2Ŧ2 CCNS1kUC1ICN CI CLLAk SLN1LNCLS AND ÞAkAGkAÞnS

Importance of Adaptat|on
As chooslng rlghL words ls baslc of clear communlcaLlonţ
basls of Lask of arranglng Lhose words lnLo clear senLences
and Lhe senLences lnLo clear senLences and Lhe senLences
lnLo clear paragraphsŦ
ConsLrucLlng such clear senLences and paragraphs lnvolves
adapLaLlon Lo Lhe mlnds of Lhe lnLended readersŦ
W JrlLlng should flL Lhe readers ln wordsţ senLences
and paragraphsŦ
W 1hls procedures lnvolves Lhe use of slmpler
senLences Lo reach wlLh Lhe lower communlcaLlon
ablllLles and people noL knowledgeable abouL Lhe
sub[ecLŦ
W Je should use complex senLences wlLh more
verbalţ knowledgeable peopleŦ
W 1he wrlLlng should noL Lax Lhe comprehenslon
skllls of Lhe readersŦ
W Such wrlLlng requlres managlng Lhe emphasls ln
Lhe senLencesţ maklng each senLence express a
maln ldeaţ and orderlng Lhe senLences elemenLs
accordlng Lhe grammarŦ
2Ŧ2Ŧ1 CAkL IN SLN1LNCL DLSIGN
IŦ Us|ng Shorter Sentences
aŦ L|m|t|ng Sentence Content
bŦ Lconom|z|ng on Words
IIŦ Determ|n|ng Lmphas|s |n Sentence Des|gn
IIIŦ G|v|ng the Sentence Un|ty
IVŦ Arrang|ng the Sentence L|ements for C|ar|ty
2Ŧ2Ŧ1 CAkL IN SLN1LNCL DLSIGN
lŦ Us|ng Shorter Sentences (Lmphas|s on short
Sentence)
W Je should adapL our senLences Lo Lhe readers for
whlch we need Lo arrange Lhe carefullyŴselecLed
words lnLo shorLer senLences wlLh clear meanlngsŦ
W Clear senLences resulL from orderly Lhlnklng
because consLrucLlng clear senLences ls a producL
of Lhe Lhlnklng mlndŦ
W Clear senLences have clear quallLles ln Lhem and
Lhey communlcaLe beLLer because of mlnd
llmlLaLlonsŦ
W LengLh ls Lhe mosL lmporLanL quallLy where long
senLences are hard Lo read and resulL ln less
communlcaLlonŦ
W So we need Lo keep shorL senLences for
readablllLyŦ
W ShorL means abouL 16Ŵ18 words for mlddle
readersţ who have average readablllLyŦ And for
more advanced readersţ Lhey can be made longerŦ
W ln Lhe nuLshellţ Lhe lengLh of Lhe senLences should
be kepL wlLh Lhe reader's readablllLy levelŦ
W Je can shorLen and slmpllfy Lhe senLences ln Lwo
baslc ways byť Ŵ
aŦ L|m|t|ng Sentence Content
bŦ Lconom|z|ng on Words
aŦ L|m|t|ng Sentence Content
W lL ls relaLed Lo Lhe maLLer of menLally selecLlng
thought un|ts and maklng separaLe senLences of
mosL of LhemŦ
W or Lhlsţ we should comblne LhoughLs lnLo one
senLenceŦ
W Je should more emphasls Lo conLenL and Lo
organlzaLlon of Lhe sub[ecL maLLerŦ
W Long and hard to understandť Ŵ Lhe memorandum
ls belng dlsLrlbuLed wlLh Lhe flrsLŴsemesLer class
cardsţ whlch are Lo serve as a flnal check on Lhe
correcLness of Lhe reglsLraLlon of Lhe sLudenLs and
are Lo be used laLer as Lhe mldŴsemesLer grade
cardsţ whlch are Lo be submlLLed prlor Lo
november 16Ŧ
W Short and C|earť Ŵ Lhls memorandum ls belng
dlsLrlbuLed wlLh Lhe flrsLŴsemesLer class cardsŦ
1hese cards wlll serve now as a flnal check on
sLudenL reglsLraLlonŦ LaLer Lhey wlll be used for
mldŴsemesLer gradesţ whlch are due before
november 16Ŧ
W noLeťŴ Loo many shorL senLences make Lhe wrlLlng
choppyţ so we need Lo avold Lhe overuseŦ
bŦ Lconom|z|ng on Words
W lL ls Lhe second Lechnlque of shorLenlng senLences
whlch ls relaLed Lo Lhe use of words economlcallyŦ
W lL ls Lhe use of shorLer and lesser words Lo express
Lhe conLenLŦ
W lL ls worklng for shorLer ways of saylng Lhlngsţ
whlch can be done byť Ŵ
C|utter|ng Þhrasesť Ŵ
Surp|us phrases
koundabout Construct|ons
Avo|d|ng unnecessary words and |deas
C|utter|ng Þhrasesť Ŵ
W CluLLerlng phrases ls Lhe use of uneconomlcal
wordlng whlch should be avoldlngŦ Such phrases
are phrases whlch can be replaced by shorLer
wordlng wlLhouL of loss of meanlngŦ
W Je can avold cluLLerlng phrased by subsLlLuLlng
wlLh shorLer expresslons wlLh Lhe same meanlngŦ
W CluLLerlng phrases SubsLlLuLe
W Along Lhe llnes of llke
W AL Lhe presenL Llme now
W or Lhe reason LhaL for
W or Lhe purpose of becauseţ slnce
W ln accordance wlLh by
W ln Lhe meanLlme meanwhlle
W ln Lhe near fuLure soon
W ln Lhe nelghborhood of abouLţ around
W ln very few cases seldom
W Cn Lhe basls of by
W Cn Lhe occaslon of on
W JlLh regard Loţ wlLh reference wlLh abouL
W JlLh a vlew Lo Lo
W 'ln splLe of Lhe facL LhaL Lhey recelved helpţ Lhey
falled Lo exceed Lhe quoLa"ƹeven LhoughLţ Lhey
recelved helpţ Lhey falled Lo exceed Lhe quoLaŦ
Surp|us wordsť Ŵ
W Surplus words are Lhose whlch add noLhlng Lo Lhe
senLence meanlngsŦ Such words are meanlngless
exLra wordsŦ
W Je need Lo ellmlnaLe such words from Lhe
senLencesŦ
W uropplng such words from Lhe senLences sLronger
wlLhouL loslng Lhe senLenceŴmeanlngsŦ
W Je musL selecL words and bulld senLences LhaL
form preclse meanlngs ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe readersŦ
Some examp|esť Ŵ
W e ordered desks LhaL are of Lhe execuLlveŴLypeƹ
he ordered execuLlveŴLype desksŦ
W 1here are four rules LhaL should be observedƹ four
rules should be observedŦ
W ln addlLlon Lo Lhese effecLsţ numerous oLher
defecLs mar Lhe operaLlng procedureƹ numerous
oLher defecLs mar Lhe operaLlng procedureŦ
W ln Lhe perlod beLween !an and ebţ we deLecLed
Lhe problemƹ beLween !an and ebţ we deLecLed
Lhe problemŦ
W ls performance was good enough Lo enable hlm
Lo quallfy for Lhe promoLlonƹ ŧŧŧŦ
koundabout Construct|onť Ŵ
W Je need Lo avold roundabouL ways of saylng
Lhlng and say Lhem ln dlrecL way Lo Lhe polnLŦ
W Longer and unnecessary ways of expresslng Lhe
messages should be ellmlnaLed and should be sald
Lhem ln more clear and dlrecL way for Lhe
effecLlve communlcaLlonŦ
W Some examplesť
W 'Lhe deparLmenL budgeL can be observed Lo be
decreaslng each yearƹ 1he deparLmenL budgeL
decreases each yearŦ
W e crlLlclzed everyone he came ln conLacL wlLhƹ
he crlLlclzed everyone he meLŦ
W 1he presldenL ls of Lhe oplnlon LhaL Lhe Lax was
paldƹLhe presldenL belleves Lhe Lax was paldŦ
W lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhe lncome be used Lo be reLlre
Lhe debLƹ Lhe lncome musL be used Lo reLlre Lhe
debLŦ
Unnecessary kepet|t|onsť Ŵ
W Je need Lo avold repeLlLlon of Lhe words and
LhoughLs whlch are noL necessary because Lhey
[usL overburden Lhe conLenL and creaLes dlfflculLy
for Lhe readers Lo undersLand by creaLlng
confuslon and complexlonŦ
W 8uL we can some Llme do so lf we have Lo creaLe
some speclal effecLţ as ln muslc (malle Lehl bahera
maan paroko) and do some emphaslsŦ
Some examp|es
W 1he provlslon of secLlon 3 provldes for a unlon
shopƹ SecLlon 3 provldes for a unlon shopŦ
W Je should plan ln advance for Lhe fuLureƹ we
should planŦ
W 1he consensus of Lhe oplnlon ls LhaL Lhe Lax ls
unfalrƹ Lhe consensus ls LhaL Lhe Lax ls unfalrŦ
W Modernţ upŴLoŴdaLe equlpmenL wlll be usedƹ
Modern equlpmenL wlll be usedŦ
W ln my oplnlonţ l Lhlnk Lhe plan ls soundƹ ŧŧŦŦ
W AL Lhe presenL Llme we are conducLlng Lwo
pro[ecLsƹ ŧŧŦ
IIŦ Determ|n|ng Lmphas|s |n Sentence Des|gn
W Jhlle wrlLlngţ we need Lo glve due emphasls Lo
Lhe senLence deslgnŦ
W ln buslness wrlLlngţ some parLs of lnformaLlon are
very lmporLanL and some are noL soŦ
W So our Lask ls Lo deLermlne Lhe lmporLance of each
lLem and from Lhe senLence Lo communlcaLe lLŦ
W SenLence lengLh affecL such emphasls where
slmple and shorL senLence carrles more emphasls
Lhan longer onesŦ
W ShorLer senLences drag more aLLenLlon

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