been keeping inside. Thats a catharsis a release of emotions that is triggered by a vicarious experience of something that someone else is going through, but that touches you in some way as well. Example: The therapist would show the ex-soldiers movies like Platoon and In Country, hoping to bring on a catharsis that would help them work through their experiences in combat.

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C. Interesting Words Beginning with U
This section is all about U words that begin with the letter U, that is: unctuous, unconscionable, uniform, ubiquitous, utilitarian.

Your interesting words beginning with u explained


If you read a lot of cooking magazines, you might find a food described as having an unctuous mouth feel or unctuous texture. It means that the food coats the tongue with a smooth, almost oily layer of flavor. When the word applies to food, its a good thing. Its not a good thing when applied to a person. Someone with a smooth, oily manner is usually not to be trusted. To speak in an unctuous fashion means to be overly but insincerely polite and flattering or ingratiating. You might call a person who speaks like that smarmy. Example: The shop clerk tried to make more sales with his unctuous treatment of the customers, but all except the most fatuous saw right through him. Some people will stop at nothing to get what they want, whether its a record sales day or a position of power. They can justify the most unconscionable acts by telling themselves its for the greater good. Unconscionable means, literally, without a conscience, is lacking in a moral sense. A synonym for unconscionable is unscrupulous. Example: The thief showed an unconscionable lack of feeling when he took not only jewelry but also old family photographs from the people at the nursing home. People who work at a nursing home often wear uniforms that make them look alike. Thats what uniform means, after all: the same, without variation. A well-mixed cake batter has a uniform consistency there are no lumps in it, all ingredients are blended together, and a spoonful taken from anywhere in the bowl will be exactly like any other. Example: Those coffee shops do well because they train their servers to make the coffee drinks to a uniform level of quality, no matter where the store is located. You know the coffee shops we mean. Theyre everywhere: in airports, on street corners, in shopping centers, in libraries and museums. Theyre ubiquitous. Ubiquitous means omnipresent or pervasive; in other words, found everywhere.

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Example: The advertisements for that new car are ubiquitous; I even saw one in the community centers monthly flyer. It seems like every new car that comes out has some fancy feature added to it, like a satellite radio system or six extra cup-holders. Do they even make cheap utilitarian cars any more? Utilitarian means practical and functional, without anything that doesnt contribute to that functionality. Six extra cup-holders in a car will not make the car run more smoothly. Example: IKEA is famous for its selection of utilitarian home furnishings, like unfinished wood shelving you assemble at home yourself.

D.

Words That Define Attitude

Were going to extremes with this set of four words that describe opposites, and one word thats right in the middle. The words are adamant, compliant, intransigent, amenable, and equitable.

Your words that define attitude explained


Our first word is adamant, meaning inflexible or unyielding. Someone who is determined and will not move from their position or change their opinion is adamant. Example: The head of the school was adamant in his belief that boys and girls should eat meals at separate tables. In contrast to someone who remains adamant, a person who is compliant will allow their position to change under pressure from others. Compliant means willing to comply. Synonyms of compliant are submissive and yielding. Example: The new worker was so afraid of losing his job that he was compliant even with the supervisors most outrageous demands.

Back to the other end of the spectrum, we have the word intransigent, meaning stubborn and unwilling to compromise. Its similar to adamant, but has the additional

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sense that the person is perhaps being inflexible just to be stubborn or contrary, and not for any firmly-held belief. Example: Although Jamie had already won the arguments over child custody and support payments, she remained intransigent in her insistence that her ex-husband also pay for all of the school uniforms. If youre in a legal battle, its helpful if both sides can make some compromises to bring the matter to a resolution. If youre willing to compromise, youre amenable. Amenable means open to persuasion. It doesnt necessarily mean you change your opinion about something, but that youre willing to go along with the other person to avoid conflict, reach a conclusion, or in some other way keep things moving forward. Example: There are many movies Id like to see this weekend, but Im amenable to any suggestions or preferences you might have. After all that swinging from one extreme to the other, lets finish with a word thats right in the middle. Equitable means fair, just, and impartial. Example: The judge ruled that the owners of the failed business had to make an equitable division of the remaining money in the bank account.

E.

Words Describing the Nature of Things

The five words in this section can be used to describe the nature of things: where they are, what they are, and how they relate to each other. These words are comprise, circumscribe, contiguous, proliferate, and latent.

Your words describing the nature of things explained


When talking about the nature of something, one of the first questions might be what is it made of? A car, for example, is made of many different parts and pieces, like the wheels and engine. We can say a car is comprised of these parts. To comprise means to be made of, to contain, or to include. Example: The panel will comprise members of each university department.

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In the previous example, the panel will be made up of people from within the university system, but no members of the public. The panel is circumscribed and allows academic participants only. To circumscribe means to limit or restrict. Its literal meaning is to draw a line around that is, to create a boundary containing one thing inside and keeping others out. Example: The novices activities were very circumscribed during the first two weeks of their enrolment, during which they were allowed no contact with the outside world. A boundary or restriction keeps things apart. When there are no boundaries, those things can be connected. Contiguous means connected, touching, or adjacent, without any break. Example: Although the atlas shows lines dividing the countries at their borders, when youre walking across the land, its a contiguous whole, and the borders seem irrelevant. Borders serve to define spaces, and to keep things in or out. But some things are harder to contain, like ideas, or diseases, or invasive species of plants or animals. They proliferate without paying any attention to the borders we create between our countries. To proliferate means to spread rapidly, or to increase. Example: The wild rabbit was introduced into Australia in the 1850s to provide hunting sport, but no-one expected the population to proliferate as much as it did, and rabbits quickly became pests in many areas of the country. When something proliferates, its often quite obvious. By contrast, something latent is hidden. It exists, but is concealed. For example, an illness can be latent until something triggers it. One type of diabetes can exist without harm unless a virus affects the persons pancreas, and the latent disease becomes active. Latent means present but hidden, ready to come out of hiding if the circumstances are right. Example: We didnt realize Jane was so musical until a neighbor gave us their old piano; her latent talent emerged once she started playing, and now shes a soloist with the local orchestra.

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F. Inspiring Words
The five words in this section might inspire you to look ahead and aspire to reach your goals. The words are propitious, virtuoso, auspicious, zenith, and prestigious.

Your inspiring words explained


All the signs point towards your success now that youre learning how to use these Ultimate Vocabulary words. And the first two words in this section refer to favorable circumstances: auspicious and propitious. They both mean favorable, advantageous, boding well, a good omen. Usually, youll use auspicious when you want to communicate the sense that the advantage or good fortune is due to an outside influence. The Latin root originally referred to divination, the art of reading signs in the natural world to decipher the will of the gods. Example: It seemed auspicious that all of the traffic lights were green as she drove to her job interview. Propitious has the same root as propel and the same meaning of moving forward. It also refers to a favorable or advantageous situation. Something that is propitious moves you forward toward your goals; something auspicious smoothes the path in front of you. Example: The captain of the Australian yacht took advantage of the propitious winds to increase his lead in the race. The Americas Cup yacht race is the most prestigious sailing event in the world. Prestigious means having a good reputation and held in high esteem. The word also has the meaning of something that has influence because of its high position, and that the influence and esteem will spread to those who are connected to it. Example: Many students apply to prestigious universities such as Harvard or Yale so that they will have an impressive curriculum vitae to show future employers. Your curriculum vitae is place to list your skills and accomplishments. Someone who is highly skilled at something is called a virtuoso. This word is often used to refer to artists and musicians, but there are virtuoso computer programmers and chefs as well. Youre considered a virtuoso if you have mastered a skill beyond mere capability and into the realm of brilliance. Youre a whiz, a genius, a wizard, a superstar.

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Example: Virtuoso violinist Itzhak Perlman is known for his performances of the Brahms trio sonatas. Itzhak Perlman is still active in performance and teaching, and has not reached the zenith of his career. A zenith is the highest point. If youre speaking of something measured in terms of time, its the culmination of that timeline. Youll also hear the word used in astronomy: the zenith is the point directly above any particular location on Earth, from the perspective of someone standing on the ground looking straight overhead. Example: Investment in internet start-ups during the dot-com craze reached its zenith in the late 1990s, when a new business was going public every few days.

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Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt

A.

Words for the Good Times

Test Sentences
Are you ready to rock n roll with your new vocabulary words? Listen to these five sentences, and fill in the correct word in each space. 1. I tried to turn down the sound on the television, but this new remote has a ______________ of buttons, and I couldnt find the volume control. 2. She had an ___________________ collection of art prints hanging on her walls, including reproductions of the Mona Lisa and several works by Jackson Pollock. 3. I enjoy taking pictures of people, and someplace like a shopping center is a perfect _________________ for candid photographs. 4. The young musicians were very enthusiastic, but their attempt at playing Mozarts Eine Kleine Nachtmusik only resulted in _______________. 5. Make sure that the tour guide you hire to lead the next trip isnt as ______________ as the last one; were going to be advertising the trip as a family vacation opportunity.

Answers: 1. I tried to turn down the sound on the television, but this new remote has a plethora of buttons, and I couldnt find the volume control There were so many buttons that I couldnt tell which ones did what. Plethora means an excess of something, more than is necessary to do the job. 2. Elsa had an eclectic collection of art prints hanging on her walls, including reproductions of the Mona Lisa and several works by Jackson Pollock. Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa in the 16 century in Italy; Jackson Pollocks work was famous four hundred years later. These artists have very different styles, and Elsa has collected their works and others from around the
th

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world. Her collection is eclectic that is, its a variety of paintings from many sources. Eclectic means having a mix or variety of things. 3. I enjoy taking pictures of people, and someplace like a shopping center is a perfect milieu to for candid photographs. In a shopping center, youll be surrounded by many different people, and its easy to take candid photographs because most people will be too occupied with their errands to notice their surroundings. A milieu is an environment or the surroundings. 4. The young musicians were very enthusiastic, but their attempt at playing Mozarts Eine Kleine Nachtmusik only resulted in cacophony. The children had only been playing their instruments for a few years, and the music was too difficult for them to play well. They werent playing in tune, and they werent playing together, so all they were doing was making a loud and unpleasant noise. A cacophony is an unpleasant confusion of sound. 5. Make sure that the tour guide you hire to lead the next trip isnt as ribald as the last one; were going to be advertising the trip as a family vacation opportunity. Its probably not appropriate for a tour guide to make vulgar jokes in front of young children. Ribald means bawdy, off-color, humorously vulgar. Youll have a plethora of opportunities to use your new vocabulary words, no matter what milieu you find yourself in. We hope youve enjoyed learning this eclectic set of five Ultimate Vocabulary words: plethora ribald cacophony eclectic milieu

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B. Words in a Calm Environment

Test Sentences
Expanding your vocabulary will help you win any war of words. Get ready to fight for the right answer now, and fill in the correct word in each sentence. 1. Her background in history helped her ________________ the local politics and focus on solving the underlying ethnic issues that had existed for centuries. 2. Many people dont like to exercise and eat healthy foods; instead, they buy diet books and pills, hoping to find a _________________ for their weight problem. 3. Officials from the space programs in China, Russia, and the U.S. are trying to come to an _______________ on the priorities for the next phase of the International Space Station. 4. I started crying while watching Atonement, a ______________ that helped relieve some of the pain I felt when my girlfriend left me. 5. He doesnt spend time trying to get exotic flowers to blossom; hes a _______________ gardener who focuses on growing fruits and vegetables suited to the climate where he lives.

Answers: 1. Her background in history helped her transcend the local politics and focus on solving the underlying ethnic issues that had existed for centuries. Local politics created barriers between people that hid the deeper problems of long-standing ethnic tension and conflict. She was able to rise above those barriers because of her understanding of the regions history. Transcend means to rise above, or go beyond. 2. Many people dont like to exercise and eat healthy foods; instead, they buy diet books and pills, hoping to find a panacea for their weight problem. It would be so much easier if we could eat whatever we want, then take a pill to keep us in perfect health and cure all of our health problems. A panacea is a cure-all or remedy.

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3. Officials from the space programs in China, Russian, and the U.S. are trying to come to an accord on the priorities for the next phase of the International Space Station. Every country involved in a big project like the ISS will have its own list of priorities, but in order to make progress, the countries will have to agree on some things. An accord is an agreement or state of harmony. 4. I started crying while watching Atonement, a catharsis that helped relieve some of the pain I felt when my girlfriend left me. Watching the emotional crises of the people in the movie made me feel the same emotions, and that helped me release the tension I was feeling about my own emotional pain. A catharsis is a release of tension or strong emotions through a vicarious experience, such as watching a movie where people are going through similar emotions. 5. He doesnt spend time trying to get exotic flowers to blossom; hes a pragmatic gardener who focuses on growing fruits and vegetables suited to the climate where he lives. If you live in Norway, its not practical to spend all of your time trying to get banana trees to grow in your garden. Pragmatic means practical, realistic, and down-toearth.

Using these Ultimate Vocabulary words correctly in context will help you transcend any barriers to your advancement, both personally and professionally. While an expanded vocabulary isnt a panacea for all of your problems, we hope youre planning to practice the five new words you just learned: catharsis panacea accord transcend pragmatic

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C. Interesting Words Beginning with U

Test Sentences:
Are you hungry to learn more words and expand your vocabulary? Test your skills with these five sentences, and fill in the missing word in each. 1. Cruise ships often employ professional escorts to dance with the single guests, but the best escorts know they dont have to always ply the guests with __________________ flattery. 2. Stealing money from the charity box at the local church is an ______________ act. 3. In their matching outfits and with their hair styled the same way, the triplets confused people with their _______________ appearance, as it was hard to tell which child was which. 4. In this era of cheap and easy-to-use communication equipment, the cell phone is _____________, found in small villages in India as well as corporate boardrooms in London. 5. She changes jobs and cities so often that she has eliminated everything but the most ______________ of household items from her belongings. Answers: 1. Cruise ships often employ professional escorts to dance with the single guests, but the best escorts know they dont have to always ply the guests with unctuous flattery. The escorts want to make sure that the guests feel good about themselves, but theres a difference between complimenting someones hairstyle or dress, and insisting that theyre absolutely the most beautiful woman in the room. Unctuous means ingratiating, fulsome, smarmy; flattery thats over the top and delivered with a too-smooth manner that makes it seem insincere. 2. Stealing money from the charity box at the local church is an unconscionable act. Its unscrupulous to steal from people who have even less than you do not that its right to steal from anyone, mind you! Unconscionable means lacking in morals, or unscrupulous.

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3. In their matching outfits and with their hair styled the same way, the triplets confused people with their uniform appearance, as it was hard to tell which child was which. Identical twins or triplets sometimes enjoy dressing and acting the same way, to keep people guessing which is which. Uniform means the same, without variation. 4. In this era of cheap and easy-to-use communication equipment, the cell phone is ubiquitous, found in small villages in India as well as corporate boardrooms in London. There are cell phones in use all over the world, and can be found even in the most remote locations, thanks to satellite technology. Something that is found everywhere is ubiquitous. 5. She changes jobs and cities so often that she has eliminated everything but the most utilitarian of household items from her belongings. A person who moves house a lot probably doesnt want to be bothered with a lot of extra things that they dont use very often. Utilitarian means practical and functional, not just for show. Were done with this section on words that start with U and we hope U will enjoy using these words in your next conversation: unctuous unconscionable uniform ubiquitous utilitarian

D.

Words That Define Attitude

Test Sentences:
By practicing these vocabulary words, youll find using them to be smooth sailing. Test your skills now by filling in the right word in each sentence.

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1. The director is very easy-going; Im sure hell be ________________ to any changes you need to make in the program. 2. Strict vegetarians are _________________ in their refusal to eat any meat, though some will accept eggs and dairy products, since these are produced without killing the animals involved. 3. Theres only one television in the house, but my roommates and I looked at the program listings and came up with an _________________ schedule that lets us all watch our favorite shows. 4. Children can be stubborn, but in general theyre used to taking direction from adults, and will be ____________________ and do what you say. 5. Even though its getting cold outside, some students are ______________ about complying with the dress code and wont give up their shorts and t-shirts.

Answers: 1. The director is very easy-going; Im sure hell be amenable to any changes you need to make in the program. An easy-going person is willing to go along with things. Amenable means open to persuasion, willing to go along. 2. Strict vegetarians are adamant in their refusal to eat any meat, though some will accept eggs and dairy products, since these are produced without killing the animals involved. Whether its for moral, religious, or health reasons, a strict vegetarian is determined to avoid meat. Someone who is determined, inflexible, and unyielding on a point is adamant. If its your personal opinion that vegetarianism is silly and pointless, you might also think that such a person is being intransigent in their refusal to eat meat. 3. Theres only one television in the house, but my roommates and I looked at the program listings and came up with an equitable schedule that lets us all watch our favorite shows.

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When resources are limited, its sometimes difficult to make sure everyone gets their fair share. Equitable means fair and just, something thats decided impartially to be of benefit to all. 4. Children can be stubborn, but in general theyre used to taking direction from adults, and we be compliant and do what you say. Compliant means submissive and yielding, and willing to comply. 5. Even though its getting cold outside, some students are intransigent about complying with the dress code and wont give up their shorts and t-shirts. People who continue to wear short dresses and sleeveless shirts when the weathers cold and rainy are probably pretty stubborn. Intransigent means stubborn and unwilling to compromise. Were adamant in our belief that if youre amenable to making these changes in your vocabulary, youll see an improvement in your communication skills in short order. Practice using these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words in your next conversation: intransigent compliant equitable adamant amenable

E.

Words Describing the Nature of Things

Test Sentences:
Practice these new vocabulary words by fitting them into the correct spots in the next five sentences. 1. Cirque du Soleil is a troupe _________________ of acrobats, contortionists, and clowns, but it doesnt have any acts involving trained animals like elephants or horses. 2. When my son gets into trouble at school, I punish him by ___________________ his activities and do not let him watch television or use the computer for games.

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3. The United States is made up of forty-eight ___________________ states and two others that are not connected: Alaska and Hawaii. 4. Mint plants are very invasive; if you want to have some in your garden, keep them in a container or they will _________________ into every available space. 5. When Im at home alone, I often succumb to my _______________ tendency towards laziness, and dont do the dishes for days.

Answers: 1. Cirque du Soleil is a troupe comprised of acrobats, contortionists, and clowns, but it doesnt have any acts involving trained animals like elephants or horses. The circus troupe contains a variety of performers. To comprise means to contain or include, to consist of or be made of. 2. When my son gets into trouble at school, I punish him by circumscribing his activities and do not let him watch television or use the computer for games. My son is restricted, or limited, in what he can do. To circumscribe means to limit or restrict, or to place a boundary around something. 3. The United States is made up of forty-eight contiguous states and two others that are not connected: Alaska and Hawaii. The lower 48, as the residents of Alaska call them, are states that are all connected, with at least one border touching another state. When things are connected and touching, they are contiguous. 4. Mint plants are very invasive; if you want to have some in your garden, keep them in a container or they will proliferate into every available space. Mint spreads rapidly by sending out underground shoots in all directions. Proliferate means to increase or spread rapidly. 5. When Im at home alone, I often succumb to my latent tendency towards laziness, and dont do the dishes for days.

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When Im living with a roommate, I do my best to keep the house clean and share the dishwashing duties, but left to myself, Im most likely to put off such chores. I can fight the tendency to laziness if theres someone else in the house, but its always there. Something that is present but hidden is latent it exists, but is kept concealed. Bring out your latent vocabulary skills by using these powerful vocabulary words in daily conversation: comprise circumscribe contiguous proliferate latent

F.

Inspiring Words

Test Sentences:
Practicing these Ultimate Vocabulary words every day is a propitious first step in gaining confidence in using them in context. Before you know it, youll be a virtuoso of vocabulary. But first, test your skills by filling in the correct word in each sentence. 1. It was ____________________ that this apartments former tenants decided to move out just after I accepted a new job in this city; I dont think I could have found a nicer spot to live. 2. She felt that getting the fourth Michelin star was the ______________ of her career as a chef, and decided to close her restaurant the next year, rather than risking a slide backwards in ratings. 3. Michael hired a lawyer from a very ________________ firm, because he wants to make sure that he wins this case. 4. Having the exchange rates for the U.S. dollar go down against European currencies has been ___________ for Londoners who want to pick up high-fashion shoes and clothes at bargain prices. 5. Pat makes some of the best cheese Ive ever tasted shes a ______________ with milk and cultures.

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Answers: 1. It was auspicious that this apartments former tenants decided to move out on the same day I accepted a new job in this city; I dont think I could have found a nicer spot to live. A lucky coincidence made the apartment available just as I needed a new place to live. Something that is fortunate and favorable, that is a good omen, is auspicious, especially if it comes by through luck or chance. 2. She felt that getting the fourth Michelin star was the zenith of her career as a chef, and decided to close her restaurant the next year, rather than risking a slide backwards in ratings. Four Michelin stars is just about the best a restaurant can hope for, and this chef thought that it was better to end on a high note than take the chance that one of the stars might be taken away in the future. A zenith is the highest point, peak, or culmination of events. 3. Michael hired a lawyer from a very prestigious firm, because he wants to make sure that he wins this case. The firm has an excellent reputation, and is highly esteemed. Prestigious means esteemed, having a good reputation, and wielding influence because of that reputation. 4. Having the exchange rates for the U.S. dollar go down against European currencies has been propitious for Londoners who want to pick up high-fashion shoes and clothes at bargain prices. The fall of the dollar has made the purchasing power of the British pound much stronger, and Londoners are flying to New York on weekend shopping sprees. Propitious means advantageous, favorable, leading to success. 5. Pat makes some of the best cheese Ive ever tasted shes a virtuoso with milk and cultures.

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Pat knows how to expertly mix cultures and age cheeses, and her cheeses are much better than most of the ones on the market these days. A virtuoso is a master at her craft. You havent reached the zenith of your vocabulary skills yet! Keep moving higher by using these powerful words in your conversations: virtuoso propitious zenith prestigious auspicious

Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 4 Workbook

Confidence-In-Context

A. Words about Success and Achievement


This block of five words is designed to inspire you to greater vocabulary-building heights by giving you words that can be used to describe success and achievement in your life: catalyst, lucrative, proficient, opulent, munificent.

Your success and achievement words explained


Your decision to study these ultimate vocabulary words will bring a change in the way you communicate. Something that brings about change by its mere presence is a catalyst. In general, the word refers to change for the better. The catalytic converter on your car transforms harmful emissions into non-toxic forms; a new CEO can be the catalyst for change in a corporation. Example: The new lead singer for the Blackbirds was the catalyst the band needed to take their music from pretty to powerful and make them a worldwide sensation. When change leads to success, success can often bring financial rewards. When your activity brings in a significant amount of money, its described as lucrative. This word comes from the Latin lucrum, or profit. Example: Anyone who has a computer and a digital camera can set up a shop on eBay, though not everyone can turn online resale into a lucrative career. In general, it does take some skill to make a lot of money, and its easier the better you are at your job. If youre good at doing something, youre proficient in it. Proficient means skilled or practiced. While its a positive word, its not the most positive that is, proficient doesnt necessarily mean expert. Being proficient in something means that youre able to do it well enough to be successful, but there might be many other people who can do it better than you can. Example: She was an excellent legal assistant, as proficient at transcription as she was at preparing documents for court and interviewing clients. For some people, the purpose of seeking a lucrative career is to accumulate a fortune and then spend it buying the biggest and best houses, jewelry, and clothing they can find. These people have opulent lifestyles: extravagant, fancy and luxurious are synonyms for opulent and can describe what they wear as well as the parties they throw. Opulence is richness taken almost to excess, like a dressing gown made of cashmere, trimmed with fur, and embroidered with gold thread.

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Example: The hotels honeymoon suite is lavishly decorated with framed artwork and crystal chandeliers, and the bed is topped with an opulent cover of plush velvet and silk. Some people whove made a lot of money enjoy spending it on others, and give lavish gifts to their friends and family. These people are munificent their gifts, of money or goods, are more than usually generous. Example: I didnt think Id be able to pay for my university education, but a munificent benefactor set up a scholarship that funded all four years of school.

B. Words for reacting to or acting in a situation


Facilitate, delegate, corroborate, exonerate, capitulate it must be something we ate that led to the choice of words in this section. All of these words are verbs that describe different ways of acting in or reacting to a situation.

Your action words explained


The first word, facilitate, means to make simple or easy. Youre probably most familiar with it in a business setting, where one person may facilitate a meeting or conference. By facilitating the meeting, this person will deal with any problems and solve them this makes things simpler for the rest of the group. A facilitator often acts as an intermediary between two or more people who have different views on an issue, helping them come to agreement this makes their discussion easier. In general, to facilitate means to smooth things along, to make them easier to do, and to get rid of obstacles that prevent them from happening. Example: By sending the boys out to pick up all of the sticks and debris off of the grass, you will facilitate the process of mowing the lawn. When you send the boys out to clean up the lawn, youre delegating some of the yard work to them. Delegate means to assign responsibility to someone else. This responsibility could be to pick up sticks, or to represent a country at an international political meeting. Delegate is a verb, but can also be a noun that refers to the person to whom the responsibility is assigned. Example: I was feeling overwhelmed by the amount of work left to do on the project, but once I was able to delegate the filing and copying to my assistant, I made more progress. Were sure youll agree that being able to get rid of necessary but time-consuming tasks makes your job easier. In fact, you may have examples from your own work life that will corroborate this. Corroborate means to confirm or support, often using additional evidence or examples.

Confidence-In-Context
Example: The new witness for the defence was able to corroborate the defendants claim that he was out of the country when the murder was committed. If you are accused of a crime, but later found innocent, you are exonerated, or freed from, the criminal charges. Exonerate comes from the Latin roots ex- meaning without and onus meaning burden, thus exonerate, or without the burden. Being accused of a crime, or blamed for something, is a weighty burden, especially if you did not do it. Some synonyms of exonerate are acquit and absolve. Example: After the new witness testimony was taken into consideration, the judge said he had no choice but to exonerate the defendant from the murder charge. Its important to make sure that witnesses are telling the truth in legal trials. If a lawyer suspects that one is lying, he may spend hours questioning that witness, putting pressure on them to change their story. In the end, the witness might just give up and tell the truth. To give up, or to stop resisting pressure, is to capitulate. Example: I dont believe in spoiling children, but my niece asked for a new skateboard so many times that I finally had to capitulate and buy her one.

C. Words for defining a concept


Sometimes things arent always as they seem. For example, this next group of five words might appear to be confusing or strange, but dont worry that only applies to the concepts they define. The five ultimate vocabulary words in this section are analogous, anomaly, dichotomy, fallacious, and verisimilitude.

Your words for defining a concept explained


Youre using your brain to learn these words, making connections between ideas and storing information for later retrieval. Sounds like a computer, doesnt it? In many ways, your brain and a computer are very similar. In other words, a brain is analogous to a computer. Theyre not the same, but for the purposes of this example comparing how they store and process information theyre enough alike to be able to make the comparison. Example: The way a helicopters vanes can tilt in any direction is analogous to wing mobility in dragonflies and other insects. Dragonflies have such specialized wings that they can actually fly backwards. In general, if youre watching something flying and its going backwards instead of forwards, youd probably think that was pretty unusual. In fact, you might say it was an anomaly. Anomaly is a noun meaning something out of the ordinary, unusual, and strange.

Confidence-In-Context
Example: At the harvest fair, we saw chickens, cows, and horses, but the two-headed goat in the livestock tent was an anomaly we werent expecting. Something that is split into two, where each separate part has nothing in common with the other, is a dichotomy. An example from biology is the division of the animal kingdom into vertebrates and invertebrates. Together, they make up all animal life on the planet, but since some have backbones and others do not, they form totally separate classifications. Black-and-white reasoning is another example, where only two options are presented, as in Youre either with us or against us. This is also known as a false dichotomy because, for example, sitting on the sidelines not taking part is not considered to be a valid choice. Unless youre in the sciences, youll probably be using the word dichotomy in this second sense. Example: The book Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus tries to explain the authors view of the dichotomy between the way men and women think. It has been scientifically proven, using brain scans, that men and women process information differently, and in different parts of their brains. But you cant use those results to make the argument that because womens brains process language more efficiently, that means no men should ever teach English classes. Thats a fallacious argument, based on a false premise. Fallacious means false, misleading, or deceptive. Example: The prosecutor asserted that the defendant could not have been at the pizza parlor because she was allergic to cheese, but the judge ruled that out as fallacious, as she had ordered a plain green salad for dinner. An argument that appears logical at first might seem to be true, even though it could later be proved false. Verisimilitude is a noun meaning an appearance of truth. Example: The new wig and the heavy application of makeup gave her the verisimilitude of health, but we all knew that she did not have long to live.

D.

Words for Talking about Decisions

Were glad you made the decision to improve your skills by learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context. These next five words are ones that you might use while talking about decisions: consensus, precedent, vacillate, irrevocable, and antithesis.

Your words for talking about decisions explained


Sometimes youre the only one who has input into a decision, but more often youll find yourself working with other people who each have an opinion on the issue. Occasionally youll have to negotiate until you reach consensus and can move forward. Consensus means that there is general agreement about a proposal or decision, such that the proposal can be acted on, or the decision implemented. It doesnt necessarily mean that 5

Confidence-In-Context
everyone agrees exactly sometimes people will agree to disagree for the sake of progress. Example: Although the members representing animal rights groups thought there should be more emphasis on the feral cat issue, the general consensus on the panel was that the city-wide spay and neuter program be implemented this summer. Its often easier to make a decision if similar situations or issues have been dealt with before. You can use the previous decision as a precedent for your current course of action. A precedent is something that has occurred or been decided on in the past that is used to influence an action or decision in the present. Many legal systems are based on the rule of precedence. Example: This was the first land use case brought to trial in the county, but the judge was able to find a precedent for his ruling in similar cases from other regions. When youre using a precedent, youre comparing things that are alike in some way. But sometimes youll be dealing with things that are completely unalike polar opposites in fact, where one is the antithesis of the other. Black and white or good and evil are examples of this: good is the antithesis of evil. Antithesis means having absolutely nothing in common with the other. Example: Politicians who favor using armies and weapons to resolve international situations are the antithesis of true peacemakers. Choices arent always black and white. Sometimes its hard to decide between two options, and you may vacillate between them. Vacillate means to be unable to settle on a choice, to be indecisive. Example: The waiter was ready to take their dessert order, but Helen continued to vacillate between the vanilla-bean panna cotta and the pineapple sorbet for another five minutes. Once youve made a decision, though, sometimes theres no going back. While its relatively easy to change a dessert order, other things are impossible to stop once started, from kicking a football to pulling the lever to dynamite a building. Such decisions are irrevocable, meaning impossible to revoke, or take back. Example: Many people object to the death penalty because it is irrevocable, and with the new DNA testing available, prisoners can later be found innocent of wrongdoing.

Confidence-In-Context

E.

Words for Depth of Conversation

In this set of five ultimate vocabulary words, youll be learning descriptive words that will give your conversations more power and depth: implement, intrinsic, impeccable, inexorable, and incorrigible.

Your words for depth of conversation explained


In fact, when you implement all youre learning in these lessons, youll be a skilled and persuasive speaker. Implement is a verb that means to put into practice or bring about, cause to happen. You might also have heard this word as a noun meaning tool you can think of using a tool to make something happen. Example: All I need to implement the new bookkeeping system at work is a three-day weekend when no one is using the computers. Computers are an essential part of almost every business enterprise these days. In fact, some businesses like eBay, for example would not exist without the internet. For these businesses, the internet is an intrinsic part of their operation. When one thing is intrinsic to another, it means that the first thing is so entwined, so essential, that it cannot be separated from the second thing; that when you talk about the second thing its understood that the first is always part of it. You cant talk about eBay without also talking about the internet. Example: Einsteins theory of relativity is intrinsic to much of modern science, from particle physics to astronomy. Studying the massive galaxies and the uncountable number of stars they contain, watching them as they travel across light-years, gives you a sense of the forces at work, a movement that is powerful and unstoppable. From our perspective, the forces controlling the orbits of the planets are inexorable. Inexorable means relentless or unstoppable. Example: The boys built a sand castle on the beach, but it was washed away by the inexorable advance of the incoming tide. Even the most perfectly-constructed sand castle is no match for the power of the ocean. When something is perfect, without any flaws or errors, it can be described as impeccable. Example: She speaks English and German quite well, but her French is impeccable, and she often helps with the language classes at the local school.

Confidence-In-Context
Teaching at a school brings you in contact with all sorts of students, from the ones who sit quietly and listen to the incorrigible ones who make trouble on a daily basis. Incorrigible means not correctable. Youll often hear this word applied to children who persist in doing bad things, even when theyre punished for them over and over again. Example: The arsonist had been in and out of jail so many times, and had been responsible for so much damage to lives and property, that he was finally pronounced an incorrigible criminal and sentenced to life in prison.

F.

Things Small or of Questionable Significance

Learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context will make a big difference in your life; however, all of the words well look at in this section can be used to describe things that are small or of questionable significance: trivial, nominal, dubious, tenuous, surreptitious.

Your words for things small or of questionable significance explained


If youre a fan of pub quizzes, you probably have a store of knowledge thats not of much practical use other than for winning pub quizzes, that is. This knowledge is referred to as trivia. Add an L to the end and make it an adjective, and you have our first ultimate vocabulary word: trivial. Something that is trivial has little value, significance in general, or impact on a situation. Example: He would have gotten better marks on his essay on space exploration if he hadnt added so much trivial information quoted from Star Trek episodes. Quoting from television shows or movies may make your arguments less believable and of dubious value. Dubious means questionable or open to doubt. Its a versatile word: you can be dubious about something that is dubious. Example: The cheap plastic toys were colorful but of dubious quality, and Elena decided to buy the sturdier wooden toys, even though they were more expensive. Handmade wooden toys are often more expensive, but if youre lucky, you might have a friend who carves wooden toys for his children, and hell be willing to make some for your children for a nominal sum. The word nominal comes from the Latin nomen, meaning name, and in this example, means in name only that is, a token amount of money, compared to what the carver could charge for the toys. Nominal means small in effect or quantity, a trifling amount, a token gesture. Example: I had asked him to clean his room before I returned, but he only made a nominal effort at picking up his clothes, and the room was just as filthy as when I left.

Confidence-In-Context
A child who doesnt want to clean his room might try to hide some of the mess in a closet or under his bed, That sort of surreptitious behavior doesnt work for long, and hell end up in more trouble than before first for having a messy room, and then for trying to hide the mess. Surreptitious means sneaky, stealthy, furtive, or hidden. Example: Joan was so surreptitious when taking extra cards that it was years before we figured out why she always won the card games. The words trivial and nominal can both be used to describe similar concepts. These words are connected by their meanings, but they also have another point of similarity: they both end in the letters A-L. So does the word annual, but this word by definition has nothing in common with the first two, other than its spelling. The connection between the three words is very tenuous. Tenuous means flimsy, fragile, or not substantial. You can use it to talk about concepts, like the tenuous tie between the words trivial and annual. You can also use this word to describe physical characteristics. For example, a loose button on a shirt might hang from a tenuous thread. Example: My family had emigrated three generations before, but even this tenuous connection with the families in the town made me a welcome visitor.

Confidence-In-Context

Tests for Reinforcing What you have Learnt A. Words about Success and Achievement
Youll become more proficient at using these vocabulary words in context if you practice them. Listen to these sentences, and fill in the correct word in each of them.

Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Not everyone has the talent to succeed in an acting career, but it can be very ________________ for the top Hollywood stars. Her apartment is small, but the luxurious fabrics she chose for the upholstery, carpets, and drapes give it a warmly ________________ look. I had to practice on the piano for several months before I was _______________ enough to play even the simplest tune. After winning the lottery, Herbert was feeling _______________, and made donations to all of the arts organizations in town. He didnt exercise regularly until he got a dog, but that was the _________ he needed to start taking daily walks, and now hes even thinking about entering a marathon.

Answers: 1. Not everyone has the talent to succeed in an acting career, but it can be very lucrative for the top Hollywood stars. Unknown actors playing small roles in movies might not be able to make a living from their acting, but big-name stars get millions for their appearances. A job that brings in a lot of money is a lucrative one. Lucrative means profitable. 2. Her apartment is small, but the luxurious fabrics she chose for the upholstery, carpets, and drapes give it a warmly opulent look. Fabrics that have a rich look and feel, like silk, velvet, and fur, create a luxurious atmosphere. Opulent means richly decorated, full of luxury. 3. I had to practice on the piano for several months before I was proficient enough to play even the simplest tune. Playing the piano well requires skill. Proficient means skilled or practiced. 4. After winning the lottery, Herbert was feeling munificent, and made donations to all of the arts organizations in town. 10

Confidence-In-Context
Someone who gives very generously to others, whether of money or gifts, is munificent. Munificent means extremely generous and lavish in giving. 5. He didnt exercise regularly until he got a dog, but that was the catalyst he needed to start taking daily walks, and now hes even thinking about entering a marathon. Getting a dog forced a change in his life for the better, because now hes getting exercise regularly. Something that brings about a change is a catalyst.

Become proficient in these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words and your skillful use of words might be the catalyst you need to move up to a new and lucrative career! We hope you enjoyed learning how to use these words in context: lucrative opulent proficient munificent catalyst

B. Words for reacting to or acting in a situation


Practicing these ultimate vocabulary words by using them in context will facilitate your learning process. Try filling in the blanks in these sentences with the appropriate words:

Test Sentences:
1. Although I wanted to take a year off and travel before starting at university, my parents argued against it, and I decided it was easier to ______________ and travel in the summers instead. The professor accused Alice of copying her essay from another student, but when that student was caught selling exam answers, he had to ____________ Alice. My mother always knew when I had skipped school, because she would ask my brother to __________ my stories of what happened in class that day. The only way youll succeed in business is by learning to _______ jobs to the people who can do them most efficiently. Her background in sociology and psychology helps her to ___________ meetings, no matter how controversial the topics being discussed.

2. 3. 4. 5.

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Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. Although I wanted to take a year off and travel before starting at university, my parents argued against it, and I decided it was easier to capitulate and travel in the summers instead. When youre being pressured to do something and you resist at first but then give in, youre capitulating. Capitulate means to give in, or acquiesce, to someone else. The professor accused Alice of copying her essay from another student, but when that student was caught selling exam answers, he had to exonerate Alice. If a person is accused of doing something, but then later found innocent, they are exonerated. Exonerate means to remove blame or responsibility from, or acquit. My mother always knew when I had skipped school, because she would ask my brother to corroborate my stories of what happened in class that day. When you bring in additional evidence to confirm something that you or someone else has said, you are corroborating that statement. Corroborate means to confirm or attest to, usually including tangible proof of your confirmation. The only way youll succeed in business is by learning to delegate jobs to the people who can do them most efficiently. When you have a list of tasks to do, and you assign one or more of those tasks to another person, you are delegating those tasks. Delegate means to assign responsibility to someone else. Her background in sociology and psychology helps her to facilitate meetings, no matter how controversial the topics being discussed. Its difficult to keep meetings productive and calm when the topic is something that people disagree on or feel strongly about. Someone who facilitates a meeting like that is making it easier for the discussion to move forward. Facilitate means to make easy.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Were sure others will corroborate our claim that daily practice of new vocabulary words is the quickest way to gain confidence in using them. Dont wait to start using these five new words: capitulate facilitate delegate exonerate corroborate

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Confidence-In-Context
C. Words for defining a concept
Take a healthy bite out of your new vocabulary and fit your five new ultimate vocabulary words into the correct blanks in these sentences:

Test Sentences
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. His entire argument for making English the national language was based on the _____________ belief that the Bible was originally written in English. Schrdingers paradox is based on an essential ______________: a cat cannot be both dead and alive. The dark brown wedge of rock had a crust of sparkling white quartz just like icing on a cake, giving it the ______________ of real food. Astronauts often say that being in space is _____________ to deep-sea scuba diving, because theres no difference between up and down. The large spiky cactus was an ___________ in her otherwise pink-themed rose garden.

Answers: 1. His entire argument for making English the national language was based on the fallacious belief that the Bible was originally written in English. The early Biblical texts were written in Greek, Aramaic, and many other languages, reflecting the population of the Middle East where the texts originated. However, some people think that because theyve never seen the Bible in anything other than English, thats the language it was first written in. This is a belief based on false premises. Fallacious means mistaken or misleading. 2. Schrdingers paradox is based on an essential dichotomy: a cat cannot be both dead and alive. Schrdingers paradox describes a cat sealed in a box with a closed glass jar of poisonous gas and a hammer that will break the glass jar if it is triggered by the movement of a subatomic particle. But because the only way to find out if that has happened is to open the box, you cant say the cat is either dead or alive until then. A dichotomy is an either-or situation, where two things are opposite, but taken together are the whole. In this example, the cat is either dead or alive theres no third possibility. 3. The dark brown wedge of rock had a crust of sparkling white quartz just like icing on a cake, giving it the verisimilitude of real food.

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Confidence-In-Context
The rock might look like a piece of cake, but youd soon regret biting into it, no matter how realistic it appears. Verisimilitude means an appearance of truth or reality. 4. Astronauts often say that being in space is analogous to deep-sea scuba diving, because theres no difference between up and down. Theres another way being in outer space and being underwater is similar you cant breathe in either situation. Analogous means the same, for purposes of the comparison or point youre making at the time. 5. The large spiky cactus was an anomaly in her otherwise pink-themed rose garden. We cant imagine a plant that looks less like a delicate rose than a large spiky cactus. If you saw one in the middle of a rose garden, it would look very out of place. An anomaly is something that is out of place, different from what is around it, or unusual. Your new, expanded vocabulary might make you a linguistic anomaly among your coworkers, but dont worry being able to use these words in context is a skill you should be proud of. We hope youve enjoyed learning these five new ultimate vocabulary words: anomaly analogous verisimilitude fallacious dichotomy

D.

Words for Talking about Decisions

Practice using these five new vocabulary words in context, by using each one appropriately in the following sentences:

Test Sentences:
1. 2. Taking a year off from school before going to university is not an ___________ decision, because you can always start mid-year with the next term. Emily continued to ___________ between wanting to be a doctor and wanting to make her living doing massage therapy, so the counselor suggested that she study anatomy and physiology while she decided, since both degree programs required those classes. That candidate is campaigning by presenting himself as the ___________ of the current officeholder, but if you look at his voting history, youll see that theyre quite similar in their politics. 14

3.

Confidence-In-Context
4. His family wanted to hold the wedding at their church, but her family preferred an outdoor wedding; however, they were able to reach a ___________ when I proposed holding the ceremony in the garden at the local chapel instead. Indira Gandi, Golda Meir, and Margaret Thatcher helped establish a modern-day ___________ for women in high political office.

5.

Answers:

1.

Taking a year off from school before going to university is not an irrevocable decision, because you can always start mid-year with the next term. If you change your mind about a gap year and want to start classes instead, its easy to enroll in a university program even after the school year has started. Because you can change your mind, your decision is not irrevocable that is, its something that can be changed or revoked. Irrevocable means something that cannot be changed. Emily continued to vacillate between wanting to be a doctor and wanting to make her living doing massage therapy, so the counselor suggested that she study anatomy and physiology while she decided, since both degree programs required those classes. When you cannot settle on one option, you are vacillating. To vacillate means to be unable to decide between two or more choices. That candidate is campaigning by presenting himself as the antithesis of the current officeholder, but if you look at his voting history, youll see that theyre quite similar in their politics. Antithesis means completely different, with no point of similarity. His family wanted to hold the wedding at their church, but her family preferred an outdoor wedding in the woods; however, they were able to reach a consensus when I proposed holding the ceremony in the garden at the local chapel instead. A consensus is a general agreement on a course of action or decision. In this example, there may have been one or two family members who still wanted either a church or woodland setting, but were willing to go along with everyone else in order to reach the consensus and move forward with the wedding plans. Indira Gandhi, Golda Meir, and Margaret Thatcher helped establish a modern-day precedent for women in high political office. Gandhi, Meir, and Thatcher were three of the most prominent twentieth-century women who held office, and their example has helped influence political movements around the world to promote women to positions of power. A precedent is something that occurred in the past that forms the basis for a decision or action in the present. 15

2.

3.

4.

5.

Confidence-In-Context
Keep practicing using these words in context and your progress will be irrevocable: precedent consensus antithesis vacillate irrevocable

E.

Words for Depth in Conversation

You can practice using your new vocabulary words in the real world and on-line. But first, practice with these five sample sentences by filling in the appropriate word in each blank:

Test Sentences:
1. The legends of mischievous elves and fairies are found in countries around the world, but one of the most well-known is the figure of Puck, the ________ prankster seen in Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream. After the confusion and problems caused by the computer date change in the year 2000, programmers worldwide were told to _________ a new protocol and use four digits to store system dates. Emergency management officials tried hard to contain the flooding river, but no amount of sandbags could stop the _________ rise of the muddy water over the barriers and into the city streets. If youre wondering what designs to use on your wedding invitations, you should call Kate she has _________ taste and will create the perfect design. Although many political races turn out to be popularity contests rather than comparisons of the candidates qualifications, I think that having an understanding of social and economic history is ____________ to being able to govern this country.

2.

3.

4. 5.

Answers: 1. The legends of mischievous elves and fairies are found in countries around the world, but one of the most well-known is the figure of Puck, the incorrigible prankster seen in Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream. In Shakespeares play, Puck couldnt seem to stop causing trouble for the foolish mortals even though his master, Oberon, became angry with him for doing so. Incorrigible means not able to be corrected, and often refers to someone who keeps on doing bad things even when theyre punished for it again and again.

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Confidence-In-Context
2. After the confusion and problems caused by the computer date change in the year 2000, programmers worldwide were told to implement a new protocol and use four digits to store system dates. Not all computers had problems when the dates rolled over from 19 to 20, but IT managers everywhere made it standard to start using a four-digit date, and had their programmers put that standard into place immediately. Implement means to put into place, to start a program or routine. Emergency management officials tried hard to contain the flooding river, but no amount of sandbags could stop the inexorable rise of the muddy water over the barriers and into the city streets. Looking at a slow-moving river is deceptive - its hard to imagine the sheer power of all those tons of water moving downstream. Thats a force thats hard to stop easily. Something that is inexorable is powerful and hard, even impossible, to stop. If youre wondering what designs to use on your wedding invitations, you should call Kate she has impeccable taste and will create the perfect design. A graphic designer who always knows just the right colors and designs for each of her clients will get a lot of praise for the quality of her work. Something of high quality, where each detail is absolutely perfect, is impeccable. I think that having an understanding of social and economic history is intrinsic to being able to govern this country. Although many political races turn out to be popularity contests rather than comparisons of the candidates qualifications, its hard to see how any person could be an effective leader without knowing the reasons behind the current state of affairs. That is an essential qualification. Something that is so essential that its hard to imagine that quality not being there is intrinsic.

3.

4.

5.

Study these new ultimate vocabulary words carefully, and youll soon be able to implement your new conversational abilities in the workplace and elsewhere: incorrigible implement inexorable impeccable intrinsic

F.

Things Small or of Questionable Significance

Youll get addicted to using these new vocabulary words, once you realize how much they add to your conversations. Make sure you know how to use them in context, and practice by putting the correct word in each of the next five sentences: 17

Confidence-In-Context
Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. Although he came to all of the meetings, his ____________ remarks were wasting everyones time, and he was not included in the delegation. If you would put in more than a ____________ amount of time towards looking for work, youd have a better chance of actually finding a job. Shes so scared of heights that she wont live in an apartment thats more than three floors up, so Im _________ about her story about climbing Mont Blanc last summer. As the months went by, his mental health continued to decline, and today he has only a __________ grasp on reality, and very little understanding of whats happening in the world around him. I thought wed bought plenty of sweets for the holidays, but I think the children have been making ____________ raids of the pantry, because the chocolates are almost all gone.

4.

5.

Answers: 1. Although he came to all of the meetings, his trivial remarks were wasting everyones time, and he was not included in the delegation. Saying something just for the sake of speaking up usually doesnt contribute to the progress of a meeting, if what youre saying isnt useful or relevant to the conversation. Trivial means of little use or value. If you would put in more than a nominal amount of time towards looking for work, youd have a better chance of actually finding a job. Just buying a paper and glancing through the help wanted advertisements doesnt move you much closer to employment, and although you might call it a job search, it really isnt one, even though youre going through the motions. Nominal means so small as to have no impact, the bare minimum, or a token effort. Shes so scared of heights that she wont live in an apartment thats more than three floors up, so Im dubious about her story about climbing Mont Blanc last summer. Anyone whos scared of heights will probably not be spending much time in the mountains. If you dont believe a story, youre dubious about it; you could also say that a persons story is dubious. Dubious means doubtful, of questionable truth or value. 4. As the months went by, his mental health continued to decline, and today he has only a tenuous grasp on reality, and very little understanding of whats happening in the world around him.

2.

3.

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Confidence-In-Context
Tenuous means fragile, thin, and insubstantial. For example, when youre very angry, you might only have a tenuous control over your emotions. 5. I thought wed bought plenty of sweets for the holidays, but I think the children have been making surreptitious raids of the pantry, because the chocolates are almost all gone. The children were sneaking into the pantry to eat chocolates, or stealing them and hiding them away. Surreptitious means hidden, sneaky, or furtive. Working on learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context is not a trivial pursuit! You might be dubious about how much these words will help you, but were sure that youll benefit greatly from your expanded vocabulary. Dont hesitate to use your five new words in conversation: tenuous surreptitious dubious nominal trivial

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Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 5 Workbook

Confidence-In-Context
A. Words For Moving Forward With Your Vocabulary

Youre expanding your horizons as you learn these ultimate vocabulary words and how to use them correctly. These next five words will keep you moving forward and will help you describe your journey: comprehensive, criterion, cognizant, trepidation, predilection.

Your words for moving forward with your vocabulary explained


One of the advantages of knowing and knowing how to use these ultimate vocabulary words is that youll have the appropriate words for discussions on a wide range of topics. Your vocabulary will be comprehensive in scope. Comprehensive means: covering a wide range; being thorough; and including everything. Another synonym for comprehensive is exhaustive you might use these two words together when describing an academic study or research project. Example: Before the committee made a decision, they asked the team leaders to each present a comprehensive report on the costs and benefits of their plans to rebuild the citys transit system. A successful transit system should do three things: go places people need to go; get them there when they need to be there; and do this all on a reasonable budget, for the city and the riders. Each of these three points is a criterion that is used to measure the success of a transit system. A criterion is a standard by which something is measured or judged. Youre probably more familiar with the plural of criterion, which is criteria. One criterion, two criteria. Many people incorrectly use the plural form for both cases. Example: Knowing the difference between the singular form of a noun and its plural form, and using them correctly, is a criterion for evaluating your progress in learning a language. Once you realize that many words have singular and plural forms, youll notice when other people use them incorrectly. Cognizant means noticing something, or being aware of something. Example: I didnt really pay attention to the ingredient listings on food until I was diagnosed with coeliac disease, but now Im cognizant of the fact that most packaged food has gluten in it. Anyone with food allergies knows that going out to eat in restaurants, or even over to a friends house, can be difficult, especially if the allergy is to something as common as wheat. If youre afraid you might get ill and hesitate to accept invitations to dinner, youre experiencing trepidation. Trepidation means fear or hesitation, apprehension or concern.

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Example: Although John said that Kathy was an excellent cook, I felt a bit of trepidation when I arrived for dinner and saw smoke pouring out of the kitchen. Some people enjoy cooking more than others do. And when you enjoy doing something, you have a tendency to do it more often. Predilection means liking or having a tendency towards. Example: Jim frequently invited me to join him at the movies, but as he had a predilection for the more violent action films, I would usually decline.

B. Words For Your Vocabulary Arsenal


You might struggle sometimes to learn how to use vocabulary in context, but dont give up the fight! Youll prevail soon and the next five words will help you describe the battle: precision, arsenal, augment, draconian, acquiesce.

Your vocabulary arsenal words explained


One of the most important lessons to learn about using these ultimate vocabulary words is when to use them. Using exactly the right word at exactly the right time will make the maximum impact. Youll learn to use words with precision. Precision means exactness being precise, or to the point. Example: I like wearing my grandfathers wristwatch, but it cant match the precision of my digital timer, so thats what I use for work. Youll soon have a collection of words that you can use in any situation. Your vocabulary will be a powerful tool in your arsenal, and will help you win arguments and prevail in debates. An arsenal is a collection, usually of weapons, but also of anything used as a weapon. Words can be very effective weapons, when used correctly. Example: The ruins of the castle were overgrown with moss, but we could see where they had stored their arsenal of cannonballs and gunpowder. Diligent practice of these vocabulary words will augment your ability to use them correctly. To augment means to increase. You can augment the sound coming from a stereo by adding bass and treble boosters. Example: With the general publics growing resistance to the war, the only way the ruling party could augment the size of the army was by instituting a draft. When the leaders of a country decide on war, but the people disagree, those leaders may resort to draconian measures like a forced draft to achieve their goals. Draconian means harsh or rigid. The word comes from the name of an ancient Greek senator, Draco,

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who lived in Athens in the 7th century BCE, and who was famous for his laws that punished people severely for very minor crimes. Example: Singapores laws may seem draconian, punishing people with jail time for littering or chewing gum, but they certainly keep the streets clean. Even if you think an anti-gum-chewing rule is silly, youd have to acquiesce to that rule if you wanted to live in Singapore. Acquiesce is a verb meaning give in, comply, or agree to. Use this word when you want to make clear that this agreement is not necessarily by choice. When you acquiesce to something, youre saying that youll go along with it, even if you previously opposed it, or continue to oppose it on a philosophical if not actual basis. Example: The receptionist did not want to let me wait for you in your hotel room, and it took a half and hours argument, plus a call to your father, before he would acquiesce and let me in.

C. Words About Teaching and Education


Were glad youre continuing your education with this Ultimate Vocabulary training course. Learning is a process that goes on throughout our lives, and we find lessons and teachers everywhere. The five words in this lesson can all be used when talking about teaching and education: mentor, cerebral, monograph, admonish, edify.

Your words about teaching and education explained


Many people remember one or two influential teachers from their childhood people who were counselors and advisors, sharing their wisdom. These childhood mentors can have a long-term impact. Mentor is a noun meaning counselor or teacher. These days, its likely that youll also hear this word as a verb. Mentoring is something often done in the workplace, when experienced staff help junior employees. Example: It was my first job in a law office and I was very nervous about getting something wrong, but the senior legal assistant acted as my mentor for a few months, answering all of my questions and helping me prepare the documents. As a mentor, you can provide guidance to someone at the office, help a child learn social skills after school, or work with a student to prepare her thesis mentoring is as much about the practical as the cerebral. Cerebral means intellectual, or focused on the activity of the brain. Example: Leah liked to play outside no matter how bad the weather was, but Morgan preferred the more cerebral exercise of solving puzzles and reading books and essays.

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If youre attending university and working with your mentor to prepare your thesis, youll be doing research into what others have written about the topic youve chosen. You may find several monographs on the topic by other scholars. A monograph is a long essay on a single topic, usually very cerebral in nature; that is, rather than being a casual discussion, it will be a well-documented, intellectual look at the topic. Or at least you hope it will be, so you can use it as a reference! Example: She was interested in learning more about the history of the Middle East, so I recommended two monographs on the Persian Empire in the 6th century by Dandamayev and Babayan. Reading what other people have written about a topic is a good way to learn more about it. Monographs and research papers will instruct you on a topic and improve your understanding. Edify is a verb that means to instruct or improve intellectually; you may be familiar with the result, which is edification. The word comes from the Latin word edificare meaning to build think of the word edifice, or building. These bits of knowledge you gain are building your intellectual strengths. Example: The school bus was delayed for several hours in traffic in front of the Parliament building, and Jane decided to use the time to edify the students on the different branches of government and how they worked. Knowing how a government works is important, and if students are educated in the process, theyll be better at making good decisions when theyre old enough to vote. Unfortunately, many dont get this education, or just dont care to learn it. Teachers can admonish students when they dont know the answers to simple questions about politics, but it may take more than that to get them to learn. To admonish means to warn someone that they have done or said something wrong, using serious but kind words. Its not angry yelling, but instead a gentle but insistent identification of a perceived fault in their actions or attitudes. Example: The modern grammar school does not use corporal punishment to discipline their students, but instead will admonish them privately, pointing out the ways in which their behaviour affects all of the other children in the class.

D. Words For Describing Things Relating To Groups


Are you a social person? Do you like to be part of a group, or do you stand apart from the crowd? Its human nature to want to belong to a larger community, and were all part of some subset no matter what, whether because of where we come from or what we like to do. The five words in this section might help you describe things relating to groups: terminology, demographic, sporadic, incongruous, ostracize.

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Your words relating to groups explained
Sociology is the study of people and groups, and researchers in that field have their own set of words related to sociology, like homogenising, assimilationist, or dialectical. But dont worry we wont be giving you these arcane words. Instead, heres a word to describe them: terminology. Terminology means a set of specialized words specific to an area of study. These words are usually not commonly used outside of that area for example, you probably wouldnt use the word igneous unless you were talking about volcanic rocks or geology in general. Example: One of the reasons that legal systems can seem hard to understand is that not everyone knows the terminology used in law, and words like obligor and pendency are not in common use. There are a lot of people in law, and in some places lawyers form a large segment of the population. A demographic study might find a correlation between the number of lawyers in a city and the size of the city. Demographic means related to a group of people who share one or more characteristics. In this case, the common bond is their profession, but other demographic markers might be race, income, or gender. Example: Television advertisements are well-researched to appeal to the particular demographic group that watches a specific program. Marketing that is targeted to one demographic group is usually more successful than random advertisement that hopes to interest people by chance. Thats why youll see ads for candy and toys aired regularly during childrens shows, rather than in a sporadic fashion in the middle of a football game. Sporadic means random, without a pattern, happening only occasionally. Example: Henry came to the scheduled meetings only on sporadic occasions, and eventually we stopped inviting him to participate. If you promise to be somewhere and then fail to show up, people may think of you as unreliable, or get angry with you. If they get angry enough, they might ostracize you. To ostracize means to cast out of a group, or exclude from a community. Example: Feelings about the recent political elections were so strong that I was afraid my friends would ostracize me if they found out that I had voted for the other party. When youre the only person in a group who supports a certain politician, or the only meateater in a group of vegetarians, you might feel that you just dont fit in that your presence is incongruous. Incongruous means not similar, or not a match to what is around it or what is expected.

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Example: Even though its well-known that studying dance will improve your agility and coordination, the star player from the local football team was still an incongruous sight in the middle of the ballet class.

E.

Words For Talking About Music

This sections words will be music to your ears or at least words you might use when youre talking about music. Get in tune with these five ultimate vocabulary words: mellifluous, strident, arduous, prodigy, and contemporary.

Your words for talking about music explained


The 18th century playwright William Congreve said Music hath charms to soothe a savage beast, to soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak. Sweet and harmonious music can make you calmer and lift your spirits with its mellifluous tones. Mellifluous is an adjective that comes from the Latin words mellitus meaning honey and fluus meaning flowing. A mellifluous voice is one that is sweet, smooth, and flowing. Example: Every time my young children had a hard time falling asleep, I would play a recording of Cecila Bartolli singing Italian lullabies, and her mellifluous voice would lull them to sleep quickly. The opposite of mellifluous is strident, meaning loud or piercing, and harsh in tone. You might use a strident voice when you're shouting at someone. Depending on your tastes, you might like experimental jazz, but think that punk rock is nothing but strident noise but the punk rockers may consider your jazz to be equally unpleasant! Example: Although the carnival was extremely noisy, we could clearly hear the strident voice of the auctioneer at the animal pens as he sold off the sheep and cattle. It takes a lot of practice to learn how to be an auctioneer. You've got to be able to speak very quickly and clearly, keep track of bids from anywhere in the audience, and gauge how much an item might sell for. You'll have to put a lot of energy and time into learning this sometimes arduous job. Arduous means something needing endurance, requiring an expenditure of energy and time. Some synonyms include demanding, strenuous, and exhausting. Example: The team spent seven days living off the land, and concluded their endurance testing with an arduous climb up the south face of the mountain. Some things take a lot of practice to master, but you've probably heard of people who seem to require no practice at all, who are extremely talented, perhaps from a young age. You might describe such a person as a prodigy. A prodigy is someone who excels at

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doing something, and is often used in the term child prodigy to describe an amazing talent in a very young person. Example: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a true musical prodigy: he began playing keyboard at age three and writing music at age five, and by the time he was fourteen years old, his operas were being performed to great success. Mozart lived in the last part of the 18th century, and occasionally worked with other contemporary composers such as Muzio Clementi and Joseph Haydn. Contemporary means of the same time period. If you're speaking of the present day, contemporary can be the same as modern. The opposite of contemporary can either be anachronistic - that is, not of the same time period or archaic, meaning not modern. Example: I enjoy listening to The Beatles and Elvis Presley, but prefer contemporary groups like The Shins or Smashing Pumpkins.

F.

Words Describing Success

These ultimate vocabulary words will help you reach the pinnacle of success. This section's words will help you describe that success: substantive, eminent, ascendancy, ineffable, magnanimous.

Your words describing success explained


The knowledge of which words are appropriate to use in a given circumstance forms a substantive part of your ability to speak well to a variety of audiences. Substantive means making up a large part of something, or being present in quantity, having weight. Example: The counsel for the defence brought in enough witnesses that she was able to create a substantive argument for dismissing the case. A lawyer with a reputation for skillful and impartial advocacy might later be nominated to the judiciary, especially if she has made important contributions to the legal field. Many judges are eminent scholars in legal history and legislation. Eminent means distinguished, important, or great. Example: My grandfather was diagnosed with cancer of the bladder, but we were fortunate that the local university hospital had an eminent physician on staff who specialized in treatment for that type of cancer. When you're at the top of your field, you have a competitive edge over your rivals. Sports teams with unbeaten records dominate the game, and have supremacy over the rest of the field. Their ascendancy often gives them first pick of advertisers and media exposure. Ascendancy means being on top, being in control, or dominating others.

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Example: As the manufacturing centers continue to move to China and India, many economists are commenting on the ascendancy of these countries in the world political arena. They are beginning to overshadow the formerly robust American and European markets. Sometimes things are so far ahead or above us that we find them impossible to describe. Have you ever been so happy or so sad that you couldn't put your feelings into words? Ineffable is a word that describes this lack of words. It means beyond words, unable to be expressed. Example: Her clothes were always well-fitting and attractive, but it was her confident and gracious manners that gave her an ineffable air of elegance and refinement. Elegance and refinement are characteristics often attributed to royalty or nobility. A person who is truly noble expresses that nobility in how he or she treats other people. Someone who is generous, noble, understanding, and tolerant is said to be magnanimous. This word comes from the Latin roots magnus, meaning great, and animus, meaning spirit. A magnanimous person has a good heart and a noble spirit. Example: The two top contenders in the decathlon were very closely matched, and when the Italian athlete finally won by just one-tenth of a point, he made the magnanimous gesture of inviting the second-place Spanish athlete to stand on the winner's podium with him.

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Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A. Words For Moving Forward With Your Vocabulary

Sit back, relax, and think about the five words youve just heard being used in context. Now listen to these next five sentences and fill in the correct word in each blank:

Test Sentences
1. Were so used to our standards of beauty being set by models and movie stars that its hard to remember that physical appearance is not the only _________ by which we should judge people. Before I left for my six-month trek through the Amazon jungle, I visited my doctor and had a _________ physical examination and a full complement of immunizations. If young children are given juices and sugary cereals, as adults they will have a _______________ for sugary foods. I dont like riding my bicycle downtown because many car drivers arent ________ of the marked bicycle lanes, and veer in front of me at traffic lights. She was only given three days to practice the piece before the performance, and so joined the musicians on stage with much ____________.

2.

3. 4. 5.

Answers: 1. Were so used to our standards of beauty being set by models and movie stars that its hard to remember that physical appearance is not the only criterion by which we should judge people. A criterion is a standard or goal used when comparing or judging things. The criterion of movie-star beauty is one that most people wont be able to meet. Intelligence, compassion, and loyalty are three criteria that are more important, we think. And youll notice that we refer to three criteria and one criterion. Dont mix up the plural and singular forms of this useful noun. 2. Before I left for my six-month trek through the Amazon jungle, I visited my doctor and had a comprehensive physical examination and a full complement of immunizations. Going into a jungle poses the risk of exposure to a variety of diseases, pests, and dangers, and its a good idea to have your doctor make sure that you have all of

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your shots and are in tip-top shape. A comprehensive medical examination will cover everything. Comprehensive means being thorough, including everything. 3. If young children are given juices and sugary cereals, as adults they will have a predilection for sugary foods. If youre raised on one type of food, thats the food youll have a tendency to keep eating when youre older. A predilection is a tendency towards or liking for something. 4. I dont like riding my bicycle downtown because many car drivers arent cognizant of the marked bicycle lanes, and veer in front of me at traffic lights. Its sometimes hard for bicyclists to hold on to the right of way. Drivers just arent aware of bicyclists as they are of other cars, especially in cities where theyre not used to seeing bicycles on the street. Cognizant means aware of. 5. She was only given three days to practice the piece before the performance, and so joined the musicians on stage with much trepidation. Unless youre a very skilled and very confident performer, if you feel like you havent had enough time to practice, youll probably be feeling somewhat scared and nervous when its time to perform. Trepidation means fear, apprehension, or concern. Once youve learned these ultimate vocabulary words, youll no longer have any trepidation about using them in context: cognizant predilection criterion comprehensive trepidation

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B. Words For Your Vocabulary Arsenal


Are you ready to add to your arsenal of powerful vocabulary words? Fill in the blanks in the next five sentences, and practice using these ultimate vocabulary words in context:

Test Sentences
1. 2. 3. The mark of a world-class figure skater is the ___________ of his jumps, getting them perfectly in time with the music during his routines. The advance scout didnt know what she might encounter in the woods, so she took a whole _________ of tools and weapons in her pack. I have a full-time job during the week, but because I enjoy spending money on expensive food and entertainment, I need to _________ my income with a part-time job on the weekends. My father was very strict with us when we were growing up, but he had gone to a boarding school where the rules were positively ______________. I really liked the restaurant, but it was easier to _________ to his demand that we find another spot than continue listening to his complaints about the food and the service.

4. 5.

Answers: 1. The mark of a world-class figure skater is the precision of his jumps, getting them perfectly in time with the music during his routines. Its fun to watch a figure skater do jumps and spins, but its even more amazing when they time the jumps to the music playing for their Olympic routine. It takes a great deal of precision to make sure theyre moving exactly on the beat. Precision means exactness. 2. The advance scout didnt know what she might encounter in the woods, so she took a whole arsenal of tools and weapons in her pack. If you want to be prepared for anything, youll have a good supply of equipment available to you. An arsenal is a supply of weapons or tools. These tools could be military gear of guns or bombs; they could be practical engineering gear like hammers and wrenches; or they could be intangibles such as words. The childrens rhyme sticks and stones can break my bones but names can never hurt me is not entirely true youve probably been hurt by things people have said in the past. Well-chosen words can form an arsenal for offense or defense.

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3. I have a full-time job during the week, but because I enjoy spending money on expensive food and entertainment, I need to augment my income with a part-time job on the weekends. Even if you have a good salary coming in, you might want to earn a little more sometimes, to have on hand for emergencies or entertainment. Youll need to increase the size of your bank account somehow. Augment means to increase in size, make larger, or supplement. 4. My father was very strict with us when we were growing up, but he had gone to a boarding school where the rules were positively draconian. Whether true or not, boarding schools have a reputation as places where very strict rules are enforced, and punishments are harsh for anyone breaking those rules. When rules are very severe and limiting, and punishments extreme, the rules are described as draconian. Synonyms of draconian are oppressive and harsh. 5. I really liked the restaurant, but it was easier to acquiesce to his demand that we find another spot than continue listening to his complaints about the food and the service. He wouldnt stop complaining, and although I disagreed, I decided Id rather eat in another restaurant than listen to him any longer, so I went along with his demand to go to another venue. To acquiesce means to go along with something, but against your wishes. Using words with precision will provide you with powerful tools to add to your arsenal of ultimate vocabulary words. We hope youve enjoyed learning these five new words: acquiesce precision arsenal draconian augment

C.

Words About Teaching and Education

Knowing how and when to use these ultimate vocabulary words is like money in the bank youll profit from the proper use of powerful words in context. Practice now by listening to the next five sentences, and fill in the correct word in each:

Test Sentences:
1. The new waitress was very efficient and remembered even the most complicated orders, but the maitre d had to ___________ her about being overly talkative with the guests.

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2. Many children who live in foster families need additional support and attention, and organizations like Big Brother/Big Sister provide them with a ________ who can spend time with them after school. Eric had many misconceptions about vegetarianism, and I took some time to _______ him on the facts about eating a healthy, meat-free diet. My brother would like to find friends at school who would share his interests, but the other students all seemed to spend their time discussing __________ topics, and he likes to go dancing now and then. The library at the university is a valuable resource for anyone wanting to do research on British composers; it seems as if every professor who ever taught there wrote a _____________ on their favorite musical genre.

3. 4.

5.

Answers: 1. The new waitress was very efficient and remembered even the most complicated orders, but the maitre d had to admonish her about being overly talkative with the guests. While most people enjoy a friendly conversation with their waiter, theyre at a restaurant to eat and talk with their companions. A too-chatty waiter can interrupt the dinner conversation, and restaurant staff are usually reprimanded if they spend too much time trying to talk to the customers. Admonish means to reprimand, to point out faults, in a gentle but serious manner. 2. Many children who live in foster families need additional support and attention, and organizations like Big Brother/Big Sister provide them with a mentor who can spend time with them after school. Children need someone to look up to someone who can share their experience and wisdom, and help them learn how to make choices and decisions as they grow. A mentor is a teacher or advisor. 3. Eric had many misconceptions about vegetarianism, and I took some time to edify him on the facts about eating a healthy, meat-free diet. Edify means to instruct someone to improve their intellectual and/or emotional understanding of an issue. 4. My brother would like to find friends at school who would share his interests, but the other students all seemed to spend their time discussing cerebral topics, and he likes to go dancing now and then. Even the most dedicated student can benefit from a little time away from the academic world. Sometimes its nice to go on a hike with friends, swim in a lake, or

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ride a bicycle. These physical pursuits can balance out the intellectual part of life and keep a person healthy and energetic besides. Cerebral means intellectual, focused on the brain. 5. The library at the university is a valuable resource for anyone wanting to do research on British composers; it seems as if every professor who ever taught there wrote a monograph on their favorite musical genre. A monograph is a long essay, very intellectual in nature, usually well-researched and documented, about a single topic. Learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context will ensure that no-one will need to admonish you for speaking incorrectly. Take every opportunity to practice using these five new words: mentor monograph admonish cerebral edify .

D.

Words For Describing Things Relating To Groups

Practice is just as important for vocabulary-building as it is for body-building. Make these lessons a regular part of your day, not just a sporadic exercise, and youll soon be a success! Start now by listening to the next five sentences, and filling in the correct ultimate vocabulary word in its proper context:

Test Sentences:
1. In some religious faiths, when a person goes against the rules and breaks with the church, the leaders will ___________ them and they will be cast out of the religious community. When I started work at the television station, my first job was as a sports announcer; however, I didnt know anything about sport, and had to teach myself all of the _____________. Immigration into the United States has changed the _________ makeup of some of the states in the southwest, where the populations are now more than fifty percent Hispanic. When I was living in Japan, I found it very hard to get over a feeling of being conspicuous in any crowd, especially in the rural mountain villages, where my blond hair was ____________ among all of the dark-haired locals.

2.

3.

4.

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5. Older volcanoes such as Mount Vesuvius in Italy are dangerous because they are unpredictable, and their ____________ eruptions are destructive to lives and property.

Answers: 1. In some religious faiths, when a person goes against the rules and breaks with the church, the leaders will ostracize them and they will be cast out of the religious community. While most churches these days will only ostracize a member if they have committed a serious offence, even the threat of being shunned by their fellow worshipers is often enough to keep people from breaking the rules. Ostracize means to shun, or exclude from a group. 2. When I started work at the television station, my first job was as a sports announcer; however, I didnt know anything about sport, and had to teach myself all of the terminology. If youre not a sports fan, some of the discussion can seem completely incomprehensible. For example, if youre not a cricket lover, the terms googly and LBW wont mean anything. Theyre part of the jargon used by cricket players and announcers. Terminology means jargon, a set of words or terms with a specific meaning in a particular area or field. 3. Immigration into the United States has changed the demographic makeup of some of the states in the southwest, where the populations are now more than fifty percent Hispanic. There are many ways of looking at a group of people, and one of them is by their ethnic background. Demographic refers to a group of people who share a certain common quality, whether its the level of their education, their views on global climate change, or the color of their hair. 4. When I was living in Japan, I found it very hard to get over a feeling of being conspicuous in any crowd, especially in the rural mountain villages, where my blond hair was incongruous among all of the dark-haired locals. One black sheep in the middle of a flock of white sheep is incongruous. The black sheeps wool is not the same as the wool of the rest of the flock. Incongruous means not similar, not matching, or not fitting in. 5. Older volcanoes such as Mount Vesuvius in Italy are dangerous because they are unpredictable, and their sporadic eruptions are destructive to lives and property.

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Sporadic means unpredictable and random, not occurring frequently, which is a good thing, when youre talking about volcanoes. As you increase your knowledge of these ultimate vocabulary words, youll find you have the terminology to use in any situation. Practice using these five words in context: sporadic ostracize terminology incongruous demographic

E.

Words For Talking About Music

The more you practice using these powerful vocabulary words in context, the better you'll be at knowing when to use the right word in your daily conversations. Soon you'll be a grammatical prodigy! Start now with these five sentences, and fill in the blanks:

Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. My sister worked at radio stations doing recordings for advertisements, and was in great demand due to her pleasant and ______________ speaking voice. Many cities have local ordinances that prohibit keeping roosters, because their ______________ crowing would disturb the neighbors in the early mornings. Cutting, stacking, and storing enough wood to last the winter is an ___________ task, but it's the only way I'm able to live all year round at my mountain cabin. Ellen knew that her niece would be a mathematics ____________ because she learned how to add and subtract when she was only two years old. The museum has moved all of their older paintings into temporary storage and is featuring an exhibit of ___________ art, including works by Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin.

Answers: 1. My sister worked at radio stations doing recordings for advertisements, and was in great demand due to her pleasant and mellifluous speaking voice. Her voice was smooth and flowing, as sweet as honey, and pleasant to listen to. Mellifluous means sweet, smooth, and flowing, and is most often used to refer to the sound of a voice or of music.

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2. Many cities have local ordinances that prohibit keeping roosters, because their strident crowing would disturb the neighbors in the early mornings. The loud, piercing crows of a rooster have long been the traditional alarm clock for people around the world but it's not so popular in the middle of the town, these days. Strident is an adjective that refers to noise of any sort that is harsh in tone, loud, and unpleasant. 3. Cutting, stacking, and storing enough wood to last the winter is an arduous task, but it's the only way I'm able to live all year round at my mountain cabin. It takes a long time to lay in a winter's worth of wood, and the work is difficult and uses a lot of energy. When a job is demanding and strenuous, it can be called arduous. Other words that mean the same thing are fatiguing and exhausting. 4. Ellen knew that her niece would be a mathematics prodigy because she learned how to add and subtract when she was only two years old. A prodigy is a person who is very, very good at something. You'll often hear this word used to describe a young child who is unusually talented or gifted 5. The museum has moved all of their older paintings into temporary storage and is featuring an exhibit of contemporary art, including works by Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin. In this example, the word contemporary means of this time period, in recent days, modern. The word means of the same time period but which time period that is depends on who is speaking and what they're referring to. When you started learning these powerful vocabulary words, you might have thought you were beginning an arduous learning process, but the more you practice, the easier it will get. Try to find ways to use these five new words in your next conversation: prodigy contemporary arduous strident mellifluous

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F.

Words For Describing Success

Once you've won the battle to learn how to use all of these new vocabulary words in context, you'll find it easier to make them a substantive part of your daily conversations. Try using them now by putting the correct word in each of the following sentences:

Test Sentences:
1. When I asked my son who he'd like to invite to his birthday party, he showed a ______________ spirit unusual for such a young child, and asked to invite all of his classmates, even the ones who bullied him after school. Her cooking always had an _____________ flavor of the Indian subcontinent, but I didn't understand why until she told me that she always added just a pinch of saffron to each of her dishes. During the Industrial Revolution, Britain came to ______________ in the global production of textiles, and added to their control of the market by taking over the import trade of cotton and silk from India and China. He may be an _______ lecturer in philosophy, but I have no respect for his views on evolution, as he has repeatedly stated that he believes life on Earth was started by alien visitors. When most people were spending long days working on the land to grow their own food, it was important that fats and carbohydrates made up a ____________ portion of their diets, but these days, people don't expend enough energy to use the calories they consume, and just get fatter.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Answers: 1. When I asked my son who he'd like to invite to his birthday party, he showed a magnanimous spirit, unusual for such a young child, and asked to invite all of his classmates, even the ones who bullied him after school. It's often hard for children to forgive other children who are mean to them, but he showed his generosity and tolerant nature by including all of the children in his class, no matter how they treated him. Magnanimous means generous in spirit, large-hearted. Her cooking always had an ineffable flavor of the Indian subcontinent, but I didn't understand why until she told me that she always added just a pinch of saffron to each of her dishes. Saffron is a very subtle seasoning when used in small amounts, and it would be hard to pick it out as an individual spice in a dish, and though it would contribute to the overall flavor you might not be able to say just what that flavor was. Something

2.

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that is present but impossible to describe in words is ineffable. 3. During the Industrial Revolution, Britain came to ascendancy in the global production of textiles, and added to their control of the market by taking over the import trade of cotton and silk from India and China. Ascendancy means superiority or control, dominance or supremacy in a field or area. He may be an eminent lecturer in philosophy, but I have no respect for his views on evolution, as he has repeatedly stated that he believes life on Earth was started by alien visitors.\ Expertise in one field does not guarantee that you'll be as knowledgeable in another. Eminent means being important or noteworthy, often for particular expertise. Another word meaning eminent is distinguished. When most people were spending long days working on the land to grow their own food, it was important that fats and carbohydrates made up a substantive portion of their diets, but these days, people don't expend enough energy to use the calories they consume, and just get fatter. These days, people in the new on-line societies spend most of their time sitting at computers or at a desk. Substantive means a large portion of, or forming the essential part of something. With such powerful vocabulary words under your control, you'll soon be known as a talented speaker and eminent orator. Practice these words as often as possible: magnanimous ineffable ascendancy eminent substantive

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Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 6 Workbook

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A. Words About Words

"Words, words, words" said Shakespeare's Hamlet. In this section you'll learn five words about words: syntax, nuance, didactic, hackneyed, and badinage.

Your words about words explained


You started this Ultimate Vocabulary course to get confidence in using words in context, or using words at the right time Syntax refers to using words in the right place that is, where a word appears in a sentence, and the rules of language that determine how it relates to the other words in that sentence. The syntax of a language is the set of rules that tell you how to construct grammatically-correct sentences. Example: Even though Karl has been living in Australia for more than a decade, his mistakes in English syntax have led to frequent misunderstandings with customers taking his charter dive tours. Sometimes the best way to communicate is with simple, direct language that clearly states what you want to say. On other occasions, you may want to be more subtle, and use words that are a bit more ambiguous, letting the nuances of your phrases speak for themselves. Nuance means a subtle difference in implication, or a hidden meaning, and can refer to the use of a single word, or to the effect of the entire communication. Example: Many traditional forms of Japanese poetry use specific, symbolic words to create nuances of meaning, and the reader must be aware of Japanese history and culture in order to appreciate the full effect. Poetry is often a medium where writers play with words in order to create a certain mood or feeling. In general, though, poetry is not used very often to teach or instruct though this was not always the case. In fact, many famous poems, including John Miltons Paradise Lost, are almost didactic in form and content, with a message of sin and Christian redemption. Didactic means written or presented in a format designed to be educational or instructional, especially in terms of moral or religious matters. Someone with a didactic manner of speaking might be called preachy today. Example: During the Cultural Revolution in China, possession of books or newspapers from the West was dangerous, and most people found it safest to only read the didactic publications coming from the Central Committee, while following the strict party line. Following the strict party line youve heard that phrase before, havent you? Its used to describe everything from political alliances to dress codes in offices. The phrase has become a bit hackneyed. Hackneyed means overused, trite, banal; something repeated so often that it has lost its original significance. Example: That comedian still gets bookings, even though his hackneyed jokes all poke fun at politicians who havent been in office for years.

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Humor is an important aspect of communication, and the more confidence you have at using words in context, the better youll be able to entertain people with your quick, intelligent badinage. Badinage means banter, playful remarks, or repartee. Its conversation that isnt meant to be taken seriously. Example: Playwright Noel Coward, like his predecessors George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde, was famous for his ability to write witty badinage that made his plays immensely popular entertainment.

B. Words Describing States of Being


We use words to describe the reality of what we see and experience, and in a way we use words to create that reality. In fact, many people believe that the universe was created by the power of words, whether they follow the Christian God or the Aboriginal Songlines in Australia. Learning how to use the power of words will help you shape your own reality, in your professional and personal life. Start by learning these five words that describe states of being: cosmos, permeate, integral, sacrosanct, consummate.

Your states of being words explained


Where better to begin than with the word that describes everything? "Cosmos" means "everything that exists" and comes from the Greek word for "universe". You'll often hear it used when people are referring to the physical universe - the vast stretches of interstellar space in which we live - but it also has a more metaphysical sense, encompassing space and time, everything imaginable and unimaginable at once. Example: "The first astronauts to look back at Earth from space were all moved by the wonder of our little planet's place in the endless cosmos around it." Scientists studying the cosmos have come to the conclusion that something they call "dark matter" must exist, because the there's not enough mass in the visible universe to account for the way the law of gravity works. This dark matter permeates every part of the visible universe, but is invisible itself. "Permeate" means to spread throughout something. Example: "Once the students dropped the red dye into the clear glass of water, they could see how molecular vibration caused the red coloring to eventually permeate the liquid from top to bottom." Science classes, with their opportunities for exploration and hands-on experimentation, are an integral part of a well-rounded curriculum for young students. "Integral" means an essential part of a larger whole, something that is necessary to achieve a desired result. Example: "The choir director always took a few minutes to explain the background and history of the composer before introducing a new piece of music, as he believed that understanding the context of a piece was integral to learning how to sing it effectively."

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Many Baroque composers followed set forms when creating their sonatas and symphonies; for example, it was typical to have three movements in a piece, with the first in a lively tempo, the second at a slow speed, and the third a rousing jig or gavotte. In fact, some composers held this pattern to be sacrosanct, with the result that much of their music sounds very much alike. Something that is "sacrosanct" is something that people believe should not be altered or changed, because it's perfect the way it is. This word is formed from two Latin words, "sacrum" and "sanctus", both meaning "sacred," and originally applied to something protected under religious law. Example: "While many people these days write their own wedding vows, others believe that the traditional pledges such as 'in sickness and in health, for richer or for poorer' are sacrosanct and that couples are not truly married until they say them." Have you ever met some one who seems just perfect - the ideal husband, the wise and helpful teacher, the incorruptible politician? Or perhaps you're a fan of a consummate actress, who is entirely believable in any role she plays. "Consummate" means the absolute best, and describes someone who has completely mastered a skill, who is the acme of perfection in that aspect or talent. Example: "Pablo Picasso was a consummate artist, able to create detailed ink sketches with a single unbroken flowing line."

C.

Words About Strength or Power

Once you learn these Ultimate Vocabulary words, you'll find that your ability to communicate has gotten stronger. In turn, this will strengthen your control over your interactions at work, and give you the power to direct conversations to your benefit. Here are five words that can be used to describe strength or power: robust, prevalent, impervious, redoubtable, titanic.

Your words about strength and power explained


Having confidence in your ability to use words correctly will make you more confident and relaxed when youre speaking in public. Youll be able to shrug off any disruptions from the audience youll be impervious to any negative comments or questions. Impervious means immune to or not affected by something. Example: Native Americans and early pioneer settlers would rub animal fat into their leather shoes to make them impervious to water.

Theres a saying that history is written by the conquerors and in the case of the many native populations around the world, thats particularly true. Although many of the indigenous peoples had robust economies and cultures, they often could not stand up

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against the military forces set against them. The word robust comes from the Latin word for oak tree, and means strong and vigorous, sound and healthy. Example: Many people who invested in real estate lost money as the formerly-robust world economy spiraled down into global recession. When theres an economic crisis, analysts work to identify the factors that led to the problem. Recent studies refute the prevalent theory that unregulated free market capitalism is the best way to run the global economy. Prevalent means dominant or most widespread, something that is strongest or superior, overcoming everything else. Example: As more and more people in the United States rely on television and the internet to get their news, on-line newspapers have become prevalent, and traditional publishing companies are going out of business. With so many alternative sources of information, even titanic news organizations like The Times of London and The Wall Street Journal have had to follow the crowd and create web sites. The word titanic comes from the Titans, the giant gods of Greek mythology. Today, the word refers to something that has great power, strength, and force. You can also use titanic to describe something very large in size. Example: The car started rolling towards the edge of the cliff, but with a titanic burst of strength, Kit stopped the car long enough to give James an opportunity to wedge a block beneath the wheel. Every day, people around the world accomplish amazing things, but its rare that we hear about them, unless they happen in our own neighborhood. Occasionally, though, a politician or athlete is brought to our attention, like the redoubtable Lance Armstrong, who broke all world records in the Tour de France by winning seven times in a row, even after fighting off several bouts of cancer. A person who is redoubtable is someone aweinspiring or worthy of respect. You can also use redoubtable to describe a person who is formidable, powerful, and imposing in size as well as in ability. Example: Even after they left political office, both Nelson Mandela and Jimmy Carter have shown themselves to be redoubtable champions for human rights around the world.

D.

Words Describing Things That Are Small And Hard to See

Learning one new Ultimate Vocabulary word each day might not seem like a lot, but even a small change in the power and complexity of your speech will have an impact on those around you. Sometimes the best way to influence people is by making changes so slowly they dont notice. Here are six words that you can use to describe things that are small or hard to see: subtle, tentative, diffuse, amorphous, inchoate.

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Your words relating to things that are small and hard to see explained
Children grow up quickly, and if you live with children, you probably dont realize the small changes they go through every day. But when you take them on their yearly visit to their great-aunt, shell see a big difference between now and the way they were the year before. From your perspective, though, the changes were so subtle that you didnt notice them when they were happening. The word subtle comes from the Latin term for woven in, meaning that something is so blended in with its surroundings that it takes an effort to bring it to the forefront. A subtle difference means one that is not obvious at first glance. Example: The forgery of the painting was very well done, but the experts could tell from the subtle differences in the brushstrokes that the piece was not an original Rembrandt. Have you ever tried your hand at painting? Unless you have a good deal of selfconfidence or an innate genius for the art, your first efforts probably involved a lot of tentative poking at the canvas with your brush. Tentative means uncertain or experimental, trying something out. It can also mean only putting a small effort into something, usually due to a feeling of fear. Example: We made a tentative attempt at creating an agenda for the conference, but it was impossible to get a final format without knowing what the committees decision would be on this years theme. Beginnings can be difficult times, especially if they involve coordinating a large number of people. Without some sort of strong leadership, you can be left with an inchoate group of individuals, each with their own ideas, unable to work together. Inchoate means unformed, rudimentary, and without a final set of rules or order. Example: When the football team started practice at the beginning of the year, their game strategy was inchoate and often counterproductive, but as they learned to work together, they had more winning plays. Marching bands are a favorite entertainment at many sporting events, and the best ones are famous for the precision of their form, with the musicians bodies creating detailed images on the playing field. Unfortunately, the bands that havent practiced enough only end up making amorphous blobs of color against the green turf. Amorphous means without a clear form, unorganized, not clearly identifiable as something specific. Example: Some galaxies have a spiral patter, like our own while others are amorphous; however, all of them are organized under the same laws of gravity and physics. When scientists first started looking into deep space, the prevailing theories led them to believe that they would find an equal number of galaxies in any direction they looked. However, they were surprised to find that instead of an evenly diffuse distribution of stars, there were frequent large empty spaces with no stars at all, and other places where there

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were more galaxies than expected. Diffuse means spread out more or less evenly. If something is diffuse, it is not concentrated or heavier in only one spot. Example: The island of Kauai gets a lot of rain, but its usually a gentle diffuse precipitation that soaks into the ground evenly, rather than a stronger localized shower.

E.

Words For Cooking Up a Conversation

With all of these powerful Ultimate Vocabulary words, you'll have the ingredients you need to create appealing and tasteful speeches that will satisfy your listeners as you fill their ears. Cooking up a story is easier when you have a grocery list of fine and fancy words to choose from. Try using these five words at your next dinner party: culinary, redolent, carnivorous, replete, complement.

Your words for cooking up a conversation explained


With the recent popularity of cooking shows and celebrity chefs, applications to culinary schools have been on the rise. Culinary means related to cooking, or to the kitchen. Example: Along with providing fresh fruits, vegetables, and meat, many farmers markets also offer workshops and demonstrations to help new cooks improve their culinary skills. We walked past a booth at last weeks market that was so redolent of sauteed garlic that we got hungry again, even though we had just finished breakfast. Redolent means having a strong odor of something either good or bad. Some synonyms for redolent are aromatic and fragrant. Example: I enjoy shopping at the Indian markets because theyre always redolent with spices and tropical fruits. Because of the Hindu ban on eating beef, and the Muslim ban on eating pork, many traditional Indian dishes are vegetarian. However, there are also many delicious preparations of lamb or chicken, and even the most carnivorous diner can usually find the meat he craves in an Indian restaurant. A carnivore is someone who eats meat; the word comes from the Latin carne, meaning meat. Carnivorous is an adjective meaning meat-eating. Example: Ive been a vegetarian for over twenty years, and have learned how to cook meals that are so tasty, even my carnivorous friends dont miss the meat. The sign of a successful dinner party is a table surrounded by happy people with empty plates, leaning back in their chairs, replete with satisfaction. Replete means full of in the previous sentence, the diners are full of satisfaction after a delicious meal.

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Example: Ellas birthday party was perfect: the weather was sunny, the guests enjoyed themselves, and the cake was delicious. She went to bed replete with happiness. Ellas guests also enjoyed fine champagne, a dry ros that complemented the fresh strawberries served with the cake. To complement something means to complete it, either by providing something that was missing, or by providing an additional element that makes something better. In this case, then, we might imagine that the fruitiness of the wine enhanced the flavors of the strawberries, or that the strawberries were so sweet that the dryness of the wine provided a pleasing balance. Remember when using the word complement spelled C-O-M-P-L-*E*-M-E-N-T that you are not thinking of the word compliment spelled C-O-M-P-L-*I*-M-E-N-T which means saying something nice to someone. Example: Sarah is pleased at the compliments shes getting about how well her flower arrangements complement the linens on the tables.

F.

Words To Invest In

In uncertain economic times, it's difficult to know where to invest your money. You've made a wise investment by getting these Ultimate Vocabulary words and putting them to work for you. You'll get a return on your investment through your increased conversational ability and your newly-minted wealth of powerful vocabulary words. Here are five more words that you can bank on for conversational currency: parsimonious, appreciate, philanthropy, prudent, gratuity.

Your words to invest in explained


When times are good, its easy to spend money on dinners out, or movies, or just that one pair of shoes that caught your eye in the shop window. But when you need to be on a budget, youre better off being a bit parsimonious, and saving up funds for what you really need. Parsimonious means unwilling to spend money. Someone who is parsimonious is very frugal some might even say stingy. While the word parsimonious can be used for anyone who keeps a tight hold on their spending, its often applied to people who go a bit too far in that direction. Example: I dont enjoy going to restaurants with him; hes so parsimonious he calculates the bill down to the last penny, and never leaves more than a few dollars for the server. Instead of being parsimonious, perhaps being prudent with your money is a better choice. Prudent means careful or practical; in this case, it means frugal and not extravagant. Example: She was left a very small inheritance from her mother, but because of her prudent investments, she had enough to live on after retiring.

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In general, investments are a good way to plan for your financial future, as most opportunities give at least a small return in interest, and that interest will appreciate over time to increase your capital. Appreciate in this case means an increase in value over time but its also used to mean an awareness of value. Youll definitely appreciate how fast your money will appreciate in a high-interest savings fund. Example: Stock and bonds can be volatile, so I decided to use my money to purchase antiques and fine art, whose value will continue to appreciate no matter what the financial markets are doing. Very wealthy people are often known for their charitable giving, and have grants and scholarships and buildings named after them. But many people of ordinary means also donate to causes, and this philanthropy helps support others who are in need. Philanthropy means giving money to support a cause or institution, or charitable giving in general. Technically, the word implies that the money is given in the spirit of charity or love as well, and not just as a tax deduction the word was coined from the Greek words for love and mankind but today its used in the more generic sense of giving to charity without assigning any particular benevolent intent to the giver. Example: Even at eight years old, Leah seems to have a natural tendency towards philanthropy; she always shares her sweets with her classmates. Certain institutions have become associated with a tradition of gift-giving as a reward for services rendered. In many countries, its customary to add a gratuity to the restaurant bill, or to hand a taxi driver an extra dollar for carrying your suitcases to the curbside. A gratuity is a gift or reward for service. Depending on where you are, a gratuity might also be called a tip or a pourboire. This last word comes from the French for to have a drink and refers to the coins you leave on the table for your server, so that they might get a pint for themselves after theyre off work. Example: Restaurants often add an automatic gratuity of eighteen percent for large groups of people at one table; perhaps they think it makes it easier for their customers, but I rather resent it when the service has been poor.

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Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A. Words About Words

All the worlds a stage, and all the men and women merely players. Learning these Ultimate Vocabulary words will give you the confidence to take your place on stage as a star performer. Start practicing your lines now with these six sample sentences:

Test Sentences
1. I hope that Brad doesnt ask his friend James to give the toast at the wedding; his speech is sure to be __________ and full of advice on how to live a good and moral life. In this writing class, youll learn to avoid the use of ___________ phrases like dont put all your eggs in one basket or you cant teach an old dog new tricks. Shes a very successful politician, in part because her speeches are so carefully written that anyone can read _________ into her words and come away believing shes on their side. One of the most difficult things for me to remember when learning German ________ was to always put the verb at the end of the sentence. The best parties are ones where the food is good, the drink is better, and the __________ between the guests leaves everyone entertained.

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Answers: 1. I hope that Brad doesnt ask his friend James to give the toast at the wedding; his speech is sure to be didactic and full of advice on how to live a good and upright life. While it might be well-meant, using the wedding toast as an opportunity to give moral instruction to the happy couple is usually not welcomed. Didactic means in a form of a lesson, especially a lesson on morals or religion. 2. In this writing class, youll learn to avoid the use of hackneyed phrases like dont put all your eggs in one basket or you cant teach an old dog new tricks. Tried and true phrases like tried and true, as a matter of fact that are trite and banal, are referred to as hackneyed, meaning theyve been used and overused so much theyve lost their original force and impact. 3. Shes a very successful politician, in part because her speeches are so carefully written that anyone can read nuances into her words and come away believing shes on their side.

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We usually listen to a political speech and try to discover whether or not the politician is really saying what we think were hearing, by trying to identify any hidden meanings or misleading phrases. A nuance is an implication, or a hidden difference, that might change the way a phrase or word can be interpreted. 4. One of the most difficult things for me to remember when learning German syntax was to always put the verb at the end of the sentence. If when English speaking the verb at the end you put, people will you not easily understand! Syntax means the rules of placing words to form sentences for a specific language. 5. The best parties are ones where the food is good, the drink is better, and the badinage between the guests leaves everyone entertained. Banter, repartee, teasing and light, witty conversation is called badinage. Its not meant to be taken seriously, but is still an effective way to communicate, and to have fun at the same time. Are you ready for your grand entrance? Will you attract people at your next party with your clever badinage, and intrigue them with your skill at weaving nuance into your conversation? We dont want to be didactic, but remember that the best way to learn new vocabulary is to practice, practice, practice! So keep practicing the use of these five new words: badinage syntax didactic nuance hackneyed

B. Words Describing States of Being


Set aside time every day to practice using the vocabulary words you're learning, and soon you'll be completely confident in when and how to use them. Here are a few exercises to get you started:

Test Sentences
1. 2. Scott goes through three packs of cigarettes a day; the smell of smoke ___________ his clothes. Learning how to judge measurements by eye is an ___________ part of the training first-year students receive at the culinary school.

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3. Annabeth is a ____________ politician, always ready to meet people, able to give a speech at a moment's notice, and well-read in the issues that concern her constituents. In some churches, the area in front of the altar is ____________ and must be kept clear; however, in my church, that's where we place the flower arrangements. A thousand years ago, people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe, but now we've learned that this planet is actually only a tiny speck in the _____________.

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Answers: 1. Scott goes through three packs of cigarettes a day; the smell of smoke permeates his clothes. Someone who smokes that many cigarettes is always surrounded by a cloud of smoke and ash, and the smell of the smoke will be absorbed by the clothing he wears. "Permeate" means to penetrate and become part of. 2. Learning how to judge measurements by eye is an integral part of the training firstyear students receive at the culinary school. Professional chefs have to work quickly to create identical dishes for hungry diners, and the ability to create identical portions is an essential skill that must be learned, whether by training or experience. "Integral" means something essential to success as a whole. 3. Annabeth is a consummate politician, always ready to meet people, able to give a speech at a moment's notice, and well-read in the issues that concern her constituents. People have different ideas about what makes an ideal politician, but the list usually includes such characteristics as honesty, openness, accessibility, and good judgment. "Consummate" means the ideal, or the perfect model of something. 4. In some churches, the area in front of the altar is sacrosanct and must be kept clear; however, in my church, that's where we place the flower arrangements. Whether by law or tradition, some places are viewed as too sacred to use for ordinary purposes. "Sacrosanct" means sacred or protected. 5. A thousand years ago, people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe, but now we've learned that this planet is actually only a tiny speck in the cosmos.

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Everything from subatomic particles to galaxies light-years from end to end is part of the universe we live in, aspects of the cosmos that surrounds us. "Cosmos" means the universe, both the physical universe and the metaphysical concept of "everything, everywhere." You have infinite potential to improve your vocabulary, and the more you practice, the more you'll find that these Ultimate Vocabulary words permeate your everyday conversation, and that you've become a consummate speaker, with abilities that will take you to the far reaches of the cultural cosmos. Enjoy using these five new powerful vocabulary words: consummate sacrosanct integral permeate cosmos

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Words About Strength or Power

Have you ever felt passionate about a cause, but just couldnt find the right words to communicate your enthusiasm and convince other people to get involved? Learning these powerful vocabulary words and gaining confidence to use them in context will help you develop your abilities as a speaker. Here are some practice sentences to help you get comfortable with the five new words youve learned in this section:

Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. With her many honors and awards, and her brilliant career on television, screen and stage, Dame Judi Dench is one of Britains most _________ actresses. Firefighters often wear clothing that has been soaked in chemical retardant that makes them temporarily _______________ to flames. Expert surfers enjoy the big waves at Waimea Bay in Hawaii, but only the most daring will go out after a storm, when the waves reach truly _________ heights. English has become the __________ language for business transactions around the world, and its easy for native speakers to find jobs teaching English in various countries. I started using organic fertilizer and compost in my garden beds last fall, and this spring the new plants are amazingly ________; theyre twice the size they were last year.

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Answers: 1. With her many honors and awards, and her brilliant career on television, screen and stage, Dame Judi Dench is one of Britains most redoubtable actresses. Dame Judi Dench has a commanding stage presence, and the talent and abilities to play a variety of roles. Its no wonder many aspiring actors look up to her as someone to be admired and emulated. A redoubtable person is someone who commands respect and awe, both for their personality and their accomplishments. 2. Firefighters often wear clothing that has been soaked in chemical retardant, making them temporarily impervious to flames. Retardant immediately puts out any fire that touches it, by means of a chemical reaction. Another type of protective clothing is sold to people going into buginfested areas, soaked with repellent to keep away the insects. Impervious means immune to or not affected by, or not letting something through. 3. Expert surfers enjoy the big waves at Waimea Bay in Hawaii, but only the most daring will go out after a storm, when the waves reach truly titanic heights. The normal height of the waves at Waimea Bay is around 20 feet, but after a big storm, the waves can be twice that height. These dangerous waves tower over the surfers, and can push them underwater with unstoppable force. Something that is titanic is of great size and power. 4. English has become the prevalent language for business transactions around the world, and its easy for native speakers to find jobs teaching English in various countries. Once it was Latin, then it was French, and now its English the language used by people in commerce and trade when dealing with clients in other countries. Its hard to find a community anywhere in the world these days that doesnt have at least one person with a smattering of English. Prevalent means widespread, and also dominant; something that is prevalent has taken over due to its greater force. 5. I started using organic fertilizer and compost in my garden beds last fall, and this spring the new plants are amazingly robust; theyre twice the size they were last year. Robust means strong, healthy, and vigorous.

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Youve planted the seeds of an expanded vocabulary today, and careful tending will make your verbal abilities grow even more robust. Soon youll be admired for your way with words, a redoubtable conversationalist and sought-after speaker. Keep practicing these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: redoubtable robust titanic impervious prevalent

D.

Words Describing Things That Are Small And Hard To See

Keep your vocabulary growing by practicing your new Ultimate Vocabulary words! Here are some practice sentences to work on: Test Sentences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To some people, clouds are just _________ blobs of white or grey, but others especially children see shapes of animals and people in the sky. Even though the beeswax candle is on a table in the corner, its warm honey scent is _________, and you can enjoy it anywhere in the room. Very few students know exactly what they want as a career; most young people have only _________ plans and ideas about their future. Helen is very reluctant to speak in public, and rarely puts up even a _______ hand to volunteer to lead the meeting. Mandarin is a difficult language for many people to learn, because of the many ________ variations in pitch and tone required when speaking.

Answers: 1. To some people, clouds are just amorphous blobs of white or grey, but others especially children see shapes of animals and people in the sky. Amorphous means without a defined shape or form, something not clearly identifiable. Its easy for one person to look at a cloud and see a bowl of fruit, while the next person sees a rabbit.

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2. Even though the beeswax candle is on a table in the corner, its warm honey scent is diffuse and you can enjoy it anywhere in the room. The fragrance of a candle will travel on air currents throughout a room, and the odor will become evenly spread out. Diffuse means evenly spread out, or not concentrated in any one spot. 3. Very few students know exactly what they want as a career; most young people have only inchoate plans and ideas about their future. If youre like us, you changed your mind several times about the classes and jobs you wanted to take, especially in the beginning. Inchoate means unformed, in the beginning stages, without a final plan. 4. Helen is very reluctant to speak in public, but she occasionally raises a tentative hand to volunteer to lead the meeting. If you raise your hand, but you dont particularly want to be noticed, youll be hesitant and probably will be keeping your hand a little lower than usual. Tentative means uncertain, or just trying something out and experimenting. 5. Mandarin is a difficult language for many people to learn, because of the many subtle variations in pitch and tone required when speaking. The meaning of many words in Mandarin differs depending on whether you say the word with a rising or a falling tone. This can be hard for non-Mandarin speakers to learn, especially if they didnt grow up speaking a language that relies on such subtle changes to create different meanings. Subtle means hard to distinguish, taking an effort to identify. Its time to go forward boldly dont be tentative in finding opportunities to use these new vocabulary words. Be subtle about working them into your daily conversations, and youll soon notice an obvious difference in your ability as a speaker. Your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. amorphous diffuse inchoate tentative subtle

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E.

Words For Cooking Up A Conversation

Are you hungry to learn more Ultimate Vocabulary words? Conversational skill, like culinary skill, is something you need to practice to improve. Try using the five words youve just learned in these practice sentences:

Test Sentences
1. My family always gets together for a big dinner on Sunday; after dinner, the men sit __________ in front of the television to watch football while the women clean the kitchen. There are several unusual plants in this swamp that are _______________ - they get their food by trapping flies and other insects in a sticky nectar. They make a good pair of ambassadors; her skill with language and dialects _______________ his ability to get people talking together. I tried to smuggle some truffles back from France, but was caught at customs because my suitcase was ____________ with their pungent odor. She subscribes to several ____________ magazines, and has a huge collection of recipes, but I rarely see her in the kitchen.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Answers: 1. My family always gets together for a big dinner on Sunday; after dinner, the men sit replete in front of the television to watch football while the women clean the kitchen. There might be a more equitable distribution of work in some households, but in this family, the women seem to do all the work for Sunday dinner, while the men eat until theyre stuffed full and then relax. Replete means full. 2. There are several unusual plants in this swamp that are carnivorous - they get their food by trapping flies and other insects in a sticky nectar. Most plants get nutrients from the soil, but carnivorous plants like the pitcher plant lure insects into their hollow stems, where they dissolve and are absorbed. Theres not a lot of meat on a fly, but carnivorous means meat-eating. 3. They make a good pair of ambassadors; her skill with language and dialects complements his ability to get people talking together. She is able to accurately translate negotiations, and hes skilled at convincing people to start negotiating in the first place. Together, they make a completely effective ambassadorial team. When two things complement each other, it means that together they make a whole, and that together theyre better than either one alone. 4. I tried to smuggle some truffles back from France, but was caught at customs

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because my suitcase was redolent with their pungent odor. Truffles have a distinctive smell thats so strong it will seep through most packaging to permeate everything around them. Redolent means having a strong odor. 5. She subscribes to several culinary magazines, and has a huge collection of recipes, but I rarely see her in the kitchen. Culinary refers to the kitchen, or cooking in general. Are you replete with knowledge now? Think about these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words the next time youre in the kitchen practicing your culinary skills. Perhaps the air will be redolent with the savory smells of a roasting chicken or if youre not carnivorous, maybe youll be chopping up vegetables for a tasty stew. And youll be able to flavor your conversation with these five words: culinary redolent carnivorous replete complement

F.

Words To Invest In

Work steadily on your vocabulary skills, and youll profit from your new knowledge in a very short time. Get started now with these practice sentences; fill in the most appropriate word in each blank:

Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. Dont bother asking Mr. Overton for any contributions for the clothing drive; hes so _______________ that he wears his shirts until theyre nothing but rags. I was so pleased by the bartenders attentive service, that I left him five dollars as a ______________, even though Id only had two drinks. Its too bad that we dont teach children how to manage their money more carefully; if they learned how to be _________ at a young age, it would become a habit that would help them later in life. George plans on switching banks, because this one promises an interest rate of six percent, and he wants his initial investment to ___________ as quickly as possible. Bill and Melinda Gates contribute money to support the fight against infectious diseases around the world, and are often praised for their ______________.

4. 5.

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Answers: 1. Dont bother asking Mr. Overton for any contributions for the clothing drive; hes so parsimonious that he wears his shirts until theyre nothing but rags. Someone who is determined to get every last bit of value out of what he owns, and wont share with those who have even less, is probably a very stingy person. Parsimonious means excessively frugal, stingy, and very unwilling to spend any money. 2. I was so pleased by the bartenders attentive service, that I left him five dollars as a gratuity, even though Id only had two drinks. When you receive excellent service, its often appropriate to show your appreciation by leaving your server a bit of extra money. A gratuity is a reward for good service, also known as a tip or pourboire. 3. Its too bad that we dont teach children how to manage their money more carefully; if they learned how to be prudent at a young age, it would become a habit that would help them later in life. Teaching children to put aside a percentage of their money every month will help them develop into adults who know how to manage their money. Prudent means frugal or careful, and refers to someone who does not spend extravagantly. 4. George plans on switching banks, because this one promises an interest rate of six percent, and he wants his initial investment to appreciate as quickly as possible. When something appreciates, it means it gains in value. In a bank, an investment appreciates by the accumulation of interest. 5. Bill and Melinda Gates contribute money to support the fight against infectious diseases around the world, and are often praised for their philanthropy. The Gates Foundation was set up to channel money into efforts to combat AIDS and eliminate polio, which are two projects that both of the Gates feel very strongly about. Philanthropy means charitable giving, with the goal of bringing benefits to others. We hope you feel that youve benefited by learning these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words. Were sure youll find opportunities to use them wisely. Your five new words are: parsimonious gratuity philanthropy appreciate prudent

Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 7 Workbook

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A. Words For Describing Change

Change is in the air! Youre improving your vocabulary skills and learning how to use these powerful Ultimate Vocabulary words in context, which will lead to a change in your abilities as a conversationalist and public speaker. In this section, well speak about five words that describe change: transmute, protean, malleable, dynamic, metamorphosis.

Your words for describing change explained


As you grow in confidence about using these vocabulary words in context, and start using them on a daily basis, your ordinary conversations will be transmuted into highly effective communication, where every word expresses the exact nuances of your thoughts. Transmute is a verb meaning to alter, change or convert something. This change can be to the form or substance of an object or, on a metaphysical level, to a basic characteristic. A synonym for transmute is transform. Example: The tropical fruit called ackee is poisonous when raw, but boiling the fruit will transmute the toxic substances into harmless compounds, and you can enjoy the ackee cooked with eggs and peppers in a traditional Jamaican dish. A transmutation is a change that might not be apparent on the surface. By contrast, a metamorphosis is a complete change in form or substance. Depending on the circumstances, possible synonyms for metamorphosis include reinvention and rebirth. Example: Children are always amazed at the process of metamorphosis that changes a lumpy leaf-chewing caterpillar into a delicate, nectar-sipping butterfly. An octopus can squeeze its boneless body through a long narrow tube, or compact itself into a shallow underwater cave. This ability to take on different forms or characteristics is described by the word protean, meaning extremely variable. The word comes from the name of the oldest sea god in Greek mythology, Proteus. Example: The protean skin coloration of animals like the chameleon and the reef squid allows them to blend in almost invisibly with their surroundings. The reef squid actually uses rapid changes in skin color to communicate with other squid. Divers who come across these animals are amazed at the bright, dynamic colors and patterns on their skin. Dynamic means constantly changing or moving. A synonym for dynamic is active; the opposite of dynamic is static. Example: Now that graphics designers can include animation and movies, web pages have gotten to be much more dynamic. Creative people can express themselves in a variety of ways: in pencil drawings or oil paintings, in marble sculptures or in the more malleable medium of clay. Malleable means flexible or easily shaped, something that can be changed without breaking. You

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can also use this word to describe an intangible characteristic, such as someones personality. Example: Sarah got into a lot of trouble when she was a child; she was so malleable that shed do anything her schoolmates told her to, even if it was against the rules.

B. Words For Discussing Technical Innovation


Remember when spam referred to a canned luncheon meat, and not to unwanted e-mail messages? Many words have been adopted to describe things associated with computers and other technology. Here are five Ultimate Vocabulary words you might use when discussing the latest innovations: binary, decode, cryptic, anthropomorphic, superannuated.

Your vocabulary for discussing technical innovation explained


Computers are fantastically complicated machines that perform amazingly difficult tasks in the blink of an eye, but the basic principle underneath all computer functions is surprisingly simple: its nothing more than a switch between on and off, yes and no. This binary switch is at the heart of all calculations. Binary means something that is separated into two parts that are both of equal importance, but are mutually exclusive. The so-called binary language is called that because its letters are only the number one and the number zero, nothing more, in increasingly complex combinations. Example: The physics professor explained the concepts of absolutes and degrees by comparing two types of lighting fixtures: the first one had a binary switch that turned the light off or on, and the other had a dimmer switch that would allow the light to slowly brighten. Complicated concepts in physics are often easier to understand if you can see a demonstration using everyday objects and ideas. The best professors use a variety of methods to help their students decode the information in their textbooks. To decode something is to make it clear and easy to understand; this verb can be either transitive or intransitive. In the intransitive sense, decode means to figure something out. Example: When I was working at the embassy, we received daily communications from agents in the city, and my job was to decode the messages before passing them on to the diplomats. Everyone knows the best secret agents always make sure to keep their messages as cryptic as possible, in case theyre intercepted by the enemy. Something that is cryptic is obscure or otherwise hard to understand. A cryptic communication has a hidden meaning, and may be written in secret code.

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Example: My nephew likes the fortune-telling machine at the county fair; hell spend hours dropping coins in the slot, watching the hand of the colorfully-dressed robot move back and forth, and collecting the cryptic messages printed out. A small child might actually believe that a turbaned dummy inside the glass box of a fortune-telling machine is a real person, talking to them directly. When something is shaped like a person, its easy to pretend that theyre human. But we also treat machines that look nothing like humans as if they could understand us how many times have you yelled at your computer today? Perhaps, as humans, the only way we know how to communicate with something is to give it anthropomorphic characteristics first. Anthropomorphic is an adjective meaning having the attributes of a human, but not being human. These attributes can be physical, emotional, or both. Example: Many cultures placed figureheads at the front of their ships, whether simple painted eyes on either side of the bow or a carved statue of a woman, in the anthropomorphic belief that this would help the ships navigate through any hazards. Figureheads arent part of modern ship design, and most people would look on them as superannuated, even for merely decorative purposes. Superannuated means oldfashioned or archaic, something that is outdated and obsolete. Example: We were listening to an old radio play last night, and my niece asked what the funny clicking noise was when one of the characters made a telephone call; it seems rotary phones are completely superannuated, and no one under thirty even knows what they used to sound like.

C. Words For Describing Relationships


It's all coming together now - you're getting more confidence in using these powerful vocabulary words in context. Making these Ultimate Vocabulary words a seamless part of your conversations will improve your ability to communicate and create productive relationships with others, both at work and in everyday interactions. Here are five more Ultimate Vocabulary words to work on, all of which can be used to describe relationships: alloy, symbiosis, reconcile, collusion, inundate.

Your words describing relationships explained


The better your communication skills, the easier it will be to work with people in mutually-beneficial relationships. You'll be able to form partnerships that help you reach your goals, even as your efforts help others. Such a symbiosis is the basis for healthy and productive interactions on both personal and professional levels. "Symbiosis" is a noun meaning "a mutually-beneficial relationship." "Symbiotic" is the adjective that can describe such a relationship. Example: "The brightly-colored clownfish lives in symbiosis with sea anemones; the clownfish is immune to the anemone's poison and hides within its tentacles, and in return the fish keeps the anemone free of waste matter and decay."

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Often two things together are stronger and more effective than either thing taken separately. A good example is bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. Both copper and tin are malleable and easily bent, but bronze, even though it is a combination of the two, is stronger than both. An "alloy" is a metal that is made up of two or more metallic substances that have been combined. Example: "Rose gold is an alloy of copper and gold that is found in several places in the Middle East and eastern Europe; the copper gives the metal a lovely reddish hue that makes it a popular choice for rings and other jewelry." Many people invest in gold in order to keep money out of more volatile markets such as stocks. Because of the fixed amount of gold in existence, the value of gold is relatively stable - there is no way for more gold to suddenly inundate the market, lowering its value. "Inundate" means to overwhelm or deluge with something. A synonym for inundate is "flood." Example: "The unemployment rate is so high in this town that every time our company advertises a job opening, our resources department is inundated with applications." When there are more people looking for work than there are jobs available, the advantage is with the employers, who don't have to woo prospective employees with good benefits or competitive salaries. In these situations, people sometimes accuse corporations of being in collusion with the government to keep the unemployment rate artificially high. "Collusion" means coming together for a secret purpose. Another word for "collusion" is "conspiracy." Example: "The company newsletter ran several articles praising the proposed health benefits plan, but we found out later that our CEO was in collusion with the head of the insurance organization to cut services to most employees under the new plan." Most insurance companies try to maximise their profit, but people covered under their policies want to maximise their benefits. Corporate health plan administrators do their best to reconcile the two viewpoints to create plans that provide good coverage for the least amount of money. "Reconcile" means to create a good relationship between two things, to bring them together, or to make them equal or even. Example: "Although Howard had not spoken to his family for over ten years, when he married, his wife convinced him to reconcile with his sister and brother, and they have even started taking vacations together."

D. Words Containing X
X marks the spot in this session all of the words youll be learning have an x in them: quixotic, prolix, maxim, axiom, noxious

Your words containing X explained


Youre well on your way to mastering all of the Ultimate Vocabulary words we want to share with you, not just the ones spelled with an x. If your goal was to learn all of the words in the English language that have an x in them, your friends might think that was

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impractical, but somewhat quirky and charming, and would probably encourage you to take on the project, even though it would be quite a task. They might even describe you as quixotic. This word comes from the title character in the Spanish author Cervantes work Don Quixote. [nb pronunciation: quixotic = kwix AH tick, Quixote = key HO tay]. Like the Don, quixotic means someone who impulsively performs noble and romantic, but impractical, acts. The expression tilting at windmills also comes from this literary work, and has much the same meaning: setting yourself up against imaginary enemies, where the enemies are much larger or more powerful than you are. Example: Moved by a quixotic desire to make sure everyone receives flowers on Valentines Day, Ben decided to give a red rose to every person he meets on February 14th each year. The discussion of the word quixotic used quite a few words, and perhaps we could have found a way to define it more concisely. Instead, we came up with a rather prolix explanation. Prolix means wordy or verbose. It can mean using too many words, or that the words youre using are overly obscure themselves, or both. Example: Prolix dissertations increase both obfuscation and ennui; or to put it more simply, overly-long speeches are often confusing and boring. As Cicero said, Brevity is the best recommendation of speech, whether in a senator or an orator. A modern version of this maxim is Keep it short and simple. A maxim is a saying about a general rule of life. Two synonyms for maxim are proverb and aphorism. Example: Jake was trying his best to get me to invest in his banking scheme before the rates went up, citing the old maxim he who hesitates is lost, but I didnt trust his calculations, and decided to keep my money in mutual funds. The maxim he who hesitates is lost means that sometimes if you wait too long to take action, youll lose the opportunity to take action altogether. On the other hand, if youre hesitating before jumping off a cliff, that might not be a bad thing. This proves maxims arent always true. By contrast, an axiom is something that is accepted as true because it has been proved constantly true in the past, or because its so obvious it doesnt need to be proved again. The word is used most often when speaking of mathematics or logic. Example: The science of mathematics is based on axioms that form the foundation for further theories; for example, it is accepted as fact that only one straight line can be drawn between any two points.

Testing theories in mathematics usually just involves a pencil and paper, unlike chemistry experiments, which can sometimes result in loud explosions and noxious odors when the wrong substances are combined. Noxious is an adjective meaning unpleasant. Its

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most often used to refer to an odor. Something that is noxious is quite often toxic as well and theres an extra x-word for you! Example: We were cleaning out the drawers in his desk and accidentally opened an old carton of leftover food the entire office was filled with the noxious odor of spoiled meat for days.

E.

Words Starting With V For You To Conquer

Julius Caesar said it first: "Veni, vidi, vici" - I came, I saw, I conquered. Here are five more Ultimate Vocabulary words for you to conquer: venue, vocation, vehement, vapid, and viable. V for victory!

Your words starting with v explained


One can just imagine Caesar at the head of his armies, planting the standard of the Roman Eagles firmly in the ground, shouting those words out across the conquered lands. His vehement statement would have made as much of an impression as his forceful actions. Vehement means being forceful, passionate, or intense when speaking, especially when speaking about something you have strong feelings about. Example: During the meeting of the local council, Mark interrupted a presentation on proposed budget cuts with a vehement defense of spending increases for public transportation. Sounds like that Council Meeting was more interesting than some weve been to, where hours go by filled with vapid speeches on irrelevant issues. Vapid can refer either to the speech itself, or the person making it, and means dull, lifeless, and bland, without anything of real meaning or interest to the audience. Example: I dont understand why her books are so popular; to me, theyre nothing but vapid recitals of her memories of what seemed to be a completely unremarkable childhood. Some people are talented writers, while others find it hard to create compelling narratives. Even if writing is your vocation, its something that takes a lot of work to do well, as in any other endeavor. A vocation is a job or occupation that you have chosen to work in because you feel called to do it, and that you are good at doing it. Example: She is an excellent doctor, and her family always knew her vocation was medicine, since she spent much of her free time as a child helping to take care of the sick animals on the farm, and visiting the elderly at the local rest home.

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Medical School is often quite expensive. Many children may want to be doctors when they grow up, but depending on their familys financial situation, getting the education they need may not be a viable option. Viable means able to be done or possible. Example: We received many suggestions from our employees about ways to improve the workflow, but while most of the ideas were good, only a few were practical enough to be viable choices to present to the Board at next years Business Planning Meeting. Many business meetings are held at hotels or convention centers, or other venues where there is on-site catering and large conference rooms already set up with tables and chairs. A venue is a place where events occur. Example: Now that the new theatre building is completed, its quickly becoming the preferred venue for performances of all types, due to the quality and versatility of its stage and seating arrangements.

F.

Words Describing Dreams And Visions

These Ultimate Vocabulary words will help you achieve your dreams by providing you with the tools to create exceptional written and oral communication at work and home. Here are five words that describe dreams and visions: nostalgia, idyllic, renaissance, visionary, paragon.

Your words describing dreams and visions explained


Wouldnt it be wonderful if we all knew exactly the right words to use in every situation? There would be no misunderstanding, no disagreement, no argument over meaning ... well, maybe not. Even knowing exactly what someone means doesnt mean youll agree with it! Perhaps it wouldnt be such an idyllic situation after all. Idyllic means peaceful, happy, and perfect. People often use this word to describe imaginary states, the way they wish things were. Example: Its easy to dream of an idyllic society where no one is hungry or sick, but its harder to do the real work of providing food, shelter, and medical care for people in need. You might hear your parents reminisce about growing up in the middle of communities that did take care of each other, where you knew that if your garden was destroyed by rabbits, your neighbors would be there soon after with new plants to help you get started again. A longing for things to be the way they were in the past is called nostalgia. Example: In these days of instant messaging and cell phones, I find Im prone to a bit of nostalgia for the written letters and postcards we used to send instead. While many people, especially younger ones, have gotten used to using computers and other electronic means of communication, there has been somewhat of a renaissance of

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letter-writing, and sales of fine paper and fountain pens have been on the rise. Renaissance is a word from the French meaning rebirth or revival. Example: The Italian Renaissance of the 14th century was a time in which art, philosophy, and literature blossomed, bringing the cultural life of Europe back after the devastation of the Black Death. One of the pre-eminent artists and thinkers of the Italian Renaissance was Leonardo Da Vinci, who was talented in a number of fields, including art, mathematics, and music. In addition, he was a visionary engineer, sketching ideas for helicopters, hydraulic pumps, and hang gliders, most of which would not actually be built for centuries. Visionary means someone who sees the possibilities of the future. Example: The microcomputer revolution began with a few visionary thinkers who realized that small portable devices would eventually be more useful to everyday citizens than the large data processing machines required by business. Many people refer to Da Vinci as a paragon of the so-called Renaissance Man someone who is equally adept at a variety of fields, who continually questions and explores the world around him, who is both creative and scientific. Paragon is a noun meaning the best, or the ideal, of something. Example: Helen always has snacks and drinks ready for visitors, and is adept at making sure that everyone in her house is comfortable she is the very paragon of hospitality.

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Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A. Words For Describing Change

Test Sentences
Here are five practice sentences; fill in the correct word in each: 1. Franklin spends his weekdays dressed conservatively in a dark suit and tie, but on Saturday nights he makes a remarkable ______________ into a flamboyant karaoke singer in a sequined Elvis costume. Believing that metals could be changed from one type to another, alchemists in the middle ages spent years trying to ________________ lead into gold. She is an amazing actress; her one-woman show shows off her ____________ ability to portray a wide range of characters. The children in my art class enjoy working with clay and other ____________ materials, and have created some remarkable and imaginative sculptures. John has such a _____________ personality - he's always in motion, talking about a dozen things at once.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Answers: 1. Franklin spends his weekdays at the office dressed conservatively in a dark suit and tie, but on Saturday nights he makes a remarkable metamorphosis into a flamboyant karaoke singer in a sequined Elvis costume. Franklin's clients are so used to seeing him as a quiet and conservative figure that they might not recognize him at the karaoke bar in his silver jumpsuit. When something has changed so radically, it can be referred to as a metamorphosis, or a complete change in shape, form, or nature. 2. Believing that metals could be changed from one type to another, alchemists in the middle ages spent years trying to transmute lead into gold. If it were possible to change lead into gold, it would have to happen at the molecular level, and would not be immediately apparent. To transmute something means to make a change in substance, but not necessarily one that is evident on the surface. 3. She is an amazing actress; her one-woman show shows off her protean talent to portray a wide range of characters.

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"Protean" means the ability to take many different forms; in this example, the actress might use her body language as well as her voice to play the part of a nun or a homeless woman, the president of a corporation or an alien from outer space. 4. The children in my art class enjoy working with clay and other malleable materials, and have created some remarkable and imaginative sculptures. Once clay is at the right consistency, it's very flexible and can be used to make sculptures as well as plates, bowls, and other objects. "Malleable" means easy to shape. 5. John has such a dynamic personality - he's always in motion, talking about a dozen things at once. Something that is constantly moving and changing is "dynamic". The opposite of "dynamic" is "static."

Now that you've learned these Ultimate Vocabulary words, you'll find that your conversations will undergo a metamorphosis. Instead of using the same words over and over again, you'll be able to choose exactly the right words to convey the subtle meanings you intend. Your conversation will be dynamic and never boring, and you'll be admired for your protean ability to shape your conversational style to any audience and every circumstance. But you'll only get this absolute confidence in using these words in context by practicing them until they're completely familiar to you. Start using these five powerful new words today: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. protean malleable dynamic metamorphosis transmute

B. Words For Describing Technical Innovation


No frogs were harmed in the making of this vocabulary training session! Here are some practice sentences so you can experiment with your new words:

Test Sentences:
1. The base-ten numbering system we use for everyday purposes has ten digits from zero to nine, but the ______ numbering system only has two: zero and one.

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2. Alan is very reluctant to purchase new stereo equipment; hes still using a ____________ cassette player to record his songs, even though all the other band members do their recording on line. Many messages sent to Allied forces during World War II were written using the Navajo Indian language, which proved to be almost impossible to _________ even if intercepted. Sheila thinks that the new philosophy teacher is extremely wise, but I think hes just filling his lectures full of _________ references in order to sound more learned. I know its an ____________ attitude, but when I come home and my cat seems so happy to see me, I think its because she loves me, and not because she just wants to be fed.

3.

4. 5.

Answers: 1. The base-ten numbering system we use for everyday purposes has ten digits from zero to nine, but the binary numbering system only has two: zero and one. Combining the two digits in various ways produces the same numbers; theyre just harder to read unless you know the language. For example, 10 in binary is actually the number 2. Both of these digits are essential for the system to work. Binary means having two parts. 2. Alan is very reluctant to purchase new stereo equipment; hes still using a superannuated cassette player to record his songs, even though all the other band members do their recording on line. Cassettes were replaced with CDs, and now everythings digital. Using tape to make recordings is an old-fashioned method. Superannuated means old-fashioned, outdated, or obsolete. 3. Many messages sent to Allied forces during World War II were written using the Navajo Indian language, which proved to be almost impossible to decode even if intercepted. The Navajo language is unlike any other language on earth, which makes it a very good language to use for secret messages if you cant speak Navajo, you would have no idea how to decode the message. Decode means to make clear or understandable. 4. Sheila thinks that the new philosophy teacher is extremely wise, because she doesnt understand half of what he says, but I think hes just filling his lectures full of cryptic references in order to sound more intelligent. If people dont understand what youre talking about, perhaps they dont have the knowledge or background you do. Or perhaps its because youre really not making any sense. Cryptic means hard to understand.

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5. I know its an anthropomorphic attitude, but when I come home and my cat seems so happy to see me, I think its because she loves me, and not because she just wants to be fed. Its tempting to think that our pets feel the same way about us that we do them, but until animals are able to talk back to us, well never know. Assigning human emotions, human thoughts, or human shapes to animals, machines, or other nonhuman entities is called anthropomorphizing the adjective describing this is anthropomorphic. The more words you know, the more youll understand, and formerly-cryptic texts and conversations will become clear. Practice your new vocabulary words every day, and youll quickly gain confidence in using them in context. Your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words are: anthropomorphic cryptic decode binary superannuated

C.

Words For Describing Relationships

Don't take any time off yet - here are five practice sentences using the words you've just learned. Put the correct word in each sentence:

Test Sentences
1. 2. Steel is an ____________ of iron and carbon that is both harder and more durable than iron alone, although it is more brittle as well. Several species of ants live only on particular types of trees, which they protect by chasing off other insects; in return, the trees contribute to the ____________ by producing sweet sap to feed the ants. I saw my uncle for the first time in thirty years, and he has become a very bitter and angry old man - it was hard for me to ____________ my image of him now with the memories I have of him when he was young and happy. Antitrust legislation needs to be put in place to prevent multinational corporations from working in ______________ to fix the price of their products on the market. We hope that the local government fixes the cracks in the levees, because if they break during the next big storm, the river will ___________ most of the downtown area.

3.

4. 5.

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Answers: 1. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon that is both harder and more durable than iron alone, although it is more brittle as well. People have been combining metals for thousands of years, trying to find the best mixes for their purposes. An alloy is a mix of two or more metals. Several species of ants live only on particular types of trees, which they protect by chasing off other insects; in return, the trees contribute to the symbiosis by producing sweet sap to feed the ants. The tree and the ants have a mutually beneficial relationship, with the tree gaining protection from harmful insects, and the ants receiving food and shelter. "Symbiosis" means a relationship where both parties benefit. The relationship can be between two members of the same group, or between two entirely different species. 3. I saw my uncle for the first time in thirty years, and he has become a very bitter and angry old man - it was hard for me to reconcile my image of him now with the memories I have of him when he was young and happy. It can be difficult to bring two opposing things into balance. To reconcile things means to bring a balance between them, to create a relationship between them, or to make them even or equal. 4. Antitrust legislation needs to be put in place to prevent multinational corporations from working in collusion to fix the price of their products on the market. A secret, behind-the-scenes agreement is often a conspiracy to create a situation that is beneficial for some parties but not others. Another word for conspiracy is "collusion."

2.

5.

We hope that the local government fixes the cracks in the levees, because if they break during the next big storm, the river will inundate most of the downtown area. The waters from a breached levee or dam would create a sudden flood that would overwhelm the nearby areas. "Inundate" means to flood or overwhelm with something.

Are you feeling inundated by all of these new words? Don't worry! Keep practicing, and soon you'll be confidently using these vocabulary words in their correct context: alloy symbiosis reconcile collusion inundate

D.

Words Containing X

Small efforts do add up over time to make a large impact. Keep working on using these Ultimate Vocabulary words in context, and youll soon see a definite change in your conversational abilities. Here are five sentences to help you practice using your new vocabulary words:

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Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. My brother said that after he had worked at the recycling center for a few months, he stopped noticing the ____________ smells coming from the compost pit. When I started learning algebra, I was confused even by the simple ______ that A + B = B + A. Her __________ desire to save all of the feral cats in town has drained her bank account and left her with a houseful of sick pets that no one else wants to care for. We were disappointed to see that Bishop Green had been chosen to give the opening speech, because we dont enjoy his ___________ sermons that go into detail on the history of Hebrew tradition and teachings. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it is a _______ that our world leaders should keep in mind.

5.

Answers: 1. My brother said that after he had worked at the recycling center for a few months, he stopped noticing the noxious smells coming from the compost pit. Its true that people can get used to anything, and if you are exposed to a strong odor for a long period of time, youll find it much less noticeable than you did at the beginning. A noxious odor is one that is strong and unpleasant; noxious can apply to anything that is unpleasant and possibly dangerous. 2. When I started learning algebra, I was confused even by the simple axiom that A + B = B + A. An axiom is a statement, often of a logical nature, that is so fundamental that it does not need to be proven before being used in further theory or speculation. 3. Her quixotic desire to save all of the feral cats in town has drained her bank account and left her with a houseful of sick pets that no one else wants to care for. One person, even with a huge amount of money and time, would find it hard to save all of the abandoned animals in a town, but the wish to do so is admirable, if impractical. Quixotic means having an urge to do heroic deeds, often romantically inspired, that are impractical or far beyond ones capabilities. 4. We were disappointed to see that Bishop Green had been chosen to give the opening speech, because we dont enjoy his prolix sermons that go into detail on the history of Hebrew tradition and teachings. Speeches that go on and on, using overly-complicated vocabulary or arcane references to ancient texts that few people are familiar with, are usually very boring. Prolix refers to something that is wordy and much too long.

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5. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it is a maxim that our world leaders should keep in mind. The old sayings are often true. A saying that is a general statement of a basic truth of the way things are is called a maxim. A synonym for maxim is proverb.

When you started this course, you might have felt that it was project beyond your capabilities, a quixotic quest to improve your vocabulary to unimagined heights. But we disagree by working hard and practicing daily, youll achieve your goal sooner than you think. Remember this maxim: Nothing ventured, nothing gained! Venture out and start using these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: quixotic prolix maxim noxious axiom

E.

Words Starting With V For You To Conquer

Happy memories, current activities, and future plans you need powerful vocabulary words to be able to describe them in rich and compelling detail, so that you dont bore your listeners with vapid stories theyll soon forget. Keep building your verbal strength by practicing with your five new words:

Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. My friend Dana knew from an early age that she wanted to be an architect, and she now has a successful career in her chosen ___________________. The School Board wanted to bring in money by allowing advertisements on school property, but the parents were _______________ in their opposition to that plan, and protested loudly. Unless he learns to speak Spanish fluently, moving to Madrid to find work as a lawyer is not really a ______________ plan. No, I wont go to the monthly Luncheon with you; last time I went, they didnt have a vegetarian option on the menu, and besides I was bored to tears by the ___________ conversation. Because of its central location, the city park is a popular ___________ for outdoor performances and weekend markets.

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Answers: 1. My friend Dana knew from an early age that she wanted to be an architect, and she now has a successful career in her chosen vocation. A career that you are attracted to, that you enjoy, and that you are good at, is your vocation. This word is often used to refer to a religious calling, for those who become priests or nuns, but can apply to any chosen career, whether paid or unpaid. 2. The school board wanted to bring in money by allowing advertisements on school property, but the parents were vehement in their opposition to that plan, and protested loudly. Many parents feel that their children are already exposed to too much commercial advertisement on television, and see the school buildings as places where the children should focus on learning. In this example, the parents spoke out loudly and strongly against the possibility of advertisements in the school. Vehement means forceful and impassioned, as in a speech, where the speaker is expressing his or her strong feelings on an issue. Unless he learns to speak Spanish fluently, moving to Madrid to find work as a lawyer is not really a viable plan. While its possible to get a job in country where you dont speak the language, those jobs are usually in the service sector. Only fluency in the local language will make getting a professional job possible. When something is possible, or able to come about, it is viable. No, I wont go to the monthly luncheon with you; last time I went, they didnt have a vegetarian option on the menu, and besides I was bored to tears by the vapid conversation. Vapid means dull, or without interest to the Listener. Because of its central location, the city park is a popular venue for outdoor performances and weekend markets. A venue is a place where events happen, usually referring to a specific location, but sometimes defined by the event itself. In other words, a concert hall is a venue for musical productions, but you might also refer to the street in front of a parliament building as a venue for protestors its not that the street was designed for protests, just that its where many protests are held.

3.

4.

5.

Learning how to use these Ultimate Vocabulary words in context will make viable your plans for future success in your personal and professional life. You may even discover that you have a vocation to be a writer or lecturer! We hope youve enjoyed learning these five words: 6. venue 7. viable 8. vehement 9. vocation 10. vapid

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F.

Words Describing Dreams and Visions

Let these powerful new vocabulary words bring new life to your conversations. Get started now, and practice using these five new words in context in each of the following sentences:

Test Sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The author Isaac Asimov is widely regarded as a _____________, writing about social and scientific issues decades before they became reality. Even as the price of fuel rises, some people feel such ______________ for the cars of their teenage years that they keep driving them, inefficient as they are. She knows exactly how to phrase things to explain the systems she works on; her report is a ____________ of clarity and simplicity. Jack says hed find living on a remote island ____________, but Id go mad if I didnt have an internet connection! Theres a ________________ in handcrafted items lately, and shops selling knitting needles and yarn are popping up everywhere.

Answers: 1. The author Isaac Asimov is widely regarded as a visionary, writing about social and scientific issues decades before they became reality. A hundred years before we landed on the moon, rocket trips into space were already part of the science fiction landscape. Its amazing sometimes to see how many of the things those writers dreamed are now reality. A visionary is someone who dreams about the way things could be in the future. 2. Even as the price of fuel rises, some people feel such nostalgia for the cars of their teenage years that they keep driving them, inefficient as they are. Looking back at ones childhood with longing, and wanting to have the things you had then, is called nostalgia. In general, it means thinking with fondness about the past, even if the past wasnt really as nice as youd like to remember it. 3. She knows exactly how to phrase things to explain the systems she works on; her report is a paragon of clarity and simplicity. A paragon is an ideal, or a perfect example of something. 4. Jack says hed find living on a remote island idyllic, but Id go mad if I didnt have an internet connection.

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Every person has their own idea of their perfect world. Idyllic means peaceful, happy, and perfect, and is often used to describe how and where someone would like to live. 5. Theres a renaissance in handcrafted items lately, and shops selling knitting needles and yarn are popping up everywhere. The word renaissance comes from the French word for rebirth and means a new growth or popularity in something that had faded in the past.

Once you know how to use your Ultimate Vocabulary words in context, youll be a paragon of oratory your presentations, speeches, and even everyday conversations will be clear and compelling. Keep working on using your five new words. Visionary Renaissance Idyllic Nostalgia Paragon

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A. Words For Difficult Times

Sometimes it seems like everythings going wrong - your co-workers are annoying, the weather is dreary, and your dog develops a terrible case of fleas. In these situations, its useful to have exactly the words you need to express your displeasure at this state of affairs. Heres a set of five Ultimate Vocabulary words you might need during difficult times: vindictive, impugn, derogatory, hector, critique.

Your words for describing difficult times explained


The worst sort of co-worker is one who takes everything personally, and whos always looking for revenge, for imagined slights. Its hard to trust a vindictive person, because you never know if their next target will be you. Vindictive means having a desire for revenge. The word comes from the Latin vindicta, meaning vengeance. In particular, a vindictive person not only wants revenge, they want revenge in a way that does the most possible harm to the other person, above and beyond any harm they themselves may have received. Example: The beauty pageant contestant who was dropped in the first round blamed the other participants for her failure, but her vindictive plan to replace their shampoo with hair remover was stopped in time, when the stagehand noticed her hiding by the showers. Some people use physical force to get their revenge, and others choose to use words. If our beauty pageant contestant had tried to eliminate the other participants by impugning their morals and characters to the judges, she might have been believed. To impugn means to attack something by saying bad things about it. Its a verbal assault, rather than a physical one. This word is often used when referring to an attempt to discredit someone by questioning the truth of their statements. Example: John is determined to win the election; none of his television advertisements do anything other than impugn the voting records of his opponents even when he voted the same way. Political advertisement in general tends to rely on derogatory statements about the other candidates. Derogatory means insulting or belittling something or someone. A derogatory remark shows contempt or a low opinion of something, and is often an attempt to lower the value of that item. Example: The antiques collectors derogatory comments about the color of the paint and the tarnish on the silver handle didnt make me lower the price of the tea set, because Id had it appraised and knew exactly how much it was worth. If derogatory remarks dont make a vendor lower their price, maybe its time to try a bit of hectoring, until theyre so tired of you they give you a cheaper price just to make you go away. To hector someone means to nag them, speaking in a loud, blustering, bullying

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tone. When youre hectoring someone, its because you want to intimidate them into doing what you want. Example: I never learned to like doing housework, because when I was growing up, my mother would follow me around the house as I did chores, and would hector me until I did them exactly the way she wanted them done. Perhaps thats the most annoying sort of person someone who never says anything about your work without turning it into a critique. The word critique can be either a noun or a verb, but either way it means a critical review or judgment of something or someone. Its not always entirely negative, but the understanding is that a critique will always point out the faults in a person, piece, or performance. Example: Sarah said shes very nervous about presenting her thesis to the panel, so I suggested that she have a critique done by her lab partners first, to get their opinions.

B. Words For Expressing Approval And Agreement


We approve of your efforts to improve your vocabulary by using this Ultimate Vocabulary course to learn how to use powerful vocabulary words in their correct context. And wed like to teach you five useful words that will help you likewise express approval and reach agreement: solicitous, clemency, approbation, ombudsman, concord

Your vocabulary for expressing approval and agreement explained


Approbation is the first word well discuss. It means approval or confirmation, but in particular, approval or confirmation from someone who is higher in status to someone who is lower in status. There is also the underlying meaning that the person higher in status is pleased to be giving this approval, rather than just rubber-stamping it. Therefore, when you refer to approbation of a resolution or bill, or something else thats official rather than personal, the sense is that the people approving the resolution or bill are personally happy to do so. Example: The students received the approbation of the parent/teacher committee to start an organic garden in the unused playground area. As all gardeners know, to get the best results, you must devote several hours a week of solicitous attention to your garden beds, keeping them well watered and weeded. Solicitous means attentively caring and concerned. In many cases, this word is used to give the sense that you are somewhat anxious about the outcome, and want to avoid any bad thing that might happen.

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Example: My grandmother spent so many months providing such solicitous care to my grandfather that she neglected her own health, and after he died, it took several more months before she was back to her usual robust self. Whether youre caring for plants or people, that personal attention really makes a difference. Its been documented that people in hospital recover more quickly if they have hands-on care instead of merely machine monitoring, and patients rights ombudsmen make sure to keep that issue in front of hospital administrators. An ombudsman is someone who represents the interests of, and advocates for, individuals who have complaints or issues with institutions such as large corporations, businesses, or governments. The word ombudsman can be traced back to the 16th century, and the Old Norse word for representative. Example: The City Council is having a meeting to set policy for use of parks and other public spaces, and the advocacy groups for the homeless are determined that their ombudsman will be there to speak about the problems and issues of the transient population. In many cities, its against the law to sleep in a public park or on the sidewalk. However, when times are hard, the authorities may grant clemency to people who have no other place to go, and let them off with a warning rather than imposing a fine. Clemency means making a punishment less severe, or even granting a full pardon in place of any punishment. Some synonyms of clemency are leniency, mercy, and compassion. Example: Although the young boy had only stolen a loaf of bread, the London judge showed no clemency, and he was transported to Australia in the convict ship Gorgon in 1791. In the struggle for equality and justice, the peoples of many nations have gone through periods of strife before reaching a concord on what they want their governors and judges to do. Concord is a noun meaning harmony or agreement, especially when referring to opinions and beliefs. Similar terms for concord are concordance, accord, or accordance. Example: The indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions are trying to keep their traditional hunting grounds free from oil exploration and mining, but so many people in the area support the prospect of new jobs that its unlikely there will be concord on this issue.

C. Words For Remaining Neutral in a Situation


Its easy to take sides you cheer for your favorite sports team, stand by your family in a crisis, and vote for one political party over another. But sometimes youll find yourself in situations that require you to remain neutral. Here are five vocabulary words that will help in those situations: diplomatic, arbitrary, impartial, equivocal, probity

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Your words for remaining neutral explained
The iconic image of a diplomat is someone who is courteous and tactful, who can gracefully and skillfully work with all types of people, and who uses discussion and negotiation to resolve issues. Thats also the definition of the adjective diplomatic. Example: Karen makes a good supervisor because shes so diplomatic at handling arguments the employees bring to her; everyone walks away thinking theyve won, even though she doesnt take anyones side. One of the hallmarks of an effective supervisor is their impartiality. Impartial means treating everyone equally, listening to both sides of an argument without pre-judging the situation or showing favoritism. Synonyms for impartial are neutral and unprejudiced. Example: The two teams had the same score, but only one of the judges could cast the tie-breaking vote; the parents trusted her to be impartial because she didnt have a child taking part in the competition. One way of breaking a tie is by flipping a coin, or drawing straws, or some other arbitrary method of making a decision. Arbitrary means random, and can refer to choosing one of several options, any of which would be equally valid. However, arbitrary can also mean making a choice or decision thats based more on your personal feeling, rather than the facts. Here are two examples of how to use this word: Example 1: James and Kira were equally skilled at reconnaissance, but the commander didnt have time to interview them, and so made the arbitrary decision that Kira would lead the away team, and James would provide backup. Example 2: All but one of the judges agreed that the Chinese chefs dish was more successful and that she deserved the top chef medal; the last judges arbitrary rating of 2 seemed to be more due to the fact that he doesnt like liver. When asked afterwards, the judge merely said, It wasnt right. What did he mean? That the spices were wrong, or that the meat was spoiled? Or that it wasnt right to give the chef the award? Its hard to tell with an equivocal answer like that. Equivocal means ambiguous or unclear. An equivocal statement is open to more than one interpretation. In many cases, the person making the equivocal statement is deliberately trying to be unclear and misleading. Example: I was trying to find out if Id gotten a passing grade in the class, but the teachers answer was equivocal, and now Ill have to wait until the grades are published to find out if I can take the next class in the series. In general, having a reputation for giving equivocal answers is less useful than being known for your probity. If you are known for your probity, you are known to be an ethical,

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fair person with strong moral principles. Two synonyms for probity are honesty and integrity. Example: All of the lawyers in that district tried to get their cases heard before Judge Owens, whose probity never allowed her to insert any personal opinions or feelings into her decisions.

D. Words Beginning With Pro


We now propose to provide you with five Ultimate Vocabulary words that will enhance your professional standing and propel you forward in this program of learning how to use words in context and with confidence. In short, youll be a pro once you learn these new words: proscribe, prosaic, profound, propensity, prolific

Your words beginning with pro explained


You may have noticed that we have a propensity for wordplay in this series. A propensity is an inclination or tendency to do something. If you have a propensity for something, you have a preference for, or attraction to, that thing. Example: I really do like working for Carl, but because of his propensity for eating garlic pickles at lunch I cant schedule any client meetings with him in the afternoons. Were not sure workplaces have gone so far as to ban smelly pickles from the lunchroom, but many companies do proscribe wearing perfume or other strong scents, on behalf of employees with allergies. Proscribe means to prohibit or forbid something. Some synonyms for proscribe are exclude and banish and reject. Example: This health spa offers cleansing and purification regimes that are so rigorous they even proscribe the use of aspirin; if you have a headache, they hand you a cup of peppermint tea. Mint is a common remedy for several complaints, including stomach aches, fevers, and indigestion. Its a good plant to have in the garden, but you need to be careful where you plant it, as it is very prolific and its shoots will invade other garden beds if not contained. Prolific means productive or fertile, producing something in abundance. Example: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was one of the Classical Periods most prolific composers, producing over 600 works in less than thirty years. Knowing exactly how many symphonies, concerti, choral works, and other types of music Mozart wrote and precisely when he wrote each piece may not be interesting to someone who just likes listening to beautiful music. There are classical music fanatics out there, however, who are fascinated by such prosaic details. Prosaic means

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straightforward, matter-of-fact, and commonplace. Something that is prosaic is not imaginative, and may be considered dull and unexciting. Example: I enjoy reading this authors books on the lives of historical figures in the early American Colonies, because she can make even the most prosaic aspects of daily life into interesting vignettes. Sometimes all you want from a book is a moments entertainment, something light and funny, and not a profound philosophical treatise. Profound means fundamental and farreaching, to extreme depth, or all-encompassing. You can use profound to describe a physical or a metaphysical state; the ocean floor can reach to profound depths, and someone who sees pictures of the marvelous creatures who live there might experience a profound sense of awe at the wonders of the natural world. Example: After spending a year working with the Red Cross/Red Crescent teams in the refugee camps, Cynthias formerly careless attitude towards other people underwent a profound change, and she returned with a commitment to volunteer work and an openhearted compassion towards those in need.

E.

Words For Describing A Journey

As you continue on your quest to learn these Ultimate Vocabulary words, and to become comfortable using them in context, wed like to help by giving you five new words that you can use to describe your journey: peripatetic, itinerant, expatriate, transient, odyssey

Your words for describing a journey explained


The Ancient Greek poet Homer, who lived nearly three thousand years ago, is credited with one of the worlds first recorded epic poems, about the hero Odysseus, who spends years on a voyage back home, having adventures along the way as he wanders through the lands of the Mediterranean. From this heros name we get the word odyssey, meaning a long, wandering journey, usually towards a goal of some sort. Example: This documentary film follows a renowned chef on her odyssey across Europe, looking for the worlds best traditional cheeses. A long journey can be even longer if you have to get there by foot. But for many thousands of years, that was the only way to get from one place to another, and even today there are nomadic tribes whose peripatetic lifestyles are very similar to those of their ancestors. Peripatetic means traveling on foot from place to place in other words, walking. Example: I used to be overweight and out of shape, until I got this job with the postal service that requires me to spend most of the day in peripatetic activity, delivering letters.

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It used to be common for itinerant workers such as sheep shearers, tinkers, and butchers to travel around a county, stopping in small towns to do jobs for the locals before moving on. Itinerant means traveling from place to place to do work. Example: When Arthur was in his 20s, he spent a few summers as an itinerant laborer in Australia, traveling from farm to farm and working for room and board, and using his free time to explore the country. Each country has something unique to explore, and millions of people travel each year on vacations to visit other lands. And some people never go back to their home country, choosing instead to live as expatriates in a new place. The word expatriate can be either a noun or a verb. If youre forced out of your native home that is, if youve been exiled or banished you have been expatriated: literally sent out of the land. Others might have to leave their country of origin due to political unrest or persecution. However, many people simply decide theyd rather live in Paris than in Podunk, and become expatriates living happily in a foreign country. Example: Janice said that the three years she spent in Bangkok would have been very difficult if not for the support of the other expatriate Americans who helped her with the language and the logistics of living in Thailand. Three years is a long time to live away from home, but on the other hand it gives you a richer experience of life in another culture that you wont get from a transient visit. Transient means staying in one place for a short time, or lasting a short time in general. These days, the word transient is often used as a noun meaning homeless person due to the fact that homeless people in general arent able to find any place to stay for long. Example: The desert oasis is home to a small group of native birds, but also provides a resting place for a transient population of migrating cranes each spring, as they return to northern Europe from their winter home in Africa.

F.

Words For Describing Things That Are Enjoyable Or Amusing

Are you having fun yet? We hope that youre enjoying learning how to use these powerful vocabulary words in context and here are five more words for you, each of which can be used to describe things that are enjoyable or amusing: risible, levity, jovial, animated, carnival

Your words for the enjoyable and amusing explained


Youre familiar with the expression Im not laughing at you, Im laughing with you. And we all hope to avoid situations where people will laugh at us because weve done something risible. Risible means amusing or comical, causing or provoking laughter. Something

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that is risible is also often described as ludicrous, and the word risible is most often heard when referring to a situation where youre laughing at someone or something, rather than with someone. Example: George thought he would fit right in at the formal dinner party, but his attempts at making polite conversation failed, and the other guests found his table manners risible, especially when he ate the fish with his fingers. Formal situations can be tricky, especially if youre not familiar with the protocols. Its especially important in international diplomacy to avoid disrupting official proceedings with a show of levity. Levity is frivolity or a lack of seriousness. This word is often used to describe an inappropriate informality in behavior or tone while in a solemn situation. Example: Bobs family is very traditional, and they did not appreciate the levity of his best friends humorous and joke-filled eulogy at the funeral, even though I thought it showed a very touching remembrance of their relationship. Its always nice to have jovial friends with whom you can share good times and good memories. The word jovial comes from the Roman god Jove, who was represented by the planet Jupiter, and who ruled the heavens. It was thought that someone who is jovial was born under the astrological influence of Jupiter, the bringer of jollity. Jovial means jolly, cheerful, and good-humored, someone who is merry and convivial in company. Example: In the United States, the figure of Santa Claus is that of a jovial white-bearded man who brings presents, but in Denmark, Saint Nicholas is a more menacing figure who puts bad children into sacks and carries them away. One of the best ways to get to know someone is to ask them about their childhood, and how they celebrated holidays. Questions on this topic almost always start an animated retelling of special times in the past. Animated means lively and vigorous. Two people can have an animated conversation, where theyre both talking quickly and emphatically. An animated person is someone who is full of spirit and life. Example: Even when Sarahs across the room, I can tell when shes talking about something that interests her, because her face becomes animated and she uses her hands to punctuate her words. Happy memories of childhood might involve going to a county fair or other outdoor celebration with a carnival atmosphere. A carnival refers to a festival or circus, or any event where a group of people is having fun or celebrating something. As an adjective, carnival means the atmosphere, or feeling, you might experience when at such an event. Example: The children ran eagerly towards the entrance to the carnival grounds, clutching their ride tickets in their hands.

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Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A. Words For Difficult Times

Test Sentences
Are you hungry for an opportunity to try out your new Ultimate Vocabulary words? We promise not to make any derogatory comments while youre practising on these next five sentences: 1. Rick spent so much time _______________ his teammates about how to paint and decorate their robot that they didnt get a chance to install the motor correctly, and their robot failed in the first trial.

2.

That politician shouldnt _________ the morals of his opponent when he himself has been arrested twice for assault and stalking.

3.

You dont want to get on Charles bad side hes very ____________, and if you keep working together, hell find a way to make you look bad, even if it takes years.

4.

Katelyn is beautiful, and funny, and does well in all her classes, but shes never been popular at school, because shes always saying _____________ things about the other students.

5.

I really like this yoga class, because the instructor doesnt hesitate to _________ our poses, so we know were doing them right in the end.

Answers: 1. Rick spent so much time hectoring his teammates about how to paint and decorate their robot that they didnt get a chance to install the motor correctly, and their robot failed in the first trial.

When youre trying to get something done, having someone look over your shoulder with a constant stream of demands is very distracting. A person who is bullying you into doing what they want, who is speaking in an intimidating manner, whos nagging you constantly, is hectoring you.

2.

That politician shouldnt impugn the morals of his opponent when he himself has been arrested twice for assault and stalking.

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People who live in glass houses shouldnt throw stones, as the saying goes. In other words, if you have faults (and who doesnt?) it might be better to avoid pointing out the faults in other people. Impugn means to point out real or imaginary faults or negative aspects of something or someone in order to cause them to lose value or credibility.

3.

You dont want to get on Charles bad side hes very vindictive, and if you keep working together, hell find a way to make you look bad, even if it takes years.

Someone who constantly wants revenge, and to make other people suffer far beyond what they deserve, is vindictive. A common synonym for vindictive is spiteful.

4.

Katelyn is beautiful, and funny, and does well in all her classes, but shes never been popular at school, because shes always saying derogatory things about the other students.

Cruel and unnecessary remarks about others will make even the most lovely face into an unpleasant mask. Derogatory means cruel, designed to hurt, and insulting.

5.

I really like this yoga class, because the instructor doesnt hesitate to critique our poses, so we know were doing them right in the end.

A critique is an evaluation of a person, process, or performance. In general, it means pointing out the things that are wrong, although a balanced critique will mention the positive aspects as well as the negative ones.

Although you now know how to use these five Ultimate Vocabulary words in context, we hope that youll remember to be fair in your critiques, to avoid being vindictive, and to make sure you stay away from derogatory remarks about other people at least where they can hear you! Keep practicing these words, if not the actions: derogatory critique hector vindictive impugn

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B. Words For Expressing Approval And Agreement


Head into this jungle of sentences and use one of your new Ultimate Vocabulary words correctly in context in each:

Test Sentences
1. Im going to leave extra money on the table for our server; I really enjoyed the attention and ______________ care she gave to us, making sure that we always had fresh bread and drinks.

2.

If youre worried about how people are treated in hospital, I encourage you to go to public meetings, and perhaps become an ___________ to represent the rights of patients.

3.

Jack had been driving over 100 miles per hour through the middle of town, but because he was on his way to help a friend with an emergency, and hed never gotten a ticket before, the judge granted _________ and let him off with a fine.

4.

Because she had the ___________ of the church vestry for her singing group, they were happy to provide extra money for robes and music.

5.

After several weeks of negotiations, the three diplomats reached a ________ on the proposed antinuclear treaty.

Answers: 1. Im going to leave extra money on the table for our server; I really enjoyed the attention and solicitous care she gave to us, making sure that we always had fresh bread and drinks

If a server is able to answer all your questions, quick to bring you your requests, responsive to the state of your plate and glass, and friendly as well, they have provided attentive, caring service. Solicitous means attentive and caring, often all positive, but occasionally with a bit of anxiety on that persons part, if theyre working hard to prevent bad things from happening.

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2. If youre worried about how people are treated in hospital, I encourage you to go to public meetings, and perhaps become an ombudsman to represent the rights of patients.

An ombudsman is someone who represents the interests of, and advocates for, individuals who have complaints or issues with larger organizations, such as hospitals. In general, an ombudsman represents someone who has very little power or influence. 3. Jack had been driving over 100 miles per hour through the middle of town, but because he was on his way to help a friend with an emergency, and hed never gotten a ticket before, the judge granted clemency and let him off with a fine.

Frequently, speeding is viewed as reckless endangerment and can be subject to quite severe punishment. However, an understanding judge may take an emergency situation into consideration, and adjust the consequences. Clemency means reducing or eliminating punishment, or granting pardon or mercy to someone. 4. Because she had the approbation of the church vestry for her singing group, they were happy to provide extra money for robes and music.

Approbation means approval, and more than just approval its enthusiastic approval, where the person (or persons) doing the approving also have a personal interest in something. 5. After several weeks of negotiations, the three diplomats reached a concord on the proposed antinuclear treaty.

A concord is an agreement, or a harmony between peoples beliefs or opinions.

We hope youre in agreement that this has been a useful exercise, and that youre now ready to use your five new powerful vocabulary words in conversation, with confidence: approbation concord clemency ombudsman solicitous

C. Words For Remaining Neutral in a Situation


Youre not legally obligated to use the next five sentences to practice using these new Ultimate Vocabulary words in context, but it is our considered opinion that it will help you learn more quickly:

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Test Sentences
1. The position of bank manager is a demanding one, and requires someone with a great deal of personal commitment as well as unquestioned financial ________. On the true/false portion of the test, youre only given two possible answers, but in the essay section, your responses can be more _____________. I was in a rush to get out of the store, so I made an ____________ selection from the ice cream display I didnt know you were allergic to strawberries! If you want an ____________ opinion on your curriculum vitae, you should take it to Alice; she spent many years working in a personnel office. Ann will never realize her goal of working as a marriage counselor unless she learns to talk to people in a more ____________ manner, rather than giving them commands.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Answers: 1. The position of bank manager is a demanding one, and requires someone with a great deal of personal commitment as well as unquestioned financial probity.

Being responsible for other peoples money means that you need to be very trustworthy. Probity means of high morals, honesty, and fairness. 2. On the true/false portion of the test, youre only given two possible answers, but in the essay section, your responses can be more equivocal.

With a true/false question, there are only two options, and both are quite clear. Yes means yes, and no means no theres no ambiguity in your response. On the other hand, if youre given the opportunity to use your own words to answer a question, you might be able to write entire paragraphs without directly answering the question. Equivocal means ambiguous, misleading, or open to interpretation. 3. I was in a rush to get out of the store, so I made an arbitrary selection from the ice cream display I didnt know you were allergic to strawberries!

When youre faced with multiple choices, and theyre all equally as appealing, you can pick any one of them at random. Arbitrary means at random, without necessarily relying on other factors. An arbitrary choice can be either with or without prejudice. In this example, the arbitrary selection of strawberry ice cream happened because the person was in a rush, and the carton of strawberry ice cream was closest at hand. However, if the person knew about their friends allergy, and decided to get the strawberry ice cream anyway, that could also be described as an arbitrary decision.

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4. If you want an impartial opinion on your curriculum vitae, you should take it to Alice; she spent many years working in a personnel office.

Impartial means neutral and without prejudice. 5. Ann will never realize her goal of working as a marriage counselor unless she learns to talk to people in a more diplomatic manner, rather than giving them commands.

Someone who is diplomatic is able to work with people by discussing and negotiating issues, and who is tactful rather than domineering. Mastering these powerful vocabulary words will help you realize your goals! Keep practicing your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. probity equivocal arbitrary diplomatic impartial

D.

Words Beginning With Pro

Some things you just have to do over and over and over like practicing how to use your new vocabulary words in their proper context. Here are five sentences to get you started:

Test Sentences:
1. Her family followed strict dietary rules and she never ate meat as a child; her mother would even ___________ the use of eggs in baked goods.

2.

If you give your children many different types of food as theyre growing up, theyll have a _____________ for adventurous eating when theyre older.

3.

Hes such a ____________ writer that I dont know how he found time to build his house with his own hands.

4.

Many boys think the life of a secret government agent is romantic and exciting, but the truth is that many long hours are spent on the very _________ duty of filling out paperwork and filing reports.

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5. I hate having to lead meetings, and it was with a _________ sense of relief that I turned the microphone over to the chapter president when she arrived.

Answers: 1. Her family followed strict dietary rules and she never ate meat as a child; her mother would even proscribe the use of eggs in baked goods.

For some people, any animal products at all are strictly forbidden as food. To forbid something is to proscribe it. Other words that define proscribe are exclude, prohibit, and banish.

2.

If you give your children many different types of food as theyre growing up, theyll have a propensity for adventurous eating when theyre older.

If you grow up in Japan, youll develop a taste for soy sauce and seaweed, but if youre raised in Hungary, you might crave sour cream and pickled beetroot instead. People tend to eat what theyre used to as much as what they enjoy. A tendency towards something is a propensity. Some synonyms for propensity are preference, attraction, or inclination.

3.

Hes such a prolific writer that I dont know how he found time to build his house with his own hands

Prolific means producing in quantity. Someone who is a prolific writer will have written many books, articles, dissertations, or other documents.

4.

Many boys think the life of a secret government agent is romantic and exciting, but the truth is that many long hours are spent on the very prosaic duty of filling out paperwork and filing reports.

Even James Bond would have to spend time filling out forms in triplicate these days, given the bureaucratic nature of modern government. Prosaic means ordinary, matter-of-fact, straightforward, and often dull.

5.

I hate having to lead meetings, and it was with a profound sense of relief that I turned the microphone over to the chapter president when she arrived.

Youve heard the expression thank you from the bottom of my heart thats a phrase you might use when youre truly, deeply grateful to someone. Profound means deeply, from the bottom of ones heart or the bottom of the ocean. A profound truth is fundamental; a profound exploration of a topic means its far-reaching and allencompassing.

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Wed like to thank you for taking this opportunity to expand your vocabulary. The more confident you feel using these words in context, the greater your propensity to use them in everyday conversation. Dont stick to ordinary, prosaic words use these new Ultimate Vocabulary words prolifically, and youll notice a profound change in the way people listen to you. Keep practicing these five powerful new words: proscribe profound prosaic propensity prolific

E.

Words For Describing a Journey

Walk this way to find five practice sentences, and put the correct word in each:

Test Sentences:
1. The Native Americans led a ___________ lifestyle, using dogs to pull their travois, until the Spanish introduced the horse to the New World. In the 18th century, several traditional gypsy societies, including the Roma of Eastern Europe and the travellers of Ireland, made a living as ____________ merchants and workers for landholders and nobleman.

2.

3.

While some people move to the smaller coastal towns to live, many more are part of a ________ population that is looking for permanent work in the larger inland cities.

4.

I moved to London by choice, but I know someone who lives as an _________ because hes afraid of being arrested as a political dissident in his home country.

6. This cruise ship schedule is a true _________, with stops in every Mediterranean port over a three-month period.

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Answers: 1. The Native Americans led a peripatetic lifestyle, using dogs to pull their travois, until the Spanish introduced the horse to the New World.

There were no riding animals in North America until the Spanish brought horses with them on their explorations, and the native population had to travel everywhere on foot. Peripatetic means traveling around by foot, or walking. In the 18th century, several traditional gypsy societies, including the Roma of Eastern Europe and the travellers of Ireland, made a living as itinerant merchants and workers for landholders and nobleman.

2.

Itinerant means going from place to place in order to find work.

3.

While some people move to the smaller coastal towns to live, many more are part of a transient population that is looking for permanent work in the larger inland cities.

Immigrants to many countries arrive by boats, and port towns are frequently home to everchanging groups of hopeful emigres on their way to find jobs or family in the larger cities. Transient means ever-changing, of short duration, not staying in one place for long.

4.

I moved to London by choice, but I know someone who lives as an expatriate because hes afraid of being arrested as a political dissident in his home country.

Unfortunately, many people are forced to leave their homeland, whether to look for work or in fear of their lives due to war, or famine, or political unrest. Someone who no longer lives in his or her country of origin, no matter the reason, is an expatriate.

5.

This cruise ship schedule is a true odyssey with stops in every Mediterranean port over a three-month period.

An odyssey is a long voyage with many stop and adventures. We hope youve enjoyed this journey today, and that youll continue to explore your new vocabulary by practicing these five Ultimate Vocabulary words: itinerant peripatetic odyssey transient expatriate

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F.

Words For Describing Things That Are Enjoyable Or Amusing

Theres a lot of work to do in repairing the damage weve done to our planet, and youve got some work to do now, practicing your five new words by putting each of them into the correct sentence:

Test Sentences:
1. I enjoy staying for the study group after church services are over, because we always have such _______________ discussions about the sermon text, and I learn a lot each week.

2.

The Cinco de Mayo _____________ on the waterfront is a fun event each year, and many local Mexican restaurants have booths selling tacos and tamales to the crowd.

3.

The prosecuting attorney may seem like an easygoing, __________ fellow, but its just a ruse hes actually one of the most ruthless lawyers in town.

4.

Martins attempt at _____________ during the wedding ceremony was not appreciated, especially when he pretended to have lost the ring.

5.

Ive never understood fashion; the clothes the models wear while parading down the runway are so outrageous, wearing them in everyday life would be _______.

Answers:

1.

I enjoy staying for the study group after church services are over, because we always have such animated discussions about the sermon text, and I learn a lot each week.

A lively conversation, with vigorous participation by all concerned, can be described as animated. Animated means full of life, lively, or vigorous.

2.

The Cinco de Mayo carnival on the waterfront is a fun event each year, and many local Mexican restaurants have booths selling tacos and tamales to the crowd.

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A carnival is a fair, or any event attended by a number of people in order to have fun. You can describe any large gathering of people that is noisy, cheerful, and crowded as a carnival.

3.

The prosecuting attorney may seem like an easygoing, jovial fellow, but its just a ruse hes actually one of the most ruthless lawyers in town.

A jovial person is someone who is cheerful, merry, good-humored, and good company.

4.

Martins attempt at levity during the wedding ceremony was not appreciated, especially when he pretended to have lost the ring.

While being a jovial person might make you welcome in a carnival crowd, there are some social occasions that call for a bit more decorum. Levity means frivolity, or a lack of seriousness, or inappropriate humor.

5.

Ive never understood fashion; the clothes the models wear while parading down the runway are so outrageous, wearing them in everyday life would be risible.

Risible means amusing or comical, causing or provoking laughter. In general, this word is used to mean that someone or something is being mocked.

Youll be happy to know that weve reached the end of another Ultimate Vocabulary session! Now its time to find everyday opportunities to use these five powerful vocabulary words: risible levity jovial carnival animated

Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 9 Workbook

Confidence-In-Context
A. Words For Describing The Educational Process

Your studies are paying off, and youre learning more and more powerful vocabulary words, and how to use them in context. Here are five words that will help you describe this educational process: annals, pedagogy, matriculate, mnemonic, tutorial

Your words for describing the educational process explained


Do you have any little tricks for memorizing these vocabulary words? If youve ever studied piano, you might have used the phrase Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge to remember that the lines on the treble clef staff are E, G, B, D, and F. There are lots of little rhymes and phrases like this, and some people even use pictures or sounds as mnemonic aids. A mnemonic is something that helps you remember something else. Example: I have a little mnemonic trick to help me remember that you dont pronounce the m at the beginning of the word mnemonic: I just remember the phrase theres NO EM when you say NEM-ON-ic. Mnemonics are one way of helping people learn, but there are as many styles of teaching as there are teachers and students. A good class in pedagogy will describe the differences between adult education techniques and methods for teaching children. Pedagogy means teaching, or more precisely the activity of educating or instructing, and the methods used to instruct. Example: There is a great difference in pedagogy when dealing with people who are visual learners those who need to see something to learn and with people who are kinesthetic learners those who need to do something physical to learn. Anyone who wants to be a professional teacher needs to matriculate in an accredited degree program. Matriculate means to enroll in a college or university in order to study for a degree. To matriculate means to become a student. Example: At some universities such as Harvard and Oxford, there is a yearly ceremony where new students are officially matriculated and added to the universitys listing. Getting into a good college or university is only the first step; in order to graduate with a degree, youll need to study hard. Most degree programs will offer several opportunities to participate in a tutorial, especially for students who are having trouble with a class. A tutorial is a private session with a teacher or tutor where you can get intensive coaching on a subject. Example: The foreign languages advisor recommends that each student either take a term abroad or in a tutorial session with a native speaker in order to perfect their pronunciation.

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Matriculate, buy books, complete the first-year requirements, sign up for tutorials anyone writing the annals of student life would be recording much the same thing every year. From the Latin word annus, or a year, annals are a recording of events, a reporting of history that is just a chronological recitation of facts. Annals do not contain opinions or explanations. Annals can also be documentation of the work of researchers or scientists, but again, without editorialization. Example: While the annals of the military base hospital might be interesting to statisticians, I quickly grew bored with the daily listings of surgical supplies ordered and used.

B. Words For Describing A City


New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, Mexico City these large cities are full of things to do and places to see, new people to meet, and historical landmarks to visit. Here are five words you might use to describe a city: metropolitan, heterogeneous, amenity, urbane, denizen

Your vocabulary for describing a city explained


While many of the Ultimate Vocabulary words youve learned can have multiple meanings depending on their context or use, our first word in this section, metropolitan, really only has one meaning. Metropolitan means pertaining to a city, or a larger urban settlement. The word can be used to describe the city itself, or something or someone that comes from the city. Example: The public transportation system uses buses, trolleys, and trains to provide services to people in the entire three-county metropolitan area. If you dont have a car, having access to a bus or train that allows you to commute to work is an amenity appreciated by many city dwellers. An amenity is something that makes your life easier or more pleasant, a convenience that is a welcome part of your life. You may be used to hearing this word in connection with vacation spots or hotels that offer amenities such as free drinks or dry cleaning. Example: The competition for customers has gotten so fierce that even the smallest coffee shops offer amenities like free wireless connections and comfortable sofas. Every neighborhood has its own coffee shops; when youre visiting a new city, stop in at one and ask the denizens for recommendations on things to do and see in the area. A denizen is someone who lives in a certain place, a local inhabitant. When you use this word, youre referring to someone whos lived in a place long enough to be completely familiar with almost everything about it.

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Example: The summer weather in Hong Kong is unpredictable, and the denizens of that city are usually prepared for any sudden rain showers, but tourists often end up getting soaked in an unexpected downpour. Large cities like Hong Kong and London have a diverse population, with people coming from all over the world to live there. Another word for diverse is heterogeneous this means coming from different sources, made up of things that are not the same kind. The opposite of heterogeneous is homogenous. Example: The ad campaigns for Benetton clothes feature a heterogeneous cast of models, who differ widely in age and nationality, but who are of course all remarkably attractive. Benetton is an Italian clothing company, one of many companies in Italy that produce trendy clothing for high-end retailers. Italy has a reputation for beautiful clothing, and for the sophisticated Italians who wear it. Urbane is another word for sophisticated. Urbane means refined, polished, or suave, and can refer to a persons appearance or their manner. Example: All of the actors who have played James Bond in the movies over the years have been known for their urbane good looks and perfect manners at least until its time to kill someone.

C. Words For Talking About The Countryside


Composers have written lush orchestral pieces describing it. Painters have used it as subject or background for hundreds of years. Poets speak lovingly of its purity and beauty. Its the countryside, where at least in the ideal the air is clean, the people are healthy and happy, and the animals frolic in the fields. In this section, youll learn five words that you might use to talk about the countryside: bucolic, flora, fauna, microcosm, and dearth.

Your words for talking about the countryside explained


The first word, bucolic, means of the country side. Originally, this word was used primarily to refer to shepherds, and comes from the Greek word boukolos meaning herders. Now, however, it is used when talking about any thing, or place, or person that is rustic or rural in manner or appearance. Another word for bucolic is pastoral. Example: The organic gardening workshop ended with a dinner held in the lovely bucolic setting of the farms herb garden, right next to the duck pond, and looking out over the fields of hay and clover. Although perhaps not originally native to many areas, clover is often planted to support bees or to provide fodder for cows, sheep, and rabbits, and is now commonly found as part of the flora nearly everywhere people have settled to farm. Flora means the

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vegetation or plant life that grows in a certain area, and usually refers more to the native plants than, for example, to an ornamental cactus grown in a garden in Sweden. Example: The students in the first-year botany class took several field trips to study the flora of the local ecosystems, including the riverside wetlands and the nearby mountain foothills. And of course, where we have flora, we usually have fauna the animals that are native to a certain area. Again, this word usually means animals that are part of the natural landscape, and not family pets or creatures in a zoo. Example: One reason I enjoy going on the expeditions sponsored by the World Wildlife Federation is that it gives me an opportunity to see the fauna of many regions around the world. With its variety of rare and common animals from many different countries, a big zoo might be seen as a microcosm of the world itself. Microcosm means a miniature version of something larger. It can also refer to a small closed system that is complete in and of itself. Example: Now that the airport has its own permanent employee housing, its almost a microcosm of the city, with the restaurants, shops, and services you might find just as easily downtown. Airports may have all of the amenities of a downtown city centre, but theres usually a dearth of comfortable places to wait when your flight has been delayed. A dearth is a lack of something, or an insufficient number of things that are needed. Another way to say dearth is scarcity or short supply. Example: Although there were many little jobs that needed to be done around the office, there was a dearth of willing volunteers to do them.

D. Words That Talk About Talking


Lets talk about talking! Here are five words that you might use when discussing, chatting, conversing, or otherwise communicating: garrulous, pontificate, candor, aver, dissertation

Your words that talk about talking explained


Were sure that at some point in your life youve been seated next to a garrulous person on a plane, or worked in the next cubicle over, or been standing behind them waiting to pay for your purchases at a shop. A garrulous person is someone who is too talkative, too chatty. Theyre always talking about trivial things, rambling on and on without paying much attention to their listeners. Someone who is garrulous is overly wordy.

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Example: I only had a five-minute break to run to the post office to mail my package, but the man in front of me was so garrulous it took me fifteen minutes to get everything signed, and I was late for the meeting. When youre being delayed by someone whos chatting away, you do have the option to tell them that youd appreciate it if they would finish their personal conversation later so that you can complete your business. They may not appreciate your candor, but at least youll have called it to their attention. Candor means frankness or outspokenness. Another word for candor is sincerity. This quality of being straightforward and honest in speech is something that is not always a good thing, however. Example: Elaine had told her sister-in-law that shed be at church on Sunday and couldnt help with the wedding preparations, but with childish candor her young daughter spoke up and said, no, Mama, thats the day were going to the zoo! If youre going to aver something, it had best be true or youd better make sure that no one can catch you in a lie. To aver means to declare or assert something is true. It means to swear to something, to report as fact, or to affirm. Example: The first witness continued to aver that the thief was a tall man wearing a green jacket, but the other bystanders reported that they saw a short man in a white raincoat running away from the scene. Even if theyre wrong, a stubborn person might continue to speak as if theyre absolutely right, no matter what. Someone who does this is said to pontificate. Pontificate also means to speak in a patronizing manner, or to speak down to someone. Other ways to describe this manner of speech are pompous and dogmatic. Example: The relationship between industrial pollution and climate change has been widely accepted in the scientific community, but some politicians continue to pontificate about cows, trees, and the natural order of things to try to prevent effective legislation from passing. Many a scientific dissertation has been written so far about global warming and climate change, and many more will follow as new research is done. A dissertation is a formal document that presents original research to a panel, and to the public. Often known as a thesis, this is a paper that is often required of people who are completing a doctoral degree. Example: Kenneth will be ready to present his dissertation to the board of examiners once the final computer simulations are run and the results tabulated.

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E. Words For Describing Conflict

Youre going to have a difficult time of it in this session! These five Ultimate Vocabulary words describe conflict: misanthropic, animosity, contentious, adverse, punitive

Your words for describing conflict explained


If you dont like our choice of words this time, you might want to argue with us about it. Wed like to avoid this quarrel by explaining that the word contentious means quarrelsome or argumentative, when speaking of a person. Contentious can also be used when referring to a situation or action, in which case it means likely to cause controversy. A contentious person has a tendency to dispute others, often just to pick a fight. Example: The twelfth member of the jury was so contentious, arguing about issues that were clearly disproven, that the deliberation process took many more hours than usual. Someone who likes to argue just for the sake of the argument is likely to gain the animosity of others. Animosity means dislike or hostility. Synonyms for animosity are hatred and enmity. Example: The movie star was wearing a fur coat when she arrived at the opening gala for the new animal rights exhibit at the convention center, but the animosity of the crowd quickly led her to take it off and apologize. Some animal rights activists resort to punitive measures when they see people wearing fur coats, and throw red paint on the coats to symbolize blood. Others prefer to punish the shops that sell the coats by marching and protesting in front of them. Punitive means punishing or imposing a penalty on someone. This word implies a certain level of harshness or severity in discipline. Example: The airport security guards dont appreciate pranks about carrying guns or bombs, and will immediately take punitive action against anyone making a joke about such things. There may or may not be more danger in flying these days, but the threat of terrorist acts has definitely had an adverse effect on the ease of airplane travel. Adverse means in a negative way, or in the opposite direction. When you experience something that is adverse, it is often because it is working against your best interests. Example: Bad news about the falling stock market and rising unemployment generally has an adverse impact on government officials popularity, and no politician wants to run for re-election during such a time.

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Many people distrust and dislike politicians even in the best of times, but few people are truly misanthropic. Misanthropic means disliking everyone, distrusting everyone, hating all mankind. Someone who is misanthropic always believes the worst of everyone. Example: In Charles Dickens classic A Christmas Story, Ebenezer Scrooge is transformed from a misanthropic and hateful man to a generous and happy person who loves everyone.

F.

Words For Talking About The Mind

A mind is a terrible thing to waste. Were glad that youre improving your mind with these powerful Ultimate Vocabulary words, and practicing how to use them in context with confidence. The five words in this section will be useful when youre talking about the mind: cognitive, intuition, esoteric, deduce, perspicacious

Your words for talking about the mind explained


Our first word, cognitive, refers to the process of thinking itself. The word cognitive is used when speaking of the logical part of the functioning of your brain, as you learn, or perceive, or reason. To be cognitive of something is to be aware of it. Example: The patient had been in a coma for four years, but his family was convinced that he was still showing signs of cognitive function, as he seemed to respond to voices and would move his eyes away from bright light. Sometimes you just have to rely on a gut feeling to tell you whether something is true or not. In that case, youre relying on intuition. Intuition means instinctive knowledge, rather than learned knowledge. When you do something on intuition, you are doing it without consciously thinking about the reasons for your action. Example: The police were unable to locate the hidden will, but Detective Jones had known the old woman for decades, and her intuition led her straight to the kitchen, where she found the will buried in a jar of sugar. Detectives rely on intuition, but they also solve crimes by using their reason to deduce the answer. Deduce means to apply logic to a problem to come to a conclusion, to use reason, or to base your opinion on facts rather than feelings. Example: Sherlock Holmes is a fictional character best known for his ability to deduce the circumstances of a crime and the identity of a criminal from what seem to be unimportant details and random facts. One of Sherlock Holmes most famous opponents, the master criminal Moriarty, belonged to a secret group who studied esoteric methods of committing crimes. Esoteric means

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mystical or hidden knowledge. Something that is esoteric is only understood or known by a select group of people, usually part of a secret society. Example: Abraham decided to go to Israel and join a group of scholars who study the esoteric teachings of the Kabbalah, the deepest meanings of the Judaic philosophy and religion. Some things that are hidden or obscure are revealed after years of study and observation, but if a person is exceptionally perspicacious, they might find the answers more quickly. Perspicacious means able to perceive hidden things. Someone who is perspicacious has a keen mind. Synonyms of perspicacious include wise and insightful. Example: Lisa was having difficulty identifying the correct charges on the billing statement, but her co-worker was more perspicacious and was able to tell which ones had been made by the client and which had been incorrectly credited to the account.

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Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A. Words For Describing the Educational Process
One of the best ways weve found to remember things is to practice them over and over again. Here are five practice sentences; put one of your newly-learned Ultimate Vocabulary words in the blank spot in each:

Test Sentences
1. This exclusive primary school has a formal ceremony in which the students _____________ after their fourth class year to become part of the advanced class, when they pick their focus area for the next two years.

2.

We can get a very good idea of what life was like in the Middle Ages by studying the ___________ kept by the monasteries in England, France, and Spain.

3.

In many modern classrooms, ______________ is believed to be less important than student participation.

4.

When my mother was studying for her Masters in geology, she used __________ devices to help her remember the correct order of eras, periods, epochs, and ages.

5.

Frances was determined to get the highest possible grade on her maths tests, and signed up for all of the extracurricular ______________ sessions she had time for.

Answers: 1. This exclusive primary school has a formal ceremony in which the students matriculate after their fourth class year to become part of the advanced class, when they pick their focus area for the next two years. When a student is officially enrolled in a degree program, or as part of a school, college, or university, they are entered into the schools list. The word matriculate comes from the Latin matricula, meaning list.

2.

We can get a very good idea of what life was like in the Middle Ages by studying the annals kept by the monasteries in England, France, and Spain.

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Annals are records of historical events, reported factually and in chronological order. This word has a Latin root as well, coming from the word annus meaning year.

3.

In many modern classrooms, pedagogy is believed to be less important than student participation. It is important that the instructors teaching methods, or pedagogy, are skilled enough that the students learn, but experts agree that its best to get the students involved actively in the learning process. Pedagogy refers to a persons style of teaching.

4.

When my mother was studying for her Masters in geology, she used mnemonic devices to help her remember the correct order of eras, periods, epochs, and ages. You might find it easier to remember the six periods of the Paleozoic era (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian) by remembering this phrase: Camels Or Silly Devils Carry Persians. Or maybe not everyone has their own tricks to help them remember things. A mnemonic is a phrase, acronym, image, or other device to help you remember something else.

5.

Frances was determined to get the highest possible grade on her maths tests, and signed up for all of the extracurricular tutorial sessions she had time for. Getting some focused one-on-one assistance in a class can make all the difference to your final scores. A tutorial is a private or small-group teaching session with the focus on a particular subject.

Youll graduate with honors now that youve learned these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: tutorial matriculate pedagogy mnemonic annals

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B. Words For Describing a City


No matter where you live, you use language to communicate. Practice your communications skills by using each of your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words in context correctly in one of the following sentences:

Test Sentences
1. We knew that the company was starting to really pick up business when our manager announced that wed be moving from the outer suburbs to a more _____________ location.

2.

James was startled to find himself standing next to a famous movie actor at the Hollywood premiere, but managed to keep the conversation going in his usual ________ manner, even with all of the cameras flashing.

3.

I like going on long sea cruises; its nice to travel in comfort, with every possible ___________ at your fingertips.

4.

When the _________ of the small border town were told about the new motorway plans, they didnt realize it would result in so much traffic, and the town had to hire two new patrol officers.

5.

The student body at this institution is a _____________ blend of children from wealthy out-of-state families, first-generation immigrants, and locals who can trace their roots back to the days of the pioneers.

Answers: 1. We knew that the company was starting to really pick up business when our manager announced that wed be moving from the outer suburbs to a more metropolitan location. Metropolitan means in or of a city. 2. James was startled to find himself standing next to a famous movie actor at the Hollywood premiere, but managed to keep the conversation going in his usual urbane manner, even with all of the cameras flashing.

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Someone who is smooth, suave, and sophisticated even in situations where it would be easy to get flustered or confused is said to be urbane. Some synonyms for urbane are refined or polished.

3.

I like going on long sea cruises; its nice to travel in comfort, with every possible amenity at your fingertips. What could be better than room service, restaurants, and recreation all in the same place? These are all pleasant things that make your life enjoyable. In other words, they are amenities. An amenity is something that makes your life easier or more comfortable.

4.

When the denizens of the small border town were told about the new motorway plans, they didnt realize it would result in so much traffic, and the town had to hire two new patrol officers. People who live in a certain place are called denizens of that place. This word usually refers to someone who has lived in a place for a long time. Another word for denizen is inhabitant.

5.

The student body at this institution is a heterogeneous blend of children from wealthy out-of-state families, first-generation immigrants, and locals who can trace their roots back to the days of the pioneers. Heterogeneous means coming from many different sources, or made up of many different elements. A synonym for heterogeneous is diverse.

The more diverse your vocabulary, the easier it will be to express exactly what you mean. Youll be able to hold your own with any conversational partner as you gain confidence in using these powerful vocabulary words in context. Keep practicing your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: urbane heterogeneous metropolitan denizen amenity

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C. Words For Talking About The Countryside
Its like a breath of fresh air, introducing these descriptive and sophisticated new vocabulary words into your conversation. Youll find that the more you practice them, the more confidence youll have in using them in context. Start practicing now by putting the correct word in each of the following five sentences:

Test Sentences
1. I dont like driving into the city on the weekend for a show because theres generally a __________ of convenient parking places; Id rather take the bus downtown.

2.

One of the distinguishing features of the _______ that populate the desert is their ability to absorb water through their skin.

3.

That property in southwestern Spain certainly seems like a ________ paradise, but before you buy it, be sure that it has a good water source and a connection to the electrical grid.

4.

This aquarium is a perfect _________ of the ocean, with everything from corals to scavengers, fish and aquatic plants.

5.

The nomadic tribes of the steppes are so familiar with the __________ of the region that they can tell exactly where they are just by looking at the ground.

Answers:

1.

I dont like driving into the city on the weekend for a show because theres generally a dearth of convenient parking places; Id rather take the bus downtown. As most city-dwellers know, parking is at a premium when theres a show in town, and its hard to find a place to leave the car. Dearth means in short supply and refers to situations where there is not enough of something that is necessary.

2.

One of the distinguishing features of the fauna that populate the desert is their ability to absorb water through their skin. The natural world is amazing; animals have evolved over thousands of years to perfectly suit the land they live in. Fauna are the animals that are native to a particular area or region.

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3.

That property in south western Spain certainly seems like a bucolic paradise, but before you buy it, be sure that it has a good water source and a connection to the electrical grid. Many people want to retire to a sunny land where the food is good and the wine is cheap, but unless theyre careful, they might get stuck in an isolated area of the countryside, surrounded by nothing but wild sheep. Bucolic means rural or rustic, in the countryside. You can use this word to describe something in either a positive or a negative sense.

4.

This aquarium is a perfect microcosm of the ocean, with everything from corals to scavengers, fish and aquatic plants. A microcosm is literally a miniature world, or a smaller version of a larger environment.

5.

The nomadic tribes of the steppes are so familiar with the flora of the region that they can tell exactly where they are just by looking at the ground. Flora means the plants and vegetation that grow in a specific place or region.

Now that youre completely familiar with these five Ultimate Vocabulary words, youll have everything you need to describe your next trip to the countryside. Keep practicing these words and youll never have a dearth of subjects to talk about, or powerful vocabulary words to use: microcosm flora fauna dearth bucolic

D.

Words That Talk About Talking

Many things require a lot of hard work, and getting completely comfortable using new vocabulary words in context is no exception. Here are five sentences for you to practice with; put the correct word in each blank:

Confidence-In-Context

Test Sentences:
1. Everyone likes the new receptionist because shes so friendly and helpful, but shes so ____________ that the workflow in the office has slowed down considerably since she started.

2.

James will make an excellent psychotherapist; his qualities of empathy and _______ will allow him to help people through difficult times.

3.

Candidates for public office typically have to _____ that they have no current ties to corporations or other private entities, to avoid conflict of interest.

4.

I got into the habit of only showing up for the last half of the weekly meeting because the CEO would ______________ for at least twenty minutes at the beginning of the meeting on his opinions about the company forecast, even though the financial officers report usually contradicted his statements.

5.

Janets test scores were never more than average at university, but her ___________ was widely admired, and helped her get a job with one of the countrys leading scientific laboratories.

Answers: 1. Everyone likes the new receptionist because shes so friendly and helpful, but shes so garrulous that the workflow in the office has slowed down considerably since she started. Were sure youve had co-workers who seem to have all the time in the world to stand by your desk and chat. Garrulous means chatty and too talkative, especially if the talk is about trivial things.

2.

James will make an excellent psychotherapist; his qualities of empathy and candor will allow him to help people through difficult times. When youre in a field that requires you to talk about topics that might make people feel uncomfortable, it helps if you can present the facts honestly and in a straightforward manner. Candor means honesty and sincerity, or a direct manner of speaking.

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3.

Candidates for public office typically have to aver that they have no current ties to corporations or other private entities, to avoid conflict of interest. To aver means to swear to the truth of something. Synonyms for aver are affirm, declare, and assert.

4.

I got into the habit of only showing up for the last half of the weekly meeting because the CEO would pontificate for at least twenty minutes at the beginning of the meeting on his opinions about the company forecast, even though the financial officers report usually contradicted his statements. To pontificate means to speak in a pompous and self-important manner, or to speak on some topic as if youre the only one with all of the right answers. Someone who is pontificating often speaks in a manner which talks down to their listeners, in a patronizing fashion.

5.

Janets test scores were never more than average at university, but her dissertation was widely admired, and helped her get a job with one of the countrys leading scientific laboratories. A dissertation is a final paper that contains original research, and is usually required of people who are pursuing a graduate degree, especially in scientific fields.

We do solemnly swear, aver, and affirm, and tell you with all candor, that the more you practice your Ultimate Vocabulary words, the quicker youll gain confidence in using them in context. Keep practicing these five new words: garrulous pontificate candor aver dissertation

E.

Words For Describing Conflict

Sometimes the grim news that we get from around the world on a daily basis can turn the most cheerful optimist misanthropic. To get your mind off the cares of the day, try practicing your Ultimate Vocabulary words, instead. Here are five practice sentences; put the correct word in each:

Confidence-In-Context
Test Sentences
1. They say the true character of a person doesnt come out until theyre faced with a challenge or an __________ situation.

2.

Jami has done so much harm to our family with her thoughtless acts and malicious words that I found it hard not to show my ___________ towards her when I saw her yesterday.

3.

Some parents took their children out of the school when they learned about the strict disciplinary rules, but other parents felt the rules werent __________ enough.

4.

The two candidates for office couldnt be farther apart in their positions on public services, environmental protection, and international relations, and we can expect another ______________ election season.

5.

Jeremys last four business partners have each cheated him out of large sums of money, so its not surprising hes gotten a bit _____________, expecting the worst out of any new prospect.

Answers: 1. They say the true character of a person doesnt come out until theyre faced with a challenge or an adverse situation. You know the saying what doesnt kill you makes you stronger. Difficult times can bring out the best in a person, as they learn to grow. Adverse means difficult, negative, or going against ones best interests.

2.

Jami has done so much harm to our family with her thoughtless acts and malicious words that I found it hard not to show my animosity towards her when I saw her yesterday. Animosity means active dislike or hostility towards a person or, perhaps, an idea. Animosity means hatred of something or someone.

3.

Some parents took their children out of the school when they learned about the strict disciplinary rules, but other parents felt the rules werent punitive enough.

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It used to be common for children to be physically punished at school if they misbehaved, but that isnt a general practice these days. Punitive means applying severe or harsh punishment or discipline on someone.

4.

The two candidates for office couldnt be farther apart in their positions on public services, environmental protection, and international relations, and we can expect another contentious election season. Its a rare candidate who doesnt spend most of his or her time arguing why they should be elected instead of their opponent. Contentious means argumentative, characterized by dispute, or likely to cause controversy.

5.

Jeremys last four business partners have each cheated him out of large sums of money, so its not surprising hes gotten a bit misanthropic, expecting the worst out of any new prospect. If no one treats you well, you might be forgiven if you start to dislike everyone on principle. Misanthropic means disliking humanity, not trusting anyone, and expecting the worst of people.

We hope you wont argue the point that these five Ultimate Vocabulary words will help you describe difficult situations in the future. In order to get the best use out of them, keep practicing these five new words: misanthropic animosity contentious adverse punitive

F.

Words For Talking About The Mind

Classrooms are excellent places to study, but if you dont have a classroom handy, find any quiet place and practice using these new vocabulary words in context. Here are five sentences; fill in the correct vocabulary word in each blank space:

Test Sentences:
1. Candidates for the space program have to undergo a rigorous set of tests to ensure that they have the ____________ and physical skills to perform as astronauts.

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2. Anita hadnt studied for the test, and discovered that relying on _________ to choose the correct answer for the multiple-choice questions did not result in a very good grade. In this test of logic and mathematics, the students are required to complete each problem in sequence before they attempt to _____________ the final answer. Harold researched the _____________ details of Masonic Temple rituals before going to see the performance of Mozart's "The Magic Flute" but found that this knowledge did not add much to his enjoyment of the opera. My cousin's child was extremely clever about getting away with vandalism in the classroom until a particularly __________________ teacher noticed that she was the only student who was always nearby when the damage was discovered.

3.

4.

5.

Answers: 1. Candidates for the space program have to undergo a rigorous set of tests to ensure that they have the cognitive and physical skills to perform as astronauts. So much money is put into the space program, and it's such a difficult and dangerous job, that program administrators want to make sure that they have the best possible people going out into space, able to think fast in case of emergency. "Cognitive" is a word that means all aspects of thinking, including reasoning, logic, and analysis. 2. Anita hadnt studied for the test, and discovered that relying on intuition to choose the correct answer for the multiple-choice questions did not result in a very good grade. With a true/false test, you have a fifty percent chance of being right, but with a multiple-choice test, you may only have a one in four chance of coming up with the right answer. Intuition does not rely on logic, but depends more on a person's feeling about something. Intuition does not rely on reason, but more on instinct. "Intuition" means instinctive knowledge, rather than learned knowledge. 3. In this test of logic and mathematics, the students are required to complete each problem in sequence before they attempt to deduce the final answer. To "deduce" means to arrive at a conclusion or answer by using reason, logic, and facts.

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4. Harold researched the esoteric details of Masonic Temple rituals before going to see the performance of Mozart's "The Magic Flute" but found that this knowledge did not add much to his enjoyment of the opera. The Masons are a secret society that have been in existence for hundreds of years, and only the members of the society truly know all of the mystical details of its history. "Esoteric" means hidden or secret knowledge that is only available to a select group of people. 5. My cousin's child was extremely clever about getting away with vandalism in the classroom until a particularly perspicacious teacher noticed that she was the only student who was always nearby when the damage was discovered. "Perspicacious" means seeing what is not immediately obvious, or able to come to the right answer by keen insight. We're sure that you're perspicacious enough to realize that the more you practice, the more confident you'll feel at using these powerful vocabulary words in context. Keep practicing these five new words: 1. cognitive 2. perspicacious 3. intuition 4. deduce 5. esoteric