Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 1 Workbook
A. Words about Careers
The five words in this section might all be used when discussing jobs or careers: curriculum vitae, tenure, hiatus, elucidate, sinecure.
Your career words explained
The first word we’ll define is actually a Latin phrase: “curriculum vitae,” meaning literally “the course of life.” Like a resume, your curriculum vitae, or “CV,” gives the details of your work and professional history, but also includes your academic background, personal achievements, and any awards and recognitions you have received. The terms “curriculum vitae” and “resume” are often used interchangeably, but you might be more likely to hear “curriculum vitae” in an academic setting, such as a college or university. Example: “To help you get the best job, be sure to list your professional certifications on your curriculum vitae.” “Tenure” is another word that is often associated with the world of education. This noun has the same roots as the French “tenir,” or “to hold,” and means “holding or possession of a job, status, or position.” Tenure can refer to a specific period of time – for example, “He accomplished a great deal during his tenure as chairman.” In academics, tenure is used to denote an indefinite period of time: a teacher who “gets tenure” has their position guaranteed from then on. Example: “The organization’s membership list doubled in size during her tenure as president.” Our third word is the noun “hiatus.” A hiatus is a pause or break in something that is otherwise ongoing. For example, a newspaper editor might write a column each week for publication, but when the editor is away on holiday, the column goes on hiatus – that is, there is a gap in the regularly-scheduled publishing. You could say that both the editor and the column are on vacation. “Hiatus” is both singular and plural, though it’s also correct to say “hiatuses.” However, since the term is most frequently used when talking about one instance in time, you generally won’t be faced with the problem of which form to use. Example: “The offices are closed while the department is on hiatus.” 2
Was that last word confusing? If so, perhaps I should elucidate. The fourth word in our list is “elucidate,” which means “to make clear” or “to shed light on.” A synonym of elucidate is “explain.” If you’re a teacher, this is something you’ll be doing quite often. Example: “His clear explanation helped elucidate the details of the complicated instructions.”
The final word in this section is the noun “sinecure.” This might be your ultimate goal when using a curriculum vitae to find work – a sinecure is a job where you don’t have any duties or responsibilities, but you still get paid. Example: “Rather than being a sinecure, this job has me doing something every minute of the day!”
B. Peaceful Words
Here’s a set of words that will give you a peaceful, easy feeling: equanimity, affable, mitigate, congenial, serendipity.
Your peaceful words explained
“Equanimity” means “calmness, especially during stressful situations.” It’s a characteristic of someone who maintains his or her composure. It’s often used to refer to a person’s way of speaking as well as their attitude – for example, “Although his tone was very aggressive, she answered him with equanimity.” Equanimity also refers to stability or steadiness, in a mental or emotional sense. Example: “His exercises in meditation and prayer helped him view the chaos in his life with perfect equanimity.” An affable person is someone who is sociable and easy to talk to, and also someone who finds it easy to talk to other people. “Affable” means “friendly,” but in a quiet, calm way. Affable people are not necessarily the life of the party or the centers of attention. Instead, they’re the ones who listen as much as they talk. Everybody feels comfortable talking to them, because they’re comfortable talking to anyone. Other adjectives that describe this 3
Example: “Being a music lover. Sometimes it’s a negative emotion or feeling. I found myself in congenial company at the opening of the Sydney Opera House’s new season.” 4
.” Example: “She met her future husband through serendipity.” There won’t be much tension to mitigate when you’re with someone congenial. or singing in a choir – then you’re in congenial company. or mitigate the tension. and singing waiters who serenade you with beautiful arias from your favorite operas. even if you’re not a part of any particular group. That’s “serendipity” – the accidental discovery of something good or beneficial. “Mitigate” means to reduce or decrease the effect of something negative. you find delicious food. you’d never have found this restaurant. Example: “Alex is invited to every outing – she’s so amiable. Inside. You can also be in a congenial situation: one where you’re completely in your comfort zone. because you want to mitigate their sadness? Example: “Construction workers are often required to wear earplugs to mitigate the noise of the machinery they operate. because they’re doing construction on the main street to mitigate the traffic congestion. an activity like skiing. If there’s conflict between two people in a group. when they were seated together at a friend’s wedding party.” Do you love opera? Imagine that one day you have to walk home by a different route. If you’re in a group of people who enjoy the same thing – for example. and go in for a look. Have you ever given someone flowers when they’ve had bad news. If you hadn’t been forced into this different path. in a spirit of friendship. surrounded by affable people. In fact. polite and willing to go along with others.Confidence-In-Context
type of person are “amiable” and “cordial” – that is to say. “Congenial” means “having the same likes and dislikes. serendipity is sometimes called a “happy accident. You walk by a small restaurant you’ve never seen before.” You and your best friend are likely congenial kindred spirits. she can get along with anyone. like a migraine: medication can mitigate the pain of a headache. Sometimes that negative thing is more tangible. one thing an amiable person can do is help decrease.
medical researchers are afraid that some diseases may become pandemic if people return home after being infected.” The Ebola virus.” Example: “Because most of the victims of the 1918 pandemic influenza were adults between 20 and 45 years old. many countries lost a large percentage of their workforce within a short period of time. Example: “The pandemic of 1918 was caused by a particularly virulent strain of influenza.” Synonyms of “detrimental” are “destructive. You’ll usually hear this in relation to an illness. already damaged by World War I. it will become pandemic. Words for Difficult or Dangerous Situations
Look out! These five words might be used when you’re dealing with difficult or dangerous situations: pandemic. which kills over half of the people who catch it. resulting in the deaths of over 20 million people worldwide. sequester.” An illness like this. which proved detrimental to their economies. is a virulent disease. “Detrimental” means “causing harm or damage.Confidence-In-Context
C. “Virulent” means “highly infectious and deadly. an epidemic is promoted to “pandemic” status when it spreads beyond the usual range of infection.” “harmful. The verb “sequester” means “to isolate and 5
. Example: “With all of the air travel being done these days between continents.
Your words for difficult or dangerous situations explained
“Pandemic” means “widespread” – that is. Let’s hope that particular illness doesn’t become pandemic. In fact. virulent. For example. to make it harder for the disease to spread. the so-called ‘bird flu’ is considered an epidemic if it affects many people in one country. detrimental. is often said to be virulent. but if it spreads across the globe.” and “unfortunate. stringent. especially if it results in many deaths.” One way of fighting a pandemic illness is to “sequester” the people who are infected. which can spread quickly and easily between populations.” The effects of such an illness are detrimental to a population. covering a large geographic area and affecting many people.
make separate from outside contact. parody. “Stringent” means “keeping strictly to specific rules or standards. or rigid. This little chink in the armour is a metaphorical foible – the real foible is the knight’s habit of over-polishing that spot. but puts extra effort into making the right knee shiny. Example: “The hospital established a stringent policy that all visitors had to follow when visiting patients. rather than putting him in the common ward with the other patients. particularly one that creates vulnerability. you are putting them in seclusion. or isolation.” When you sequester someone. The word comes from the French word faible meaning “feeble” and implies a weakness. Funny and Quirky Characteristics
You might find this section rather entertaining. Let’s say this knight polishes his armour every day. You’ll be learning words that are often used when speaking of things that can be amusing or funny. but that there would be negative consequences if you didn’t follow them. specifically in a person’s character.
Your words for amusing. Some “stringent” measures might be needed if you have to sequester an entire population due to the possibility of a pandemic illness. including a complete change of clothes and hourly hand-washing. rigorous.”
D. “Stringent” can also mean severe. but it can cause them harm. funny and quirky characteristics explained
The first word is “foible. but in a slightly strange way: foible. all that polishing makes the knee area weaker. droll.
Words for Amusing. Example: “The doctors suspected that the child had been infected with measles.
. Think of a suit of armour that protects a knight. It’s a small weakness. so they sequestered him in an isolated area.” The underlying sense of the word is that these rules are difficult to follow. hyperbole. and the next spear goes right through it. Unfortunately. because he thinks that will bring him luck.” A foible is an unusual habit or mannerism.
but they all claim to be. or thing. like “This Is Spinal Tap. this is a common foible of an older person. in a humorous way. and “The Colbert Report” does the same for news programs in the USA.” a mock documentary about a heavy metal band and its concert tours. that was hyperbole. “Hyperbole” means an exaggeration or overstatement. without very many results. The word “potter” means to mess about doing nothing in particular. mocking someone’s mannerisms in a way intended to be hurtful. The Three Stooges and Benny Hill are generally not described as “droll.” In fact. Example: “Jane’s parody of her French professor’s lectures had everyone laughing. but other times a parody can be sharper.” A typical parody of an absent-minded professor includes wandering around aimlessly. or one who’s not altogether mentally sound. In parodies. Not every product can be the best.” It’s a quieter. saying things like “I was so thin as a child my parents didn’t bother giving me a key to the front door.” Advertisers make their living off hyperbole. it was full of witty comments comparing his play’s characters to mode3rn movie stars. used in order to emphasize a point. subtle humour. no. “Droll” means “wry” or “whimsical” or “odd. This foible prevented him from competing in the big tournaments. The Australian television show “CNNNN” made fun of 24-hour cable news networks. doing things randomly. place. I laughed so hard at her presentation that my teeth fell out! Well.” You might find this previous example of a foible somewhat droll. she was not amused. I just went in through the mail slot.” Example: “We all enjoyed her droll presentation on Shakespeare. done in order to poke fun at them. Sometimes this is done just to be humorous. A “parody” is an imitation of a person. where seating is assigned randomly.” Some movies are parodies. Many comedians rely on hyperbole for their acts. Example: “The studio’s statement that millions of people went to the movie premiere on Friday is sheer hyperbole – ticket sales show that only a few thousand people attended.
. but when the teacher walked into the classroom. It’s often done in order to create a humorous effect.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “He insisted on always sitting at the head of the table when he played poker.
in the erroneous belief that the lions had also gotten loose. The radio announcer was having a bit of fun with his audience – but Steven didn’t know this. erroneous. a lie. a foolish fancy. mistaken. but now his reason isn’t a fabrication.
Words for Describing Truth and Lies
Sometimes it’s hard to tell truth from fiction.” 8
. the city closed all of the schools.” You might be familiar with this word in the sense of “making something” – often machine parts or tools – and the meaning we’re talking about is similar. chimera. He’ll still give the same reason for arriving four hours late.” Now. caught in a fantasy. Steven might have been driving slowly home. imagining himself riding on the back of an elephant at the head of a circus parade. specious.
Your words for describing truth and lies explained
The first word we’ll be looking at is “fabrication. Example: “Steven was four hours late. it’s just erroneous. a falsehood. Bruce quit his job and spent every day just pottering around in the garden. verbatim. a chimera.” On the other hand. A “fabrication” is something that’s made up – that is.”
E.” in error. All of the words in this section deal with truth and lies: fabrication. during which time he heard on the radio that the problem was due to an escaped elephant. “Erroneous” means “based on false information. Example: “Early European travellers to Africa brought back descriptions of giraffes and elephants that were dismissed as chimeras by people who didn’t believe such things could exist. a fiction. but his explanation that his late arrival was due to an escaped circus elephant was obviously a fabrication. let’s say Steven really was caught in traffic for four hours. A fabrication is a story. He was lost in his daydream. or an imaginary thing. A “chimera” is a creation of the imagination. Example: “When the zoo reported a missing elephant.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “After he won the lottery.
Example: “The court reporter read back the lawyer’s words verbatim. . when their meanings aren’t what you expect. But it’s easy to confuse words that seem familiar. we’ll look at three familiar words . is said to be “specious”. this seems perfectly logical. they lead to a completely illogical conclusion. exactly as it was said. . On the surface.Therefore I am God. this was a specious argument.Love is blind. This term is often used to describe argument. but only if you’re quoting them verbatim. .I am blind.champion. where A leads to B leads to C back to A. A good example of specious reasoning is the following: . and pedestrian – and discover their Ultimate Vocabulary definitions. brook. but when you look at the statements.Confidence-In-Context
Something that seems believable and reasonable at first glance.
Difficult Words that Appear Easy
The most difficult words to learn are sometimes the ones that look the simplest.
. but as she hadn’t said anything incriminating. “Verbatim” means word for word. or reasoning.”
F. but is easily proven false when examined closely. Another word for a specious argument is a “fallacy.” Quoting something that someone previously said can sometimes help you separate truth and fiction.” Example: “The lawyer tried to prove that the woman was guilty by quoting her previous statements about the incident.God is love. and the judge realized that his arguments were based on false evidence. We’ll also learn two words that might describe the confusion surrounding these words: quandary and abstruse. In this section.
The meaning we’re going to learn is actually very similar. local officials and celebrities championed the movement to replace the wooden buildings with reinforced concrete.Confidence-In-Context
Your familiar but perhaps difficult words explained
Let’s start with the word “champion. to “talk up. trying to get people to support them. to make it or them a winner. Advertisers champion their product. trying to convince you to use it.” It’s a word you hear frequently in sports. but rather a verb that means to tolerate or put up with. As a verb. In other words. Example: “I have been teaching school for over thirty years.” When you’re walking down the street. and he’s in a quandary because he can’t sponsor one of them without alienating the other. specifically with something negative.” meaning uncertainty. You can champion a person or a cause. Example: “After the terrible earthquake that nearly destroyed the city. Example: “Two of his friends asked him for a recommendation to the same job. you’re trying to get something or someone to the top. The adjective “pedestrian” means “unremarkable” or “ordinary. when you’re talking about a winner.” The third word that we’ll look at for its hidden meaning is “pedestrian.” We’re not talking about the noun referring to a small stream. or difficulty in knowing what to do.” Example: “The lives of the people around him seemed so pedestrian that the would-be author couldn’t use them for inspiration when writing his first novel. someone who’s made it to the top.” Before you knew these words had meanings other than the ones everyone knows.” The next word in this section is “brook. you’re a pedestrian – that’s a noun.”
. Our fourth word in this section is “quandary. “to champion” means to promote. and I will brook no interference in my classroom from parents who disagree with the grades I give the students. you’re also being pedestrian – an adjective.” or to advertise positively. you might have been in a quandary when you saw them being used in ways you didn’t expect. But unless you’re doing a very silly walk.
Because the office is only open to the public one day a week. you won’t find their usage in these contexts so abstruse. What do you want to accomplish during your ___________________ as president?
Tests for Reinforcing What you have Learnt
And now that you’re comfortable with these old words and their new meanings. the television station’s news reporters filed their stories over the telephone. During the two-day ____________________ in broadcasting caused by the loss of power after the storm.” Example: “I picked up a book on recent discoveries in physics. She tried to tell me how to do it. 2. and details about what you did there. the receptionist’s job is mostly a _______________________. 3. perhaps even so much that you feel you can’t begin to try. is “abstruse. See if you can fill in the correct word in each sentence. Something that is difficult to understand. but it was so abstruse that even my university classes in higher mathematics were no help in understanding the text. A professional _________________________ should always include the locations where you worked. 4. and I had to ask her to _________________________. 5.
Words about careers
Now that you’ve heard and read these five words in use. can you think of conversations you’ve had recently where you might have been able to use them? Here are some sample sentences with one of these target words missing. but her directions were too vague.
position. check off five more words on your Ultimate Vocabulary list: 12
. the television station’s news reporters filed their stories over the telephone. the “course of your life. and I had to ask her to elucidate. Because the office is only open to the public one day a week. When you put them together. and details about what you did there. so there was a break in programming.” 4. and who you worked with – these things all describe part of your life. During the two-day hiatus in broadcasting caused by the loss of power after the storm. The station was not able to broadcast without power. what you did.Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. it’s a good time to review your curriculum vitae. Unless your current job is a sinecure. A receptionist who rarely has anyone coming to the office has nothing to do. and note the beginning and ending dates of your tenure in each position. Be sure to elucidate the reasons for any hiatus in your career. If so.” 2. What do you want to accomplish during your tenure as president? A president is chosen or elected for a specific period of time. status. The time spent in a job. A professional curriculum vitae should always include the locations where you worked. you might be thinking of changing jobs. or elected office is called tenure. 3. Where you worked. but her directions were too vague. The directions were vague. And when you’re done. 5. A hiatus is a break or gap in something that is otherwise ongoing. the receptionist’s job is mostly a sinecure. She tried to tell me how to do it. Elucidate means “to make clear. A job where you get paid for doing nothing is a sinecure. meaning that it was not clear what to do. you’ve created a curriculum vitae.
What do you talk about when you’re with your friends? Perhaps you can use some of these new words you’re learning to describe your feelings of calm and contentment in being in such congenial company. 4. and then talking about the performances afterwards.Confidence-In-Context
elucidate curriculum vitae tenure hiatus sinecure
B. but it definitely ______________ the side effects of the disease.
. when he noticed that a bacteria culture had been accidentally contaminated by bacteria-killing mould from another laboratory nearby.
1. Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1928 was a matter of _______________. This new vaccination is not a complete cure for malaria.
Answers: 1. and the actors couldn’t remember their lines – but even so. Bob is such an _______________ person. the producer managed to direct the performance with __________________. Everything was going wrong during the dress rehearsal – the spotlights didn’t work. 2. each with one of our key words missing.we all enjoy listening to jazz. 3. He finds something to talk about with everyone he meets. This new vaccination is not a complete cure for malaria. 5. I find this group of people to be very ________________ . but it definitely mitigates the side effects of the disease. the curtain fell down. Fill in the correct word in each sentence. Here are some sample sentences.
Not everyone likes the same type of music. and can help you deal with your problems with greater equanimity.we all enjoy listening to jazz. they’re congenial company. Someone who is amiable is sociable and friendly. the producer managed to direct the performance with equanimity. I find this group of people to be very congenial .Confidence-In-Context
The vaccination decreases the side effects of the sickness. when something happens by accident that results in the discovery of a good thing. affable people. Bob enjoys interacting with people. This is serendipity. People who like or dislike the same things are congenial. such as illness.” 3. and now new friends. 4.” specifically when referring to something negative. Everything was going wrong during the dress rehearsal – the spotlights didn’t work. and is easy to talk to. In the middle of a stressful. when he noticed that a bacteria culture had been accidentally contaminated by bacteria-killing mould from another laboratory nearby.
Sometimes it’s just serendipity when you end up in a group of strangers and find that. Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1928 was a matter of serendipity. after all. the curtain fell down. chaotic situation. and has the ability to put other people at ease in conversation. 2. Having good friends does a great deal to mitigate the stresses that can happen in daily life. Mitigate means “to lessen or decrease. Equanimity means “calmness under stress” or “steadiness of mind. and then talking about the performances afterwards.
. He finds something to talk about with everyone he meets. and the actors couldn’t remember their lines – but even so. If the mould hadn’t been blown by the breeze into Fleming’s laboratory – and if he hadn’t noticed how it killed the bacteria in the petri dish – he might never have discovered penicillin. Bob is such an amiable person. 5. the producer kept her composure. and was able to speak calmly while directing the actors.
listen to these sentences. While she was recovering from her bout of pneumonia. Experts fear that unless more study is done on the causes and control of the West Nile virus. they often brought smallpox and other illnesses with them which proved _______________ to native populations lacking any resistance to those diseases.
. calmly check off five more words on your Ultimate Vocabulary list: serendipity congenial mitigate affable equanimity
C. Alice was _______________ in a private room at the hospital. 4.Confidence-In-Context
And now. The port authorities put stringent guidelines in place to prevent people from smuggling animals out of the country. 5. 2.
Answers: 1. Be careful with your prescription medication: taking too much or too little might have a _____________ effect on your health. When you’re reading the news from around the globe. keep an eye out for these words in stories about new diseases and cures. and fill in the missing word in each with one of the five Ultimate Vocabulary words from this lesson. When the European explorers came to the New World.
1. but so can information. we may be facing a _______________ illness in the near future. especially in this world of instant internet communication.
Words for Difficult or Dangerous Situations
Infection can spread quickly. 3. The port authorities put ________________ guidelines in place to prevent people from smuggling animals out of the country. But right now.
Alice was sequestered in a private room at the hospital. separated from outside contact. we may be facing a pandemic illness in the near future. but rather than sequestering those populations and ignoring the problem. Even though modern medicine has effective drugs and treatments for many illnesses. Be careful with your prescription medication: taking too much or too little might have a detrimental effect on your health. 2. rigorous. It’s in our best interest to eliminate these diseases.Confidence-In-Context
The guidelines set by the port authorities are very specific rules. and had no immunity to it. and prevent a possible future pandemic illness that will affect all of us. we should make it a stringent requirement of any pharmaceutical research program to devote time and money to finding cures. no matter where we live. is called a “pandemic” illness. and even a country. and usually deadly. who had never encountered this disease. they often brought smallpox and other illnesses with them which proved virulent to native populations lacking any resistance to those diseases. “Sequestered” means secluded. “Virulent” means highly infectious. These diseases are very detrimental to the regions where they’re found. Someone in a private room is isolated from others. An illness that spreads beyond a region. 5. Smallpox spread rapidly among the native populations. it may damage your hearing and cause a ringing in your ears. Experts fear that unless more study is done on the causes and control of the West Nile virus. If you take too much aspirin at one time. and strict. 3. When the European explorers came to the New World. “Stringent” means severe. there are some virulent diseases in the world for which no-one has discovered treatment. is “detrimental. and people who break those rules will be punished.
. that causes harm. Something that is damaging. When several children in a school have chicken pox or a similar contagious illness. the school will often shut down for a while to prevent a wider spread of infection.” 4. withdrawn. While she was recovering from her bout of pneumonia.
she was rarely available to help the students with their research.
. 5. 2.” 4. Learning these Ultimate Vocabulary words will give you the confidence to use them in their correct context. I found his choice of music to be very _____________.Confidence-In-Context
I hope you have a “healthy” respect for the power of words by now. One of that actor’s ___________________ is his ritual of eating half a banana exactly one-half hour before each performance.” setting it in a sushi restaurant in New York City. 3. The librarian spent so much time ________________ around the rare books section. You’ve learned a set of five useful words from your Ultimate Vocabulary list: stringent pandemic detrimental sequester virulent
D. saying things like “My dog is a million times smarter than your brother. The schoolchildren performed a wonderful ________________ of Gilbert and Sullivan’s operetta “The Mikado. not many people would request the songs of Dead Can Dance to be played at a funeral.
1. as well as what to say. Children frequently use ___________________. listen to these five sentences and fill in one of this section’s target words in the appropriate place. Funny and Quirky Characteristics
It’s important to know how to say things.
Words for Amusing. To practice. One of that actor’s foibles is his ritual of eating half a banana exactly one-half hour before each performance.
but funny in context. and perhaps something that not everyone would even recognize as humour. not accomplishing much. The librarian is wandering between the shelves. and not even aware that there are people who might be looking for her. saying something that’s obviously impossible. but changed the location and the words to make a version that pokes fun at the original. She’s pottering around the rare books section. A “parody” is an imitation that mocks the original. It’s often used deliberately for a humorous effect. usually gently. She’s not doing anything in particular. and often one which creates a weakness in the person who has it. it might be seen as an odd but humorous choice of bands for a funeral. The schoolchildren performed a wonderful parody of Gilbert and Sullivan’s operetta “The Mikado.Confidence-In-Context
A “foible” is a personal quirk or unusual habit. just picking up a book here and there. you are using “hyperbole”. I found his choice of music to be very droll.” If you use exaggeration or overstatement to make a point. Children frequently use hyperbole. you may end up hurting them. saying things like “My dog is a million times smarter than your brother. 5. However. not many people would request the songs of Dead Can Dance to be played at a funeral. For example. 3. if there’s no mention of the band’s name. 4.
. The schoolchildren used the basic premise of the operetta. The librarian spent so much time pottering around the rare books section. Unless you really like their music. What would the actor do if there were no bananas available that day? 2. she was rarely available to help the students with their research. only those people who know their music would get the joke. To “potter” means to wander aimlessly. “Droll” means oddly humorous or whimsical. Dogs are only a hundred times smarter than people.” setting it in a sushi restaurant in New York City. and doing what little you do in a random fashion. forgetting what time it is. if you parody a specific person’s foibles. by the way.
The boys told their mother that a passing car had splashed mud all over their sister’s dress. but she knew it was a __________________ when she saw how dirty their hands were. 4. But with your growing vocabulary of powerful words.Confidence-In-Context
Humour. she’ll be ten feet tall when she’s ten. 5. the __________________ of instant and unlimited wealth is always in their mind. they can change the orbit of the moon! No.
1. Even if you could recite the works of Shakespeare ___________________. Let’s see if you can get to the true meaning of the five vocabulary words in this section by filling in the blanks in these example sentences. It’s a _____________________ argument to say that if a child is three feet tall when she’s three. like beauty. that was: hyperbole potter foible droll parody
Words for Describing Truth and Lies
Believe me when I say that knowing the correct words to use and when to use them is a powerful tool. Your conclusion that cows are a leading cause of global warming is based on _____________ information. 2. sorry. is in the eye of the beholder. you’ll be able to use them to create exactly the effect you want. I wouldn’t cast you as the leading role in this play. Some people buy a lottery ticket every day. 3. They’re so powerful.
1. The boys told their mother that a passing car had splashed mud all over their sister’s dress, but she knew it was a fabrication when she saw how dirty their hands were. Children don’t lie very well sometimes, and it’s obvious when they’re making things up. A “fabrication” is a made-up story or a lie. 2. Some people buy a lottery ticket every day; the chimera of instant and unlimited wealth is always in their mind. The odds of winning a lottery are so high, it’s more of a fantasy than a reality, and most people will spend their winnings in their minds before they even buy a ticket. A “chimera” is a fantasy or an imaginary creation. 3. It’s a specious argument to say that if a child is three feet tall when she’s three, she’ll be ten feet tall when she’s ten. Trying to make a logical argument out of illogical statements can lead you to create a specious line of reasoning. “Specious” means “based on false premises.” 4. Your conclusion that cows are a leading cause of global warming is based on erroneous information. Specious arguments are often based on erroneous information. “Erroneous” means inaccurate or mistaken; something that is assumed to be true, but is in fact false. 5. Even if you could recite the works of Shakespeare verbatim, I wouldn’t cast you as the leading role in this play. An actor who knew all of Shakespeare’s plays verbatim would normally be a valuable addition to a theatre. “Verbatim” means exactly as written, word for word. Once you know the true meaning of these words, they won’t play you false. Review the Ultimate Vocabulary word lists daily and your dream of using these powerful words in everyday situations will turn from a chimera into a reality. Remember these words and definitions verbatim: fabrication chimera specious erroneous 20
Difficult Words that Appear Easy
Even if you’re no longer in school, it’s a good idea to keep your brain stimulated by learning new things. You’ve learned five new words in this section – now see if you can fit them into their proper places in the following sentences.
1. That actress brought down the energy level of the entire cast with her ________________ interpretation of the character. 2. The class in linguistics might seem _________________ at first, but once you learn all of the terminology; it will be easier to understand. 3. The head of the purchasing department would ____________________ no dispute about where the money should be spent. 4. Sometimes the people who are most effective at ________________ the cure for a disease are the ones who have suffered from it. 5. I’ve fallen in love with someone from another country, which presents a _______________, because I don’t want to live so far away from my family.
Answers: 1. That actress brought down the energy level of the entire cast with her pedestrian interpretation of the character. A dull, uninspiring performance by one person can affect everyone else on stage. “Pedestrian” means dull, unexceptional, uninteresting. 2. The class in linguistics might seem abstruse at first, but once you learn all of the terminology, it will be easier to understand. When you’re first learning about something, it might seem so complicated that it’s impossible to comprehend. The word “abstruse” means difficult to understand. 3. The head of the purchasing department would brook no dispute about where the money should be spent. 21
This purchasing department makes all of its budget decisions six months in advance, and hates to change the spreadsheets. They don’t want to hear about other people’s opinions on money matters, and won’t listen to any objections. “To brook” means “to tolerate,” but in a negative sense; use this verb when you’re talking about something you WON’T tolerate. 4. Sometimes the people who are most effective at championing the cure for a disease are the ones who have suffered from it. It’s often easier to raise funds for a cause when you can relate a personal experience that explains your reason for being involved. If you’re trying to raise support for a movement or a person, you are “championing” their cause. 5. I’ve fallen in love with someone from another country, which presents a quandary, because I don’t want to live so far away from my family. Wanting to be with your family, but also wanting to live with your love on the other side of the world – that’s a dilemma. And that’s the meaning of “quandary”: a difficult decision, a state of perplexity and uncertainty. Now that the meanings of these five words are no longer abstruse, you’ll be able to champion their use by more people. No more pedestrian conversations – you’ll brook no resistance to adding these powerful words to your vocabulary. And you won’t be in a quandary about when and how to use these words, because you’ve added them to your Ultimate Vocabulary checklist: champion abstruse pedestrian quandary brook
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 2 Workbook
Some people. implying that because the person is new. have no problem believing false flattery. A person like this is a “neophyte” – literally “newly planted. movie stars. completely oblivious to their flaws. They’re often rewarded with favors or promotions.Confidence-In-Context
A. while putting other people down. using flattery to advance themselves. Not only that.” While this word merely means “beginner” or “novice. even football heroes. They’re hangers-on. not on sycophants who praise every word she says. But how often did we see that irritating person somehow end up with the plum job or the award at the company banquet? There’s a not very nice name for that person: sycophant. lackeys. fatuous. being a perfect “yes-man” – in general just a complete suck-up that no-one wanted to eat lunch with. Example: “A good leader relies on people who question her decisions. You’ll see them around politicians. they’re also lower in social status than the speaker. Uncle George had a fatuous smile on his face as he criticized the choice of champagne served with dessert.” from the Greek root “neo” meaning “new. and praiseworthy as they say you are. infamous. Words For Undesirable Personal And Business Practices
The words in this section are ones you might not like hearing applied to yourself – but it’s useful to know how to apply them. beautiful. brown-nosers.” Sometimes people make mistakes or act foolishly because they are so new to a situation they haven’t had a chance to learn the correct information.” They see themselves as absolute perfection. They’re completely unaware of the fact that they’re making fools of themselves.” One danger of being surrounded by sycophants is thinking that you’re truly as talented. fatuous people tend to act as their own sycophants.
Your words for undesirable personal and business practices explained
We’ve all known someone who was always flattering the boss. bragging and talking themselves up.
. neophyte. They’re “fatuous. and negligible. however. Example: “Unaware that half of the dinner guests were professional winemakers. The five not very nice words we’ll look at next are sycophant.” it’s often used in a derogatory fashion. A “sycophant” is someone who hangs around powerful people.
you’re well-known in a good way. of course – to the people on Howard’s payroll.” If someone has a habit of talking down to others and insulting them. trinity.” Don’t get it confused with the adjective “famous. you’re well known for the bad things you do. That’s a matter of perception. “Infamous” is an adjective meaning “having a bad reputation” or “notorious. In this section. but compared to the rest of the budget. Example: “The monthly total of all staff salaries is a huge sum. Maybe he’s a neophyte millionaire.” though they’re very similar: if you’re famous.
Words For Higher Powers
Are you worried that you won’t be able to remember these Ultimate Vocabulary words? Relax – the words in this section are a gift from above: five words that are heaven-sent to bless your vocabulary and inspire you to use them. harbinger.
Example: “That secretary is such a neophyte she can’t even operate the fax machine. and proselytize. because they’re so glad to be working for him.” Something that’s negligible is easy to ignore because it has little impact on the situation. and he hasn’t really figured out his payroll system yet. They’ll be infamous. Some famous people are also infamous for certain things – think of movie stars who have trouble staying out of jail.” There might be several reasons why Howard doesn’t pay his staff on time. They’re all words that relate to “higher powers” – or seem to. Perhaps he has the fatuous belief that they don’t care about the money. they’ll probably get a reputation for being not a very nice person. but if you’re infamous. “Negligible” means “so small it doesn’t matter. aegis. If two people have a reputation for acting badly in the same way. the figure is negligible. we’ll study the words catholic.”
B. Example: “Although Howard is extremely wealthy. But he might just think that the amounts are too negligible to deal with right away. one may be “more infamous” than the other. those salaries are quite important indeed. he’s infamous for never paying his staff on time.
though – the things to come can be good as well as bad. they might see this as a harbinger of war.Confidence-In-Context
Your words for higher powers explained
The first word. and Holy Ghost is well-known even to nonChristians.” Some synonyms for harbinger are “portent” and “omen. Example: “Thought nearly covered by the two inches of snow that had fallen overnight. the early blossoms of the crocuses were a harbinger of spring. so he took him under his aegis and kept the bullies away. Italy. learning these fantastic new words? You might be so enthusiastic about the program that you want everybody to learn the Ultimate Vocabulary way. Example: “Germany.” Another word you might be familiar with in a religious sense is “trinity. she has books on everything from astrology to zoo-keeping. Example: “The star football player saw the other students teasing the new boy.” The Christian belief in the “Holy Trinity” of Father.” If the leaders of a country notice that their neighbors are increasing the size of their armies and stockpiling large supplies of food and weapons. “catholic. and bell pepper that forms the basis of almost any dish.” is potentially the most confusing. The smaller countries are under the aegis of the larger ones. or any religion for that matter.” It’s not always negative. Cajun cooks have their own “holy trinity” of onions.” The word originally referred to the armored breastplate worn by the goddess Athena. guarding their borders against enemies. and Japan formed the trinity of countries known as ‘the Axis’ during World War II. “Catholic” is an adjective meaning “broad in scope” and “comprehensive. We’re not referring to the Catholic religion. “Harbinger” means “a sign of things to come. celery.” Example: “Her reading list is quite catholic.” Powerful countries sometimes provide protection for smaller countries. But as a general term. the Greek goddess of knowledge and military power. In the southern United States. Go ahead and
. Son.” Isn’t it wonderful. and the complete ‘Harry Potter’ series. inseparable. “Aegis” means “protection” or “shield. it merely refers to three things or people that are considered as a unit.
proselytize – we won’t mind. “Proselytize” means to preach or talk about something, with the goal of converting other people to your way of thinking. Missionaries proselytize to convert people to their religion. Members of a political party sometimes proselytize to get more people to agree with their platforms and vote for them. Example: “People who give up cigarettes are often the ones who proselytize most about the dangers of second-hand smoke.”
Words About Words
By now we’re sure you’ve realized the power of words. In this section we’ll learn some words about words: polyglot, laconic, loquacious, saw, rhetoric.
Your words about words explained
This Ultimate Vocabulary course is focused on teaching you how to use powerful words in English in everyday conversation. Perhaps you’re perfecting your English as a second language, or even third. If you’re fluent in more than one language, you’re a “polyglot”. A polyglot is someone who can read, speak, and write in several languages. Example: “The translators who work for the diplomats have to be polyglots, because they deal with ambassadors from many countries.” Just because a person can speak in many languages doesn’t mean they talk all the time. Translators, of course, have to speak constantly as they interpret conversations between people. But off the job, they might be quite laconic. “Laconic” means “brief” or “to the point,” referring to someone’s speaking style. A laconic person uses just enough words to say what they mean, and no more. Example: “He has a reputation for being laconic at work, but I think it’s because he’s so busy he just doesn’t have time to chat.” The opposite of laconic is “loquacious.” A loquacious person is one who talks all the time. Synonyms for loquacious are “chatty,” “talkative,” and “garrulous.” Example: “I tried to study at my desk, but my roommate is so loquacious I couldn’t concentrate, and I went to the library instead.”
It’s usually not a good idea to be talking all of the time. You know what they say: “a closed mouth catches no flies.” That’s an old Italian proverb, or saw, on the wisdom of keeping quiet. A “saw” is a saying, usually one that’s been around for a long time. And even if the saw is no longer much used in modern life, it still describes something that’s true. Another saw, or saying, that you might know is “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks.” We’re certainly teaching you some new words, though! Example: “My grandmother always used her teabag twice, quoting that old saw ‘waste not, want not.’” Using words in just the right way can be a powerful tool for influencing other people. Creative and effective use of words is called “rhetoric.” While this can refer to writing, it’s more often used to describe a way of speaking, or a speech. Make sure that when you’re speaking you’re not getting too creative; “rhetoric” also refers to a speech that’s so full of flowery language and unnecessary or misleading detail that it’s hard to find the meaning in it. Example: “Many politicians rely on paid writers to create the rhetoric they use when giving speeches at campaign events.”
Words About Things That Are Difficult To Define
The words in this section are easy to define, but they’re all used when talking about things that are hard to define. The five words we’ll be looking at next are diffident, nebulous, implicit, putative, and hypothesis.
Your words about things that are difficult to define explained
“Diffident” means “timid” or “bashful.” It’s used to describe someone who lacks selfconfidence or who is excessively modest. Shy people tend to be diffident, afraid to offer an opinion, even then they’ve got the right answer. Example: “Jane is so diffident, it’s hard to believe she runs her own company; when she’s in a group, she never takes the lead.” Something that’s hard to see clearly is “nebulous.” You might be familiar with the astronomical term “nebula,” which refers to a fuzzy cloud of gas and stars; a nebula is 6
nebulous, because it’s hazy, vague, not clearly defined. An idea can be nebulous as well as an image or object. Example: “The goal of the proposed project was too nebulous, and the planning committee rejected it until the organizers could provide more details.” The third word we’re looking at also describes something that is not explicitly defined. But unlike “nebulous,” something “implicit” is very clearly seen or understood, just not obviously or openly. “Implicit” means “understood and agreed on, but not stated openly.” Example: “The people she hired knew there was an implicit understanding that they’d join in the company’s volunteer projects from time to time.” Another word for something that is understood without being directly stated is “putative.” However, while “implicit” means the underlying substance is unstated but agreed on, “putative” refers to something that might not really be agreed on, but that no-one wants to bother to dispute. For example, if someone in a group takes charge and starts making all of the decisions, the other members of the group might allow that person to become the putative leader. They might disagree privately, and even not go along with some of the decisions, but they don’t do anything to take that person out of a leadership role. Example: “Michael was the only person who researched the mountain trails and access routes, so he became the putative leader of the Sunday hiking club.” The final word in this section is “hypothesis.” A hypothesis is something that is assumed to be true, for the sake of argument. In a hypothesis, the known facts are sometimes ignored in order to provide material for further discussion. You might say that a hypothesis is a “what if ...?” statement. Example: “Her hypothesis that global warming could be slowed significantly by eliminating all air travel is interesting, but not practical in this age of global commerce.”
Words That Show Their Origins
Many words in English can be traced back to their roots in Ancient Greek or Latin. Here are five words and phrases that clearly show their origins: ad hoc, chronology, de facto, erudite, neologism. 7
The word “chronology”
.” can take months or years.” Both “ad hoc” and “de facto” are phrases that have been in use for thousands of years.” It takes a while for a word or phrase to become part of the common vocabulary. like the hip-hop word “bling. Example: “It takes several years for the Oxford English Dictionary to officially add a neologism like ‘fembot’ or ‘webmaster’ to its word list. so it called for an ad hoc panel to gather statistics about the current student body. all lanes become de facto express lanes. it might be the rule on a road to only use the express lane if you’re traveling over the minimum speed limit. Finally. and it becomes part of popular culture. First it’s usually only used in a specific segment of society. the word either goes out of use – do you call anyone a “hep cat” these days? – or it settles into our standard vocabulary with a universally-understood meaning. what should be done – and “de facto” means “In fact” or “in reality” – what actually is done. from the Greek roots “neo” (new) and “logos” (word).” meaning “for this. and Thomas became the de facto head of the committee.” The other Latin phrase we’ll look at is “ad hoc.Confidence-In-Context
Your words that show their origins explained
You’ll frequently find Latin words and phrases being used in situations where law is involved – not surprising. Other words are newer: think of “spam” and “wi-fi” and “telecommute. but if everyone’s driving above the speed limit. Example: “The school board needed more information on enrollment. and these neologisms are created to describe them. as many of the world’s modern legal systems are based on principles and laws codified by the Romans.” Changes in society require changes in vocabulary. This sequence of events. of course. he was never at the meetings. more and more people use it. often existing only until that goal has been achieved. “De jure” is usually only used in the courtroom. Example: “Although Keith was the elected chairperson. so only “de facto” is part of your Ultimate Vocabulary list right now – unless you’re a lawyer. “Neologism” means “new word”. though with the internet. it might only take days to get a new word into popular use.” “Ad hoc” refers to something that has been created for a specific purpose or goal.” “De jure” means “by law” – that is. Two of the Latin phrases that are well-known are “de facto” and “de jure. For example.” As it gains widespread exposure. or “chronology.
so these lessons showing the words in context will help you a great deal.” Regular use of these powerful words will convince your friends that you’re erudite. “Pertinent” means relevant and to the point. Knowing the pertinent words to use in any context is requisite to being a good speaker.
Words Necessary For Developing Your Vocabulary
The five words in this section were very carefully chosen as necessary for developing your vocabulary. Example: “Karen doesn’t always speak up in the weekly meetings. but when she does.Confidence-In-Context
comes from the Greek root “kronos” meaning “time.” Example: “The two candidates were both very skilled. These Ultimate Vocabulary words won’t be powerful if you use them incorrectly. adroit.” You can use the Ultimate Vocabulary training course to become more erudite. “Erudite” is from the Latin verb “erudio” or “to train. something that is logically connected. Example: “Deep waterways like the Grand Canyon show the chronology of geologic deposits in the strata revealed on the cliff walls. she’s so erudite. but only one had the requisite qualifications for the position. Many schools have classes they call “prerequisites” – these are classes that it is necessary to take before moving on to a higher-level class. “Requisite” means essential or necessary. she always has something pertinent to contribute. assiduous.
Your important vocabulary development words explained
One important aspect of increasing your vocabulary is knowing which word is pertinent to your situation.” A chronology is a series of events.”
F. A synonym for requisite is “indispensable. Someone who is erudite is learned and scholarly. These essential words are pertinent. and has read many books to get that education. she can talk knowledgeably about almost anything. and judicious.”
. or timeline. requisite. Example: “Kate has spent years studying and traveling abroad.
though. but because he only listened to the ________________ in his cabinet. you’ll be adroit at using them.” Someone who is adroit makes the best possible choices in any given situation. but with assiduous study.
. “Adroit” means “skillful” or “adept.” It does take time and effort to learn these words and their proper usage.” A judicious balance of work and play is good for you. even though the topic was very controversial. Example: “She is devoted to her mother and is assiduous in caring for her and her three cats. Words For Undesirable Personal And Business Practices
Managers might be surprised at what’s being said in the lunch rooms at their companies. Your co-workers might be surprised when you start using these Ultimate Vocabulary words – though perhaps you shouldn’t use these words about them. Practice with these five sentences. 1.” You don’t have to spend all of your time studying.”
Tests for Reinforcing What you have Learnt A. Example: “The chef used a judicious blend of sweet and hot spices to season the grilled fish. you’ll soon master them. “Judicious” means “with good judgment” or “using common sense. Example: “His adroit use of humor kept the debaters calm.” The best students are usually the ones who are assiduous in their study habits. The president’s decisions were harming the economy. and fill in the correct word for each. The word “assiduous” means “with care and persistent effort. a judicious amount of relaxation in your day is healthy.Confidence-In-Context
Once you’ve mastered the requisite vocabulary and know which words are pertinent to any topic. he ignored the evidence from the economists.
4. “Neophyte” means a beginner. a role. he ignored the evidence from the economists. but the ice is so thin that even the __________________ weight of a landing bird will break it. The pond is still frozen. A sycophant is a person who flatters people in power. but he’s so _________________ he’s convinced that every woman he sees would love to date him. 5. even during rehearsals. or a situation. someone who is “newly planted” in a position. and was _____________ for using low-grade lumber for the floorboards and beams in his houses. 4. The pond is still frozen. but the ice is so thin that even the negligible weight of a landing bird will break it. The dancers are new to the rules of formal ballet. The contractor made most of his profit by cheating his customers. The contractor made most of his profit by cheating his customers. Replacing high-quality materials for low-grade lumber and plywood will give a contractor a bad reputation. 3. The neophyte ballet dancers find it hard to remember to keep their heads up and their arms in a graceful arc at all times. Someone who is infamous has a reputation for doing bad things. They are neophytes. The _____________________ ballet dancers find it hard to remember to keep their heads up and their arms in a graceful arc at all times. hoping to get favors from them in return.
Answers: 1. but because he only listened to the sycophants in his cabinet. The economists were trying to tell the president that he was making bad choices. My brother doesn’t even bathe regularly. The president’s decisions were harming the economy. 3.Confidence-In-Context
. but he only listened to the people who were telling him that everything he was doing was correct. even during rehearsals. and was infamous for using low-grade lumber for the floorboards and beams in his houses. 2. they are notorious.
Take the time now to check off these five words that you’ve just learned: sycophant neophyte fatuous negligible infamous
B. but he’s so fatuous he’s convinced that every woman he sees would love to date him. 3. strawberry. Even if you’re a neophyte to the Ultimate Vocabulary system. his tastes are so __________________ we can go to any ethnic restaurant. believing themselves to be better than everyone else.
1. their weight is negligible. culture or careers. My brother doesn’t even bathe regularly. A person who has faults but is completely unaware of them. 2.
. you’ll find these words useful in many conversations.
Words For Higher Powers
Whether you’re talking about art or religion.Confidence-In-Context
Small birds with their hollow bones are very light. A fatuous person is foolish and silly because they don’t see in themselves what everyone else sees. and vanilla make up the _______________ of flavors in Neapolitan ice cream. I enjoy going out to eat with my brother. “Negligible” means “small and insignificant. once you start practicing these words daily the amount of time it takes to learn their correct usage will be negligible compared to the time you might spend using a regular dictionary or other resource. The sounds of pipes and drums heard faintly in the distance were a _________________ of the Scots Pride festival parade that would soon pass in front of the house.” 5. and he’ll willingly try whatever’s on the menu. Practice using these words by picking the correct one to go in one of each of the following five sentences. is a fatuous person. Chocolate.
they come under the ________________________ of the Wildlife Department. it’s no longer Neapolitan. these three flavors have been put together to make Neapolitan ice cream.
. Chocolate. that is. The speakers talk as persuasively as they can to convince people to change their opinion and agree with the speaker’s point of view. My brother will try any food at least once. Speaker’s Corner in London’s Hyde Park has long been a traditional place for activists. strawberry.” 4. I enjoy going out to eat with my brother. Since the mid-nineteenth century. and would-be politicians to __________________ in hopes of getting followers. Because the migratory routes of the snow geese go through several national parks. Speaker’s Corner in London’s Hyde Park has long been a traditional place for activists. the parade will soon be in view . If you can hear the sounds of a parade. his tastes are so catholic we can go to any ethnic restaurant. and broad in scope. comprehensive. 3. 2.if you’re waiting on the parade route. A person who is working hard to convert someone else to their way of thinking or believing is proselytizing. His taste in food is catholic.
Answers: 1. missionaries. and vanilla make up the trinity of flavors in Neapolitan ice cream. 5. A harbinger is a sign of things to come. and he enjoys many different spices and dishes. The sounds of pipes and drums heard faintly in the distance were a harbinger of the Scots Pride festival parade that would soon pass in front of the house. and would-be politicians to proselytize in hopes of getting followers. meaning that it’s wide-ranging. missionaries.Confidence-In-Context
4. and hunting them is severely restricted. and he’ll willingly try whatever’s on the menu. A set of three things that are always seen together is a “trinity. and if you take one of them away.
they come under the aegis of the Wildlife Department. The idea of “think twice. See if you can put the appropriate word into each of the following sentences. speak once” appears in the ___________ repeated over the generations in many countries around the world. and start using them. that child was a ________________ by the time he was six years old.
Words About Words
When Polonious asks Hamlet what he’s reading. 3. 2. 5. words. We know that you’ll soon discover for yourself that you’re able to use these powerful vocabulary words in your everyday conversations: catholic trinity aegis harbinger proselytize
C.” Let’s stop talking about words. Living in Spain with a French father and a Swedish mother. She’s so _________________________ that she’s been asked to leave concert halls during performances. after the people seated around her complained to the management. The old fisherman was famous for his ___________________ answers to the tourists who tried to engage him in conversation. Hamlet answers “Words.
5. The birds are protected by the Wildlife Department from being hunted in the national parks. 4. words.
. and hunting them is severely restricted. Because the migratory routes of the snow geese go through several national parks. We hope you find the words in this section to be a harbinger of better vocabulary in the future. An “aegis” is a protection or a shield. The minister’s ______________ was so compelling it convinced me to go back to seminary and study religious history.
but he gave them short answers to their questions. 4.” A Middle Eastern saying is “Listen a hundred times. She’s so loquacious that she’s been asked to leave concert halls during performances. chatty. that child was a polyglot by the time he was six years old. they say “Having two ears and one tongue. well-known proverbs that have a message that stays true over the years. after the people seated around her complained to the management. In Turkey. a non-stop conversationalist. The old fisherman was famous for his laconic answers to the tourists who tried to engage him in conversation. A “polyglot” is someone who is fluent in several languages. and didn’t volunteer any information. The idea of “think twice.Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. they might also appear somewhat rude. speak once” appears in the saws repeated over the generations in many countries around the world. This person just can’t stop talking. 5. That’s the meaning of “loquacious” – talkative. Living in Spain with a French father and a Swedish mother. Powerful speech that persuades you to a new or different way of thinking and believing is called “rhetoric.” These sayings are saws. even when there are performers on the stage playing beautiful music. and a child who attends school in Spanish and speaks French and Swedish with his parents will quickly know all three languages fluently. Children learn languages easily.
. Someone who uses the minimum number of words is “laconic” – though to others. we should listen twice as much as we speak. speak once.” 2. The minister’s rhetoric was so compelling it convinced me to go back to seminary and study religious history. The tourists tried to have a conversation with the fisherman. 3.
here are five practice sentences with one of the target words left out in each. he’s got great ideas but he’s so __________________ about presenting them that his opponents all seem more capable than he is.
Answers: 1. 3. She did years of research to prove her ____________________ that the dissolved minerals in seawater can be linked to algae blooms around the world. Fill in the correct word in each sentence. Many autobiographies of famous movie stars were actually written by other people.
1. even though the stars are the ______________ authors of the books. He’ll never get elected. That politician’s platform is so nebulous that I’m not sure what legislation he does or doesn’t support. When you vote for a politician. you’re giving ____________________ approval for the way they represent your interests. 5. That politician’s platform is so _____________________ that I’m not sure what legislation he does or doesn’t support. 4. 2.” Bring some power to your next conversation with one of the five words you’ve just learned: rhetoric loquacious saw polyglot laconic
Mark Twain said “The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug.
Words About Things That Are Difficult To Define
To help you use these Ultimate Vocabulary words effectively in your future.
It was impossible to tell where the politician stood on important matters because his speeches were so vague and hard to pin down. “Nebulous” means vague, hazy, not well defined. 2. When you vote for a politician, you’re giving implicit approval for the way they represent your interests. Even if you only have a nebulous idea of what sort of policies a person in government supports, your vote for that person implies that you also support those policies. “Implicit” means something that is implied indirectly. In this example, you’re not necessarily saying out loud that you agree with certain policies, but your vote speaks for you, by allowing the government to continue them. 3. He’ll never get elected; he’s got great ideas but he’s so diffident about presenting them that his opponents all seem more capable than he is. Someone who is diffident is shy and unwilling to speak up, so it’s easy for other people with louder voices and stronger presentations to completely overwhelm them. “Diffident” means “lacking self-confidence” and refers to a timid person, or one who is overly modest. 4. Many autobiographies of famous movie stars were actually written by other people, even though the stars are the putative authors of the books WIth so many books being written by ghostwriters, it’s hard to tell sometimes if the name of the author on the cover is really the name of the person who wrote it. But if a movie star claims to have written their own book, we’ll accept what they say, even though we might not believe it. “Putative” means commonly accepted as true, but without real reason. 5. Although she proposed the idea at a scientific conference a decade ago, she did years of research to prove her hypothesis that the dissolved minerals in seawater can be linked to algae blooms around the world. At first, she had no proof that minerals in seawater caused algae bloom, but she thought it was possible, and presented it as a hypothesis as a topic for discussion at the conference. A hypothesis is something that is accepted as true, in order to make more exploration and discussion possible. 17
Our hypothesis is that the more you practice these Ultimate Vocabulary words, the more comfortable you’ll be in using them. You might think the meanings of some of the words are nebulous and hard to define, but don’t be diffident about using them in conversation right away. Your powerful new words are: diffident nebulous implicit putative hypothesis
Words That Show Their Origins
Here’s some food for thought: the more you practice these words, the easier it will be to use them in conversations. Fill in the blanks in these five sentences with the correct word.
1. The spread of on-line communication and increased global access to the internet has given rise to many _____________________ like “emoticon.” 2. That man must be very _________________; he’s there every day the library is open, reading books on a wide range of topics. 3. The food advisory board called for an ______________________ panel to study the effect of the newest artificial sweeteners before they are released for public use. 4. When books are written as a series, it’s important to read them in the right order to keep the _________________ straight. 5. Because the rules were unclear on that point, rather than merely interpreting the legal code, the judges became _________________ lawmakers when reaching a decision.
Answers: 1. The spread of on-line communication and increased global access to the internet has given rise to many neologisms like “emoticon.” A new way of communicating leads to new words to describe it. “Emoticon” is a new word, a “neologism,” that stands for “emotional icon.” 18
2. That man must be very erudite; he’s there every day the library is open, reading books on a wide range of topics. Someone who has read a great many books and learned from them is “erudite”. 3. The food advisory board called for an ad hoc panel to study the effect of the newest artificial sweeteners before they are released for public use. When a new product is proposed for sale, it’s often tested for safety by a panel that is put together for that specific purpose. “Ad hoc” means “for that purpose”. 4. When books are written as a series, it’s important to read them in the right order to keep the chronology straight. If you read the third book in a series before you read the first book, you might not understand the plot, if it refers back to things that happened in the first two books. Most books describe a sequence of events, or a “chronology.” Another word for chronology is “timeline.” 5. Because the rules were unclear on that point, rather than merely interpreting the legal code, the judges became de facto lawmakers when reaching a decision. A judge is not supposed to create laws, but uphold them. However, in this situation, the law itself was unclear, and the judges had to decide on the meaning of the rule by themselves, and therefore created a new law by doing so. In reality, the judges became lawmakers. “De facto” means “in reality” or “in practice.” Whether the words are old or new, you’ll benefit by knowing how to use them in conversation. You’ll sound quite erudite as you use these five Ultimate Vocabulary words: chronology ad hoc neologism de facto erudite
F. can we keep on topic. “Assiduous” means “with care and persistent effort.
. trying to pick one person from each department to keep a balance between management and production. That’s an interesting observation. so the painters were very careful when they were cleaning it. because they haven’t followed the instructions to include the requisite references and telephone numbers in their applications. 5. or indispensable. but it’s not really ___________________ to the discussion. We can’t contact these people who applied for the job. please?
Answers: 1. We can’t contact these people who applied for the job. See if you can put each word in its proper place. “Requisite” means essential.
1. necessary. The plaster molding around the windows was easily damaged. Words Necessary For Developing Your Vocabulary
We’ve given you a lot to chew on with this set of words. The house painters cleaned the elaborate molding around the windows with ________________ care before starting to paint. 2. and the applicants did not do what was necessary. 3. 4. And we’ve cooked up this set of five sentences for you to practice using each of these powerful vocabulary words. The instructions said to list references and telephone numbers. because they haven’t followed the instructions to include the _____________ references and telephone numbers in their applications. The artist was known for her __________________ use of color in her paintings.” 2. He made a _________________ choice of team members when he created his committee. The house painters cleaned the elaborate molding around the windows with assiduous care before starting to paint.
trying to pick one person from each department to keep a balance between management and production. That’s an interesting observation. He made a judicious choice of team members when he created his committee. He used good judgment and common sense when making his committee selections.
. what they said was not pertinent to the conversation. but it’s not really pertinent to the discussion. The artist was known for her adroit use of color in her paintings. However. can we keep on topic. 5. and someone says something that has no relevance to what you’ve been talking about.Confidence-In-Context
3. please? If you’re in the middle of a conversation. making the best possible choice. therefore he was “judicious” in his selections. You could also have chosen the word “judicious” in this case. if what you meant to say was that the artist only used as much color as was necessary to achieve the effect she wanted. if you wanted to imply that he was very skilled in making his selection of team members. you could also have used the word “adroit” here. 4. “Adroit” means skillful or adept. “Pertinent” means relevant or logically connected. This artist is a very skillful painter.
The five words you’ve learned in this section are: judicious adroit pertinent requisite assiduous
With assiduous study. you’ll soon have the requisite knowledge of these Ultimate Vocabulary words and will be adroit at including them at pertinent places in your conversations with other people.
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 3 Workbook
the audience might respond with a cacophony of boos and catcalls. “Eclectic” means “from a variety of sources.” If the jokes are a little too vulgar or insulting.
Words for the Good Times
We at Ultimate Vocabulary want to make sure you’re comfortable using these powerful words in context.” Some people are only comfortable around people who are very similar. while others prefer a more eclectic group of friends. Example: “I don’t really like most modern jazz. “Milieu” means “environment” or “surroundings.
.” It can be applied to off-color jokes.Confidence-In-Context
A. Usually there are so many different sounds at once that no single part is easy to distinguish. Here are two examples: Example 1: “A rose garden is the perfect milieu for a wedding. or to the person who tells them. milieu. all I hear is a cacophony of notes with no real melody or rhythm. no matter where you are.” If you’re at a nightclub with a very creative DJ. eclectic.” This word refers to both physical and metaphysical space. but in a humorous way. So – let’s go to a party! You might use these next five words to describe the scene when a large group of people are having a good time: ribald. This adjective means “vulgar. Another word for ribald is “bawdy.” A nightclub is one milieu where you might hear a cacophony of sounds as well as ribald jokes. plethora. where the level or type of noise – or both – are unpleasant. “Cacophony” means a loud confusion of sound.” Example: “The stand-up comic was known for his ribald jokes about his girlfriend. you’ll hear an eclectic blend of music.
Your words for good times in a large group of people explained
The first word we’ll look at is “ribald”.” Example 2: “Her years in the political milieu have made her comfortable with people in all walks of life. cacophony.
But in a crisis situation. there were sixteen different pies. Example: “Realizing that not all of the library’s books could be moved to the new facility. So we both agree: we are in accord. and too many tarts and confections to count. You must agree. “Pragmatic” means realistic or practical. and argue about issues while trying to get the most benefit for their communities. Example: “Faced with a potentially devastating flood risk. Example: “There was a plethora of choices at the dessert table.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “Her wardrobe was an eclectic mix of vintage lace and 70’s polyester. don’t worry. the city officials quickly reached an accord on which riverbanks needed the most reinforcement. “Accord” means agreement or harmony.”
B. panacea. pragmatic.” It refers to a large number in general. because you’re listening to this CD. and catharsis.”
Your words in a calm environment explained
We believe that learning how to use these Ultimate Vocabulary words in daily conversation will give your career a boost. the officials often each represent their own districts. and focuses on the essentials of a problem without getting bogged down in unnecessary detail. transcend.” 365 pairs of shoes is more than most people usually own – it’s a plethora of shoes. and a different pair of shoes for every day of the year. political fights are set aside for a more pragmatic policy of working together. This section covers five words that will calm you down: accord. This noun can refer to specific agreement on an issue.
Words in a Calm Environment
If learning all of these new vocabulary words has you feeling nervous and tense. or a general like-mindedness. “Plethora” means “more than enough.” In larger cities. but specifically means an amount in excess of what is necessary. Someone who is pragmatic is down-to-earth. the libraries took the pragmatic approach of first moving only the books that had been checked out in the last five years.
something that cures all problems. because more people are listening to books or downloading them. Others might say that the best thing to do would be to expand the books on tape collection. That’s a “catharsis” – a release of emotions that is triggered by a vicarious experience of something that someone else is going through. To transcend means to be able to cross boundaries. Even watching the event second-hand can cause us to experience the same strong emotions.”
. but that touches you in some way as well.
Example: “Yo-Yo Ma’s ‘Silk Road’ project transcends cultural boundaries by unifying people through their shared musical history. especially if the event is stressful or frightening. And if someone’s in their own broken relationship.” hoping to bring on a catharsis that would help them work through their experiences in combat. watching the movie might bring on all of the tears they’ve been keeping inside. We can get so wrapped up in a movie about doomed lovers that we feel their sadness like it’s our own. Example: “Some people say that gene therapy and designer drugs are the panacea that will solve the problem of AIDS and other diseases. or remove them by rising above them. To “transcend” means to rise above or go beyond. You might have heard of “transcendental meditation.” In order to get a true understanding of a problem like the AIDS crisis. There might not be a panacea for all of the problems a modern library faces. you need to be able to transcend the political and ideological issues that surround it.” where people try to go outside of their earthbound minds and become a part of a larger consciousness. A “panacea” is a solution or remedy.Confidence-In-Context
Some librarians would argue that the older. Example: “The therapist would show the ex-soldiers movies like “Platoon” and “In Country.” Shared experience can also unify people. perhaps more valuable books should be first on the list.
it’s a good thing. without variation.” is lacking in a moral sense. “Unconscionable” means. literally. unconscionable.
Your interesting words beginning with “u” explained
If you read a lot of cooking magazines. that is: unctuous.Confidence-In-Context
C. It’s not a good thing when applied to a person. Example: “Those coffee shops do well because they train their servers to make the coffee drinks to a uniform level of quality. “Ubiquitous” means omnipresent or pervasive. no matter where the store is located. A well-mixed cake batter has a uniform consistency – there are no lumps in it. A synonym for unconscionable is “unscrupulous. uniform. found everywhere.
. in shopping centers. oily manner is usually not to be trusted. all ingredients are blended together.” Some people will stop at nothing to get what they want. Interesting Words Beginning with “U”
This section is all about “U” – words that begin with the letter U. They’re everywhere: in airports. You might call a person who speaks like that “smarmy. in libraries and museums. ubiquitous. you might find a food described as having an “unctuous mouth feel” or “unctuous texture. utilitarian. after all: the same. and a spoonful taken from anywhere in the bowl will be exactly like any other. That’s what “uniform” means.” People who work at a nursing home often wear uniforms that make them look alike. on street corners. Someone with a smooth.” It means that the food coats the tongue with a smooth. They’re ubiquitous.” Example: “The thief showed an unconscionable lack of feeling when he took not only jewelry but also old family photographs from the people at the nursing home. To speak in an unctuous fashion means to be overly but insincerely polite and flattering or ingratiating. in other words.” You know the coffee shops we mean.” Example: “The shop clerk tried to make more sales with his unctuous treatment of the customers. but all except the most fatuous saw right through him. When the word applies to food. almost oily layer of flavor. They can justify the most unconscionable acts by telling themselves it’s for the greater good. whether it’s a record sales day or a position of power. “without a conscience.
Example: “The head of the school was adamant in his belief that boys and girls should eat meals at separate tables.”
Back to the other end of the spectrum.” meaning inflexible or unyielding.” Example: “The new worker was so afraid of losing his job that he was compliant even with the supervisor’s most outrageous demands. like unfinished wood shelving you assemble at home yourself. amenable.” but has the additional
. Example: “IKEA is famous for its selection of utilitarian home furnishings. a person who is compliant will allow their position to change under pressure from others. and one word that’s right in the middle.”
D. “Compliant” means “willing to comply. compliant.” meaning stubborn and unwilling to compromise. It’s similar to “adamant. Someone who is determined and will not move from their position or change their opinion is adamant. like a satellite radio system or six extra cup-holders. Six extra cup-holders in a car will not make the car run more smoothly.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “The advertisements for that new car are ubiquitous. I even saw one in the community center’s monthly flyer. and equitable. Do they even make cheap utilitarian cars any more? “Utilitarian” means practical and functional.” Synonyms of compliant are “submissive” and “yielding. without anything that doesn’t contribute to that functionality.” In contrast to someone who remains adamant.
Your words that define attitude explained
Our first word is “adamant.” It seems like every new car that comes out has some fancy feature added to it. The words are adamant. intransigent. we have the word “intransigent.
Words That Define Attitude
We’re going to extremes with this set of four words that describe opposites.
To “comprise” means to be made of.Confidence-In-Context
sense that the person is perhaps being inflexible just to be stubborn or contrary. just.” If you’re in a legal battle. and not for any firmly-held belief. for example. proliferate. “Equitable” means fair. she remained intransigent in her insistence that her ex-husband also pay for all of the school uniforms. what they are. it’s helpful if both sides can make some compromises to bring the matter to a resolution. reach a conclusion. or to include. “Amenable” means “open to persuasion.
Words Describing the Nature of Things
The five words in this section can be used to describe the nature of things: where they are. and latent. but that you’re willing to go along with the other person to avoid conflict.
Your words describing the nature of things explained
When talking about the nature of something. one of the first questions might be “what is it made of?” A car. is made of many different parts and pieces. These words are comprise.”
.” It doesn’t necessarily mean you change your opinion about something. contiguous. or in some other way keep things moving forward.” After all that swinging from one extreme to the other. let’s finish with a word that’s right in the middle. Example: “The panel will comprise members of each university department. Example: “There are many movies I’d like to see this weekend. Example: “The judge ruled that the owners of the failed business had to make an equitable division of the remaining money in the bank account. We can say a car is comprised of these parts. and how they relate to each other. you’re amenable. to contain. Example: “Although Jamie had already won the arguments over child custody and support payments. like the wheels and engine. If you’re willing to compromise.”
E. and impartial. circumscribe. but I’m amenable to any suggestions or preferences you might have.
For example. “Latent” means present but hidden. and the latent disease becomes active. Example: “The novices’ activities were very circumscribed during the first two weeks of their enrolment. It exists. without any break. it’s often quite obvious. or diseases. To “circumscribe” means to limit or restrict. One type of diabetes can exist without harm unless a virus affects the person’s pancreas. those things can be connected. and to keep things in or out. or invasive species of plants or animals. But some things are harder to contain. and the borders seem irrelevant. or adjacent.Confidence-In-Context
In the previous example.” A boundary or restriction keeps things apart. They proliferate without paying any attention to the borders we create between our countries. to create a boundary containing one thing inside and keeping others out. during which they were allowed no contact with the outside world. it’s a contiguous whole. The panel is circumscribed and allows academic participants only. To “proliferate” means to spread rapidly.” Borders serve to define spaces.”
. By contrast. but no members of the public. something “latent” is hidden. Example: “Although the atlas shows lines dividing the countries at their borders. or to increase. touching. when you’re walking across the land. Example: “The wild rabbit was introduced into Australia in the 1850s to provide hunting sport. like ideas. the panel will be made up of people from within the university system. “Contiguous” means connected. her latent talent emerged once she started playing. Its literal meaning is “to draw a line around” – that is. When there are no boundaries. Example: “We didn’t realize Jane was so musical until a neighbor gave us their old piano. ready to come out of hiding if the circumstances are right.” When something proliferates. an illness can be latent until something triggers it. but no-one expected the population to proliferate as much as it did. and rabbits quickly became pests in many areas of the country. and now she’s a soloist with the local orchestra. but is concealed.
” The America’s Cup yacht race is the most prestigious sailing event in the world. They both mean favorable. but there are virtuoso computer programmers and chefs as well. Inspiring Words
The five words in this section might inspire you to look ahead and aspire to reach your goals. The words are propitious. a good omen. Example: “It seemed auspicious that all of the traffic lights were green as she drove to her job interview.” “Propitious” has the same root as “propel” and the same meaning of “moving forward. auspicious. a genius.” The word also has the meaning of something that has influence because of its high position. zenith. the art of reading signs in the natural world to decipher the will of the gods.
. a superstar.
Your inspiring words explained
All the signs point towards your success now that you’re learning how to use these Ultimate Vocabulary words. Someone who is highly skilled at something is called a “virtuoso. You’re a whiz. You’re considered a virtuoso if you have mastered a skill beyond mere capability and into the realm of brilliance. The Latin root originally referred to divination. Something that is propitious moves you forward toward your goals. Example: “The captain of the Australian yacht took advantage of the propitious winds to increase his lead in the race. And the first two words in this section refer to favorable circumstances: auspicious and propitious. and prestigious.” It also refers to a favorable or advantageous situation.Confidence-In-Context
F. Usually. virtuoso. Example: “Many students apply to prestigious universities such as Harvard or Yale so that they will have an impressive curriculum vitae to show future employers. you’ll use “auspicious” when you want to communicate the sense that the advantage or good fortune is due to an outside influence. advantageous. “Prestigious” means “having a good reputation” and “held in high esteem. boding well.” This word is often used to refer to artists and musicians.” Your curriculum vitae is place to list your skills and accomplishments. and that the influence and esteem will spread to those who are connected to it. a wizard. something auspicious smoothes the path in front of you.
A “zenith” is the highest point.” Itzhak Perlman is still active in performance and teaching. when a new business was going public every few days.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “Virtuoso violinist Itzhak Perlman is known for his performances of the Brahms trio sonatas. You’ll also hear the word used in astronomy: the zenith is the point directly above any particular location on Earth.”
. If you’re speaking of something measured in terms of time. from the perspective of someone standing on the ground looking straight overhead. and has not reached the zenith of his career. Example: “Investment in internet start-ups during the dot-com craze reached its zenith in the late 1990s. it’s the culmination of that timeline.
and I couldn’t find the volume control. Jackson Pollock’s work was famous four hundred years later. 2.
Answers: 1. These artists have very different styles. 3. and fill in the correct word in each space. 2. The young musicians were very enthusiastic. but this new remote has a ______________ of buttons. but their attempt at playing Mozart’s “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik” only resulted in _______________. Leonardo da Vinci painted the “Mona Lisa” in the 16 century in Italy. Make sure that the tour guide you hire to lead the next trip isn’t as ______________ as the last one. more than is necessary to do the job. and I couldn’t find the volume control There were so many buttons that I couldn’t tell which ones did what. “Plethora” means an excess of something. and someplace like a shopping center is a perfect _________________ for candid photographs. including reproductions of the “Mona Lisa” and several works by Jackson Pollock. 1. but this new remote has a plethora of buttons. I enjoy taking pictures of people. I tried to turn down the sound on the television. and Elsa has collected their works and others from around the
. including reproductions of the “Mona Lisa” and several works by Jackson Pollock. we’re going to be advertising the trip as a family vacation opportunity. I tried to turn down the sound on the television. She had an ___________________ collection of art prints hanging on her walls.Confidence-In-Context
Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt
A. 5. Elsa had an eclectic collection of art prints hanging on her walls.
Words for the Good Times
Are you ready to rock ‘n’ roll with your new vocabulary words? Listen to these five sentences. 4.
humorously vulgar. A “milieu” is an environment or the surroundings. Her collection is eclectic – that is. and they weren’t playing together. and someplace like a shopping center is a perfect milieu to for candid photographs. Make sure that the tour guide you hire to lead the next trip isn’t as ribald as the last one. A “cacophony” is an unpleasant confusion of sound. no matter what milieu you find yourself in. you’ll be surrounded by many different people. 4. it’s a variety of paintings from many sources. off-color. We hope you’ve enjoyed learning this eclectic set of five Ultimate Vocabulary words: plethora ribald cacophony eclectic milieu
. “Ribald” means bawdy. and it’s easy to take candid photographs because most people will be too occupied with their errands to notice their surroundings. “Eclectic” means “having a mix or variety of things. It’s probably not appropriate for a tour guide to make vulgar jokes in front of young children. They weren’t playing in tune. but their attempt at playing Mozart’s “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik” only resulted in cacophony. 5. You’ll have a plethora of opportunities to use your new vocabulary words. The young musicians were very enthusiastic. and the music was too difficult for them to play well. In a shopping center. so all they were doing was making a loud and unpleasant noise.Confidence-In-Context
world.” 3. I enjoy taking pictures of people. we’re going to be advertising the trip as a family vacation opportunity. The children had only been playing their instruments for a few years.
they buy diet books and pills. 3. and the U.S. She was able to rise above those barriers because of her understanding of the region’s history. 2. Local politics created barriers between people that hid the deeper problems of long-standing ethnic tension and conflict.Confidence-In-Context
. Her background in history helped her transcend the local politics and focus on solving the underlying ethnic issues that had existed for centuries. hoping to find a _________________ for their weight problem. He doesn’t spend time trying to get exotic flowers to blossom. instead. are trying to come to an _______________ on the priorities for the next phase of the International Space Station. Get ready to fight for the right answer now. 4. Her background in history helped her ________________ the local politics and focus on solving the underlying ethnic issues that had existed for centuries. 2. and fill in the correct word in each sentence. A “panacea” is a cure-all or remedy. I started crying while watching “Atonement. 1.
Answers: 1.” a ______________ that helped relieve some of the pain I felt when my girlfriend left me. Words in a Calm Environment
Expanding your vocabulary will help you win any war of words. or go beyond. he’s a _______________ gardener who focuses on growing fruits and vegetables suited to the climate where he lives. Russia. Officials from the space programs in China. hoping to find a panacea for their weight problem. Many people don’t like to exercise and eat healthy foods. It would be so much easier if we could eat whatever we want. then take a pill to keep us in perfect health and cure all of our health problems. 5. “Transcend” means to rise above. instead. they buy diet books and pills. Many people don’t like to exercise and eat healthy foods.
the countries will have to agree on some things. A “catharsis” is a release of tension or strong emotions through a vicarious experience. it’s not practical to spend all of your time trying to get banana trees to grow in your garden.S. are trying to come to an accord on the priorities for the next phase of the International Space Station. While an expanded vocabulary isn’t a panacea for all of your problems. such as watching a movie where people are going through similar emotions. we hope you’re planning to practice the five new words you just learned: catharsis panacea accord transcend pragmatic
3. Watching the emotional crises of the people in the movie made me feel the same emotions. I started crying while watching “Atonement. Officials from the space programs in China. realistic. He doesn’t spend time trying to get exotic flowers to blossom. but in order to make progress. “Pragmatic” means practical. Russian.” a catharsis that helped relieve some of the pain I felt when my girlfriend left me. and that helped me release the tension I was feeling about my own emotional pain. Every country involved in a big project like the ISS will have its own list of priorities.
Using these Ultimate Vocabulary words correctly in context will help you transcend any barriers to your advancement. and down-toearth. 4. both personally and professionally. If you live in Norway. and the U. 5. An “accord” is an agreement or state of harmony. he’s a pragmatic gardener who focuses on growing fruits and vegetables suited to the climate where he lives.
3. She changes jobs and cities so often that she has eliminated everything but the most ______________ of household items from her belongings. the cell phone is _____________. Stealing money from the charity box at the local church is an unconscionable act. fulsome. found in small villages in India as well as corporate boardrooms in London.Confidence-In-Context
C. 5. but the best escorts know they don’t have to always ply the guests with __________________ flattery. but the best escorts know they don’t have to always ply the guests with unctuous flattery. “Unctuous” means ingratiating. and insisting that they’re absolutely the most beautiful woman in the room. 2. Answers: 1. It’s unscrupulous to steal from people who have even less than you do – not that it’s right to steal from anyone. but there’s a difference between complimenting someone’s hairstyle or dress. and fill in the missing word in each. 2. the triplets confused people with their _______________ appearance. Cruise ships often employ professional escorts to dance with the single guests. In their matching outfits and with their hair styled the same way. Stealing money from the charity box at the local church is an ______________ act. In this era of cheap and easy-to-use communication equipment. or unscrupulous.
. 4. as it was hard to tell which child was which. smarmy. Cruise ships often employ professional escorts to dance with the single guests. mind you! “Unconscionable” means lacking in morals. The escorts want to make sure that the guests feel good about themselves. flattery that’s over the top and delivered with a too-smooth manner that makes it seem insincere. 1. Interesting Words Beginning with “U”
Are you hungry to learn more words and expand your vocabulary? Test your skills with these five sentences.
Test your skills now by filling in the right word in each sentence. A person who moves house a lot probably doesn’t want to be bothered with a lot of extra things that they don’t use very often. In this era of cheap and easy-to-use communication equipment. to keep people guessing which is which. Something that is found everywhere is “ubiquitous. 4. not just for show. the triplets confused people with their uniform appearance.
. “Utilitarian” means practical and functional. as it was hard to tell which child was which. the cell phone is ubiquitous.Confidence-In-Context
3. She changes jobs and cities so often that she has eliminated everything but the most utilitarian of household items from her belongings. and can be found even in the most remote locations. There are cell phones in use all over the world.” 5. found in small villages in India as well as corporate boardrooms in London. Identical twins or triplets sometimes enjoy dressing and acting the same way.
Words That Define Attitude
By practicing these vocabulary words. In their matching outfits and with their hair styled the same way. thanks to satellite technology. We’re done with this section on words that start with “U” and we hope “U” will enjoy using these words in your next conversation: unctuous unconscionable uniform ubiquitous utilitarian
D. you’ll find using them to be smooth sailing. without variation. “Uniform” means the same.
I’m sure he’ll be ________________ to any changes you need to make in the program. but in general they’re used to taking direction from adults. or health reasons.
. There’s only one television in the house. and unyielding on a point is adamant. willing to go along. 2. There’s only one television in the house. inflexible. The director is very easy-going. “Amenable” means open to persuasion. Strict vegetarians are adamant in their refusal to eat any meat. Children can be stubborn. I’m sure he’ll be amenable to any changes you need to make in the program. Strict vegetarians are _________________ in their refusal to eat any meat. since these are produced without killing the animals involved. Someone who is determined. though some will accept eggs and dairy products. The director is very easy-going. but my roommates and I looked at the program listings and came up with an equitable schedule that lets us all watch our favorite shows. but my roommates and I looked at the program listings and came up with an _________________ schedule that lets us all watch our favorite shows. a strict vegetarian is determined to avoid meat. religious. Whether it’s for moral. 5. Even though it’s getting cold outside. since these are produced without killing the animals involved. 3. some students are ______________ about complying with the dress code and won’t give up their shorts and t-shirts. though some will accept eggs and dairy products.
Answers: 1. An easy-going person is willing to go along with things. you might also think that such a person is being intransigent in their refusal to eat meat.Confidence-In-Context
1. 2. If it’s your personal opinion that vegetarianism is silly and pointless. 4. and will be ____________________ and do what you say. 3.
Even though it’s getting cold outside. but it doesn’t have any acts involving trained animals like elephants or horses. 4. People who continue to wear short dresses and sleeveless shirts when the weather’s cold and rainy are probably pretty stubborn. you’ll see an improvement in your communication skills in short order. something that’s decided impartially to be of benefit to all. 5. and clowns. it’s sometimes difficult to make sure everyone gets their fair share.
Words Describing the Nature of Things
Practice these new vocabulary words by fitting them into the correct spots in the next five sentences. I punish him by ___________________ his activities and do not let him watch television or use the computer for games. 1. but in general they’re used to taking direction from adults. “Intransigent” means stubborn and unwilling to compromise.Confidence-In-Context
When resources are limited. Cirque du Soleil is a troupe _________________ of acrobats. contortionists. and we be compliant and do what you say. We’re adamant in our belief that if you’re amenable to making these changes in your vocabulary. 2. Practice using these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words in your next conversation: intransigent compliant equitable adamant amenable
E. “Compliant” means submissive and yielding. “Equitable” means fair and just. some students are intransigent about complying with the dress code and won’t give up their shorts and t-shirts. When my son gets into trouble at school. Children can be stubborn.
. and willing to comply.
The “lower 48”. I often succumb to my _______________ tendency towards laziness. but it doesn’t have any acts involving trained animals like elephants or horses. 3.Confidence-In-Context
3. and don’t do the dishes for days. When my son gets into trouble at school. to consist of or be made of. To “comprise” means to contain or include. When things are connected and touching.” 4. The United States is made up of forty-eight contiguous states and two others that are not connected: Alaska and Hawai’i. 2. My son is restricted. or limited. in what he can do. The circus troupe contains a variety of performers. Cirque du Soleil is a troupe comprised of acrobats. To “circumscribe” means to limit or restrict. Mint plants are very invasive. 4. with at least one border touching another state. 5. are states that are all connected. When I’m at home alone. The United States is made up of forty-eight ___________________ states and two others that are not connected: Alaska and Hawai’i. Mint spreads rapidly by sending out underground shoots in all directions. Mint plants are very invasive. if you want to have some in your garden. contortionists. I punish him by circumscribing his activities and do not let him watch television or use the computer for games. keep them in a container or they will _________________ into every available space. if you want to have some in your garden. I often succumb to my latent tendency towards laziness. keep them in a container or they will proliferate into every available space. and clowns. or to place a boundary around something. 5.
Answers: 1. “Proliferate” means to increase or spread rapidly.
. they are “contiguous. and don’t do the dishes for days. as the residents of Alaska call them. When I’m at home alone.
Practicing these Ultimate Vocabulary words every day is a propitious first step in gaining confidence in using them in context. Before you know it.Confidence-In-Context
When I’m living with a roommate. I do my best to keep the house clean and share the dishwashing duties. 5. 3. test your skills by filling in the correct word in each sentence. because he wants to make sure that he wins this case.S. I can fight the tendency to laziness if there’s someone else in the house. and decided to close her restaurant the next year. 2. you’ll be a virtuoso of vocabulary. Pat makes some of the best cheese I’ve ever tasted – she’s a ______________ with milk and cultures.
. rather than risking a slide backwards in ratings. It was ____________________ that this apartment’s former tenants decided to move out just after I accepted a new job in this city. Michael hired a lawyer from a very ________________ firm. dollar go down against European currencies has been ___________ for Londoners who want to pick up high-fashion shoes and clothes at bargain prices. I’m most likely to put off such chores. but left to myself. She felt that getting the fourth Michelin star was the ______________ of her career as a chef. Something that is present but hidden is “latent” – it exists. Bring out your latent vocabulary skills by using these powerful vocabulary words in daily conversation: comprise circumscribe contiguous proliferate latent
F. 4. 1. But first. I don’t think I could have found a nicer spot to live. but it’s always there. Having the exchange rates for the U. but is kept concealed.
rather than risking a slide backwards in ratings. 2. and wielding influence because of that reputation.Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. and is highly esteemed. dollar go down against European currencies has been propitious for Londoners who want to pick up high-fashion shoes and clothes at bargain prices. 5. because he wants to make sure that he wins this case.
. It was auspicious that this apartment’s former tenants decided to move out on the same day I accepted a new job in this city. A lucky coincidence made the apartment available just as I needed a new place to live. A zenith is the highest point. “Propitious” means advantageous. Michael hired a lawyer from a very prestigious firm. and Londoners are flying to New York on weekend shopping sprees. The fall of the dollar has made the purchasing power of the British pound much stronger. and this chef thought that it was better to end on a high note than take the chance that one of the stars might be taken away in the future. The firm has an excellent reputation. leading to success. I don’t think I could have found a nicer spot to live. and decided to close her restaurant the next year. peak. Four Michelin stars is just about the best a restaurant can hope for. especially if it comes by through luck or chance. that is a good omen. or culmination of events. 4. “Prestigious” means esteemed. Having the exchange rates for the U. She felt that getting the fourth Michelin star was the zenith of her career as a chef. Something that is fortunate and favorable. having a good reputation. 3. is auspicious. Pat makes some of the best cheese I’ve ever tasted – she’s a virtuoso with milk and cultures. favorable.S.
You haven’t reached the zenith of your vocabulary skills yet! Keep moving higher by using these powerful words in your conversations: virtuoso propitious zenith prestigious auspicious
Pat knows how to expertly mix cultures and age cheeses. A virtuoso is a master at her craft. and her cheeses are much better than most of the ones on the market these days.
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 4 Workbook
like a dressing gown made of cashmere.” In general.
Your success and achievement words explained
Your decision to study these ultimate vocabulary words will bring a change in the way you communicate. it’s described as “lucrative”. opulent.” When change leads to success. Words about Success and Achievement
This block of five words is designed to inspire you to greater vocabulary-building heights by giving you words that can be used to describe success and achievement in your life: catalyst. trimmed with fur. In general. but there might be many other people who can do it better than you can. success can often bring financial rewards. “proficient” doesn’t necessarily mean “expert.” While it’s a positive word. lucrative.” “fancy” and “luxurious” are synonyms for “opulent” and can describe what they wear as well as the parties they throw. These people have opulent lifestyles: “extravagant. it’s not the most positive – that is. “Proficient” means “skilled” or “practiced. and clothing they can find. Example: “She was an excellent legal assistant.” For some people.” Being proficient in something means that you’re able to do it well enough to be successful.” The catalytic converter on your car transforms harmful emissions into non-toxic forms. and it’s easier the better you are at your job. or “profit.” Example: “Anyone who has a computer and a digital camera can set up a shop on eBay. If you’re good at doing something. When your activity brings in a significant amount of money. Opulence is richness taken almost to excess.
. proficient. munificent. as proficient at transcription as she was at preparing documents for court and interviewing clients. the word refers to “change for the better. and embroidered with gold thread. though not everyone can turn online resale into a lucrative career. it does take some skill to make a lot of money. jewelry.Confidence-In-Context
A. the purpose of seeking a lucrative career is to accumulate a fortune – and then spend it buying the biggest and best houses. This word comes from the Latin lucrum. Something that brings about change by its mere presence is a “catalyst”. Example: “The new lead singer for the Blackbirds was the catalyst the band needed to take their music from ‘pretty’ to ‘powerful’ and make them a worldwide sensation. you’re proficient in it. a new CEO can be the catalyst for change in a corporation.
” You’re probably most familiar with it in a business setting.
Your action words explained
The first word. but can also be a noun that refers to the person to whom the responsibility is assigned. but once I was able to delegate the filing and copying to my assistant. or to represent a country at an international political meeting. “Delegate” means “to assign responsibility to someone else”. “facilitate”. This responsibility could be to pick up sticks. to make them easier to do. you will facilitate the process of mowing the lawn. By facilitating the meeting.” Some people who’ve made a lot of money enjoy spending it on others. means “to make simple or easy. Example: “I was feeling overwhelmed by the amount of work left to do on the project. “to facilitate” means to smooth things along.
. of money or goods. These people are “munificent” – their gifts. helping them come to agreement – this makes their discussion easier. In general. are more than usually generous. you’re delegating some of the yard work to them. and to get rid of obstacles that prevent them from happening. Words for reacting to or acting in a situation
B. capitulate – it must be something we “ate” that led to the choice of words in this section. corroborate. you may have examples from your own work life that will corroborate this.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “The hotel’s ‘honeymoon suite’ is lavishly decorated with framed artwork and crystal chandeliers.” When you send the boys out to clean up the lawn. often using additional evidence or examples. I made more progress. “Corroborate” means to confirm or support. and the bed is topped with an opulent cover of plush velvet and silk. but a munificent benefactor set up a scholarship that funded all four years of school. and give lavish gifts to their friends and family.” We’re sure you’ll agree that being able to get rid of necessary but time-consuming tasks makes your job easier. where one person may facilitate a meeting or conference. In fact. Example: “I didn’t think I’d be able to pay for my university education. this person will deal with any problems and solve them – this makes things simpler for the rest of the group. A facilitator often acts as an intermediary between two or more people who have different views on an issue. Example: “By sending the boys out to pick up all of the sticks and debris off of the grass. All of these words are verbs that describe different ways of acting in or reacting to a situation. exonerate. Delegate is a verb. delegate.
” Example: “After the new witness’ testimony was taken into consideration. putting pressure on them to change their story. “Exonerate” comes from the Latin roots “ex-“ – meaning without – and “onus” – meaning burden. To give up.” It’s important to make sure that witnesses are telling the truth in legal trials. this next group of five words might appear to be confusing or strange. “Anomaly” is a noun meaning something out of the ordinary. Example: “I don’t believe in spoiling children. you might say it was an anomaly. especially if you did not do it.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “The new witness for the defence was able to corroborate the defendant’s claim that he was out of the country when the murder was committed. In general.
. the criminal charges. and verisimilitude. or freed from. doesn’t it? In many ways. or blamed for something. a brain is “analogous” to a computer. but don’t worry – that only applies to the concepts they define. you’d probably think that was pretty unusual.” If you are accused of a crime. or “without the burden”. fallacious. Sounds like a computer. Some synonyms of exonerate are “acquit” and “absolve. In other words. Words for defining a concept
Sometimes things aren’t always as they seem. dichotomy. but later found innocent. or to stop resisting pressure. Example: “The way a helicopter’s vanes can tilt in any direction is analogous to wing mobility in dragonflies and other insects.” Dragonflies have such specialized wings that they can actually fly backwards. The five ultimate vocabulary words in this section are analogous. unusual. thus “exonerate”. but for the purposes of this example – comparing how they store and process information – they’re enough alike to be able to make the comparison. the judge said he had no choice but to exonerate the defendant from the murder charge. the witness might just give up and tell the truth. is to “capitulate”. If a lawyer suspects that one is lying. you are exonerated. he may spend hours questioning that witness.”
C. your brain and a computer are very similar. if you’re watching something flying and it’s going backwards instead of forwards. making connections between ideas and storing information for later retrieval. anomaly. They’re not the same. and strange. In the end. For example. In fact.
Your words for defining a concept explained
You’re using your brain to learn these words. is a weighty burden. but my niece asked for a new skateboard so many times that I finally had to capitulate and buy her one. Being accused of a crime.
Unless you’re in the sciences. Women Are From Venus’ tries to explain the author’s view of the dichotomy between the way men and women think. “Consensus” means that there is general agreement about a proposal or decision. using brain scans. but since some have backbones and others do not. vacillate. but the judge ruled that out as fallacious. That’s a fallacious argument.” An argument that appears logical at first might seem to be true.” This is also known as a “false dichotomy” because. irrevocable. “Verisimilitude” is a noun meaning “an appearance of truth. where only two options are presented. even though it could later be proved false. as she had ordered a plain green salad for dinner.”
D. These next five words are ones that you might use while talking about decisions: consensus. An example from biology is the division of the animal kingdom into vertebrates and invertebrates. Example: “The prosecutor asserted that the defendant could not have been at the pizza parlor because she was allergic to cheese. you’ll probably be using the word “dichotomy” in this second sense.
Your words for talking about decisions explained
Sometimes you’re the only one who has input into a decision. Together. we saw chickens.” Something that is split into two. that men and women process information differently.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “At the harvest fair. where each separate part has nothing in common with the other. Example: “The book ‘Men Are From Mars. but more often you’ll find yourself working with other people who each have an opinion on the issue.
Words for Talking about Decisions
We’re glad you made the decision to improve your skills by learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context. or deceptive. Occasionally you’ll have to negotiate until you reach consensus and can move forward. based on a false premise. “Fallacious” means false.” Example: “The new wig and the heavy application of makeup gave her the verisimilitude of health. But you can’t use those results to make the argument that because women’s brains process language more efficiently. but we all knew that she did not have long to live. misleading. they make up all animal life on the planet. such that the proposal can be acted on. and antithesis. sitting on the sidelines not taking part is not considered to be a valid choice. that means no men should ever teach English classes.” It has been scientifically proven. but the two-headed goat in the livestock tent was an anomaly we weren’t expecting. Black-and-white reasoning is another example. and horses. and in different parts of their brains. It doesn’t necessarily mean that 5
. they form totally separate classifications. is a “dichotomy”. or the decision implemented. cows. for example. as in “You’re either with us or against us. precedent.
But sometimes you’ll be dealing with things that are completely unalike – polar opposites in fact. though. where one is the antithesis of the other. “Antithesis” means having absolutely nothing in common with the other. “Vacillate” means to be unable to settle on a choice. Example: “The waiter was ready to take their dessert order. You can use the previous decision as a precedent for your current course of action. While it’s relatively easy to change a dessert order.” When you’re using a precedent. Such decisions are “irrevocable”. from kicking a football to pulling the lever to dynamite a building. Example: “Although the members representing animal rights groups thought there should be more emphasis on the feral cat issue.” It’s often easier to make a decision if similar situations or issues have been dealt with before. Sometimes it’s hard to decide between two options. to be indecisive. and you may vacillate between them. the general consensus on the panel was that the city-wide spay and neuter program be implemented this summer. you’re comparing things that are alike in some way. or take back.Confidence-In-Context
everyone agrees exactly – sometimes people will “agree to disagree” for the sake of progress.”
. other things are impossible to stop once started. meaning impossible to revoke. prisoners can later be found innocent of wrongdoing.” Once you’ve made a decision. but Helen continued to vacillate between the vanilla-bean panna cotta and the pineapple sorbet for another five minutes. but the judge was able to find a precedent for his ruling in similar cases from other regions.” Choices aren’t always black and white. Example: “This was the first land use case brought to trial in the county. Example: “Politicians who favor using armies and weapons to resolve international situations are the antithesis of true peacemakers. “Black and white” or “good and evil” are examples of this: good is the antithesis of evil. and with the new DNA testing available. sometimes there’s no going back. Example: “Many people object to the death penalty because it is irrevocable. Many legal systems are based on the rule of precedence. A “precedent” is something that has occurred or been decided on in the past that is used to influence an action or decision in the present.
From our perspective. that when you talk about the second thing it’s understood that the first is always part of it. but it was washed away by the inexorable advance of the incoming tide. from particle physics to astronomy. You can’t talk about eBay without also talking about the internet. In fact. You might also have heard this word as a noun meaning “tool” – you can think of using a tool to make something happen. gives you a sense of the forces at work. When something is perfect. the internet is an intrinsic part of their operation. the forces controlling the orbits of the planets are inexorable. when you implement all you’re learning in these lessons. you’ll be learning descriptive words that will give your conversations more power and depth: implement. “Inexorable” means relentless or unstoppable. for example – would not exist without the internet. but her French is impeccable.
Words for Depth of Conversation
In this set of five ultimate vocabulary words. without any flaws or errors. so essential. For these businesses. watching them as they travel across light-years.” Even the most perfectly-constructed sand castle is no match for the power of the ocean. When one thing is “intrinsic” to another.” Studying the massive galaxies and the uncountable number of stars they contain. Example: “Einstein’s theory of relativity is intrinsic to much of modern science. some businesses – like eBay. you’ll be a skilled and persuasive speaker. Example: “All I need to implement the new bookkeeping system at work is a three-day weekend when no one is using the computers. and she often helps with the language classes at the local school. it can be described as “impeccable. inexorable. “Implement” is a verb that means “to put into practice” or “bring about. cause to happen”.”
. Example: “The boys built a sand castle on the beach.” Computers are an essential part of almost every business enterprise these days. it means that the first thing is so entwined.Confidence-In-Context
E. a movement that is powerful and unstoppable.
Your words for depth of conversation explained
In fact. and incorrigible. intrinsic. impeccable. that it cannot be separated from the second thing.” Example: “She speaks English and German quite well.
even though they were more expensive. a token amount of money. Something that is trivial has little value. but if you’re lucky. Nominal means small in effect or quantity. nominal. a trifling amount. and he’ll be willing to make some for your children for a nominal sum. you might have a friend who carves wooden toys for his children. and the room was just as filthy as when I left. and had been responsible for so much damage to lives and property. The word “nominal” comes from the Latin “nomen. compared to what the carver could charge for the toys. Example: “I had asked him to clean his room before I returned.” It’s a versatile word: you can be dubious about something that is dubious. Example: “The cheap plastic toys were colorful but of dubious quality.”
. dubious. Example: “The arsonist had been in and out of jail so many times. “Incorrigible” means “not correctable. a token gesture.
Things Small or of Questionable Significance
Learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context will make a big difference in your life.” Quoting from television shows or movies may make your arguments less believable and of dubious value. tenuous.” and in this example.” meaning “name. that is. means “in name only” – that is. significance in general.
Your words for things small or of questionable significance explained
If you’re a fan of pub quizzes.” Add an ‘L’ to the end and make it an adjective.” You’ll often hear this word applied to children who persist in doing bad things. Example: “He would have gotten better marks on his essay on space exploration if he hadn’t added so much trivial information quoted from ‘Star Trek’ episodes. you probably have a store of knowledge that’s not of much practical use – other than for winning pub quizzes.”
F. but he only made a nominal effort at picking up his clothes. and you have our first ultimate vocabulary word: “trivial”. from the ones who sit quietly and listen to the incorrigible ones who make trouble on a daily basis. however. “Dubious” means “questionable” or “open to doubt. surreptitious. and Elena decided to buy the sturdier wooden toys. that he was finally pronounced an incorrigible criminal and sentenced to life in prison. This knowledge is referred to as “trivia. all of the words we’ll look at in this section can be used to describe things that are small or of questionable significance: trivial. even when they’re punished for them over and over again.Confidence-In-Context
Teaching at a school brings you in contact with all sorts of students. or impact on a situation.” Handmade wooden toys are often more expensive.
“Tenuous” means flimsy. other than its spelling.Confidence-In-Context
A child who doesn’t want to clean his room might try to hide some of the mess in a closet or under his bed. or hidden. “Surreptitious” means sneaky. or not substantial. furtive. You can use it to talk about concepts. For example. and then for trying to hide the mess. Example: “Joan was so surreptitious when taking extra cards that it was years before we figured out why she always won the card games. stealthy. fragile. and he’ll end up in more trouble than before – first for having a messy room. These words are connected by their meanings. but even this tenuous connection with the families in the town made me a welcome visitor. Example: “My family had emigrated three generations before. The words “trivial” and “nominal” can both be used to describe similar concepts.”
. but this word by definition has nothing in common with the first two. So does the word “annual”.” You can also use this word to describe physical characteristics. That sort of surreptitious behavior doesn’t work for long. The connection between the three words is very tenuous. like the tenuous tie between the words “trivial” and “annual. a loose button on a shirt might hang from a tenuous thread. but they also have another point of similarity: they both end in the letters ‘A-L’.
Listen to these sentences. but it can be very lucrative for the top Hollywood stars.” 2. Not everyone has the talent to succeed in an acting career. 10
.” 4. but that was the _________ he needed to start taking daily walks. Playing the piano well requires skill.Confidence-In-Context
Tests for Reinforcing What you have Learnt A. and now he’s even thinking about entering a marathon. 4. but the luxurious fabrics she chose for the upholstery. “Proficient” means “skilled” or “practiced. but it can be very ________________ for the top Hollywood stars. I had to practice on the piano for several months before I was proficient enough to play even the simplest tune. 3.
Answers: 1. and made donations to all of the arts organizations in town. and fur. full of luxury. Her apartment is small. 2. Fabrics that have a rich look and feel. Herbert was feeling _______________. like silk. He didn’t exercise regularly until he got a dog. 5. 3. create a luxurious atmosphere. and drapes give it a warmly opulent look. Herbert was feeling munificent. carpets. After winning the lottery. I had to practice on the piano for several months before I was _______________ enough to play even the simplest tune. “Opulent” means richly decorated. and fill in the correct word in each of them. and drapes give it a warmly ________________ look. Not everyone has the talent to succeed in an acting career. but big-name stars get millions for their appearances. A job that brings in a lot of money is a lucrative one. After winning the lottery.
1. and made donations to all of the arts organizations in town. Unknown actors playing small roles in movies might not be able to make a living from their acting. carpets. but the luxurious fabrics she chose for the upholstery. Her apartment is small. velvet. Words about Success and Achievement
You’ll become more proficient at using these vocabulary words in context if you practice them. “Lucrative” means “profitable.
no matter how controversial the topics being discussed. Although I wanted to take a year off and travel before starting at university. 5. my parents argued against it. he had to ____________ Alice. and I decided it was easier to ______________ and travel in the summers instead. Try filling in the blanks in these sentences with the appropriate words:
1. The only way you’ll succeed in business is by learning to _______ jobs to the people who can do them most efficiently. Her background in sociology and psychology helps her to ___________ meetings. whether of money or gifts. My mother always knew when I had skipped school.Confidence-In-Context
Someone who gives very generously to others. but when that student was caught selling exam answers. 5. but that was the catalyst he needed to start taking daily walks. 4.
2. because now he’s getting exercise regularly. The professor accused Alice of copying her essay from another student. and now he’s even thinking about entering a marathon. “Munificent” means extremely generous and lavish in giving.
Become proficient in these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words and your skillful use of words might be the catalyst you need to move up to a new and lucrative career! We hope you enjoyed learning how to use these words in context: lucrative opulent proficient munificent catalyst
B. because she would ask my brother to __________ my stories of what happened in class that day. Getting a dog forced a change in his life for the better.
. He didn’t exercise regularly until he got a dog. Something that brings about a change is a catalyst. 3. Words for reacting to or acting in a situation
Practicing these ultimate vocabulary words by using them in context will facilitate your learning process. is munificent.
Don’t wait to start using these five new words: capitulate facilitate delegate exonerate corroborate
. no matter how controversial the topics being discussed.
We’re sure others will corroborate our claim that daily practice of new vocabulary words is the quickest way to gain confidence in using them. The professor accused Alice of copying her essay from another student.Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. When you have a list of tasks to do. or acquiesce. usually including tangible proof of your confirmation.
3. “Exonerate” means to remove blame or responsibility from.
5. It’s difficult to keep meetings productive and calm when the topic is something that people disagree on or feel strongly about. my parents argued against it. “Delegate” means to assign responsibility to someone else. and you assign one or more of those tasks to another person. or acquit. but then later found innocent. but when that student was caught selling exam answers. you’re capitulating. When you’re being pressured to do something and you resist at first but then give in. If a person is accused of doing something. Although I wanted to take a year off and travel before starting at university. When you bring in additional evidence to confirm something that you or someone else has said. “Capitulate” means to give in. Someone who facilitates a meeting like that is making it easier for the discussion to move forward.
4. “Corroborate” means to confirm or attest to. “Facilitate” means “to make easy.”
2. they are exonerated. he had to exonerate Alice. you are corroborating that statement. My mother always knew when I had skipped school. you are delegating those tasks. The only way you’ll succeed in business is by learning to delegate jobs to the people who can do them most efficiently. because she would ask my brother to corroborate my stories of what happened in class that day. Her background in sociology and psychology helps her to facilitate meetings. to someone else. and I decided it was easier to capitulate and travel in the summers instead.
The dark brown wedge of rock had a crust of sparkling white quartz just like icing on a cake. but taken together are the whole. In this example. This is a belief based on false premises. A dichotomy is an “either-or” situation. 2. 3. giving it the ______________ of real food.Confidence-In-Context
C. some people think that because they’ve never seen the Bible in anything other than English. The large spiky cactus was an ___________ in her otherwise pink-themed rose garden. Schrödinger’s paradox is based on an essential ______________: a cat cannot be both dead and alive. The dark brown wedge of rock had a crust of sparkling white quartz just like icing on a cake. you can’t say the cat is either dead or alive until then.
Answers: 1. Astronauts often say that being in space is _____________ to deep-sea scuba diving. 3. 2. 5. Schrödinger’s paradox describes a cat sealed in a box with a closed glass jar of poisonous gas and a hammer that will break the glass jar if it is triggered by the movement of a subatomic particle. the cat is either dead or alive – there’s no third possibility. The early Biblical texts were written in Greek. 4. However. But because the only way to find out if that has happened is to open the box. “Fallacious” means mistaken or misleading. and many other languages. reflecting the population of the Middle East where the texts originated. Words for defining a concept
Take a healthy bite out of your new vocabulary and fit your five new ultimate vocabulary words into the correct blanks in these sentences:
1. giving it the verisimilitude of real food. because there’s no difference between “up” and “down”. Schrödinger’s paradox is based on an essential dichotomy: a cat cannot be both dead and alive.
. His entire argument for making English the national language was based on the _____________ belief that the Bible was originally written in English. where two things are opposite. His entire argument for making English the national language was based on the fallacious belief that the Bible was originally written in English. that’s the language it was first written in. Aramaic.
That candidate is campaigning by presenting himself as the ___________ of the current officeholder. 5. by using each one appropriately in the following sentences:
1. 2. expanded vocabulary might make you a linguistic anomaly among your coworkers.
. it would look very out of place. but if you look at his voting history.Confidence-In-Context
The rock might look like a piece of cake. 14
3. 4. We can’t imagine a plant that looks less like a delicate rose than a large spiky cactus. you’ll see that they’re quite similar in their politics. “Verisimilitude” means an appearance of truth or reality. Taking a year off from school before going to university is not an ___________ decision. Astronauts often say that being in space is analogous to deep-sea scuba diving. for purposes of the comparison or point you’re making at the time. because you can always start mid-year with the next term. An “anomaly” is something that is out of place. The large spiky cactus was an anomaly in her otherwise pink-themed rose garden. because there’s no difference between “up” and “down”. different from what is around it. “Analogous” means the same. There’s another way being in outer space and being underwater is similar – you can’t breathe in either situation. but don’t worry – being able to use these words in context is a skill you should be proud of. since both degree programs required those classes. so the counselor suggested that she study anatomy and physiology while she decided. no matter how realistic it appears. If you saw one in the middle of a rose garden. We hope you’ve enjoyed learning these five new ultimate vocabulary words: anomaly analogous verisimilitude fallacious dichotomy
D. Emily continued to ___________ between wanting to be a doctor and wanting to make her living doing massage therapy.
Words for Talking about Decisions
Practice using these five new vocabulary words in context. Your new. but you’d soon regret biting into it. or unusual.
Taking a year off from school before going to university is not an irrevocable decision. but her family preferred an outdoor wedding in the woods. but were willing to go along with everyone else in order to reach the consensus and move forward with the wedding plans. Meir. but her family preferred an outdoor wedding. To “vacillate” means to be unable to decide between two or more choices. “Antithesis” means “completely different.
4. but if you look at his voting history. If you change your mind about a gap year and want to start classes instead. you’ll see that they’re quite similar in their politics. Indira Gandhi.
3. Golda Meir. That candidate is campaigning by presenting himself as the antithesis of the current officeholder. and Margaret Thatcher helped establish a modern-day ___________ for women in high political office. because you can always start mid-year with the next term. and their example has helped influence political movements around the world to promote women to positions of power. it’s something that can be changed or revoked.
5. His family wanted to hold the wedding at their church. since both degree programs required those classes. A “precedent” is something that occurred in the past that forms the basis for a decision or action in the present. they were able to reach a consensus when I proposed holding the ceremony in the garden at the local chapel instead. there may have been one or two family members who still wanted either a church or woodland setting. so the counselor suggested that she study anatomy and physiology while she decided. Golda Meir. however. In this example. your decision is not irrevocable – that is. it’s easy to enroll in a university program even after the school year has started. and Thatcher were three of the most prominent twentieth-century women who held office. and Margaret Thatcher helped establish a modern-day precedent for women in high political office. you are vacillating. “Irrevocable” means something that cannot be changed. with no point of similarity.” His family wanted to hold the wedding at their church. Indira Gandi. Because you can change your mind. When you cannot settle on one option.Confidence-In-Context
. Emily continued to vacillate between wanting to be a doctor and wanting to make her living doing massage therapy. Gandhi. they were able to reach a ___________ when I proposed holding the ceremony in the garden at the local chapel instead.
5. A “consensus” is a general agreement on a course of action or decision.
Emergency management officials tried hard to contain the flooding river. the ________ prankster seen in Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Although many political races turn out to be popularity contests rather than comparisons of the candidates’ qualifications.
3. The legends of mischievous elves and fairies are found in countries around the world.Confidence-In-Context
Keep practicing using these words in context and your progress will be irrevocable: precedent consensus antithesis vacillate irrevocable
E. became angry with him for doing so.
Words for Depth in Conversation
You can practice using your new vocabulary words in the real world and on-line.” After the confusion and problems caused by the computer date change in the year 2000. Oberon. programmers worldwide were told to _________ a new protocol and use four digits to store system dates. Puck couldn’t seem to stop causing trouble for the “foolish mortals” even though his master. But first. you should call Kate – she has _________ taste and will create the perfect design. The legends of mischievous elves and fairies are found in countries around the world. but one of the most well-known is the figure of Puck.
4. but one of the most well-known is the figure of Puck.
2. but no amount of sandbags could stop the _________ rise of the muddy water over the barriers and into the city streets.
.” In Shakespeare’s play. practice with these five sample sentences by filling in the appropriate word in each blank:
1. I think that having an understanding of social and economic history is ____________ to being able to govern this country.
Answers: 1. 5. and often refers to someone who keeps on doing bad things even when they’re punished for it again and again. “Incorrigible” means not able to be corrected. If you’re wondering what designs to use on your wedding invitations. the incorrigible prankster seen in Shakespeare’s “A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
That’s a force that’s hard to stop easily.Confidence-In-Context
2. but IT managers everywhere made it standard to start using a four-digit date. even impossible.it’s hard to imagine the sheer power of all those tons of water moving downstream.
Things Small or of Questionable Significance
You’ll get addicted to using these new vocabulary words. Although many political races turn out to be popularity contests rather than comparisons of the candidates’ qualifications.
5.” I think that having an understanding of social and economic history is intrinsic to being able to govern this country. Not all computers had problems when the dates rolled over from 19 to 20. programmers worldwide were told to implement a new protocol and use four digits to store system dates. where each detail is absolutely perfect. “Implement” means to put into place.
Study these new ultimate vocabulary words carefully. Something that is “inexorable” is powerful and hard.
4. is “impeccable. Emergency management officials tried hard to contain the flooding river. once you realize how much they add to your conversations. Something of high quality. to start a program or routine. you should call Kate – she has impeccable taste and will create the perfect design. it’s hard to see how any person could be an effective leader without knowing the reasons behind the current state of affairs. That is an essential qualification. A graphic designer who always knows just the right colors and designs for each of her clients will get a lot of praise for the quality of her work. After the confusion and problems caused by the computer date change in the year 2000. Make sure you know how to use them in context. and had their programmers put that standard into place immediately. to stop. Looking at a slow-moving river is deceptive . but no amount of sandbags could stop the inexorable rise of the muddy water over the barriers and into the city streets. If you’re wondering what designs to use on your wedding invitations. Something that is so essential that it’s hard to imagine that quality not being there is “intrinsic. and you’ll soon be able to implement your new conversational abilities in the workplace and elsewhere: incorrigible implement inexorable impeccable intrinsic
F. and practice by putting the correct word in each of the next five sentences: 17
4. because the chocolates are almost all gone.Confidence-In-Context
1. “Trivial” means of little use or value. the bare minimum. As the months went by. If you don’t believe a story. his ____________ remarks were wasting everyone’s time. his trivial remarks were wasting everyone’s time. and today he has only a __________ grasp on reality. or a token effort. if what you’re saying isn’t useful or relevant to the conversation. his mental health continued to decline. and he was not included in the delegation. “Nominal” means so small as to have no impact. of questionable truth or value.
5. so I’m dubious about her story about climbing Mont Blanc last summer. If you would put in more than a ____________ amount of time towards looking for work. and very little understanding of what’s happening in the world around him. you’re dubious about it. Although he came to all of the meetings. it really isn’t one. Saying something just for the sake of speaking up usually doesn’t contribute to the progress of a meeting. you’d have a better chance of actually finding a job. I thought we’d bought plenty of sweets for the holidays. 3. As the months went by.
4. If you would put in more than a nominal amount of time towards looking for work. and very little understanding of what’s happening in the world around him. She’s so scared of heights that she won’t live in an apartment that’s more than three floors up. you could also say that a person’s story is dubious. even though you’re going through the motions. Just buying a paper and glancing through the “help wanted” advertisements doesn’t move you much closer to employment. 2. Although he came to all of the meetings. She’s so scared of heights that she won’t live in an apartment that’s more than three floors up. and although you might call it a job search.
. but I think the children have been making ____________ raids of the pantry. “Dubious” means doubtful. you’d have a better chance of actually finding a job. and today he has only a tenuous grasp on reality. so I’m _________ about her story about climbing Mont Blanc last summer. his mental health continued to decline. Anyone who’s scared of heights will probably not be spending much time in the mountains. and he was not included in the delegation.
thin. For example. or furtive. 5. Working on learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context is not a trivial pursuit! You might be dubious about how much these words will help you. I thought we’d bought plenty of sweets for the holidays. “Surreptitious” means hidden. and insubstantial. you might only have a tenuous control over your emotions. when you’re very angry. Don’t hesitate to use your five new words in conversation: tenuous surreptitious dubious nominal trivial
. because the chocolates are almost all gone. but we’re sure that you’ll benefit greatly from your expanded vocabulary. sneaky.Confidence-In-Context
“Tenuous” means fragile. or stealing them and hiding them away. but I think the children have been making surreptitious raids of the pantry. The children were sneaking into the pantry to eat chocolates.
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 5 Workbook
. Example: “I didn’t really pay attention to the ingredient listings on food until I was diagnosed with coeliac disease. or being aware of something.Confidence-In-Context
A. you’ll notice when other people use them incorrectly. Example: “Before the committee made a decision. “Cognizant” means noticing something. Another synonym for comprehensive is “exhaustive” – you might use these two words together when describing an academic study or research project. predilection. they asked the team leaders to each present a comprehensive report on the costs and benefits of their plans to rebuild the city’s transit system.” A successful transit system should do three things: go places people need to go. “Comprehensive” means: covering a wide range. and do this all on a reasonable budget. You’re probably more familiar with the plural of criterion. or even over to a friend’s house. If you’re afraid you might get ill and hesitate to accept invitations to dinner.” One criterion. cognizant.” Once you realize that many words have singular and plural forms. two criteria. These next five words will keep you moving forward and will help you describe your journey: comprehensive. Example: “Knowing the difference between the singular form of a noun and its plural form. can be difficult. Words For Moving Forward With Your Vocabulary
You’re expanding your horizons as you learn these ultimate vocabulary words and how to use them correctly. which is “criteria. Each of these three points is a criterion that is used to measure the success of a transit system. and using them correctly. A “criterion” is a standard by which something is measured or judged. get them there when they need to be there. Many people incorrectly use the plural form for both cases. is a criterion for evaluating your progress in learning a language. for the city and the riders. trepidation. criterion.” Anyone with food allergies knows that going out to eat in restaurants. especially if the allergy is to something as common as wheat. apprehension or concern.
Your words for moving forward with your vocabulary explained
One of the advantages of knowing – and knowing how to use – these ultimate vocabulary words is that you’ll have the appropriate words for discussions on a wide range of topics. “Trepidation” means fear or hesitation. Your vocabulary will be comprehensive in scope. you’re experiencing trepidation. being thorough. and including everything. but now I’m cognizant of the fact that most packaged food has gluten in it.
“Draconian” means harsh or rigid.
.” Some people enjoy cooking more than others do. You’ll learn to use words with precision. so that’s what I use for work.” When the leaders of a country decide on war. Example: “With the general public’s growing resistance to the war. “Precision” means “exactness” – being precise. those leaders may resort to draconian measures like a forced draft to achieve their goals. The word comes from the name of an ancient Greek senator. usually of weapons. but it can’t match the precision of my digital timer. I felt a bit of trepidation when I arrived for dinner and saw smoke pouring out of the kitchen. but we could see where they had stored their arsenal of cannonballs and gunpowder. you have a tendency to do it more often. Words can be very effective weapons. arsenal.” You’ll soon have a collection of words that you can use in any situation.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “Although John said that Kathy was an excellent cook.” Diligent practice of these vocabulary words will augment your ability to use them correctly. An “arsenal” is a collection. Example: “The ruins of the castle were overgrown with moss.”
B. but also of anything used as a weapon. but as he had a predilection for the more violent action films. And when you enjoy doing something. but don’t give up the fight! You’ll prevail soon – and the next five words will help you describe the battle: precision. Example: “Jim frequently invited me to join him at the movies. acquiesce. Your vocabulary will be a powerful tool in your arsenal. Words For Your Vocabulary Arsenal
You might struggle sometimes to learn how to use vocabulary in context. or to the point. the only way the ruling party could augment the size of the army was by instituting a draft.
Your vocabulary arsenal words explained
One of the most important lessons to learn about using these ultimate vocabulary words is when to use them. Draco. augment. and will help you win arguments and prevail in debates. You can augment the sound coming from a stereo by adding bass and treble boosters. Example: “I like wearing my grandfather’s wristwatch. “Predilection” means liking or having a tendency towards. I would usually decline. To “augment” means to increase. draconian. but the people disagree. when used correctly. Using exactly the right word at exactly the right time will make the maximum impact.
These childhood mentors can have a long-term impact. you’re saying that you’ll go along with it. answering all of my questions and helping me prepare the documents. Use this word when you want to make clear that this agreement is not necessarily by choice.”
who lived in Athens in the 7th century BCE. but Morgan preferred the more cerebral exercise of solving puzzles and reading books and essays. “Mentor” is a noun meaning counselor or teacher.” Even if you think an anti-gum-chewing rule is silly. edify. Example: “It was my first job in a law office and I was very nervous about getting something wrong. and it took a half and hour’s argument. plus a call to your father. before he would acquiesce and let me in. help a child learn social skills after school. “Cerebral” means intellectual.”
C.” As a mentor. punishing people with jail time for littering or chewing gum. Example: “Singapore’s laws may seem draconian. or agree to. When you acquiesce to something. Example: “Leah liked to play outside no matter how bad the weather was. Words About Teaching and Education
We’re glad you’re continuing your education with this Ultimate Vocabulary training course. it’s likely that you’ll also hear this word as a verb. “Mentoring” is something often done in the workplace. The five words in this lesson can all be used when talking about teaching and education: mentor. you’d have to acquiesce to that rule if you wanted to live in Singapore. even if you previously opposed it.
Your words about teaching and education explained
Many people remember one or two influential teachers from their childhood – people who were counselors and advisors. “Acquiesce” is a verb meaning give in. cerebral. Example: “The receptionist did not want to let me wait for you in your hotel room. admonish. and who was famous for his laws that punished people severely for very minor crimes. comply. or focused on the activity of the brain. and we find lessons and teachers everywhere. sharing their wisdom. when experienced staff help junior employees. but the senior legal assistant acted as my mentor for a few months. you can provide guidance to someone at the office. These days. or continue to oppose it on a philosophical if not actual basis. or work with a student to prepare her thesis – mentoring is as much about the practical as the cerebral. but they certainly keep the streets clean. Learning is a process that goes on throughout our lives. monograph.
The five words in this section might help you describe things relating to groups: terminology. Example: “The modern grammar school does not use corporal punishment to discipline their students. but instead will admonish them privately. or just don’t care to learn it. but it may take more than that to get them to learn. you’ll be doing research into what others have written about the topic you’ve chosen.” Knowing how a government works is important. so I recommended two monographs on the Persian Empire in the 6th century by Dandamayev and Babayan. usually very cerebral in nature.
. you may be familiar with the result.” Reading what other people have written about a topic is a good way to learn more about it. Or at least you hope it will be. whether because of where we come from or what we like to do.”
D. intellectual look at the topic. it will be a well-documented. rather than being a casual discussion. and we’re all part of some subset no matter what. but instead a gentle but insistent identification of a perceived fault in their actions or attitudes. Monographs and research papers will instruct you on a topic and improve your understanding. they’ll be better at making good decisions when they’re old enough to vote. demographic. Example: “The school bus was delayed for several hours in traffic in front of the Parliament building. Words For Describing Things Relating To Groups
Are you a social person? Do you like to be part of a group.” The word comes from the Latin word “edificare” meaning “to build” – think of the word “edifice”.Confidence-In-Context
If you’re attending university and working with your mentor to prepare your thesis. ostracize. using serious but kind words. These bits of knowledge you gain are building your intellectual strengths. You may find several monographs on the topic by other scholars. that is. A “monograph” is a long essay on a single topic. or do you stand apart from the crowd? It’s human nature to want to belong to a larger community. “Edify” is a verb that means to instruct or improve intellectually. It’s not angry yelling. Teachers can admonish students when they don’t know the answers to simple questions about politics. so you can use it as a reference! Example: “She was interested in learning more about the history of the Middle East. and Jane decided to use the time to edify the students on the different branches of government and how they worked. and if students are educated in the process. pointing out the ways in which their behaviour affects all of the other children in the class. or building. which is “edification. Unfortunately. incongruous. To “admonish” means to warn someone that they have done or said something wrong. many don’t get this education. sporadic.
rather than in a sporadic fashion in the middle of a football game. Example: “Television advertisements are well-researched to appeal to the particular demographic group that watches a specific program. Example: “Henry came to the scheduled meetings only on sporadic occasions. you probably wouldn’t use the word “igneous” unless you were talking about volcanic rocks or geology in general.” If you promise to be somewhere and then fail to show up. These words are usually not commonly used outside of that area – for example. here’s a word to describe them: terminology.
. or get angry with you. or gender. income. but other demographic markers might be race. Instead. people may think of you as unreliable. and words like ‘obligor’ and ‘pendency’ are not in common use. the common bond is their profession. “Demographic” means “related to a group of people who share one or more characteristics.” There are a lot of people in law. and researchers in that field have their own set of words related to sociology. without a pattern. and in some places lawyers form a large segment of the population. But don’t worry – we won’t be giving you these arcane words. or dialectical. A demographic study might find a correlation between the number of lawyers in a city and the size of the city. Example: “One of the reasons that legal systems can seem hard to understand is that not everyone knows the terminology used in law. That’s why you’ll see ads for candy and toys aired regularly during children’s shows.” or not a match to what is around it or what is expected. To “ostracize” means to cast out of a group.” In this case. “Sporadic” means random.” Marketing that is targeted to one demographic group is usually more successful than random advertisement that hopes to interest people by chance. you might feel that you just don’t fit in – that your presence is incongruous. and eventually we stopped inviting him to participate. or exclude from a community. Example: “Feelings about the recent political elections were so strong that I was afraid my friends would ostracize me if they found out that I had voted for the other party. “Terminology” means a set of specialized words specific to an area of study.Confidence-In-Context
Your words relating to groups explained
Sociology is the study of people and groups. or the only meateater in a group of vegetarians. If they get angry enough. like homogenising.” When you’re the only person in a group who supports a certain politician. assimilationist. “Incongruous” means “not similar. happening only occasionally. they might ostracize you.
and flowing. A mellifluous voice is one that is sweet. strident. and contemporary.”
E. “Mellifluous” is an adjective that comes from the Latin words “mellitus” meaning “honey” and “fluus” meaning “flowing”. we could clearly hear the strident voice of the auctioneer at the animal pens as he sold off the sheep and cattle. and concluded their endurance testing with an arduous climb up the south face of the mountain. to soften rocks. who are extremely talented. keep track of bids from anywhere in the audience. the star player from the local football team was still an incongruous sight in the middle of the ballet class. strenuous. Depending on your tastes.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “Even though it’s well-known that studying dance will improve your agility and coordination. I would play a recording of Cecila Bartolli singing Italian lullabies. arduous. you might like experimental jazz. and harsh in tone. Some synonyms include demanding. You'll have to put a lot of energy and time into learning this sometimes arduous job.” A prodigy is someone who excels at
.” The opposite of mellifluous is “strident”.” Sweet and harmonious music can make you calmer and lift your spirits with its mellifluous tones. but you've probably heard of people who seem to require no practice at all. and her mellifluous voice would lull them to sleep quickly. or bend a knotted oak. requiring an expenditure of energy and time. “Arduous” means something needing endurance. smooth. and exhausting.” Some things take a lot of practice to master. You might describe such a person as a “prodigy. Example: “Every time my young children had a hard time falling asleep. You might use a strident voice when you're shouting at someone.
Your words for talking about music explained
The 18th –century playwright William Congreve said “Music hath charms to soothe a savage beast. meaning loud or piercing. Get in tune with these five ultimate vocabulary words: mellifluous. prodigy.” It takes a lot of practice to learn how to be an auctioneer. and gauge how much an item might sell for. You've got to be able to speak very quickly and clearly. Example: “The team spent seven days living off the land. but think that punk rock is nothing but strident noise – but the punk rockers may consider your jazz to be equally unpleasant! Example: “Although the carnival was extremely noisy.
Words For Talking About Music
This section’s words will be music to your ears – or at least words you might use when you’re talking about music. perhaps from a young age.
“Ascendancy” means being on top. being in control. Example: “The counsel for the defence brought in enough witnesses that she was able to create a substantive argument for dismissing the case. especially if she has made important contributions to the legal field. Sports teams with unbeaten records dominate the game.” When you're at the top of your field.” meaning “not modern. or dominating others.” A lawyer with a reputation for skillful and impartial advocacy might later be nominated to the judiciary. ascendancy. you have a competitive edge over your rivals. Many judges are eminent scholars in legal history and legislation. “Contemporary” means “of the same time period. important.
Your words describing success explained
The knowledge of which words are appropriate to use in a given circumstance forms a substantive part of your ability to speak well to a variety of audiences. but we were fortunate that the local university hospital had an eminent physician on staff who specialized in treatment for that type of cancer. and occasionally worked with other contemporary composers such as Muzio Clementi and Joseph Haydn.” The opposite of contemporary can either be “anachronistic” .
Words Describing Success
These ultimate vocabulary words will help you reach the pinnacle of success. This section's words will help you describe that success: substantive.” Mozart lived in the last part of the 18th century. Their ascendancy often gives them first pick of advertisers and media exposure.Confidence-In-Context
doing something.that is. ineffable. Example: “Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a true musical prodigy: he began playing keyboard at age three and writing music at age five. having weight. his operas were being performed to great success. eminent. or great. and have supremacy over the rest of the field.”
F. “contemporary” can be the same as “modern.” If you're speaking of the present day.” Example: “I enjoy listening to The Beatles and Elvis Presley. and is often used in the term “child prodigy” to describe an amazing talent in a very young person. but prefer contemporary groups like The Shins or Smashing Pumpkins. “Eminent” means distinguished. “Substantive” means making up a large part of something. or being present in quantity.
. and by the time he was fourteen years old. Example: “My grandfather was diagnosed with cancer of the bladder. not of the same time period – or “archaic. magnanimous.
It means beyond words. unable to be expressed.” Sometimes things are so far ahead or above us that we find them impossible to describe. Someone who is generous.” A magnanimous person has a good heart and a noble spirit. and “animus”. he made the magnanimous gesture of inviting the second-place Spanish athlete to stand on the winner's podium with him. understanding. and tolerant is said to be “magnanimous. and when the Italian athlete finally won by just one-tenth of a point.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “As the manufacturing centers continue to move to China and India. Have you ever been so happy – or so sad – that you couldn't put your feelings into words? “Ineffable” is a word that describes this lack of words. but it was her confident and gracious manners that gave her an ineffable air of elegance and refinement. Example: “Her clothes were always well-fitting and attractive. noble. A person who is truly noble expresses that nobility in how he or she treats other people. They are beginning to overshadow the formerly robust American and European markets. meaning “great”. many economists are commenting on the ascendancy of these countries in the world political arena.”
. Example: “The two top contenders in the decathlon were very closely matched. meaning “spirit.” Elegance and refinement are characteristics often attributed to royalty or nobility.” This word comes from the Latin roots “magnus”.
The criterion of movie-star beauty is one that most people won’t be able to meet. and so joined the musicians on stage with much ____________. relax. Going into a jungle poses the risk of exposure to a variety of diseases.” Don’t mix up the plural and singular forms of this useful noun. Words For Moving Forward With Your Vocabulary
Sit back. And you’ll notice that we refer to three “criteria” and one “criterion. pests. Now listen to these next five sentences and fill in the correct word in each blank:
1. and loyalty are three criteria that are more important. and it’s a good idea to have your doctor make sure that you have all of
. we think. and veer in front of me at traffic lights. I don’t like riding my bicycle downtown because many car drivers aren’t ________ of the marked bicycle lanes. as adults they will have a _______________ for sugary foods. We’re so used to our standards of beauty being set by models and movie stars that it’s hard to remember that physical appearance is not the only _________ by which we should judge people. and think about the five words you’ve just heard being used in context.
2. 5. We’re so used to our standards of beauty being set by models and movie stars that it’s hard to remember that physical appearance is not the only criterion by which we should judge people.
Answers: 1. Before I left for my six-month trek through the Amazon jungle. Before I left for my six-month trek through the Amazon jungle. 4. If young children are given juices and sugary cereals. Intelligence. I visited my doctor and had a _________ physical examination and a full complement of immunizations. compassion. I visited my doctor and had a comprehensive physical examination and a full complement of immunizations. and dangers. A “criterion” is a standard or goal used when comparing or judging things. 2.
3. She was only given three days to practice the piece before the performance.Confidence-In-Context
Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A.
and so joined the musicians on stage with much trepidation. if you feel like you haven’t had enough time to practice. Drivers just aren’t aware of bicyclists as they are of other cars. “Cognizant” means “aware of. you’ll probably be feeling somewhat scared and nervous when it’s time to perform. “Trepidation” means fear. It’s sometimes hard for bicyclists to hold on to the right of way. Once you’ve learned these ultimate vocabulary words. that’s the food you’ll have a tendency to keep eating when you’re older. 4. I don’t like riding my bicycle downtown because many car drivers aren’t cognizant of the marked bicycle lanes. as adults they will have a predilection for sugary foods. apprehension. She was only given three days to practice the piece before the performance.Confidence-In-Context
your shots and are in tip-top shape. If you’re raised on one type of food. A “predilection” is a tendency towards or liking for something. and veer in front of me at traffic lights. you’ll no longer have any trepidation about using them in context: cognizant predilection criterion comprehensive trepidation
. If young children are given juices and sugary cereals.” 5. or concern. “Comprehensive” means being thorough. A comprehensive medical examination will cover everything. Unless you’re a very skilled and very confident performer. especially in cities where they’re not used to seeing bicycles on the street. 3. including everything.
If you want to be prepared for anything. It’s fun to watch a figure skater do jumps and spins.Confidence-In-Context
B. It takes a great deal of precision to make sure they’re moving exactly on the beat.
4. but because I enjoy spending money on expensive food and entertainment. The children’s rhyme “sticks and stones can break my bones but names can never hurt me” is not entirely true – you’ve probably been hurt by things people have said in the past. or they could be intangibles such as words. I need to _________ my income with a part-time job on the weekends. 3. 2. they could be practical engineering gear like hammers and wrenches. and practice using these ultimate vocabulary words in context:
1. but he had gone to a boarding school where the rules were positively ______________. The advance scout didn’t know what she might encounter in the woods. 2.
Answers: 1. The mark of a world-class figure skater is the ___________ of his jumps. Well-chosen words can form an arsenal for offense or defense.
. so she took a whole _________ of tools and weapons in her pack. you’ll have a good supply of equipment available to you. These tools could be military gear of guns or bombs. The advance scout didn’t know what she might encounter in the woods. getting them perfectly in time with the music during his routines. getting them perfectly in time with the music during his routines. but it was easier to _________ to his demand that we find another spot than continue listening to his complaints about the food and the service. I have a full-time job during the week. My father was very strict with us when we were growing up. I really liked the restaurant. but it’s even more amazing when they time the jumps to the music playing for their Olympic routine. An “arsenal” is a supply of weapons or tools. The mark of a world-class figure skater is the precision of his jumps. “Precision” means exactness. Words For Your Vocabulary Arsenal
Are you ready to add to your arsenal of powerful vocabulary words? Fill in the blanks in the next five sentences. 5. so she took a whole arsenal of tools and weapons in her pack.
” 5. and fill in the correct word in each:
1. “Augment” means to increase in size.
. boarding schools have a reputation as places where very strict rules are enforced. Practice now by listening to the next five sentences. and although I disagreed. or supplement. make larger. but the maitre d’ had to ___________ her about being overly talkative with the guests. Whether true or not. the rules are described as “draconian.” Synonyms of draconian are “oppressive” and “harsh. I have a full-time job during the week. Even if you have a good salary coming in. The new waitress was very efficient and remembered even the most complicated orders. You’ll need to increase the size of your bank account somehow. so I went along with his demand to go to another venue. I really liked the restaurant. I need to augment my income with a part-time job on the weekends. you might want to earn a little more sometimes.Confidence-In-Context
3. 4. I decided I’d rather eat in another restaurant than listen to him any longer. He wouldn’t stop complaining. Using words with precision will provide you with powerful tools to add to your arsenal of ultimate vocabulary words.
Words About Teaching and Education
Knowing how and when to use these ultimate vocabulary words is like money in the bank – you’ll profit from the proper use of powerful words in context. and punishments extreme. to have on hand for emergencies or entertainment. and punishments are harsh for anyone breaking those rules. When rules are very severe and limiting. but against your wishes. To “acquiesce” means to go along with something. but he had gone to a boarding school where the rules were positively draconian. We hope you’ve enjoyed learning these five new words: acquiesce precision arsenal draconian augment
C. My father was very strict with us when we were growing up. but it was easier to acquiesce to his demand that we find another spot than continue listening to his complaints about the food and the service. but because I enjoy spending money on expensive food and entertainment.
. Many children who live in foster families need additional support and attention. A too-chatty waiter can interrupt the dinner conversation. it seems as if every professor who ever taught there wrote a _____________ on their favorite musical genre. The library at the university is a valuable resource for anyone wanting to do research on British composers.Confidence-In-Context
2. Eric had many misconceptions about vegetarianism. The new waitress was very efficient and remembered even the most complicated orders. swim in a lake. “Admonish” means to reprimand. in a gentle but serious manner. Even the most dedicated student can benefit from a little time away from the academic world. and help them learn how to make choices and decisions as they grow. A “mentor” is a teacher or advisor. 4.
Answers: 1. 3. 2. Children need someone to look up to – someone who can share their experience and wisdom.
5. Sometimes it’s nice to go on a hike with friends. but the other students all seemed to spend their time discussing cerebral topics. and organizations like Big Brother/Big Sister provide them with a mentor who can spend time with them after school. While most people enjoy a friendly conversation with their waiter. Many children who live in foster families need additional support and attention. and he likes to go dancing now and then. and restaurant staff are usually reprimanded if they spend too much time trying to talk to the customers. My brother would like to find friends at school who would share his interests. meat-free diet. My brother would like to find friends at school who would share his interests. to point out faults. “Edify” means to instruct someone to improve their intellectual and/or emotional understanding of an issue. they’re at a restaurant to eat and talk with their companions. but the other students all seemed to spend their time discussing __________ topics. Eric had many misconceptions about vegetarianism. and I took some time to _______ him on the facts about eating a healthy. and I took some time to edify him on the facts about eating a healthy. meat-free diet. and he likes to go dancing now and then. but the maitre d’ had to admonish her about being overly talkative with the guests. and organizations like Big Brother/Big Sister provide them with a ________ who can spend time with them after school.
ride a bicycle. When I started work at the television station. These physical pursuits can balance out the intellectual part of life – and keep a person healthy and energetic besides. and filling in the correct ultimate vocabulary word in its proper context:
1. where the populations are now more than fifty percent Hispanic. it seems as if every professor who ever taught there wrote a monograph on their favorite musical genre.
2. not just a sporadic exercise. A “monograph” is a long essay. I found it very hard to get over a feeling of being conspicuous in any crowd. 5. however. where my blond hair was ____________ among all of the dark-haired locals.
Words For Describing Things Relating To Groups
Practice is just as important for vocabulary-building as it is for body-building. The library at the university is a valuable resource for anyone wanting to do research on British composers. the leaders will ___________ them and they will be cast out of the religious community. I didn’t know anything about sport. very intellectual in nature. “Cerebral” means intellectual. focused on the brain. When I was living in Japan.
4. and you’ll soon be a success! Start now by listening to the next five sentences.
. usually well-researched and documented. Learning how to use these ultimate vocabulary words in context will ensure that no-one will need to admonish you for speaking incorrectly. and had to teach myself all of the _____________.
D. Make these lessons a regular part of your day.
3. about a single topic. In some religious faiths. especially in the rural mountain villages. Immigration into the United States has changed the _________ makeup of some of the states in the southwest. my first job was as a sports announcer. when a person goes against the rules and breaks with the church. Take every opportunity to practice using these five new words: mentor monograph admonish cerebral edify .
“Terminology” means jargon. For example. where the populations are now more than fifty percent Hispanic.Confidence-In-Context
5. I didn’t know anything about sport. 2. I found it very hard to get over a feeling of being conspicuous in any crowd. If you’re not a sports fan. or the color of their hair. the leaders will ostracize them and they will be cast out of the religious community.
Answers: 1. Immigration into the United States has changed the demographic makeup of some of the states in the southwest. There are many ways of looking at a group of people. The black sheep’s wool is not the same as the wool of the rest of the flock. especially in the rural mountain villages. and their sporadic eruptions are destructive to lives and property. a set of words or terms with a specific meaning in a particular area or field. their views on global climate change. whether it’s the level of their education. “Ostracize” means to shun. or not fitting in. and one of them is by their ethnic background. and their ____________ eruptions are destructive to lives and property. the terms “googly” and “LBW” won’t mean anything. however. “Demographic” refers to a group of people who share a certain common quality. and had to teach myself all of the terminology. Older volcanoes such as Mount Vesuvius in Italy are dangerous because they are unpredictable. not matching. When I started work at the television station. my first job was as a sports announcer. or exclude from a group. 5.
. In some religious faiths. While most churches these days will only ostracize a member if they have committed a serious offence. “Incongruous” means not similar. They’re part of the jargon used by cricket players and announcers. One black sheep in the middle of a flock of white sheep is incongruous. 3. 4. Older volcanoes such as Mount Vesuvius in Italy are dangerous because they are unpredictable. even the threat of being shunned by their fellow worshipers is often enough to keep people from breaking the rules. where my blond hair was incongruous among all of the dark-haired locals. when a person goes against the rules and breaks with the church. When I was living in Japan. if you’re not a cricket lover. some of the discussion can seem completely incomprehensible.
My sister worked at radio stations doing recordings for advertisements.
Words For Talking About Music
The more you practice using these powerful vocabulary words in context. Soon you'll be a grammatical prodigy! Start now with these five sentences. 2. 5. you’ll find you have the terminology to use in any situation. 3. and was in great demand due to her pleasant and mellifluous speaking voice. and fill in the blanks:
1. and flowing. and was in great demand due to her pleasant and ______________ speaking voice. “Mellifluous” means sweet. Ellen knew that her niece would be a mathematics ____________ because she learned how to add and subtract when she was only two years old. which is a good thing. Cutting. as sweet as honey. and pleasant to listen to. Her voice was smooth and flowing. including works by Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin. and is most often used to refer to the sound of a voice or of music. My sister worked at radio stations doing recordings for advertisements.Confidence-In-Context
“Sporadic” means unpredictable and random. the better you'll be at knowing when to use the right word in your daily conversations.
Answers: 1. not occurring frequently. smooth. and storing enough wood to last the winter is an ___________ task.
. Practice using these five words in context: sporadic ostracize terminology incongruous demographic
E. stacking. but it's the only way I'm able to live all year round at my mountain cabin. As you increase your knowledge of these ultimate vocabulary words. because their ______________ crowing would disturb the neighbors in the early mornings. 4. The museum has moved all of their older paintings into temporary storage and is featuring an exhibit of ___________ art. when you’re talking about volcanoes. Many cities have local ordinances that prohibit keeping roosters.
Many cities have local ordinances that prohibit keeping roosters. You'll often hear this word used to describe a young child who is unusually talented or gifted 5. The loud. Cutting. but it's the only way I'm able to live all year round at my mountain cabin. Ellen knew that her niece would be a mathematics prodigy because she learned how to add and subtract when she was only two years old. because their strident crowing would disturb the neighbors in the early mornings. “Strident” is an adjective that refers to noise of any sort that is harsh in tone. but the more you practice. and storing enough wood to last the winter is an arduous task. including works by Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin.” 4.” Other words that mean the same thing are “fatiguing” and “exhausting. the easier it will get.Confidence-In-Context
2. When you started learning these powerful vocabulary words. It takes a long time to lay in a winter's worth of wood.” The word means “of the same time period” but which time period that is depends on who is speaking and what they're referring to. Try to find ways to use these five new words in your next conversation: prodigy contemporary arduous strident mellifluous
. loud. modern. in recent days. very good at something. 3. piercing crows of a rooster have long been the traditional alarm clock for people around the world – but it's not so popular in the middle of the town. and the work is difficult and uses a lot of energy. these days. The museum has moved all of their older paintings into temporary storage and is featuring an exhibit of contemporary art. In this example. A “prodigy” is a person who is very. stacking. When a job is demanding and strenuous. and unpleasant. you might have thought you were beginning an arduous learning process. it can be called “arduous. the word “contemporary” means “of this time period.
Her cooking always had an _____________ flavor of the Indian subcontinent. large-hearted.
4. it was important that fats and carbohydrates made up a ____________ portion of their diets. even the ones who bullied him after school. Try using them now by putting the correct word in each of the following sentences:
1. but he showed his generosity and tolerant nature by including all of the children in his class. and added to their control of the market by taking over the import trade of cotton and silk from India and China. and it would be hard to pick it out as an individual spice in a dish. he showed a magnanimous spirit. When I asked my son who he'd like to invite to his birthday party. Something
2. It's often hard for children to forgive other children who are mean to them. as he has repeatedly stated that he believes life on Earth was started by alien visitors.
Words For Describing Success
Once you've won the battle to learn how to use all of these new vocabulary words in context. but I have no respect for his views on evolution. Saffron is a very subtle seasoning when used in small amounts. even the ones who bullied him after school.
Answers: 1. During the Industrial Revolution. and just get fatter. When most people were spending long days working on the land to grow their own food. but I didn't understand why until she told me that she always added just a pinch of saffron to each of her dishes.
. but these days.
5. and though it would contribute to the overall flavor you might not be able to say just what that flavor was. people don't expend enough energy to use the calories they consume. but I didn't understand why until she told me that she always added just a pinch of saffron to each of her dishes.
3. unusual for such a young child. Britain came to ______________ in the global production of textiles. Her cooking always had an ineffable flavor of the Indian subcontinent. and asked to invite all of his classmates. and asked to invite all of his classmates. When I asked my son who he'd like to invite to his birthday party. He may be an _______ lecturer in philosophy. no matter how they treated him. “Magnanimous” means generous in spirit. you'll find it easier to make them a substantive part of your daily conversations.Confidence-In-Context
2. he showed a ______________ spirit unusual for such a young child.
“Substantive” means a large portion of. “Ascendancy” means superiority or control. as he has repeatedly stated that he believes life on Earth was started by alien visitors. “Eminent” means being important or noteworthy. it was important that fats and carbohydrates made up a substantive portion of their diets. These days. He may be an eminent lecturer in philosophy. Practice these words as often as possible: magnanimous ineffable ascendancy eminent substantive
4. but I have no respect for his views on evolution.” When most people were spending long days working on the land to grow their own food. but these days. people don't expend enough energy to use the calories they consume.\ Expertise in one field does not guarantee that you'll be as knowledgeable in another. During the Industrial Revolution.
. and just get fatter. Another word meaning eminent is “distinguished.Confidence-In-Context
that is present but impossible to describe in words is “ineffable. often for particular expertise.
5.” 3. Britain came to ascendancy in the global production of textiles. dominance or supremacy in a field or area. and added to their control of the market by taking over the import trade of cotton and silk from India and China. people in the new on-line societies spend most of their time sitting at computers or at a desk. or forming the essential part of something. you'll soon be known as a talented speaker and eminent orator. With such powerful vocabulary words under your control.
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 6 Workbook
or a hidden meaning. trite. words. something repeated so often that it has lost its original significance. possession of books or newspapers from the West was dangerous. and use words that are a bit more ambiguous.” “Following the strict party line” – you’ve heard that phrase before.Confidence-In-Context
A. Example: “That comedian still gets bookings. Words About Words
"Words. words" said Shakespeare's Hamlet. The syntax of a language is the set of rules that tell you how to construct grammatically-correct sentences. and the reader must be aware of Japanese history and culture in order to appreciate the full effect. many famous poems. Example: “During the Cultural Revolution in China. “Nuance” means a subtle difference in implication. In fact. even though his hackneyed jokes all poke fun at politicians who haven’t been in office for years. Example: “Even though Karl has been living in Australia for more than a decade. In this section you'll learn five words about words: syntax. On other occasions. symbolic words to create nuances of meaning. and most people found it safest to only read the didactic publications coming from the Central Committee.” Poetry is often a medium where writers play with words in order to create a certain mood or feeling. or using words at the right time “Syntax” refers to using words in the right place – that is. didactic. especially in terms of moral or religious matters. direct language that clearly states what you want to say. his mistakes in English syntax have led to frequent misunderstandings with customers taking his charter dive tours. including John Milton’s “Paradise Lost. poetry is not used very often to teach or instruct – though this was not always the case. with a message of sin and Christian redemption. “Didactic” means written or presented in a format designed to be educational or instructional. “Hackneyed” means overused. haven’t you? It’s used to describe everything from political alliances to dress codes in offices. or to the effect of the entire communication. Someone with a didactic manner of speaking might be called “preachy” today. and the rules of language that determine how it relates to the other words in that sentence. hackneyed.” Sometimes the best way to communicate is with simple. The phrase has become a bit hackneyed. where a word appears in a sentence.”
. In general. while following the strict party line. nuance.
Your words about words explained
You started this Ultimate Vocabulary course to get confidence in using words in context. letting the nuances of your phrases speak for themselves. you may want to be more subtle. Example: “Many traditional forms of Japanese poetry use specific. though. banal.” are almost didactic in form and content. and can refer to the use of a single word. and badinage.
many people believe that the universe was created by the power of words. was famous for his ability to write witty badinage that made his plays immensely popular entertainment. Example: “Playwright Noel Coward. consummate. Example: "Once the students dropped the red dye into the clear glass of water. Example: "The first astronauts to look back at Earth from space were all moved by the wonder of our little planet's place in the endless cosmos around it. Start by learning these five words that describe states of being: cosmos. the better you’ll be able to entertain people with your quick. whether they follow the Christian God or the Aboriginal Songlines in Australia. Learning how to use the power of words will help you shape your own reality. encompassing space and time. but is invisible itself. integral. or repartee. Example: "The choir director always took a few minutes to explain the background and history of the composer before introducing a new piece of music. as he believed that understanding the context of a piece was integral to learning how to sing it effectively. with their opportunities for exploration and hands-on experimentation.Confidence-In-Context
Humor is an important aspect of communication."
. everything imaginable and unimaginable at once. and in a way we use words to create that reality. It’s conversation that isn’t meant to be taken seriously. In fact. playful remarks. intelligent badinage. “Badinage” means banter. You'll often hear it used when people are referring to the physical universe . Words Describing States of Being
We use words to describe the reality of what we see and experience. like his predecessors George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde. they could see how molecular vibration caused the red coloring to eventually permeate the liquid from top to bottom. permeate. "Permeate" means to spread throughout something. This dark matter permeates every part of the visible universe.the vast stretches of interstellar space in which we live .but it also has a more metaphysical sense.
Your states of being words explained
Where better to begin than with the word that describes everything? "Cosmos" means "everything that exists" and comes from the Greek word for "universe".”
B. "Integral" means an essential part of a larger whole. are an integral part of a well-rounded curriculum for young students. in your professional and personal life. and the more confidence you have at using words in context." Science classes. something that is necessary to achieve a desired result." Scientists studying the cosmos have come to the conclusion that something they call "dark matter" must exist. sacrosanct. because the there's not enough mass in the visible universe to account for the way the law of gravity works.
"sacrum" and "sanctus". Something that is "sacrosanct" is something that people believe should not be altered or changed. This word is formed from two Latin words.
Words About Strength or Power
Once you learn these Ultimate Vocabulary words. and describes someone who has completely mastered a skill. for example. and give you the power to direct conversations to your benefit." Have you ever met some one who seems just perfect . you'll find that your ability to communicate has gotten stronger. who is entirely believable in any role she plays. prevalent.the ideal husband." and originally applied to something protected under religious law. with the first in a lively tempo. the incorruptible politician? Or perhaps you're a fan of a consummate actress.”
There’s a saying that “history is written by the conquerors” and in the case of the many native populations around the world."
C. both meaning "sacred. redoubtable. it was typical to have three movements in a piece. Example: "Pablo Picasso was a consummate artist. who is the acme of perfection in that aspect or talent. In fact. the wise and helpful teacher. others believe that the traditional pledges such as 'in sickness and in health. some composers held this pattern to be sacrosanct. they often could not stand up
. "Consummate" means the absolute best. for richer or for poorer' are sacrosanct and that couples are not truly married until they say them. Example: “Native Americans and early pioneer settlers would rub animal fat into their leather shoes to make them impervious to water.Confidence-In-Context
Many Baroque composers followed set forms when creating their sonatas and symphonies. that’s particularly true. Although many of the indigenous peoples had robust economies and cultures. Example: "While many people these days write their own wedding vows. with the result that much of their music sounds very much alike. because it's perfect the way it is. and the third a rousing jig or gavotte. this will strengthen your control over your interactions at work. titanic. You’ll be able to shrug off any disruptions from the audience – you’ll be impervious to any negative comments or questions. able to create detailed ink sketches with a single unbroken flowing line. the second at a slow speed. “Impervious” means immune to or not affected by something. In turn.
Your words about strength and power explained
Having confidence in your ability to use words correctly will make you more confident and relaxed when you’re speaking in public. Here are five words that can be used to describe strength or power: robust. impervious.
on-line newspapers have become prevalent. You can also use “titanic” to describe something very large in size. something that is strongest or superior. and imposing in size as well as in ability. amorphous. and traditional publishing companies are going out of business. Occasionally. Sometimes the best way to influence people is by making changes so slowly they don’t notice.” When there’s an economic crisis. who broke all world records in the Tour de France by winning seven times in a row. the word refers to something that has great power. even titanic news organizations like The Times of London and The Wall Street Journal have had to follow the crowd and create web sites. tentative. and force. Kit stopped the car long enough to give James an opportunity to wedge a block beneath the wheel. powerful. The word “titanic” comes from the Titans. even after fighting off several bouts of cancer. Example: “Many people who invested in real estate lost money as the formerly-robust world economy spiraled down into global recession. unless they happen in our own neighborhood.” Every day. people around the world accomplish amazing things. “Prevalent” means dominant or most widespread. Example: “The car started rolling towards the edge of the cliff. the giant gods of Greek mythology. though. strength. Example: “Even after they left political office. and means strong and vigorous.
Words Describing Things That Are Small And Hard to See
Learning one new Ultimate Vocabulary word each day might not seem like a lot. You can also use “redoubtable” to describe a person who is formidable. Today. but it’s rare that we hear about them. Example: “As more and more people in the United States rely on television and the internet to get their news. A person who is “redoubtable” is someone aweinspiring or worthy of respect. inchoate. The word “robust” comes from the Latin word for oak tree.Confidence-In-Context
against the military forces set against them. overcoming everything else. Recent studies refute the prevalent theory that unregulated free market capitalism is the best way to run the global economy.”
D. both Nelson Mandela and Jimmy Carter have shown themselves to be redoubtable champions for human rights around the world.
. diffuse. sound and healthy. but even a small change in the power and complexity of your speech will have an impact on those around you. Here are six words that you can use to describe things that are small or hard to see: subtle. analysts work to identify the factors that led to the problem.” With so many alternative sources of information. like the redoubtable Lance Armstrong. but with a titanic burst of strength. a politician or athlete is brought to our attention.
” Marching bands are a favorite entertainment at many sporting events. and the best ones are famous for the precision of their form. you can be left with an inchoate group of individuals. with the musicians’ bodies creating detailed images on the playing field. the prevailing theories led them to believe that they would find an equal number of galaxies in any direction they looked. but the experts could tell from the subtle differences in the brushstrokes that the piece was not an original Rembrandt. “Amorphous” means without a clear form. usually due to a feeling of fear. A subtle difference means one that is not obvious at first glance. but it was impossible to get a final format without knowing what the committee’s decision would be on this year’s theme. It can also mean only putting a small effort into something. like our own while others are amorphous. all of them are organized under the same laws of gravity and physics. unorganized. your first efforts probably involved a lot of tentative poking at the canvas with your brush. each with their own ideas. “Inchoate” means unformed. they had more winning plays.Confidence-In-Context
Your words relating to things that are small and hard to see explained
Children grow up quickly. the changes were so subtle that you didn’t notice them when they were happening.” Have you ever tried your hand at painting? Unless you have a good deal of selfconfidence or an innate genius for the art. and without a final set of rules or order. though. however. they were surprised to find that instead of an evenly diffuse distribution of stars. rudimentary.” Beginnings can be difficult times. unable to work together. trying something out. Example: “When the football team started practice at the beginning of the year. Without some sort of strong leadership. the bands that haven’t practiced enough only end up making amorphous blobs of color against the green turf. But when you take them on their yearly visit to their great-aunt. and if you live with children. but as they learned to work together. and other places where there
. meaning that something is so blended in with its surroundings that it takes an effort to bring it to the forefront. Example: “Some galaxies have a spiral patter. However. there were frequent large empty spaces with no stars at all. she’ll see a big difference between now and the way they were the year before. their game strategy was inchoate and often counterproductive. Unfortunately.” When scientists first started looking into deep space. Example: “We made a tentative attempt at creating an agenda for the conference. you probably don’t realize the small changes they go through every day. Example: “The forgery of the painting was very well done. “Tentative” means uncertain or experimental. From your perspective. The word “subtle” comes from the Latin term for “woven in”. especially if they involve coordinating a large number of people. not clearly identifiable as something specific.
A carnivore is someone who eats meat. even though we had just finished breakfast. carnivorous. rather than a stronger localized shower. Try using these five words at your next dinner party: culinary. redolent. and the Muslim ban on eating pork. If something is diffuse. replete. “Culinary” means related to cooking. there are also many delicious preparations of lamb or chicken. the word comes from the Latin “carne”. However.Confidence-In-Context
were more galaxies than expected. or to the kitchen. “Redolent” means having a strong odor of something – either good or bad.” The sign of a successful dinner party is a table surrounded by happy people with empty plates. meaning “meat.
Your words for cooking up a conversation explained
With the recent popularity of cooking shows and celebrity chefs.” “Carnivorous” is an adjective meaning “meat-eating. Cooking up a story is easier when you have a grocery list of fine and fancy words to choose from. Some synonyms for redolent are “aromatic” and “fragrant. replete with satisfaction. but it’s usually a gentle diffuse precipitation that soaks into the ground evenly. and have learned how to cook meals that are so tasty.”
E. “Diffuse” means spread out more or less evenly. applications to culinary schools have been on the rise. the diners are full of satisfaction after a delicious meal. Example: “The island of Kauai gets a lot of rain.” We walked past a booth at last week’s market that was so redolent of sauteed garlic that we got hungry again. even my carnivorous friends don’t miss the meat.
Words For Cooking Up a Conversation
With all of these powerful Ultimate Vocabulary words. many traditional Indian dishes are vegetarian.” Example: “I’ve been a vegetarian for over twenty years. vegetables.” Because of the Hindu ban on eating beef. Example: “Along with providing fresh fruits. and meat. it is not concentrated or heavier in only one spot.
. leaning back in their chairs. and even the most carnivorous diner can usually find the meat he craves in an Indian restaurant. you'll have the ingredients you need to create appealing and tasteful speeches that will satisfy your listeners as you fill their ears. “Replete” means “full of” – in the previous sentence. many farmer’s markets also offer workshops and demonstrations to help new cooks improve their culinary skills.” Example: “I enjoy shopping at the Indian markets because they’re always redolent with spices and tropical fruits. complement.
a dry rosé that complemented the fresh strawberries served with the cake. Example: “I don’t enjoy going to restaurants with him. Example: “She was left a very small inheritance from her mother. she had enough to live on after retiring. or just that one pair of shoes that caught your eye in the shop window.” While the word “parsimonious” can be used for anyone who keeps a tight hold on their spending. gratuity.”
F. or movies.
Words To Invest In
In uncertain economic times. and saving up funds for what you really need. She went to bed replete with happiness. but because of her prudent investments. then. we might imagine that the fruitiness of the wine enhanced the flavors of the strawberries. it means frugal and not extravagant. appreciate. the guests enjoyed themselves. either by providing something that was missing. “Prudent” means careful or practical. Example: “Sarah is pleased at the compliments she’s getting about how well her flower arrangements complement the linens on the tables. Remember when using the word “complement” – spelled C-O-M-P-L-*E*-M-E-N-T – that you are not thinking of the word “compliment” – spelled C-O-M-P-L-*I*-M-E-N-T – which means saying something nice to someone. perhaps being prudent with your money is a better choice. or by providing an additional element that makes something better.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “Ella’s birthday party was perfect: the weather was sunny. he’s so parsimonious he calculates the bill down to the last penny. in this case. and the cake was delicious. or that the strawberries were so sweet that the dryness of the wine provided a pleasing balance. philanthropy. you’re better off being a bit parsimonious.” Instead of being parsimonious. To “complement” something means to complete it. But when you need to be on a budget. Here are five more words that you can bank on for conversational currency: parsimonious. it’s easy to spend money on dinners out. “Parsimonious” means unwilling to spend money. and never leaves more than a few dollars for the server. You'll get a return on your investment through your increased conversational ability and your newly-minted wealth of powerful vocabulary words.”
. You've made a wise investment by getting these Ultimate Vocabulary words and putting them to work for you. prudent. Someone who is parsimonious is very frugal – some might even say “stingy. it's difficult to know where to invest your money.” Ella’s guests also enjoyed fine champagne. In this case. it’s often applied to people who go a bit too far in that direction.
Your words to invest in explained
When times are good.
But many people of ordinary means also donate to causes. a gratuity might also be called a “tip” or a “pourboire. Example: “Even at eight years old. as most opportunities give at least a small return in interest. Example: “Restaurants often add an automatic gratuity of eighteen percent for large groups of people at one table.Confidence-In-Context
In general.” Very wealthy people are often known for their charitable giving. In many countries. but I rather resent it when the service has been poor. “Philanthropy” means giving money to support a cause or institution. so that they might get a pint for themselves after they’re off work. Depending on where you are. or to hand a taxi driver an extra dollar for carrying your suitcases to the curbside. so I decided to use my money to purchase antiques and fine art.” You’ll definitely appreciate how fast your money will appreciate in a high-interest savings fund. Leah seems to have a natural tendency towards philanthropy. or charitable giving in general.” Certain institutions have become associated with a tradition of gift-giving as a reward for services rendered. investments are a good way to plan for your financial future. and have grants and scholarships and buildings named after them. whose value will continue to appreciate no matter what the financial markets are doing. “Appreciate” in this case means “an increase in value over time” but it’s also used to mean “an awareness of value. A “gratuity” is a gift or reward for service.”
. it’s customary to add a gratuity to the restaurant bill. and not just as a tax deduction – the word was coined from the Greek words for “love” and “mankind” – but today it’s used in the more generic sense of “giving to charity” without assigning any particular benevolent intent to the giver. and this philanthropy helps support others who are in need. Technically. she always shares her sweets with her classmates. the word implies that the money is given in the spirit of charity or love as well. and that interest will appreciate over time to increase your capital. perhaps they think it makes it easier for their customers.” This last word comes from the French for “to have a drink” and refers to the coins you leave on the table for your server. Example: “Stock and bonds can be volatile.
you’ll learn to avoid the use of hackneyed phrases like “don’t put all your eggs in one basket” or “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks. as a matter of fact – that are trite and banal.
3. you’ll learn to avoid the use of ___________ phrases like “don’t put all your eggs in one basket” or “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks. his speech is sure to be didactic and full of advice on how to live a good and upright life. the drink is better. are referred to as “hackneyed. using the wedding toast as an opportunity to give moral instruction to the happy couple is usually not welcomed. 3. in part because her speeches are so carefully written that anyone can read nuances into her words and come away believing she’s on their side.
2.” She’s a very successful politician. Words About Words
“All the world’s a stage. Start practicing your lines now with these six sample sentences:
1. In this writing class.
Answers: 1. She’s a very successful politician.Confidence-In-Context
Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A. While it might be well-meant. in part because her speeches are so carefully written that anyone can read _________ into her words and come away believing she’s on their side.
. and the __________ between the guests leaves everyone entertained. and all the men and women merely players. I hope that Brad doesn’t ask his friend James to give the toast at the wedding. The best parties are ones where the food is good. One of the most difficult things for me to remember when learning German ________ was to always put the verb at the end of the sentence. In this writing class. his speech is sure to be __________ and full of advice on how to live a good and moral life. I hope that Brad doesn’t ask his friend James to give the toast at the wedding.
4.” “Tried and true” phrases – like “tried and true”. “Didactic” means in a form of a lesson. especially a lesson on morals or religion.” meaning they’ve been used and overused so much they’ve lost their original force and impact.” Learning these Ultimate Vocabulary words will give you the confidence to take your place on stage as a star performer. 2.
2. Here are a few exercises to get you started:
1. 4. The best parties are ones where the food is good. by trying to identify any hidden meanings or misleading phrases. A “nuance” is an implication. 5. or a hidden difference. Scott goes through three packs of cigarettes a day. that might change the way a phrase or word can be interpreted. the drink is better. One of the most difficult things for me to remember when learning German syntax was to always put the verb at the end of the sentence. and to have fun at the same time. repartee.Confidence-In-Context
We usually listen to a political speech and try to discover whether or not the politician is really saying what we think we’re hearing. practice. If when English speaking the verb at the end you put. but is still an effective way to communicate. Are you ready for your grand entrance? Will you attract people at your next party with your clever badinage. and the badinage between the guests leaves everyone entertained. and soon you'll be completely confident in when and how to use them. Learning how to judge measurements by eye is an ___________ part of the training first-year students receive at the culinary school. It’s not meant to be taken seriously. people will you not easily understand! “Syntax” means the rules of placing words to form sentences for a specific language. Banter. teasing and light. and intrigue them with your skill at weaving nuance into your conversation? We don’t want to be didactic. practice! So keep practicing the use of these five new words: • • • • • badinage syntax didactic nuance hackneyed
B. the smell of smoke ___________ his clothes. but remember that the best way to learn new vocabulary is to practice.
. Words Describing States of Being
Set aside time every day to practice using the vocabulary words you're learning. witty conversation is called badinage.
2. "Consummate" means the ideal. People have different ideas about what makes an ideal politician. and the ability to create identical portions is an essential skill that must be learned. Annabeth is a ____________ politician. however. and well-read in the issues that concern her constituents. "Integral" means something essential to success as a whole. some places are viewed as too sacred to use for ordinary purposes. and good judgment. the smell of smoke permeates his clothes. openness. Whether by law or tradition. or the perfect model of something.
5. the area in front of the altar is sacrosanct and must be kept clear.
. and the smell of the smoke will be absorbed by the clothing he wears. able to give a speech at a moment's notice. but now we've learned that this planet is actually only a tiny speck in the cosmos. 3. Someone who smokes that many cigarettes is always surrounded by a cloud of smoke and ash. but the list usually includes such characteristics as honesty. able to give a speech at a moment's notice. accessibility. always ready to meet people. Professional chefs have to work quickly to create identical dishes for hungry diners. in my church. people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe. always ready to meet people. however. in my church. and well-read in the issues that concern her constituents. but now we've learned that this planet is actually only a tiny speck in the _____________. A thousand years ago. that's where we place the flower arrangements. In some churches.
4. Learning how to judge measurements by eye is an integral part of the training firstyear students receive at the culinary school. In some churches. that's where we place the flower arrangements. A thousand years ago. whether by training or experience.Confidence-In-Context
3. the area in front of the altar is ____________ and must be kept clear. 4.
Answers: 1. 5. people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe. "Sacrosanct" means sacred or protected. Scott goes through three packs of cigarettes a day. Annabeth is a consummate politician. "Permeate" means to penetrate and become part of.
5. screen and stage. and her brilliant career on television. English has become the __________ language for business transactions around the world.
Words About Strength or Power
Have you ever felt passionate about a cause. and that you've become a consummate speaker." You have infinite potential to improve your vocabulary. the more you'll find that these Ultimate Vocabulary words permeate your everyday conversation. and this spring the new plants are amazingly ________. Dame Judi Dench is one of Britain’s most _________ actresses. but just couldn’t find the right words to communicate your enthusiasm and convince other people to get involved? Learning these powerful vocabulary words and gaining confidence to use them in context will help you develop your abilities as a speaker. and it’s easy for native speakers to find jobs teaching English in various countries. Enjoy using these five new powerful vocabulary words: • • • • • consummate sacrosanct integral permeate cosmos
C. I started using organic fertilizer and compost in my garden beds last fall. Expert surfers enjoy the big waves at Waimea Bay in Hawai’i. with abilities that will take you to the far reaches of the cultural cosmos. With her many honors and awards. 3. and the more you practice. 4. Here are some practice sentences to help you get comfortable with the five new words you’ve learned in this section:
1. both the physical universe and the metaphysical concept of "everything. "Cosmos" means the universe. Firefighters often wear clothing that has been soaked in chemical retardant that makes them temporarily _______________ to flames. but only the most daring will go out after a storm.Confidence-In-Context
Everything from subatomic particles to galaxies light-years from end to end is part of the universe we live in. they’re twice the size they were last year.
. 2. when the waves reach truly _________ heights. everywhere. aspects of the cosmos that surrounds us.
healthy. It’s hard to find a community anywhere in the world these days that doesn’t have at least one person with a smattering of English. Another type of protective clothing is sold to people going into buginfested areas. and now it’s English – the language used by people in commerce and trade when dealing with clients in other countries. and it’s easy for native speakers to find jobs teaching English in various countries. screen and stage. I started using organic fertilizer and compost in my garden beds last fall. It’s no wonder many aspiring actors look up to her as someone to be admired and emulated. the waves can be twice that height. “Robust” means strong. “Prevalent” means widespread. something that is prevalent has taken over due to its greater force. and the talent and abilities to play a variety of roles. 2. Firefighters often wear clothing that has been soaked in chemical retardant. Dame Judi Dench has a commanding stage presence. making them temporarily impervious to flames. both for their personality and their accomplishments. 5. and her brilliant career on television. A “redoubtable” person is someone who commands respect and awe. and also dominant. Something that is “titanic” is of great size and power. Expert surfers enjoy the big waves at Waimea Bay in Hawai’i. The normal height of the waves at Waimea Bay is around 20 feet. then it was French. by means of a chemical reaction. and vigorous. but after a big storm. English has become the prevalent language for business transactions around the world. but only the most daring will go out after a storm.
. Retardant immediately puts out any fire that touches it. they’re twice the size they were last year. 3. 4. Dame Judi Dench is one of Britain’s most redoubtable actresses. Once it was Latin. With her many honors and awards. “Impervious” means immune to or not affected by. and can push them underwater with unstoppable force. when the waves reach truly titanic heights. or not letting something through. These dangerous waves tower over the surfers.Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. and this spring the new plants are amazingly robust. soaked with repellent to keep away the insects.
and you can enjoy it anywhere in the room. 4. To some people. but others – especially children – see shapes of animals and people in the sky. a redoubtable conversationalist and sought-after speaker. and careful tending will make your verbal abilities grow even more robust. “Amorphous” means without a defined shape or form.
. but others – especially children – see shapes of animals and people in the sky. It’s easy for one person to look at a cloud and see a bowl of fruit. Keep practicing these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: • • • • • redoubtable robust titanic impervious prevalent
D. most young people have only _________ plans and ideas about their future. while the next person sees a rabbit. Helen is very reluctant to speak in public. To some people. Soon you’ll be admired for your way with words.
Words Describing Things That Are Small And Hard To See
Keep your vocabulary growing by practicing your new Ultimate Vocabulary words! Here are some practice sentences to work on: Test Sentences 1. something not clearly identifiable. Very few students know exactly what they want as a career. 3. 2. and rarely puts up even a _______ hand to volunteer to lead the meeting. 5.
Answers: 1. clouds are just amorphous blobs of white or grey. its warm honey scent is _________.Confidence-In-Context
You’ve planted the seeds of an expanded vocabulary today. because of the many ________ variations in pitch and tone required when speaking. Mandarin is a difficult language for many people to learn. clouds are just _________ blobs of white or grey. Even though the beeswax candle is on a table in the corner.
Your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words are: 1. 4. and the odor will become evenly spread out. This can be hard for non-Mandarin speakers to learn. but she occasionally raises a tentative hand to volunteer to lead the meeting. or not concentrated in any one spot. and you’ll soon notice an obvious difference in your ability as a speaker. Be subtle about working them into your daily conversations. especially if they didn’t grow up speaking a language that relies on such subtle changes to create different meanings. its warm honey scent is diffuse and you can enjoy it anywhere in the room. Even though the beeswax candle is on a table in the corner. but you don’t particularly want to be noticed. amorphous diffuse inchoate tentative subtle
. 5. 3. because of the many subtle variations in pitch and tone required when speaking. taking an effort to identify. “Subtle” means hard to distinguish. The meaning of many words in Mandarin differs depending on whether you say the word with a rising or a falling tone. “Diffuse” means evenly spread out. or just trying something out and experimenting. 4. you’ll be hesitant and probably will be keeping your hand a little lower than usual. in the beginning stages. you changed your mind several times about the classes and jobs you wanted to take. 2. 5. most young people have only inchoate plans and ideas about their future. “Inchoate” means unformed. without a final plan. “Tentative” means uncertain. If you’re like us. Helen is very reluctant to speak in public. Mandarin is a difficult language for many people to learn. especially in the beginning.Confidence-In-Context
2. If you raise your hand. It’s time to go forward boldly – don’t be tentative in finding opportunities to use these new vocabulary words. Very few students know exactly what they want as a career. The fragrance of a candle will travel on air currents throughout a room. 3.
I tried to smuggle some truffles back from France. it means that together they make a whole. My family always gets together for a big dinner on Sunday. but carnivorous plants like the pitcher plant lure insects into their hollow stems. her skill with language and dialects complements his ability to get people talking together.Confidence-In-Context
E. They make a good pair of ambassadors.” 2. where they dissolve and are absorbed. There might be a more equitable distribution of work in some households. 3. after dinner. There are several unusual plants in this swamp that are carnivorous . There’s not a lot of meat on a fly. the men sit __________ in front of the television to watch football while the women clean the kitchen. her skill with language and dialects _______________ his ability to get people talking together. the women seem to do all the work for Sunday dinner.
Words For Cooking Up A Conversation
Are you hungry to learn more Ultimate Vocabulary words? Conversational skill. “Replete” means “full.they get their food by trapping flies and other insects in a sticky nectar. They make a good pair of ambassadors. 5. after dinner. I tried to smuggle some truffles back from France. and he’s skilled at convincing people to start negotiating in the first place. 3. the men sit replete in front of the television to watch football while the women clean the kitchen. My family always gets together for a big dinner on Sunday. When two things complement each other.
2. they make a completely effective ambassadorial team. while the men eat until they’re stuffed full and then relax. but I rarely see her in the kitchen. is something you need to practice to improve. but was caught at customs because my suitcase was ____________ with their pungent odor.they get their food by trapping flies and other insects in a sticky nectar. 4. Try using the five words you’ve just learned in these practice sentences:
1. and that together they’re better than either one alone. but was caught at customs
. 4. and has a huge collection of recipes. but in this family. but “carnivorous” means “meat-eating. She subscribes to several ____________ magazines. Together. There are several unusual plants in this swamp that are _______________ . Most plants get nutrients from the soil. She is able to accurately translate negotiations. like culinary skill.
“Culinary” refers to the kitchen. 3.
Words To Invest In
Work steadily on your vocabulary skills. It’s too bad that we don’t teach children how to manage their money more carefully. and are often praised for their ______________. 5. or cooking in general. Don’t bother asking Mr.Confidence-In-Context
because my suitcase was redolent with their pungent odor. he’s so _______________ that he wears his shirts until they’re nothing but rags. Truffles have a distinctive smell that’s so strong it will seep through most packaging to permeate everything around them. And you’ll be able to flavor your conversation with these five words: culinary redolent carnivorous replete complement
F. but I rarely see her in the kitchen. “Redolent” means having a strong odor. 5. and you’ll profit from your new knowledge in a very short time. and has a huge collection of recipes. George plans on switching banks. Are you replete with knowledge now? Think about these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words the next time you’re in the kitchen practicing your culinary skills. even though I’d only had two drinks. Perhaps the air will be redolent with the savory smells of a roasting chicken – or if you’re not carnivorous. if they learned how to be _________ at a young age. I was so pleased by the bartender’s attentive service. it would become a habit that would help them later in life. that I left him five dollars as a ______________. Bill and Melinda Gates contribute money to support the fight against infectious diseases around the world. Overton for any contributions for the clothing drive. Get started now with these practice sentences. maybe you’ll be chopping up vegetables for a tasty stew. because this one promises an interest rate of six percent. fill in the most appropriate word in each blank:
1. and he wants his initial investment to ___________ as quickly as possible.
4. 2. She subscribes to several culinary magazines.
if they learned how to be prudent at a young age. and refers to someone who does not spend extravagantly. Don’t bother asking Mr. also known as a tip or pourboire. 4. with the goal of bringing benefits to others. which are two projects that both of the Gates feel very strongly about. that I left him five dollars as a gratuity. is probably a very stingy person. “Prudent” means frugal or careful. The Gates Foundation was set up to channel money into efforts to combat AIDS and eliminate polio. “Philanthropy” means charitable giving. 2. 5. and won’t share with those who have even less. he’s so parsimonious that he wears his shirts until they’re nothing but rags. even though I’d only had two drinks. We’re sure you’ll find opportunities to use them wisely. and he wants his initial investment to appreciate as quickly as possible. We hope you feel that you’ve benefited by learning these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words. In a bank. and are often praised for their philanthropy. and very unwilling to spend any money. it means it gains in value. I was so pleased by the bartender’s attentive service. because this one promises an interest rate of six percent. 3. an investment appreciates by the accumulation of interest. It’s too bad that we don’t teach children how to manage their money more carefully. Teaching children to put aside a percentage of their money every month will help them develop into adults who know how to manage their money. When something appreciates. “Parsimonious” means excessively frugal. Bill and Melinda Gates contribute money to support the fight against infectious diseases around the world. Someone who is determined to get every last bit of value out of what he owns. When you receive excellent service.Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. Overton for any contributions for the clothing drive. it’s often appropriate to show your appreciation by leaving your server a bit of extra money. Your five new words are: parsimonious gratuity philanthropy appreciate prudent
. stingy. it would become a habit that would help them later in life. George plans on switching banks. A “gratuity” is a reward for good service.
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 7 Workbook
protean. something that can be changed without breaking. Depending on the circumstances. “Malleable” means flexible or easily shaped.” Creative people can express themselves in a variety of ways: in pencil drawings or oil paintings. in marble sculptures or in the more malleable medium of clay. “Dynamic” means constantly changing or moving. and you can enjoy the ackee cooked with eggs and peppers in a traditional Jamaican dish. By contrast. or compact itself into a shallow underwater cave. the opposite of dynamic is “static.” The word comes from the name of the oldest sea god in Greek mythology. Proteus. “Transmute” is a verb meaning to alter. but boiling the fruit will transmute the toxic substances into harmless compounds. malleable. web pages have gotten to be much more dynamic. we’ll speak about five words that describe change: transmute. This change can be to the form or substance of an object or. dynamic. and start using them on a daily basis. A synonym for dynamic is “active”.” A transmutation is a change that might not be apparent on the surface. a metamorphosis is a complete change in form or substance.” The reef squid actually uses rapid changes in skin color to communicate with other squid.Confidence-In-Context
A. which will lead to a change in your abilities as a conversationalist and public speaker. on a metaphysical level. possible synonyms for “metamorphosis” include “reinvention” and “rebirth. where every word expresses the exact nuances of your thoughts. your ordinary conversations will be transmuted into highly effective communication. to a basic characteristic. nectar-sipping butterfly. This ability to take on different forms or characteristics is described by the word “protean.” Example: “The tropical fruit called ackee is poisonous when raw. A synonym for “transmute” is “transform. metamorphosis. Divers who come across these animals are amazed at the bright.” Example: “Children are always amazed at the process of metamorphosis that changes a lumpy leaf-chewing caterpillar into a delicate. change or convert something. Words For Describing Change
Change is in the air! You’re improving your vocabulary skills and learning how to use these powerful Ultimate Vocabulary words in context.” An octopus can squeeze its boneless body through a long narrow tube. Example: “The protean skin coloration of animals like the chameleon and the reef squid allows them to blend in almost invisibly with their surroundings.
Your words for describing change explained
As you grow in confidence about using these vocabulary words in context.” Example: “Now that graphics designers can include animation and movies. You
.” meaning “extremely variable. dynamic colors and patterns on their skin. In this section.
Words For Discussing Technical Innovation
Remember when “spam” referred to a canned luncheon meat. In the intransitive sense. anthropomorphic. The so-called “binary language” is called that because its “letters” are only the number one and the number zero. Something that is “cryptic” is obscure or otherwise hard to understand. “Binary” means something that is separated into two parts that are both of equal importance.
. cryptic. Example: “Sarah got into a lot of trouble when she was a child. in increasingly complex combinations. A cryptic communication has a hidden meaning.” Complicated concepts in physics are often easier to understand if you can see a demonstration using everyday objects and ideas. but are mutually exclusive. even if it was against the rules.
Your vocabulary for discussing technical innovation explained
Computers are fantastically complicated machines that perform amazingly difficult tasks in the blink of an eye. The best professors use a variety of methods to help their students decode the information in their textbooks. superannuated. decode. and may be written in secret code. “decode” means “to figure something out. and my job was to decode the messages before passing them on to the diplomats. but the basic principle underneath all computer functions is surprisingly simple: it’s nothing more than a switch between “on” and “off”.Confidence-In-Context
can also use this word to describe an intangible characteristic. this verb can be either transitive or intransitive. and not to unwanted e-mail messages? Many words have been adopted to describe things associated with computers and other technology. Here are five Ultimate Vocabulary words you might use when discussing the latest innovations: binary. she was so malleable that she’d do anything her schoolmates told her to. in case they’re intercepted by the enemy.” This binary switch is at the heart of all calculations. we received daily communications from agents in the city. To “decode” something is to make it clear and easy to understand. such as someone’s personality.”
B.” Example: “When I was working at the embassy. nothing more.” Everyone knows the best secret agents always make sure to keep their messages as cryptic as possible. Example: “The physics professor explained the concepts of absolutes and degrees by comparing two types of lighting fixtures: the first one had a binary switch that turned the light off or on. and the other had a dimmer switch that would allow the light to slowly brighten. “yes” and “no.
“Superannuated” means oldfashioned or archaic.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “My nephew likes the fortune-telling machine at the county fair. but not being human. even as your efforts help others.”
C. watching the hand of the colorfully-dressed robot move back and forth. as humans.” Figureheads aren’t part of modern ship design. and collecting the cryptic messages printed out. something that is outdated and obsolete. "Symbiosis" is a noun meaning "a mutually-beneficial relationship. inundate.
Your words describing relationships explained
The better your communication skills. Example: “We were listening to an old radio play last night. it seems rotary phones are completely superannuated. collusion. or both. both at work and in everyday interactions. You'll be able to form partnerships that help you reach your goals. talking to them directly. and my niece asked what the funny clicking noise was when one of the characters made a telephone call. and no one under thirty even knows what they used to sound like. Example: “Many cultures placed figureheads at the front of their ships. “Anthropomorphic” is an adjective meaning having the attributes of a human." "Symbiotic" is the adjective that can describe such a relationship. whether simple painted eyes on either side of the bow or a carved statue of a woman. it’s easy to pretend that they’re human. symbiosis. Making these Ultimate Vocabulary words a seamless part of your conversations will improve your ability to communicate and create productive relationships with others. Such a symbiosis is the basis for healthy and productive interactions on both personal and professional levels. even for merely decorative purposes. he’ll spend hours dropping coins in the slot."
. the only way we know how to communicate with something is to give it anthropomorphic characteristics first. and most people would look on them as superannuated. But we also treat machines that look nothing like humans as if they could understand us – how many times have you yelled at your computer today? Perhaps. emotional. the easier it will be to work with people in mutually-beneficial relationships. all of which can be used to describe relationships: alloy. in the anthropomorphic belief that this would help the ships navigate through any hazards. When something is shaped like a person.you're getting more confidence in using these powerful vocabulary words in context. Here are five more Ultimate Vocabulary words to work on. These attributes can be physical. the clownfish is immune to the anemone's poison and hides within its tentacles. Words For Describing Relationships
It's all coming together now .” A small child might actually believe that a turbaned dummy inside the glass box of a fortune-telling machine is a real person. Example: "The brightly-colored clownfish lives in symbiosis with sea anemones. and in return the fish keeps the anemone free of waste matter and decay. reconcile.
D. If your goal was to learn all of the words in the English language that have an “x” in them." Many people invest in gold in order to keep money out of more volatile markets such as stocks. but people covered under their policies want to maximise their benefits. our resources department is inundated with applications. Corporate health plan administrators do their best to reconcile the two viewpoints to create plans that provide good coverage for the least amount of money." Most insurance companies try to maximise their profit. prolix. An "alloy" is a metal that is made up of two or more metallic substances that have been combined.there is no way for more gold to suddenly inundate the market." Example: "The unemployment rate is so high in this town that every time our company advertises a job opening. when he married. Both copper and tin are malleable and easily bent. maxim. your friends might think that was
. but bronze. who don't have to woo prospective employees with good benefits or competitive salaries. lowering its value. In these situations. an alloy of copper and tin. Another word for "collusion" is "conspiracy. the value of gold is relatively stable . his wife convinced him to reconcile with his sister and brother. is stronger than both." Example: "The company newsletter ran several articles praising the proposed health benefits plan. and they have even started taking vacations together. even though it is a combination of the two. Example: "Rose gold is an alloy of copper and gold that is found in several places in the Middle East and eastern Europe. the advantage is with the employers. Words Containing “X”
“X” marks the spot in this session – all of the words you’ll be learning have an “x” in them: quixotic. "Inundate" means to overwhelm or deluge with something. not just the ones spelled with an “x”." When there are more people looking for work than there are jobs available. or to make them equal or even. people sometimes accuse corporations of being in collusion with the government to keep the unemployment rate artificially high.Confidence-In-Context
Often two things together are stronger and more effective than either thing taken separately. A synonym for inundate is "flood. Example: "Although Howard had not spoken to his family for over ten years. "Reconcile" means to create a good relationship between two things. noxious
Your words containing “X” explained
You’re well on your way to mastering all of the Ultimate Vocabulary words we want to share with you. Because of the fixed amount of gold in existence. the copper gives the metal a lovely reddish hue that makes it a popular choice for rings and other jewelry. to bring them together. "Collusion" means coming together for a secret purpose. axiom. A good example is bronze. but we found out later that our CEO was in collusion with the head of the insurance organization to cut services to most employees under the new plan.
or both. “Prolix” means wordy or verbose. Example: “The science of mathematics is based on axioms that form the foundation for further theories. even though it would be quite a task. The word is used most often when speaking of mathematics or logic. Two synonyms for “maxim” are “proverb” and “aphorism. and would probably encourage you to take on the project. “Noxious” is an adjective meaning “unpleasant”. “Brevity is the best recommendation of speech. or because it’s so obvious it doesn’t need to be proved again. On the other hand. where the enemies are much larger or more powerful than you are. if you’re hesitating before jumping off a cliff. Like the Don. overly-long speeches are often confusing and boring.” [nb pronunciation: “quixotic” = kwix AH tick. and has much the same meaning: setting yourself up against imaginary enemies. acts. The expression “tilting at windmills” also comes from this literary work.” This word comes from the title character in the Spanish author Cervantes’ work “Don Quixote. citing the old maxim ‘he who hesitates is lost’. Instead. and decided to keep my money in mutual funds. Example: “Moved by a quixotic desire to make sure everyone receives flowers on Valentine’s Day. we came up with a rather prolix explanation. and perhaps we could have found a way to define it more concisely. whether in a senator or an orator. you’ll lose the opportunity to take action altogether. an “axiom” is something that is accepted as true because it has been proved constantly true in the past. or that the words you’re using are overly obscure themselves. This proves maxims aren’t always true. that might not be a bad thing.” Example: “Jake was trying his best to get me to invest in his banking scheme before the rates went up. It’s
.” The maxim “he who hesitates is lost” means that sometimes if you wait too long to take action. for example.”
Testing theories in mathematics usually just involves a pencil and paper. Example: “Prolix dissertations increase both obfuscation and ennui.” As Cicero said. which can sometimes result in loud explosions and noxious odors when the wrong substances are combined. but I didn’t trust his calculations. They might even describe you as “quixotic. It can mean using too many words. but impractical.Confidence-In-Context
impractical. Ben decided to give a red rose to every person he meets on February 14th each year. “quixotic” means someone who impulsively performs noble and romantic. unlike chemistry experiments. but somewhat quirky and charming.” The discussion of the word “quixotic” used quite a few words. By contrast.” A maxim is a saying about a general rule of life. or to put it more simply. it is accepted as fact that only one straight line can be drawn between any two points. “Quixote” = key HO tay].” A modern version of this maxim is “Keep it short and simple.
and that you are good at doing it. vidi. since she spent much of her free time as a child helping to take care of the sick animals on the farm. and visiting the elderly at the local rest home. Example: “She is an excellent doctor. they’re nothing but vapid recitals of her memories of what seemed to be a completely unremarkable childhood. and means dull.I came. “Vapid” can refer either to the speech itself. where hours go by filled with vapid speeches on irrelevant issues.”
Words Starting With “V” For You To Conquer
Julius Caesar said it first: "Veni. or the person making it. shouting those words out across the conquered lands. Example: “I don’t understand why her books are so popular.”
most often used to refer to an odor. as in any other endeavor. I saw. or intense when speaking. it’s something that takes a lot of work to do well. I conquered. Mark interrupted a presentation on proposed budget cuts with a vehement defense of spending increases for public transportation. vici" . lifeless. passionate. without anything of real meaning or interest to the audience. vocation. A “vocation” is a job or occupation that you have chosen to work in because you feel called to do it. Something that is noxious is quite often toxic as well – and there’s an extra x-word for you! Example: “We were cleaning out the drawers in his desk and accidentally opened an old carton of leftover food – the entire office was filled with the noxious odor of spoiled meat for days. Example: “During the meeting of the local council. vapid. planting the standard of the Roman Eagles firmly in the ground.” Sounds like that Council Meeting was more interesting than some we’ve been to. and her family always knew her vocation was medicine. and bland. vehement. while others find it hard to create compelling narratives. to me. V for victory!
Your words starting with “v” explained
One can just imagine Caesar at the head of his armies. and viable. “Vehement” means being forceful. Even if writing is your vocation. especially when speaking about something you have strong feelings about.” Some people are talented writers. His vehement statement would have made as much of an impression as his forceful actions. Here are five more Ultimate Vocabulary words for you to conquer: venue.
” You might hear your parents reminisce about growing up in the middle of communities that did take care of each other. well. Here are five words that describe dreams and visions: nostalgia. A “venue” is a place where events occur. there has been somewhat of a renaissance of
. renaissance. but it’s harder to do the real work of providing food.
Your words describing dreams and visions explained
Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we all knew exactly the right words to use in every situation? There would be no misunderstanding. have gotten used to using computers and other electronic means of communication. your neighbors would be there soon after with new plants to help you get started again.. “Idyllic” means peaceful. “Viable” means “able to be done” or “possible”. Example: “We received many suggestions from our employees about ways to improve the workflow. but while most of the ideas were good. and medical care for people in need. and perfect. paragon. getting the education they need may not be a viable option. Even knowing exactly what someone means doesn’t mean you’ll agree with it! Perhaps it wouldn’t be such an idyllic situation after all. it’s quickly becoming the preferred venue for performances of all types. I find I’m prone to a bit of nostalgia for the written letters and postcards we used to send instead. only a few were practical enough to be viable choices to present to the Board at next year’s Business Planning Meeting.” While many people.” Many business meetings are held at hotels or convention centers. happy. no argument over meaning .”
F. Example: “In these days of instant messaging and cell phones. shelter. the way they wish things were. no disagreement. Example: “Now that the new theatre building is completed.Confidence-In-Context
Medical School is often quite expensive. due to the quality and versatility of its stage and seating arrangements. but depending on their family’s financial situation.
Words Describing Dreams And Visions
These Ultimate Vocabulary words will help you achieve your dreams by providing you with the tools to create exceptional written and oral communication at work and home. maybe not. idyllic. or other venues where there is on-site catering and large conference rooms already set up with tables and chairs. Many children may want to be doctors when they grow up.. visionary. where you knew that if your garden was destroyed by rabbits. Example: “It’s easy to dream of an idyllic society where no one is hungry or sick. People often use this word to describe imaginary states. especially younger ones. A longing for things to be the way they were in the past is called “nostalgia”.
” One of the pre-eminent artists and thinkers of the Italian Renaissance was Leonardo Da Vinci. most of which would not actually be built for centuries. who was talented in a number of fields. Example: “The microcomputer revolution began with a few visionary thinkers who realized that small portable devices would eventually be more useful to everyday citizens than the large data processing machines required by business. Example: “The Italian Renaissance of the 14th century was a time in which art. “Visionary” means someone who sees the possibilities of the future. “Paragon” is a noun meaning the best. mathematics. Example: “Helen always has snacks and drinks ready for visitors.”
. or the ideal. philosophy. and music. he was a visionary engineer. and literature blossomed. sketching ideas for helicopters. and sales of fine paper and fountain pens have been on the rise. who is both creative and scientific. and is adept at making sure that everyone in her house is comfortable – she is the very paragon of hospitality. including art.” Many people refer to Da Vinci as a paragon of the so-called “Renaissance Man” – someone who is equally adept at a variety of fields. and hang gliders. “Renaissance” is a word from the French meaning “rebirth” or “revival”. In addition.Confidence-In-Context
letter-writing. who continually questions and explores the world around him. hydraulic pumps. of something. bringing the cultural life of Europe back after the devastation of the Black Death.
2. talking about a dozen things at once. Franklin's clients are so used to seeing him as a quiet and conservative figure that they might not recognize him at the karaoke bar in his silver jumpsuit. but on Saturday nights he makes a remarkable metamorphosis into a flamboyant karaoke singer in a sequined Elvis costume. alchemists in the middle ages spent years trying to ________________ lead into gold. Franklin spends his weekdays dressed conservatively in a dark suit and tie. If it were possible to change lead into gold. She is an amazing actress. alchemists in the middle ages spent years trying to transmute lead into gold.he's always in motion. She is an amazing actress. it would have to happen at the molecular level.
Answers: 1. 3.Confidence-In-Context
Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A. it can be referred to as a metamorphosis. When something has changed so radically.
. or a complete change in shape. her one-woman show shows off her protean talent to portray a wide range of characters. 4. and would not be immediately apparent. her one-woman show shows off her ____________ ability to portray a wide range of characters. 5. fill in the correct word in each: 1. 3. To transmute something means to make a change in substance. but on Saturday nights he makes a remarkable ______________ into a flamboyant karaoke singer in a sequined Elvis costume. but not necessarily one that is evident on the surface. Believing that metals could be changed from one type to another. Franklin spends his weekdays at the office dressed conservatively in a dark suit and tie. Words For Describing Change
Here are five practice sentences. John has such a _____________ personality . 2. form. Believing that metals could be changed from one type to another. and have created some remarkable and imaginative sculptures. or nature. The children in my art class enjoy working with clay and other ____________ materials.
Now that you've learned these Ultimate Vocabulary words. the president of a corporation or an alien from outer space. but the ______ numbering system only has two: zero and one. protean malleable dynamic metamorphosis transmute
B. But you'll only get this absolute confidence in using these words in context by practicing them until they're completely familiar to you. John has such a dynamic personality . 5. talking about a dozen things at once. you'll be able to choose exactly the right words to convey the subtle meanings you intend.he's always in motion. Start using these five powerful new words today: 1. 2. bowls. The children in my art class enjoy working with clay and other malleable materials. 3. you'll find that your conversations will undergo a metamorphosis.
. Once clay is at the right consistency. The base-ten numbering system we use for everyday purposes has ten digits from zero to nine. in this example. 5. and you'll be admired for your protean ability to shape your conversational style to any audience and every circumstance. "Malleable" means easy to shape. the actress might use her body language as well as her voice to play the part of a nun or a homeless woman. Something that is constantly moving and changing is "dynamic".Confidence-In-Context
"Protean" means the ability to take many different forms. and other objects. Words For Describing Technical Innovation
No frogs were harmed in the making of this vocabulary training session! Here are some practice sentences so you can experiment with your new words:
1. Instead of using the same words over and over again. and have created some remarkable and imaginative sculptures. The opposite of "dynamic" is "static. 4. 4. Your conversation will be dynamic and never boring. it's very flexible and can be used to make sculptures as well as plates.
but I think he’s just filling his lectures full of cryptic references in order to sound more intelligent. which makes it a very good language to use for secret messages – if you can’t speak Navajo.” 4. but I think he’s just filling his lectures full of _________ references in order to sound more learned. because she doesn’t understand half of what he says. or obsolete. you would have no idea how to decode the message. “Superannuated” means old-fashioned. which proved to be almost impossible to decode even if intercepted. “10” in binary is actually the number “2”.
3. perhaps they don’t have the knowledge or background you do. “Binary” means having two parts. 3. and now everything’s digital. outdated. Sheila thinks that the new philosophy teacher is extremely wise. “Cryptic” means hard to understand. Sheila thinks that the new philosophy teacher is extremely wise. but when I come home and my cat seems so happy to see me. If people don’t understand what you’re talking about. and not because she just wants to be fed. Or perhaps it’s because you’re really not making any sense. Alan is very reluctant to purchase new stereo equipment. Many messages sent to Allied forces during World War II were written using the Navajo Indian language. 5. he’s still using a ____________ cassette player to record his songs. Many messages sent to Allied forces during World War II were written using the Navajo Indian language. “Decode” means “to make clear or understandable. he’s still using a superannuated cassette player to record his songs. Alan is very reluctant to purchase new stereo equipment. The base-ten numbering system we use for everyday purposes has ten digits from zero to nine. 2. Combining the two digits in various ways produces the same numbers.
Answers: 1. but the binary numbering system only has two: zero and one. The Navajo language is unlike any other language on earth. they’re just harder to read unless you know the language. Cassettes were replaced with CDs. Using tape to make recordings is an old-fashioned method. even though all the other band members do their recording on line. Both of these digits are essential for the system to work.Confidence-In-Context
. I know it’s an ____________ attitude. I think it’s because she loves me. even though all the other band members do their recording on line. which proved to be almost impossible to _________ even if intercepted. For example.
machines. and he has become a very bitter and angry old man . Assigning human emotions. or other nonhuman entities is called “anthropomorphizing” – the adjective describing this is “anthropomorphic. Several species of ants live only on particular types of trees. in return. the more you’ll understand.here are five practice sentences using the words you've just learned. the river will ___________ most of the downtown area. Put the correct word in each sentence:
1. although it is more brittle as well. I think it’s because she loves me. the trees contribute to the ____________ by producing sweet sap to feed the ants. human thoughts.
3. Practice your new vocabulary words every day. and you’ll quickly gain confidence in using them in context.Confidence-In-Context
5. and not because she just wants to be fed. but when I come home and my cat seems so happy to see me. we’ll never know.
. because if they break during the next big storm. and formerly-cryptic texts and conversations will become clear. Steel is an ____________ of iron and carbon that is both harder and more durable than iron alone. 2. Your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words are: • • • • • anthropomorphic cryptic decode binary superannuated
C. 5.” The more words you know. It’s tempting to think that our pets feel the same way about us that we do them.it was hard for me to ____________ my image of him now with the memories I have of him when he was young and happy. Antitrust legislation needs to be put in place to prevent multinational corporations from working in ______________ to fix the price of their products on the market.
Words For Describing Relationships
Don't take any time off yet . I know it’s an anthropomorphic attitude. which they protect by chasing off other insects. We hope that the local government fixes the cracks in the levees. I saw my uncle for the first time in thirty years. or human shapes to animals. but until animals are able to talk back to us.
or to make them even or equal. the river will inundate most of the downtown area. Several species of ants live only on particular types of trees. 4. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon that is both harder and more durable than iron alone. It can be difficult to bring two opposing things into balance. behind-the-scenes agreement is often a conspiracy to create a situation that is beneficial for some parties but not others. The relationship can be between two members of the same group. the trees contribute to the symbiosis by producing sweet sap to feed the ants. in return. The tree and the ants have a mutually beneficial relationship. Keep working on using these Ultimate Vocabulary words in context. People have been combining metals for thousands of years. trying to find the best mixes for their purposes. The waters from a breached levee or dam would create a sudden flood that would overwhelm the nearby areas. and the ants receiving food and shelter. or between two entirely different species. Antitrust legislation needs to be put in place to prevent multinational corporations from working in collusion to fix the price of their products on the market. Another word for conspiracy is "collusion.
We hope that the local government fixes the cracks in the levees. Here are five sentences to help you practice using your new vocabulary words:
Are you feeling inundated by all of these new words? Don't worry! Keep practicing. To reconcile things means to bring a balance between them. although it is more brittle as well.
5. and soon you'll be confidently using these vocabulary words in their correct context: • • • • • alloy symbiosis reconcile collusion inundate
D. "Inundate" means to flood or overwhelm with something.it was hard for me to reconcile my image of him now with the memories I have of him when he was young and happy. "Symbiosis" means a relationship where both parties benefit. with the tree gaining protection from harmful insects. and he has become a very bitter and angry old man . I saw my uncle for the first time in thirty years. and you’ll soon see a definite change in your conversational abilities. A secret. which they protect by chasing off other insects. because if they break during the next big storm.Confidence-In-Context
Answers: 1. An “alloy” is a mix of two or more metals.
Words Containing “X”
Small efforts do add up over time to make a large impact."
2. to create a relationship between them. 3.
I was confused even by the simple ______ that A + B = B + A. because we don’t enjoy his ___________ sermons that go into detail on the history of Hebrew tradition and teachings. Her quixotic desire to save all of the feral cats in town has drained her bank account and left her with a houseful of sick pets that no one else wants to care for. 2. that is so fundamental that it does not need to be proven before being used in further theory or speculation. using overly-complicated vocabulary or arcane references to ancient texts that few people are familiar with. We were disappointed to see that Bishop Green had been chosen to give the opening speech. he stopped noticing the ____________ smells coming from the compost pit. One person. but the wish to do so is admirable. My brother said that after he had worked at the recycling center for a few months. would find it hard to save all of the abandoned animals in a town. and if you are exposed to a strong odor for a long period of time.
. 3. you’ll find it much less noticeable than you did at the beginning. 4.Confidence-In-Context
1. An axiom is a statement. It’s true that people can get used to anything. 4. because we don’t enjoy his prolix sermons that go into detail on the history of Hebrew tradition and teachings. are usually very boring. We were disappointed to see that Bishop Green had been chosen to give the opening speech. 2. When I started learning algebra. I was confused even by the simple axiom that A + B = B + A. 3. My brother said that after he had worked at the recycling center for a few months. even with a huge amount of money and time. often romantically inspired. “Prolix” refers to something that is wordy and much too long.
Answers: 1. “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” is a _______ that our world leaders should keep in mind. that are impractical or far beyond one’s capabilities. “Quixotic” means having an urge to do heroic deeds. “noxious” can apply to anything that is unpleasant and possibly dangerous. When I started learning algebra. if impractical. Her __________ desire to save all of the feral cats in town has drained her bank account and left her with a houseful of sick pets that no one else wants to care for. often of a logical nature. Speeches that go on and on. he stopped noticing the noxious smells coming from the compost pit. A “noxious” odor is one that is strong and unpleasant.
Remember this maxim: “Nothing ventured. But we disagree – by working hard and practicing daily. Unless he learns to speak Spanish fluently.
Words Starting With “V” For You To Conquer
Happy memories. No. a quixotic quest to improve your vocabulary to unimagined heights. they didn’t have a vegetarian option on the menu. Because of its central location. and protested loudly. 2. Keep building your verbal strength by practicing with your five new words:
1. 3. I won’t go to the monthly Luncheon with you.
When you started this course. A saying that is a general statement of a basic truth of the way things are is called a maxim. and besides I was bored to tears by the ___________ conversation. 4.
. nothing gained!” Venture out and start using these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: • • • • • quixotic prolix maxim noxious axiom
E. My friend Dana knew from an early age that she wanted to be an architect. and future plans – you need powerful vocabulary words to be able to describe them in rich and compelling detail. The old sayings are often true.Confidence-In-Context
5. 5. but the parents were _______________ in their opposition to that plan. the city park is a popular ___________ for outdoor performances and weekend markets. you might have felt that it was project beyond your capabilities. A synonym for maxim is “proverb”. moving to Madrid to find work as a lawyer is not really a ______________ plan. The School Board wanted to bring in money by allowing advertisements on school property. and she now has a successful career in her chosen ___________________. current activities. you’ll achieve your goal sooner than you think. so that you don’t bore your listeners with vapid stories they’ll soon forget. “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” is a maxim that our world leaders should keep in mind. last time I went.
the parents spoke out loudly and strongly against the possibility of advertisements in the school. In other words. Unless he learns to speak Spanish fluently. but can apply to any chosen career. just that it’s where many protests are held. vehement 9. and protested loudly. In this example. and see the school buildings as places where the children should focus on learning. or without interest to the Listener. moving to Madrid to find work as a lawyer is not really a viable plan. last time I went. the city park is a popular venue for outdoor performances and weekend markets. usually referring to a specific location. A career that you are attracted to.
Learning how to use these Ultimate Vocabulary words in context will make viable your plans for future success in your personal and professional life. My friend Dana knew from an early age that she wanted to be an architect. as in a speech. and that you are good at. vocation 10. and besides I was bored to tears by the vapid conversation. whether paid or unpaid. Many parents feel that their children are already exposed to too much commercial advertisement on television. You may even discover that you have a vocation to be a writer or lecturer! We hope you’ve enjoyed learning these five words: 6. “Vapid” means dull. they didn’t have a vegetarian option on the menu. those jobs are usually in the service sector. A venue is a place where events happen. Because of its central location. “Vehement” means forceful and impassioned. where the speaker is expressing his or her strong feelings on an issue.
5. or able to come about. but sometimes defined by the event itself. but you might also refer to the street in front of a parliament building as a venue for protestors – it’s not that the street was designed for protests. No. vapid
. viable 8. Only fluency in the local language will make getting a professional job possible. it is viable. When something is possible. I won’t go to the monthly luncheon with you. venue 7. While it’s possible to get a job in country where you don’t speak the language.
3. a concert hall is a venue for musical productions. This word is often used to refer to a religious calling. and she now has a successful career in her chosen vocation. is your vocation. The school board wanted to bring in money by allowing advertisements on school property. 2. but the parents were vehement in their opposition to that plan. for those who become priests or nuns. that you enjoy.
Looking back at one’s childhood with longing. Even as the price of fuel rises. some people feel such ______________ for the cars of their teenage years that they keep driving them.
. Jack says he’d find living on a remote island idyllic. and shops selling knitting needles and yarn are popping up everywhere. writing about social and scientific issues decades before they became reality.
Words Describing Dreams and Visions
Let these powerful new vocabulary words bring new life to your conversations. A visionary is someone who dreams about the way things could be in the future. Get started now. is called “nostalgia”. She knows exactly how to phrase things to explain the systems she works on. some people feel such nostalgia for the cars of their teenage years that they keep driving them. but I’d go mad if I didn’t have an internet connection! There’s a ________________ in handcrafted items lately. She knows exactly how to phrase things to explain the systems she works on. 4. 3. even if the past wasn’t really as nice as you’d like to remember it. A “paragon” is an ideal. 5. but I’d go mad if I didn’t have an internet connection. Even as the price of fuel rises. Jack says he’d find living on a remote island ____________. The author Isaac Asimov is widely regarded as a visionary. her report is a ____________ of clarity and simplicity. 4. A hundred years before we landed on the moon. or a perfect example of something. 2. it means thinking with fondness about the past. The author Isaac Asimov is widely regarded as a _____________. 2. rocket trips into space were already part of the science fiction landscape. and wanting to have the things you had then. In general.
F. 3. It’s amazing sometimes to see how many of the things those writers dreamed are now reality. writing about social and scientific issues decades before they became reality. inefficient as they are. and practice using these five new words in context in each of the following sentences:
1. her report is a paragon of clarity and simplicity. inefficient as they are.
5. and perfect. “Idyllic” means peaceful.
Once you know how to use your Ultimate Vocabulary words in context. happy. you’ll be a paragon of oratory – your presentations. • • • • • Visionary Renaissance Idyllic Nostalgia Paragon
Every person has their own idea of their perfect world. and is often used to describe how and where someone would like to live. and shops selling knitting needles and yarn are popping up everywhere. Keep working on using your five new words. speeches. and even everyday conversations will be clear and compelling. There’s a renaissance in handcrafted items lately. The word “renaissance” comes from the French word for “rebirth” and means a new growth or popularity in something that had faded in the past.
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 8 Workbook
because you never know if their next target will be you. hector. maybe it’s time to try a bit of hectoring. To “hector” someone means to nag them. Example: “John is determined to win the election. It’s a verbal assault. the weather is dreary. speaking in a loud. rather than a physical one. none of his television advertisements do anything other than impugn the voting records of his opponents – even when he voted the same way. Here’s a set of five Ultimate Vocabulary words you might need during difficult times: vindictive. critique.” Some people use physical force to get their revenge. meaning “vengeance.” In particular. impugn.” If derogatory remarks don’t make a vendor lower their price. until they’re so tired of you they give you a cheaper price just to make you go away. derogatory. bullying
. “Vindictive” means having a desire for revenge. and your dog develops a terrible case of fleas. above and beyond any harm they themselves may have received. they want revenge in a way that does the most possible harm to the other person. Example: “The beauty pageant contestant who was dropped in the first round blamed the other participants for her failure. A derogatory remark shows contempt or a low opinion of something.” Political advertisement in general tends to rely on derogatory statements about the other candidates.Confidence-In-Context
A. Words For Difficult Times
Sometimes it seems like everything’s going wrong . because I’d had it appraised and knew exactly how much it was worth. The word comes from the Latin “vindicta”. blustering. This word is often used when referring to an attempt to discredit someone by questioning the truth of their statements. “Derogatory” means insulting or belittling something or someone. it’s useful to have exactly the words you need to express your displeasure at this state of affairs. she might have been believed. Example: “The antiques collector’s derogatory comments about the color of the paint and the tarnish on the silver handle didn’t make me lower the price of the tea set. If our beauty pageant contestant had tried to eliminate the other participants by impugning their morals and characters to the judges. In these situations. when the stagehand noticed her hiding by the showers. and is often an attempt to lower the value of that item.your co-workers are annoying. It’s hard to trust a vindictive person. but her vindictive plan to replace their shampoo with hair remover was stopped in time.
Your words for describing difficult times explained
The worst sort of co-worker is one who takes everything personally. a vindictive person not only wants revenge. and who’s always looking for revenge. To “impugn” means to attack something by saying bad things about it. and others choose to use words. for imagined slights.
this word is used to give the sense that you are somewhat anxious about the outcome. rather than just rubber-stamping it. Words For Expressing Approval And Agreement
We approve of your efforts to improve your vocabulary by using this Ultimate Vocabulary course to learn how to use powerful vocabulary words in their correct context. and would hector me until I did them exactly the way she wanted them done. because when I was growing up. or something else that’s official rather than personal.”
. approbation. so I suggested that she have a critique done by her lab partners first. ombudsman. my mother would follow me around the house as I did chores. or performance. clemency. to get the best results. Example: “I never learned to like doing housework. and want to avoid any bad thing that might happen.Confidence-In-Context
tone. it’s because you want to intimidate them into doing what you want. to get their opinions. There is also the underlying meaning that the person higher in status is pleased to be giving this approval. keeping them well watered and weeded. The word “critique” can be either a noun or a verb. approval or confirmation from someone who is higher in status to someone who is lower in status. Therefore. Example: “Sarah said she’s very nervous about presenting her thesis to the panel. you must devote several hours a week of solicitous attention to your garden beds. In many cases. It’s not always entirely negative. And we’d like to teach you five useful words that will help you likewise express approval and reach agreement: solicitous. “Solicitous” means attentively caring and concerned. When you’re hectoring someone.” Perhaps that’s the most annoying sort of person – someone who never says anything about your work without turning it into a critique. when you refer to “approbation” of a resolution or bill. concord
Your vocabulary for expressing approval and agreement explained
“Approbation” is the first word we’ll discuss. Example: “The students received the approbation of the parent/teacher committee to start an organic garden in the unused playground area. piece.” As all gardeners know. but either way it means a critical review or judgment of something or someone. It means approval or confirmation. but in particular. the sense is that the people approving the resolution or bill are personally happy to do so. but the understanding is that a critique will always point out the faults in a person.
and let them off with a warning rather than imposing a fine. It’s been documented that people in hospital recover more quickly if they have hands-on care instead of merely machine monitoring. especially when referring to opinions and beliefs. and advocates for. it’s against the law to sleep in a public park or on the sidewalk. However.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “My grandmother spent so many months providing such solicitous care to my grandfather that she neglected her own health. or accordance. The word “ombudsman” can be traced back to the 16th century. Words For Remaining Neutral in a Situation
It’s easy to take sides – you cheer for your favorite sports team.” Whether you’re caring for plants or people. the authorities may grant clemency to people who have no other place to go. and the Old Norse word for “representative. “Concord” is a noun meaning harmony or agreement. but so many people in the area support the prospect of new jobs that it’s unlikely there will be concord on this issue. mercy. equivocal. the London judge showed no clemency. accord. arbitrary. and he was transported to Australia in the convict ship ‘Gorgon’ in 1791. and compassion.” Example: “The City Council is having a meeting to set policy for use of parks and other public spaces. and the advocacy groups for the homeless are determined that their ombudsman will be there to speak about the problems and issues of the transient population. But sometimes you’ll find yourself in situations that require you to remain neutral. and patients’ rights ombudsmen make sure to keep that issue in front of hospital administrators. probity
. and vote for one political party over another. it took several more months before she was back to her usual robust self.”
C. Similar terms for concord are concordance.” In many cities. Example: “The indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions are trying to keep their traditional hunting grounds free from oil exploration and mining. and after he died. Here are five vocabulary words that will help in those situations: diplomatic. An “ombudsman” is someone who represents the interests of. businesses. stand by your family in a crisis. when times are hard. that personal attention really makes a difference. impartial. Example: “Although the young boy had only stolen a loaf of bread. or governments. “Clemency” means making a punishment less severe.” In the struggle for equality and justice. or even granting a full pardon in place of any punishment. the peoples of many nations have gone through periods of strife before reaching a concord on what they want their governors and judges to do. individuals who have complaints or issues with institutions such as large corporations. Some synonyms of clemency are leniency.
” Example 2: “All but one of the judges agreed that the Chinese chef’s dish was more successful and that she deserved the ‘top chef medal. Example: “Karen makes a good supervisor because she’s so diplomatic at handling arguments the employees bring to her.” In general. or that the meat was spoiled? Or that it wasn’t right to give the chef the award? It’s hard to tell with an equivocal answer like that.Confidence-In-Context
Your words for remaining neutral explained
The iconic image of a diplomat is someone who is courteous and tactful. and who uses discussion and negotiation to resolve issues. However. In many cases. “Arbitrary” means “random.” and can refer to choosing one of several options. An equivocal statement is open to more than one interpretation. “Impartial” means treating everyone equally. That’s also the definition of the adjective “diplomatic”.” One of the hallmarks of an effective supervisor is their impartiality. you are known to be an ethical. rather than the facts. the last judge’s arbitrary rating of 2 seemed to be more due to the fact that he doesn’t like liver. but only one of the judges could cast the tie-breaking vote. “Equivocal” means ambiguous or unclear. the parents trusted her to be impartial because she didn’t have a child taking part in the competition. who can gracefully and skillfully work with all types of people. even though she doesn’t take anyone’s side. or some other arbitrary method of making a decision. or drawing straws. the person making the equivocal statement is deliberately trying to be unclear and misleading. any of which would be equally valid. and so made the arbitrary decision that Kira would lead the away team. having a reputation for giving equivocal answers is less useful than being known for your probity. Synonyms for “impartial” are “neutral” and “unprejudiced. but the commander didn’t have time to interview them. “It wasn’t right. but the teacher’s answer was equivocal. Example: “I was trying to find out if I’d gotten a passing grade in the class. listening to both sides of an argument without pre-judging the situation or showing favoritism.” When asked afterwards.” One way of breaking a tie is by flipping a coin. If you are known for your probity.” What did he mean? That the spices were wrong. the judge merely said. everyone walks away thinking they’ve won.” Example: “The two teams had the same score. “arbitrary” can also mean making a choice or decision that’s based more on your personal feeling. and James would provide backup. Here are two examples of how to use this word: Example 1: “James and Kira were equally skilled at reconnaissance. and now I’ll have to wait until the grades are published to find out if I can take the next class in the series.
” Example: “All of the lawyers in that district tried to get their cases heard before Judge Owens. profound. A “propensity” is an inclination or tendency to do something. if you have a headache. Some synonyms for “proscribe” are “exclude” and “banish” and “reject. “Proscribe” means to prohibit or forbid something. but you need to be careful where you plant it.” Knowing exactly how many symphonies. or attraction to. you’ll be a “pro” once you learn these new words: proscribe. It’s a good plant to have in the garden. Two synonyms for “probity” are “honesty” and “integrity. Words Beginning With ‘Pro’
We now propose to provide you with five Ultimate Vocabulary words that will enhance your professional standing and propel you forward in this program of learning how to use words in context and with confidence. There are classical music fanatics out there.” We’re not sure workplaces have gone so far as to ban smelly pickles from the lunchroom. fevers. “Prosaic” means
. and other types of music Mozart wrote – and precisely when he wrote each piece – may not be interesting to someone who just likes listening to beautiful music. as it is very prolific and its shoots will invade other garden beds if not contained. you have a preference for. producing over 600 works in less than thirty years. choral works.”
Your words beginning with ‘pro’ explained
You may have noticed that we have a propensity for wordplay in this series.” Mint is a common remedy for several complaints. they hand you a cup of peppermint tea. Example: “I really do like working for Carl. who are fascinated by such prosaic details. however. but because of his propensity for eating garlic pickles at lunch I can’t schedule any client meetings with him in the afternoons.Confidence-In-Context
fair person with strong moral principles. propensity. whose probity never allowed her to insert any personal opinions or feelings into her decisions. including stomach aches. prosaic. In short. on behalf of employees with allergies. producing something in abundance. Example: “Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was one of the Classical Period’s most prolific composers.” Example: “This health spa offers cleansing and purification regimes that are so rigorous they even proscribe the use of aspirin. but many companies do proscribe wearing perfume or other strong scents. If you have a propensity for something. “Prolific” means productive or fertile. and indigestion. that thing. concerti.
expatriate. Example: “This documentary film follows a renowned chef on her odyssey across Europe. matter-of-fact. walking. delivering letters. and to become comfortable using them in context.” Sometimes all you want from a book is a moment’s entertainment. “Profound” means fundamental and farreaching.Confidence-In-Context
straightforward. itinerant. meaning a long. Example: “After spending a year working with the Red Cross/Red Crescent teams in the refugee camps. until I got this job with the postal service that requires me to spend most of the day in peripatetic activity. and even today there are nomadic tribes whose peripatetic lifestyles are very similar to those of their ancestors. usually towards a goal of some sort. we’d like to help by giving you five new words that you can use to describe your journey: peripatetic. odyssey
Your words for describing a journey explained
The Ancient Greek poet Homer. or all-encompassing. looking for the world’s best traditional cheeses. is credited with one of the world’s first recorded epic poems. who lived nearly three thousand years ago. having adventures along the way as he wanders through the lands of the Mediterranean. that was the only way to get from one place to another. wandering journey. and someone who sees pictures of the marvelous creatures who live there might experience a profound sense of awe at the wonders of the natural world. Example: “I enjoy reading this author’s books on the lives of historical figures in the early American Colonies. “Peripatetic” means traveling on foot from place to place – in other words. Cynthia’s formerly careless attitude towards other people underwent a profound change. From this hero’s name we get the word “odyssey”.
Words For Describing A Journey
As you continue on your quest to learn these Ultimate Vocabulary words. But for many thousands of years. Something that is prosaic is not imaginative. the ocean floor can reach to profound depths. something light and funny.”
. and not a profound philosophical treatise. to extreme depth. You can use “profound” to describe a physical or a metaphysical state. and may be considered dull and unexciting. transient. about the hero Odysseus.”
E. and commonplace. who spends years on a voyage back home. and she returned with a commitment to volunteer work and an openhearted compassion towards those in need. because she can make even the most prosaic aspects of daily life into interesting vignettes.” A long journey can be even longer if you have to get there by foot. Example: “I used to be overweight and out of shape.
And some people never go back to their home country.” Others might have to leave their country of origin due to political unrest or persecution. I’m laughing with you. as they return to northern Europe from their winter home in Africa. but on the other hand it gives you a richer experience of life in another culture that you won’t get from a transient visit. tinkers. and butchers to travel around a county. and millions of people travel each year on vacations to visit other lands. causing or provoking laughter. the word “transient” is often used as a noun meaning “homeless person” due to the fact that homeless people in general aren’t able to find any place to stay for long. jovial. traveling from farm to farm and working for room and board. many people simply decide they’d rather live in Paris than in Podunk.”
F. These days. he spent a few summers as an itinerant laborer in Australia.
Words For Describing Things That Are Enjoyable Or Amusing
Are you having fun yet? We hope that you’re enjoying learning how to use these powerful vocabulary words in context – and here are five more words for you. Something
. choosing instead to live as expatriates in a new place. If you’re forced out of your native home – that is. and become expatriates living happily in a foreign country. if you’ve been exiled or banished – you have been expatriated: literally “sent out of the land.” Each country has something unique to explore. Example: “When Arthur was in his 20s. However. animated. each of which can be used to describe things that are enjoyable or amusing: risible.” And we all hope to avoid situations where people will laugh at us because we’ve done something risible. carnival
Your words for the enjoyable and amusing explained
You’re familiar with the expression “I’m not laughing at you. but also provides a resting place for a transient population of migrating cranes each spring. levity.” Three years is a long time to live away from home. Example: “The desert oasis is home to a small group of native birds. and using his free time to explore the country. The word “expatriate” can be either a noun or a verb. or lasting a short time in general. stopping in small towns to do jobs for the locals before moving on. Example: “Janice said that the three years she spent in Bangkok would have been very difficult if not for the support of the other expatriate Americans who helped her with the language and the logistics of living in Thailand. “Risible” means amusing or comical. “Transient” means staying in one place for a short time. “Itinerant” means traveling from place to place to do work.Confidence-In-Context
It used to be common for itinerant workers such as sheep shearers.
Two people can have an animated conversation. rather than with someone. but in Denmark. An animated person is someone who is full of spirit and life. It was thought that someone who is “jovial” was born under the astrological influence of Jupiter. The word “jovial” comes from the Roman god Jove. “the bringer of jollity. Questions on this topic almost always start an animated retelling of special times in the past. Saint Nicholas is a more menacing figure who puts bad children into sacks and carries them away. “carnival” means the atmosphere. Example: “Bob’s family is very traditional. Example: “George thought he would fit right in at the formal dinner party. who was represented by the planet Jupiter.Confidence-In-Context
that is risible is also often described as “ludicrous. As an adjective. clutching their ride tickets in their hands.” Happy memories of childhood might involve going to a county fair or other outdoor celebration with a carnival atmosphere. especially when he ate the fish with his fingers.” It’s always nice to have jovial friends with whom you can share good times and good memories. someone who is merry and convivial in company.” One of the best ways to get to know someone is to ask them about their childhood. even though I thought it showed a very touching remembrance of their relationship. especially if you’re not familiar with the protocols. because her face becomes animated and she uses her hands to punctuate her words. or any event where a group of people is having fun or celebrating something.”
. and who ruled the heavens. or feeling. and good-humored. but his attempts at making polite conversation failed.” and the word “risible” is most often heard when referring to a situation where you’re laughing at someone or something. “Animated” means lively and vigorous. I can tell when she’s talking about something that interests her. the figure of Santa Claus is that of a jovial white-bearded man who brings presents. “Levity” is frivolity or a lack of seriousness. and how they celebrated holidays. Example: “Even when Sarah’s across the room. cheerful.” “Jovial” means jolly. This word is often used to describe an inappropriate informality in behavior or tone while in a solemn situation. Example: “The children ran eagerly towards the entrance to the carnival grounds. where they’re both talking quickly and emphatically. and they did not appreciate the levity of his best friend’s humorous and joke-filled eulogy at the funeral. It’s especially important in international diplomacy to avoid disrupting official proceedings with a show of levity. and the other guests found his table manners risible. you might experience when at such an event.” Formal situations can be tricky. Example: “In the United States. A “carnival” refers to a festival or circus.
Answers: 1. because the instructor doesn’t hesitate to _________ our poses. who’s nagging you constantly.
. and their robot failed in the first trial. but she’s never been popular at school. Words For Difficult Times
Are you hungry for an opportunity to try out your new Ultimate Vocabulary words? We promise not to make any derogatory comments while you’re practising on these next five sentences: 1. having someone look over your shoulder with a constant stream of demands is very distracting.
Katelyn is beautiful. so we know we’re doing them right in the end. and their robot failed in the first trial. and if you keep working together.Confidence-In-Context
Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A.
That politician shouldn’t _________ the morals of his opponent when he himself has been arrested twice for assault and stalking.
That politician shouldn’t impugn the morals of his opponent when he himself has been arrested twice for assault and stalking. even if it takes years.
When you’re trying to get something done. A person who is bullying you into doing what they want. he’ll find a way to make you look bad. and does well in all her classes. because she’s always saying _____________ things about the other students. Rick spent so much time hectoring his teammates about how to paint and decorate their robot that they didn’t get a chance to install the motor correctly. is “hectoring” you.
I really like this yoga class. and funny. who is speaking in an intimidating manner. Rick spent so much time _______________ his teammates about how to paint and decorate their robot that they didn’t get a chance to install the motor correctly.
You don’t want to get on Charles’ bad side – he’s very ____________.
or performance. although a balanced critique will mention the positive aspects as well as the negative ones.
I really like this yoga class.
5. but she’s never been popular at school.
Although you now know how to use these five Ultimate Vocabulary words in context. “Derogatory” means cruel. In general. to avoid being vindictive. so we know we’re doing them right in the end. because the instructor doesn’t hesitate to critique our poses. and insulting. we hope that you’ll remember to be fair in your critiques. it means pointing out the things that are wrong. if not the actions: derogatory critique hector vindictive impugn
. and does well in all her classes.
Cruel and unnecessary remarks about others will make even the most lovely face into an unpleasant mask.
A “critique” is an evaluation of a person. if you have faults (and who doesn’t?) it might be better to avoid pointing out the faults in other people. and if you keep working together. process.Confidence-In-Context
“People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. “Impugn” means to point out real or imaginary faults or negative aspects of something or someone in order to cause them to lose value or credibility.
Katelyn is beautiful.
You don’t want to get on Charles’ bad side – he’s very vindictive. and to make other people suffer far beyond what they deserve. because she’s always saying derogatory things about the other students.
Someone who constantly wants revenge. and to make sure you stay away from derogatory remarks about other people – at least where they can hear you! Keep practicing these words. designed to hurt. even if it takes years.
4. In other words.” A common synonym for “vindictive” is “spiteful.” as the saying goes. he’ll find a way to make you look bad. and funny. is “vindictive.
2. the judge granted _________ and let him off with a fine. and perhaps become an ___________ to represent the rights of patients. “Solicitous” means attentive and caring. I’m going to leave extra money on the table for our server.
Jack had been driving over 100 miles per hour through the middle of town. Words For Expressing Approval And Agreement
Head into this jungle of sentences and use one of your new Ultimate Vocabulary words correctly in context in each:
1. if they’re working hard to prevent bad things from happening. but occasionally with a bit of anxiety on that person’s part. they were happy to provide extra money for robes and music. and friendly as well.
Because she had the ___________ of the church vestry for her singing group.
After several weeks of negotiations.Confidence-In-Context
B. caring service.
4. the three diplomats reached a ________ on the proposed antinuclear treaty. often all positive.
If you’re worried about how people are treated in hospital. quick to bring you your requests. I really enjoyed the attention and solicitous care she gave to us. but because he was on his way to help a friend with an emergency. and he’d never gotten a ticket before. they have provided attentive.
Answers: 1. making sure that we always had fresh bread and drinks. I’m going to leave extra money on the table for our server. responsive to the state of your plate and glass. I encourage you to go to public meetings.
5. making sure that we always had fresh bread and drinks
If a server is able to answer all your questions. I really enjoyed the attention and ______________ care she gave to us.
and perhaps become an ombudsman to represent the rights of patients. “Clemency” means reducing or eliminating punishment. the three diplomats reached a concord on the proposed antinuclear treaty.
A “concord” is an agreement. such as hospitals. and adjust the consequences. If you’re worried about how people are treated in hospital. and more than just approval – it’s enthusiastic approval.Confidence-In-Context
2. and advocates for. Jack had been driving over 100 miles per hour through the middle of town. an understanding judge may take an emergency situation into consideration. Words For Remaining Neutral in a Situation
You’re not legally obligated to use the next five sentences to practice using these new Ultimate Vocabulary words in context. but because he was on his way to help a friend with an emergency. 3.
“Approbation” means approval.
We hope you’re in agreement that this has been a useful exercise. individuals who have complaints or issues with larger organizations.
An “ombudsman” is someone who represents the interests of.
Frequently. they were happy to provide extra money for robes and music. where the person (or persons) doing the approving also have a personal interest in something. speeding is viewed as “reckless endangerment” and can be subject to quite severe punishment. However. and he’d never gotten a ticket before. with confidence: approbation concord clemency ombudsman solicitous
C. or a harmony between people’s beliefs or opinions. After several weeks of negotiations. the judge granted clemency and let him off with a fine. I encourage you to go to public meetings. but it is our considered opinion that it will help you learn more quickly:
. 5. an ombudsman represents someone who has very little power or influence. Because she had the approbation of the church vestry for her singing group. or granting pardon or mercy to someone. 4. and that you’re now ready to use your five new powerful vocabulary words in conversation. In general.
2. you’re only given two possible answers.
2. so I made an ____________ selection from the ice cream display – I didn’t know you were allergic to strawberries! If you want an ____________ opinion on your curriculum vitae. rather than giving them commands. and fairness. and both are quite clear. you can pick any one of them at random. An arbitrary choice can be either with or without prejudice. misleading. without necessarily relying on other factors. and the carton of strawberry ice cream was closest at hand.
With a true/false question.
5. if the person knew about their friend’s allergy.
3. and requires someone with a great deal of personal commitment as well as unquestioned financial probity. Ann will never realize her goal of working as a marriage counselor unless she learns to talk to people in a more ____________ manner. “Equivocal” means ambiguous. honesty. and they’re all equally as appealing. so I made an arbitrary selection from the ice cream display – I didn’t know you were allergic to strawberries!
When you’re faced with multiple choices.
Answers: 1. “Arbitrary” means at random.Confidence-In-Context
1. but in the essay section. On the true/false portion of the test. you’re only given two possible answers. you might be able to write entire paragraphs without directly answering the question. or open to interpretation. The position of bank manager is a demanding one. In this example. there are only two options. but in the essay section. 3. I was in a rush to get out of the store.
Being responsible for other people’s money means that you need to be very trustworthy. your responses can be more _____________.
4. On the true/false portion of the test. if you’re given the opportunity to use your own words to answer a question. you should take it to Alice. “Probity” means of high morals. the arbitrary selection of strawberry ice cream happened because the person was in a rush. The position of bank manager is a demanding one. I was in a rush to get out of the store. On the other hand. and requires someone with a great deal of personal commitment as well as unquestioned financial ________. that could also be described as an arbitrary decision. and decided to get the strawberry ice cream anyway. your responses can be more equivocal. However. she spent many years working in a personnel office. Yes means yes. and no means no – there’s no ambiguity in your response.
He’s such a ____________ writer that I don’t know how he found time to build his house with his own hands. Her family followed strict dietary rules and she never ate meat as a child.
Someone who is diplomatic is able to work with people by discussing and negotiating issues. but the truth is that many long hours are spent on the very _________ duty of filling out paperwork and filing reports. 2. Ann will never realize her goal of working as a marriage counselor unless she learns to talk to people in a more diplomatic manner. probity equivocal arbitrary diplomatic impartial
3. you should take it to Alice. 5.
2. her mother would even ___________ the use of eggs in baked goods.Confidence-In-Context
Many boys think the life of a secret government agent is romantic and exciting. Here are five sentences to get you started:
Impartial” means neutral and without prejudice. they’ll have a _____________ for adventurous eating when they’re older. and who is tactful rather than domineering. If you want an impartial opinion on your curriculum vitae. 3. Mastering these powerful vocabulary words will help you realize your goals! Keep practicing your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: 1. 5.
If you give your children many different types of food as they’re growing up.
Words Beginning With “Pro”
Some things you just have to do over and over and over – like practicing how to use your new vocabulary words in their proper context. rather than giving them commands. she spent many years working in a personnel office.
and it was with a _________ sense of relief that I turned the microphone over to the chapter president when she arrived. but the truth is that many long hours are spent on the very prosaic duty of filling out paperwork and filing reports.
2. but if you’re raised in Hungary. prohibit.
For some people. People tend to eat what they’re used to as much as what they enjoy. or inclination. you might crave sour cream and pickled beetroot instead. a profound exploration of a topic means it’s far-reaching and allencompassing. Her family followed strict dietary rules and she never ate meat as a child. I hate having to lead meetings.
I hate having to lead meetings. given the bureaucratic nature of modern government.
Even James Bond would have to spend time filling out forms in triplicate these days. you’ll develop a taste for soy sauce and seaweed. straightforward. her mother would even proscribe the use of eggs in baked goods. “Prosaic” means ordinary. any animal products at all are strictly forbidden as food. and it was with a profound sense of relief that I turned the microphone over to the chapter president when she arrived. and often dull.
If you give your children many different types of food as they’re growing up.
If you grow up in Japan.
Many boys think the life of a secret government agent is romantic and exciting. To forbid something is to proscribe it. or other documents. deeply grateful to someone.
Answers: 1.” Someone who is a prolific writer will have written many books. A profound truth is fundamental.
You’ve heard the expression “thank you from the bottom of my heart” – that’s a phrase you might use when you’re truly. and banish.
He’s such a prolific writer that I don’t know how he found time to build his house with his own hands
“Prolific” means “producing in quantity. attraction. A tendency towards something is a “propensity”. Other words that define “proscribe” are exclude.Confidence-In-Context
5. from the bottom of one’s heart or the bottom of the ocean. they’ll have a propensity for adventurous eating when they’re older. dissertations. Some synonyms for “propensity” are preference.
4. articles. matter-of-fact. “Profound” means deeply.
Words For Describing a Journey
Walk this way to find five practice sentences. prosaic words – use these new Ultimate Vocabulary words prolifically. until the Spanish introduced the horse to the New World. including the Roma of Eastern Europe and the “travellers” of Ireland.Confidence-In-Context
We’d like to thank you for taking this opportunity to expand your vocabulary.
I moved to London by choice. Keep practicing these five powerful new words: proscribe profound prosaic propensity prolific
E. and you’ll notice a profound change in the way people listen to you.
4. The Native Americans led a ___________ lifestyle. This cruise ship schedule is a true _________.
2. In the 18th century.
. made a living as ____________ merchants and workers for landholders and nobleman.
6. The more confident you feel using these words in context. the greater your propensity to use them in everyday conversation. using dogs to pull their travois. and put the correct word in each:
While some people move to the smaller coastal towns to live. Don’t stick to ordinary. but I know someone who lives as an _________ because he’s afraid of being arrested as a political dissident in his home country. many more are part of a ________ population that is looking for permanent work in the larger inland cities. with stops in every Mediterranean port over a three-month period. several traditional “gypsy” societies.
5. including the Roma of Eastern Europe and the “travellers” of Ireland. We hope you’ve enjoyed this journey today. many people are forced to leave their homeland.
There were no riding animals in North America until the Spanish brought horses with them on their explorations. several traditional “gypsy” societies.
I moved to London by choice. The Native Americans led a peripatetic lifestyle.
This cruise ship schedule is a true odyssey with stops in every Mediterranean port over a three-month period. In the 18th century.
2. many more are part of a transient population that is looking for permanent work in the larger inland cities. or walking.
4. but I know someone who lives as an expatriate because he’s afraid of being arrested as a political dissident in his home country. no matter the reason. not staying in one place for long. of short duration.
“Itinerant” means going from place to place in order to find work. “Transient” means ever-changing. and that you’ll continue to explore your new vocabulary by practicing these five Ultimate Vocabulary words: itinerant peripatetic odyssey transient expatriate
Unfortunately. made a living as itinerant merchants and workers for landholders and nobleman. Someone who no longer lives in his or her country of origin. is an expatriate. “Peripatetic” means traveling around by foot. using dogs to pull their travois. or political unrest. whether to look for work or in fear of their lives due to war. or famine. and port towns are frequently home to everchanging groups of hopeful emigres on their way to find jobs or family in the larger cities.
An “odyssey” is a long voyage with many stop and adventures. and the native population had to travel everywhere on foot. until the Spanish introduced the horse to the New World.
Immigrants to many countries arrive by boats.
While some people move to the smaller coastal towns to live.
The Cinco de Mayo _____________ on the waterfront is a fun event each year. and I learn a lot each week.
A lively conversation.
2. __________ fellow. wearing them in everyday life would be _______. and you’ve got some work to do now. “Animated” means full of life. lively.
Martin’s attempt at _____________ during the wedding ceremony was not appreciated. especially when he pretended to have lost the ring. or vigorous. but it’s just a ruse – he’s actually one of the most ruthless lawyers in town. practicing your five new words by putting each of them into the correct sentence:
1. and many local Mexican restaurants have booths selling tacos and tamales to the crowd.
The Cinco de Mayo carnival on the waterfront is a fun event each year.
Words For Describing Things That Are Enjoyable Or Amusing
There’s a lot of work to do in repairing the damage we’ve done to our planet.
3. because we always have such _______________ discussions about the sermon text.
I’ve never understood fashion.
I enjoy staying for the study group after church services are over. can be described as animated. and many local Mexican restaurants have booths selling tacos and tamales to the crowd.
The prosecuting attorney may seem like an easygoing. and I learn a lot each week. the clothes the models wear while parading down the runway are so outrageous. I enjoy staying for the study group after church services are over. because we always have such animated discussions about the sermon text. with vigorous participation by all concerned.Confidence-In-Context
A jovial person is someone who is cheerful. or any event attended by a number of people in order to have fun. merry.
5. wearing them in everyday life would be risible. causing or provoking laughter. You can describe any large gathering of people that is noisy. and crowded as a carnival. good-humored. this word is used to mean that someone or something is being mocked.
I’ve never understood fashion. cheerful.
The prosecuting attorney may seem like an easygoing. and good company. In general. “Levity” means frivolity. the clothes the models wear while parading down the runway are so outrageous. or a lack of seriousness. but it’s just a ruse – he’s actually one of the most ruthless lawyers in town.
You’ll be happy to know that we’ve reached the end of another Ultimate Vocabulary session! Now it’s time to find everyday opportunities to use these five powerful vocabulary words: risible levity jovial carnival animated
. or inappropriate humor. especially when he pretended to have lost the ring. jovial fellow.
“Risible” means amusing or comical.
While being a jovial person might make you welcome in a carnival crowd.
Martin’s attempt at levity during the wedding ceremony was not appreciated. there are some social occasions that call for a bit more decorum.Confidence-In-Context
A carnival is a fair.
Confidence-In-Context Coaching Lesson 9 Workbook
B. To matriculate means to become a student. Example: “I have a little mnemonic trick to help me remember that you don’t pronounce the ‘m’ at the beginning of the word ‘mnemonic’: I just remember the phrase ‘there’s NO EM when you say NEM-ON-ic. or more precisely the activity of educating or instructing. There are lots of little rhymes and phrases like this. A good class in pedagogy will describe the differences between adult education techniques and methods for teaching children. but there are as many styles of teaching as there are teachers and students.’” Mnemonics are one way of helping people learn.”
. Example: “There is a great difference in pedagogy when dealing with people who are visual learners – those who need to see something to learn – and with people who are kinesthetic learners – those who need to do something physical to learn. G. “Pedagogy” means teaching. Words For Describing The Educational Process
Your studies are paying off. pedagogy. A “mnemonic” is something that helps you remember something else. Most degree programs will offer several opportunities to participate in a tutorial. and how to use them in context. matriculate.” Anyone who wants to be a professional teacher needs to matriculate in an accredited degree program. in order to graduate with a degree. mnemonic. Example: “At some universities such as Harvard and Oxford. and F. and you’re learning more and more powerful vocabulary words. “Matriculate” means to enroll in a college or university in order to study for a degree. Example: “The foreign languages advisor recommends that each student either take a term abroad or in a tutorial session with a native speaker in order to perfect their pronunciation.Confidence-In-Context
A. there is a yearly ceremony where new students are officially matriculated and added to the university’s listing. you might have used the phrase “Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge” to remember that the lines on the treble clef staff are E. D. and the methods used to instruct. Here are five words that will help you describe this educational process: annals. tutorial
Your words for describing the educational process explained
Do you have any little tricks for memorizing these vocabulary words? If you’ve ever studied piano.” Getting into a good college or university is only the first step. A “tutorial” is a private session with a teacher or tutor where you can get intensive coaching on a subject. you’ll need to study hard. especially for students who are having trouble with a class. and some people even use pictures or sounds as mnemonic aids.
An “amenity” is something that makes your life easier or more pleasant. London.”
B. and historical landmarks to visit. having access to a bus or train that allows you to commute to work is an amenity appreciated by many city dwellers. complete the first-year requirements. Here are five words you might use to describe a city: metropolitan. or a larger urban settlement. denizen
Your vocabulary for describing a city explained
While many of the Ultimate Vocabulary words you’ve learned can have multiple meanings depending on their context or use. Example: “While the annals of the military base hospital might be interesting to statisticians.Confidence-In-Context
Matriculate. The word can be used to describe the city itself. a convenience that is a welcome part of your life. Tokyo. I quickly grew bored with the daily listings of surgical supplies ordered and used. urbane. or something or someone that comes from the city.” If you don’t have a car. buy books. but again. “metropolitan. amenity. You may be used to hearing this word in connection with vacation spots or hotels that offer amenities such as free drinks or dry cleaning. Example: “The public transportation system uses buses. trolleys. and trains to provide services to people in the entire three-county metropolitan area. Paris. when you’re visiting a new city. a local inhabitant. “annals” are a recording of events. heterogeneous. A “denizen” is someone who lives in a certain place.
. new people to meet. Annals can also be documentation of the work of researchers or scientists. Mexico City – these large cities are full of things to do and places to see. or “a year”. you’re referring to someone who’s lived in a place long enough to be completely familiar with almost everything about it. From the Latin word “annus”. our first word in this section. Annals do not contain opinions or explanations. stop in at one and ask the denizens for recommendations on things to do and see in the area. a reporting of history that is just a chronological recitation of facts. without editorialization. sign up for tutorials – anyone writing the annals of student life would be recording much the same thing every year. Words For Describing A City
New York. “Metropolitan” means pertaining to a city. Example: “The competition for customers has gotten so fierce that even the smallest coffee shops offer amenities like free wireless connections and comfortable sofas.” really only has one meaning. When you use this word.” Every neighborhood has its own coffee shops.
and is now commonly found as part of the flora nearly everywhere people have settled to farm. Another word for diverse is “heterogeneous” – this means coming from different sources. It’s the countryside. you’ll learn five words that you might use to talk about the countryside: bucolic. and the denizens of that city are usually prepared for any sudden rain showers. and can refer to a person’s appearance or their manner. flora. and comes from the Greek word “boukolos” meaning “herders. the people are healthy and happy.”
C.” Although perhaps not originally native to many areas.” Large cities like Hong Kong and London have a diverse population. and looking out over the fields of hay and clover. In this section. and dearth. microcosm. polished. but who are of course all remarkably attractive.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “The summer weather in Hong Kong is unpredictable. sheep.
Your words for talking about the countryside explained
The first word. who differ widely in age and nationality. Another word for “bucolic” is “pastoral”. clover is often planted to support bees or to provide fodder for cows. “Urbane” means refined. Italy has a reputation for beautiful clothing. or suave. Example: “All of the actors who have played James Bond in the movies over the years have been known for their urbane good looks and perfect manners – at least until it’s time to kill someone. but tourists often end up getting soaked in an unexpected downpour. Words For Talking About The Countryside
Composers have written lush orchestral pieces describing it. Painters have used it as subject or background for hundreds of years. “Urbane” is another word for sophisticated. it is used when talking about any thing. and the animals frolic in the fields. and rabbits. however. or place. Poets speak lovingly of its purity and beauty. where – at least in the ideal – the air is clean. and for the sophisticated Italians who wear it.” Now. “bucolic”. fauna. with people coming from all over the world to live there. right next to the duck pond. means “of the country side. or person that is rustic or rural in manner or appearance. this word was used primarily to refer to shepherds.” Benetton is an Italian clothing company. Originally. Example: “The ad campaigns for Benetton clothes feature a heterogeneous cast of models. Example: “The organic gardening workshop ended with a dinner held in the lovely bucolic setting of the farm’s herb garden. made up of things that are not the same kind. “Flora” means the
. one of many companies in Italy that produce trendy clothing for high-end retailers. The opposite of heterogeneous is homogenous.
with the restaurants.”
D. Again. this word usually means animals that are part of the natural landscape. where we have flora.” And of course. Words That Talk About Talking
Let’s talk about talking! Here are five words that you might use when discussing. too chatty. dissertation
Your words that talk about talking explained
We’re sure that at some point in your life you’ve been seated next to a garrulous person on a plane. conversing. Someone who is garrulous is overly wordy.
. A “garrulous” person is someone who is too talkative. Example: “The students in the first-year botany class took several field trips to study the flora of the local ecosystems. pontificate. chatting. Example: “Now that the airport has its own permanent employee housing. A “dearth” is a lack of something. candor. a big zoo might be seen as a microcosm of the world itself. but there’s usually a dearth of comfortable places to wait when your flight has been delayed.” Airports may have all of the amenities of a downtown city centre. and not family pets or creatures in a zoo. or been standing behind them waiting to pay for your purchases at a shop.” Example: “Although there were many little jobs that needed to be done around the office.Confidence-In-Context
vegetation or plant life that grows in a certain area. including the riverside wetlands and the nearby mountain foothills. or worked in the next cubicle over. and usually refers more to the native plants than. shops. They’re always talking about trivial things. Example: “One reason I enjoy going on the expeditions sponsored by the World Wildlife Federation is that it gives me an opportunity to see the fauna of many regions around the world.” With its variety of rare and common animals from many different countries. Another way to say “dearth” is “scarcity” or “short supply. aver. to an ornamental cactus grown in a garden in Sweden. and services you might find just as easily downtown. rambling on and on without paying much attention to their listeners. for example. there was a dearth of willing volunteers to do them. it’s almost a microcosm of the city. we usually have “fauna” – the animals that are native to a certain area. or otherwise communicating: garrulous. “Microcosm” means a miniature version of something larger. or an insufficient number of things that are needed. It can also refer to a small closed system that is complete in and of itself.
. trees. and the natural order of things to try to prevent effective legislation from passing.” Many a scientific dissertation has been written so far about global warming and climate change. and many more will follow as new research is done. but some politicians continue to pontificate about cows.Confidence-In-Context
Example: “I only had a five-minute break to run to the post office to mail my package.” “Pontificate” also means to speak in a patronizing manner. and I was late for the meeting. “Candor” means frankness or outspokenness. no matter what. a stubborn person might continue to speak as if they’re absolutely right. this is a paper that is often required of people who are completing a doctoral degree. Example: “The first witness continued to aver that the thief was a tall man wearing a green jacket. or to speak down to someone. but with childish candor her young daughter spoke up and said.” This quality of being straightforward and honest in speech is something that is not always a good thing. A “dissertation” is a formal document that presents original research to a panel. that’s the day we’re going to the zoo!’” If you’re going to aver something. Another word for “candor” is “sincerity. Often known as a “thesis”. you do have the option to tell them that you’d appreciate it if they would finish their personal conversation later so that you can complete your business. Mama.” Example: “The relationship between industrial pollution and climate change has been widely accepted in the scientific community. it had best be true – or you’d better make sure that no one can catch you in a lie. It means to swear to something. Example: “Elaine had told her sister-in-law that she’d be at church on Sunday and couldn’t help with the wedding preparations. and to the public. however. Other ways to describe this manner of speech are “pompous” and “dogmatic. They may not appreciate your candor. but the other bystanders reported that they saw a short man in a white raincoat running away from the scene. or to affirm. Example: “Kenneth will be ready to present his dissertation to the board of examiners once the final computer simulations are run and the results tabulated.” When you’re being delayed by someone who’s chatting away. To “aver” means to declare or assert something is true. but at least you’ll have called it to their attention. ‘no. Someone who does this is said to “pontificate.” Even if they’re wrong. to report as fact. but the man in front of me was so garrulous it took me fifteen minutes to get everything signed.
adverse. Others prefer to punish the shops that sell the coats by marching and protesting in front of them.Confidence-In-Context
.” Example: “The movie star was wearing a fur coat when she arrived at the opening gala for the new animal rights exhibit at the convention center. but the threat of terrorist acts has definitely had an adverse effect on the ease of airplane travel. “Punitive” means punishing or imposing a penalty on someone. and no politician wants to run for re-election during such a time. contentious. “Contentious” can also be used when referring to a situation or action. This word implies a certain level of harshness or severity in discipline.” A contentious person has a tendency to dispute others. Example: “The airport security guards don’t appreciate pranks about carrying guns or bombs. When you experience something that is adverse. it is often because it is working against your best interests. when speaking of a person. Example: “The twelfth member of the jury was so contentious. Example: “Bad news about the falling stock market and rising unemployment generally has an adverse impact on government officials’ popularity.” Some animal rights activists resort to punitive measures when they see people wearing fur coats.” Someone who likes to argue just for the sake of the argument is likely to gain the animosity of others. you might want to argue with us about it. Words For Describing Conflict
You’re going to have a difficult time of it in this session! These five Ultimate Vocabulary words describe conflict: misanthropic.” There may or may not be more danger in flying these days. or in the opposite direction. We’d like to avoid this quarrel by explaining that the word “contentious” means quarrelsome or argumentative. animosity. and throw red paint on the coats to symbolize blood. but the animosity of the crowd quickly led her to take it off and apologize. “Adverse” means in a negative way. in which case it means “likely to cause controversy. “Animosity” means dislike or hostility. Synonyms for animosity are “hatred” and “enmity. often just to pick a fight. arguing about issues that were clearly disproven. and will immediately take punitive action against anyone making a joke about such things. that the deliberation process took many more hours than usual. punitive
Your words for describing conflict explained
If you don’t like our choice of words this time.
.” Detectives rely on intuition. as he seemed to respond to voices and would move his eyes away from bright light. “cognitive. as you learn.
Words For Talking About The Mind
A mind is a terrible thing to waste. you are doing it without consciously thinking about the reasons for your action. The word “cognitive” is used when speaking of the logical part of the functioning of your brain. To be cognitive of something is to be aware of it. deduce. Example: “Sherlock Holmes is a fictional character best known for his ability to deduce the circumstances of a crime and the identity of a criminal from what seem to be unimportant details and random facts. to use reason. distrusting everyone. Someone who is misanthropic always believes the worst of everyone. “Deduce” means to apply logic to a problem to come to a conclusion. where she found the will buried in a jar of sugar. and practicing how to use them in context with confidence. or to base your opinion on facts rather than feelings. belonged to a secret group who studied esoteric methods of committing crimes. but few people are truly misanthropic. Example: “The police were unable to locate the hidden will.Confidence-In-Context
Many people distrust and dislike politicians even in the best of times. but Detective Jones had known the old woman for decades. and her intuition led her straight to the kitchen. esoteric. or perceive. Example: “The patient had been in a coma for four years. We’re glad that you’re improving your mind with these powerful Ultimate Vocabulary words. The five words in this section will be useful when you’re talking about the mind: cognitive.” refers to the process of thinking itself. but they also solve crimes by using their reason to deduce the answer. hating all mankind. intuition. or reason. you’re relying on intuition. When you do something on intuition.”
F. Example: “In Charles Dickens’ classic ‘A Christmas Story.” One of Sherlock Holmes’ most famous opponents. “Intuition” means instinctive knowledge. but his family was convinced that he was still showing signs of cognitive function. “Misanthropic” means disliking everyone. rather than learned knowledge. perspicacious
Your words for talking about the mind explained
Our first word. the master criminal Moriarty. In that case.” Sometimes you just have to rely on a gut feeling to tell you whether something is true or not.’ Ebenezer Scrooge is transformed from a misanthropic and hateful man to a generous and happy person who loves everyone.
mystical or hidden knowledge. the deepest meanings of the Judaic philosophy and religion. they might find the answers more quickly.” Example: “Lisa was having difficulty identifying the correct charges on the billing statement.”
. Something that is esoteric is only understood or known by a select group of people. “Perspicacious” means able to perceive hidden things. Example: “Abraham decided to go to Israel and join a group of scholars who study the esoteric teachings of the Kabbalah. Someone who is perspicacious has a keen mind.” Some things that are hidden or obscure are revealed after years of study and observation. but her co-worker was more perspicacious and was able to tell which ones had been made by the client and which had been incorrectly credited to the account. but if a person is exceptionally perspicacious. usually part of a secret society. Synonyms of perspicacious include “wise” and “insightful.
4. and Spain. Here are five practice sentences.
. put one of your newly-learned Ultimate Vocabulary words in the blank spot in each:
1. or as part of a school. France. when they pick their focus area for the next two years.
We can get a very good idea of what life was like in the Middle Ages by studying the ___________ kept by the monasteries in England. France.
Tests for Reinforcing What You Have Learnt A.
3. and ages. Words For Describing the Educational Process
One of the best ways we’ve found to remember things is to practice them over and over again.
When my mother was studying for her Master’s in geology. When a student is officially enrolled in a degree program.
Frances was determined to get the highest possible grade on her maths tests. meaning list. college. The word “matriculate” comes from the Latin “matricula”. and signed up for all of the extracurricular ______________ sessions she had time for. periods. and Spain. This exclusive primary school has a formal ceremony in which the students _____________ after their fourth class year to become part of the advanced class.
We can get a very good idea of what life was like in the Middle Ages by studying the annals kept by the monasteries in England. she used __________ devices to help her remember the correct order of eras. ______________ is believed to be less important than student participation. when they pick their focus area for the next two years. they are entered into the school’s list. This exclusive primary school has a formal ceremony in which the students matriculate after their fourth class year to become part of the advanced class. or university.
In many modern classrooms. epochs.
pedagogy is believed to be less important than student participation.
You’ll graduate with honors now that you’ve learned these five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: tutorial matriculate pedagogy mnemonic annals
. she used mnemonic devices to help her remember the correct order of eras. epochs.
When my mother was studying for her Master’s in geology. and ages. It is important that the instructor’s teaching methods. image. acronym.
5. Or maybe not – everyone has their own tricks to help them remember things. Ordovician.Confidence-In-Context
“Annals” are records of historical events.
4. Devonian. periods.
Frances was determined to get the highest possible grade on her maths tests. coming from the word “annus” meaning year. but experts agree that it’s best to get the students involved actively in the learning process.
3. Silurian. and signed up for all of the extracurricular tutorial sessions she had time for. are skilled enough that the students learn. reported factually and in chronological order. A “mnemonic” is a phrase. or pedagogy.
In many modern classrooms. You might find it easier to remember the six periods of the Paleozoic era (Cambrian. This word has a Latin root as well. “Pedagogy” refers to a person’s style of teaching. or other device to help you remember something else. Getting some focused one-on-one assistance in a class can make all the difference to your final scores. and Permian) by remembering this phrase: “Camels Or Silly Devils Carry Persians”. Carboniferous. A tutorial is a private or small-group teaching session with the focus on a particular subject.
but managed to keep the conversation going in his usual urbane manner. We knew that the company was starting to really pick up business when our manager announced that we’d be moving from the outer suburbs to a more metropolitan location.
When the _________ of the small border town were told about the new motorway plans.
3. first-generation immigrants. you use language to communicate. and locals who can trace their roots back to the days of the pioneers.
Answers: 1. they didn’t realize it would result in so much traffic. but managed to keep the conversation going in his usual ________ manner.Confidence-In-Context
B. 2. James was startled to find himself standing next to a famous movie actor at the Hollywood premiere. “Metropolitan” means in or of a city. Words For Describing a City
No matter where you live. and the town had to hire two new patrol officers. even with all of the cameras flashing.
The student body at this institution is a _____________ blend of children from wealthy out-of-state families.
James was startled to find himself standing next to a famous movie actor at the Hollywood premiere. it’s nice to travel in comfort. even with all of the cameras flashing.
4. We knew that the company was starting to really pick up business when our manager announced that we’d be moving from the outer suburbs to a more _____________ location. Practice your communications skills by using each of your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words in context correctly in one of the following sentences:
1. with every possible ___________ at your fingertips.
I like going on long sea cruises.
” Some synonyms for urbane are “refined” or “polished. with every possible amenity at your fingertips. and sophisticated even in situations where it would be easy to get flustered or confused is said to be “urbane. In other words. What could be better than room service.”
3. they didn’t realize it would result in so much traffic. Keep practicing your five new Ultimate Vocabulary words: urbane heterogeneous metropolitan denizen amenity
The more diverse your vocabulary. Another word for “denizen” is “inhabitant. or made up of many different elements. An “amenity” is something that makes your life easier or more comfortable. they are amenities. “Heterogeneous” means coming from many different sources.Confidence-In-Context
Someone who is smooth. and the town had to hire two new patrol officers. and locals who can trace their roots back to the days of the pioneers.
I like going on long sea cruises. first-generation immigrants.”
4. A synonym for “heterogeneous” is “diverse. You’ll be able to hold your own with any conversational partner as you gain confidence in using these powerful vocabulary words in context. the easier it will be to express exactly what you mean.
The student body at this institution is a heterogeneous blend of children from wealthy out-of-state families. People who live in a certain place are called “denizens” of that place. and recreation all in the same place? These are all pleasant things that make your life enjoyable. This word usually refers to someone who has lived in a place for a long time. it’s nice to travel in comfort. suave. restaurants.
When the denizens of the small border town were told about the new motorway plans.
One of the distinguishing features of the fauna that populate the desert is their ability to absorb water through their skin. and it’s hard to find a place to leave the car. with everything from corals to scavengers.
That property in southwestern Spain certainly seems like a ________ paradise. I’d rather take the bus downtown.
. I’d rather take the bus downtown. be sure that it has a good water source and a connection to the electrical grid.
This aquarium is a perfect _________ of the ocean.
One of the distinguishing features of the _______ that populate the desert is their ability to absorb water through their skin.Confidence-In-Context
C. fish and aquatic plants.
2. You’ll find that the more you practice them. but before you buy it.
2. Words For Talking About The Countryside
It’s like a breath of fresh air. “Dearth” means “in short supply” and refers to situations where there is not enough of something that is necessary. As most city-dwellers know. I don’t like driving into the city on the weekend for a show because there’s generally a __________ of convenient parking places. “Fauna” are the animals that are native to a particular area or region.
I don’t like driving into the city on the weekend for a show because there’s generally a dearth of convenient parking places. animals have evolved over thousands of years to perfectly suit the land they live in. the more confidence you’ll have in using them in context. Start practicing now by putting the correct word in each of the following five sentences:
1. introducing these descriptive and sophisticated new vocabulary words into your conversation. The natural world is amazing. parking is at a premium when there’s a show in town.
The nomadic tribes of the steppes are so familiar with the __________ of the region that they can tell exactly where they are just by looking at the ground.
That property in south western Spain certainly seems like a bucolic paradise, but before you buy it, be sure that it has a good water source and a connection to the electrical grid. Many people want to retire to a sunny land where the food is good and the wine is cheap, but unless they’re careful, they might get stuck in an isolated area of the countryside, surrounded by nothing but wild sheep. “Bucolic” means rural or rustic, in the countryside. You can use this word to describe something in either a positive or a negative sense.
This aquarium is a perfect microcosm of the ocean, with everything from corals to scavengers, fish and aquatic plants. A “microcosm” is literally a “miniature world,” or a smaller version of a larger environment.
The nomadic tribes of the steppes are so familiar with the flora of the region that they can tell exactly where they are just by looking at the ground. “Flora” means the plants and vegetation that grow in a specific place or region.
Now that you’re completely familiar with these five Ultimate Vocabulary words, you’ll have everything you need to describe your next trip to the countryside. Keep practicing these words and you’ll never have a dearth of subjects to talk about, or powerful vocabulary words to use: microcosm flora fauna dearth bucolic
Words That Talk About Talking
Many things require a lot of hard work, and getting completely comfortable using new vocabulary words in context is no exception. Here are five sentences for you to practice with; put the correct word in each blank:
1. Everyone likes the new receptionist because she’s so friendly and helpful, but she’s so ____________ that the workflow in the office has slowed down considerably since she started.
James will make an excellent psychotherapist; his qualities of empathy and _______ will allow him to help people through difficult times.
Candidates for public office typically have to _____ that they have no current ties to corporations or other private entities, to avoid conflict of interest.
I got into the habit of only showing up for the last half of the weekly meeting because the CEO would ______________ for at least twenty minutes at the beginning of the meeting on his opinions about the company forecast, even though the financial officer’s report usually contradicted his statements.
Janet’s test scores were never more than average at university, but her ___________ was widely admired, and helped her get a job with one of the country’s leading scientific laboratories.
Answers: 1. Everyone likes the new receptionist because she’s so friendly and helpful, but she’s so garrulous that the workflow in the office has slowed down considerably since she started. We’re sure you’ve had co-workers who seem to have all the time in the world to stand by your desk and chat. “Garrulous” means chatty and too talkative, especially if the talk is about trivial things.
James will make an excellent psychotherapist; his qualities of empathy and candor will allow him to help people through difficult times. When you’re in a field that requires you to talk about topics that might make people feel uncomfortable, it helps if you can present the facts honestly and in a straightforward manner. “Candor” means honesty and sincerity, or a direct manner of speaking.
Candidates for public office typically have to aver that they have no current ties to corporations or other private entities, to avoid conflict of interest. To “aver” means to swear to the truth of something. Synonyms for aver are affirm, declare, and assert.
I got into the habit of only showing up for the last half of the weekly meeting because the CEO would pontificate for at least twenty minutes at the beginning of the meeting on his opinions about the company forecast, even though the financial officer’s report usually contradicted his statements. To “pontificate” means to speak in a pompous and self-important manner, or to speak on some topic as if you’re the only one with all of the right answers. Someone who is pontificating often speaks in a manner which talks down to their listeners, in a patronizing fashion.
Janet’s test scores were never more than average at university, but her dissertation was widely admired, and helped her get a job with one of the country’s leading scientific laboratories. A “dissertation” is a final paper that contains original research, and is usually required of people who are pursuing a graduate degree, especially in scientific fields.
We do solemnly swear, aver, and affirm, and tell you with all candor, that the more you practice your Ultimate Vocabulary words, the quicker you’ll gain confidence in using them in context. Keep practicing these five new words: garrulous pontificate candor aver dissertation
Words For Describing Conflict
Sometimes the grim news that we get from around the world on a daily basis can turn the most cheerful optimist misanthropic. To get your mind off the cares of the day, try practicing your Ultimate Vocabulary words, instead. Here are five practice sentences; put the correct word in each:
as they learn to grow.
4. They say the true character of a person doesn’t come out until they’re faced with a challenge or an adverse situation. and international relations. an idea. You know the saying – “what doesn’t kill you makes you stronger.Confidence-In-Context
1. “Adverse” means difficult.
Jeremy’s last four business partners have each cheated him out of large sums of money. expecting the worst out of any new prospect.” Difficult times can bring out the best in a person. or going against one’s best interests.
Jami has done so much harm to our family with her thoughtless acts and malicious words that I found it hard not to show my ___________ towards her when I saw her yesterday.
. so it’s not surprising he’s gotten a bit _____________.
Some parents took their children out of the school when they learned about the strict disciplinary rules.
3. Animosity means hatred of something or someone. but other parents felt the rules weren’t __________ enough.
Jami has done so much harm to our family with her thoughtless acts and malicious words that I found it hard not to show my animosity towards her when I saw her yesterday. They say the true character of a person doesn’t come out until they’re faced with a challenge or an __________ situation. environmental protection.
The two candidates for office couldn’t be farther apart in their positions on public services.
5. and we can expect another ______________ election season. but other parents felt the rules weren’t punitive enough.
Some parents took their children out of the school when they learned about the strict disciplinary rules. perhaps. “Animosity” means active dislike or hostility towards a person or.
“Contentious” means argumentative. keep practicing these five new words: misanthropic animosity contentious adverse punitive
F. It’s a rare candidate who doesn’t spend most of his or her time arguing why they should be elected instead of their opponent. environmental protection. In order to get the best use out of them. you might be forgiven if you start to dislike everyone on principle. and expecting the worst of people.
5. characterized by dispute. or likely to cause controversy.Confidence-In-Context
It used to be common for children to be physically punished at school if they misbehaved. find any quiet place and practice using these new vocabulary words in context.
Jeremy’s last four business partners have each cheated him out of large sums of money. so it’s not surprising he’s gotten a bit misanthropic. but that isn’t a general practice these days. expecting the worst out of any new prospect.
Words For Talking About The Mind
Classrooms are excellent places to study. and international relations.
We hope you won’t argue the point that these five Ultimate Vocabulary words will help you describe difficult situations in the future. “Misanthropic” means disliking humanity.
4. “Punitive” means applying severe or harsh punishment or discipline on someone. fill in the correct vocabulary word in each blank space:
1. not trusting anyone. Candidates for the space program have to undergo a rigorous set of tests to ensure that they have the ____________ and physical skills to perform as astronauts. If no one treats you well. Here are five sentences.
The two candidates for office couldn’t be farther apart in their positions on public services. and we can expect another contentious election season. but if you don’t have a classroom handy.
Intuition does not rely on logic. Harold researched the _____________ details of Masonic Temple rituals before going to see the performance of Mozart's "The Magic Flute" but found that this knowledge did not add much to his enjoyment of the opera. and discovered that relying on _________ to choose the correct answer for the multiple-choice questions did not result in a very good grade. that program administrators want to make sure that they have the best possible people going out into space. and discovered that relying on intuition to choose the correct answer for the multiple-choice questions did not result in a very good grade. 3. Anita hadn’t studied for the test. and it's such a difficult and dangerous job. and facts. Intuition does not rely on reason. With a true/false test. My cousin's child was extremely clever about getting away with vandalism in the classroom until a particularly __________________ teacher noticed that she was the only student who was always nearby when the damage was discovered. you may only have a one in four chance of coming up with the right answer.
5. "Intuition" means instinctive knowledge. Anita hadn’t studied for the test. able to think fast in case of emergency. but with a multiple-choice test. So much money is put into the space program.
. but more on instinct.
Answers: 1. the students are required to complete each problem in sequence before they attempt to _____________ the final answer. the students are required to complete each problem in sequence before they attempt to deduce the final answer.Confidence-In-Context
2. rather than learned knowledge. and analysis. logic. "Cognitive" is a word that means all aspects of thinking. To "deduce" means to arrive at a conclusion or answer by using reason. Candidates for the space program have to undergo a rigorous set of tests to ensure that they have the cognitive and physical skills to perform as astronauts. In this test of logic and mathematics. but depends more on a person's feeling about something. 2. you have a fifty percent chance of being right. In this test of logic and mathematics. logic. including reasoning.
The Masons are a secret society that have been in existence for hundreds of years. We're sure that you're perspicacious enough to realize that the more you practice. deduce 5. Harold researched the esoteric details of Masonic Temple rituals before going to see the performance of Mozart's "The Magic Flute" but found that this knowledge did not add much to his enjoyment of the opera. Keep practicing these five new words: 1. esoteric
. cognitive 2.Confidence-In-Context
4. and only the members of the society truly know all of the mystical details of its history. or able to come to the right answer by keen insight. intuition 4. "Perspicacious" means seeing what is not immediately obvious. My cousin's child was extremely clever about getting away with vandalism in the classroom until a particularly perspicacious teacher noticed that she was the only student who was always nearby when the damage was discovered. perspicacious 3. the more confident you'll feel at using these powerful vocabulary words in context. "Esoteric" means hidden or secret knowledge that is only available to a select group of people. 5.