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# 1. Let's start simple.

If all snarks are sneels, and all sneels are bontos, then all
snarks are definitely bontos. True False

2. If all snarks are sneels, and some sneels are bontos, then some snarks are
definitely bontos. True False

3. If you are about to have drinks with someone, and they tell you that they
poisoned one of the glasses, but that you can choose which one you want to drink (yours or theirs), you can definitely use logic and your knowledge of the other person to determine which cup is poisoned. True False

4. You are in a prison with 99 other condemned men (100 total) who are going
to be executed the next morning. The warden decides to give all of you a fighting chance though. You are told this: You will all be put in line, facing forward, so that you can see everyone in front of you, but no one behind you. The warden will put either a white hat or a black hat on all 100 people, and then each person will try to guess the color of the hat he is wearing. If the person can guess the color of his hat, he gets to go free. (You can only say "black" or "white". Saying anything else will lead to everyone being shot.) The warden will start at the back of the line (the person who can see everyone else's hat) and work his way down to the front (the person who can see no one's hat). There is no set number of hats. The warden could put a white hat on everyone, a black hat on everyone, or anything in between. That night you and the other condemned men try to come up with a plan that

will save the most people. You come up with the best plan possible that guarantees that you can save ____ people. Answer:

(A Number)

5. There are three logicians having a rational and cogent debate over who is
the most logical. A mediator says, "I have 3 white hats and 2 black hats. I will put a hat on each one of your heads, so that you can see what color hat the other two people have on, but you cannot see your own hat. Whoever can tell me what color hat they have on first is the most logical." He puts a white hat on each of their heads. Is it possible for one of the logicians to logically determine what color hat he has on? Yes No

## 6. You're in a room with two doorways, A and B, each guarded by a guard.

One of the rooms leads to fame, fortune, and happiness. The other one leads to a torturous death. You do not know which door is which. You are allowed to ask one of the guards one question. The catch is, one of the guards always tells the truth and the other one always lies, but you don't know who is who. There is no single question you can ask that will enable you to logically determine which door leads to fame, fortune, and happiness. True False

7. You are in the land of Logica, where there are three types of elves. Blue
elves always tell the truth, green elves sometimes tell the truth, and red elves never tell the truth. The problem is, you are colorblind, and all the elves appear gray. You walk up to an elf and the elf says to you, "I always lie." What color elf are you speaking to? blue

## there's no way to say for sure red green

8. "Even though the bar the man the woman likes is at is closing, the man
badgers Moose resident Cat to let him stay the night." This is a grammatically correct sentence that makes sense. True False

9. You are investigating six people for the robbery of a jewelry store. These
are their testimonies. You know that two of them are guilty. Jim: It wasn't me. Joe: It wasn't me. Jack: I know it wasn't Justin or John. John: Joe and Justin did it. Justin: Jared and John did it. Jared: I saw Jack commit the robbery with someone else. You know (for whatever reason) that one guilty person and two innocent people are lying (all parts of their statements are false), and the other three are telling the truth (all parts of their statements are true). Which of the following is true? Joe and Jack are the only possible duo that could have robbed the store. Jack definitely robbed the store but it is impossible to determine who his accomplice was. The statements all contradict each other; there is no possible duo that could have robbed the store. Jack and Jim are the only possible duo that could have robbed the store.

## paradox? "Their are four erors in this sentance." Yes No

1. Let's start simple. If all snarks are sneels, and all sneels are bontos, then all snarks are definitely bontos.

Think about it like this. If all squares are rectangles, and all rectangles are quadrilaterals, then all squares are definitely quadrilaterals. Think about it as going from specific to general.
87% of players have answered correctly.

2. If all snarks are sneels, and some sneels are bontos, then some snarks are definitely bontos.

Try this one: If all squares are shapes, and some shapes are circles, then some squares are definitely circles. No! Thus, it's false.
43% of players have answered correctly.

3. If you are about to have drinks with someone, and they tell you that they poisoned one of the glasses, but that you can choose which one you want to drink (yours or theirs), you can definitely use logic and your knowledge of the other person to determine which cup is poisoned.

This situation is brought up every now and then, like in the Princess Bride, when Westley challenges Vizzini to this game of wits. There is no way to reason your way to figuring out which glass the poison is in, because every bit of logic you come up with, your opponent could have already foreseen, and gone one step further. The only way to play this game is to pick one randomly and hope for the best.
64% of players have answered correctly.

4. You are in a prison with 99 other condemned men (100 total) who are going to be executed the next morning. The warden decides to give all of you a fighting chance though. You are told this:

You will all be put in line, facing forward, so that you can see everyone in front of you, but no one behind you. The warden will put either a white hat or a black hat on all 100 people, and then each person will try to guess the color of the hat he is wearing. If the person can guess the color of his hat, he gets to go free. (You can only say "black" or "white". Saying anything else will lead to everyone being shot.) The warden will start at the back of the line (the person who can see everyone else's hat) and work his way down to the front (the person who can see no one's hat). There is no set number of hats. The warden could put a white hat on everyone, a black hat on everyone, or anything in between. That night you and the other condemned men try to come up with a plan that will save the most people. You come up with the best plan possible that guarantees that you can save ____ people.

The best plan you can come up with will actually be guaranteed to save 99/100 men, with the remaining person having a 50/50 of survival. Here's how it works: The night before, you decide that the 100th person (the guy in the back who goes first) will count the number of white hats in front of him, and say "white" if there are an even number of white hats and "black" if there are an odd number of white hats. (He is the guy with a 50-50 chance.) The 99th guy counts the number of white hats in front of him, and based on what the 100th guy said, says whether he has a white or black hat. The 98th guy counts the number of white hats in front of him, and based on what the 99th and 100th guys said, decides whether his hat is white or black. And so on down the line. I've had a lot of people send me notes saying that you should just say the color of the hat the person in front of you is wearing. If you did that, it might help out the person in front of you, but it does nothing for you. If the person in front of you had on a white hat and you were wearing a black hat, you'd get shot for saying "white".
32% of players have answered correctly.

5. There are three logicians having a rational and cogent debate over who is the most logical. A mediator says, "I have 3 white hats and 2 black hats. I will put a hat on each one of your heads, so that you can see what color hat the other two people have on, but you cannot see your own hat. Whoever can tell me what color hat they have on first is the most logical."

He puts a white hat on each of their heads. Is it possible for one of the logicians to logically determine what color hat he has on?

The best way to explain this is to consider 3 scenarios: A: You see 2 black hats. You immediately know you have a white hat on because there are no more black hats left. B: You see 1 black hat and 1 white hat. You know you can't have a black hat (i.e. you have a white hat) because then the person with the white hat would have scenario A, and would have answered immediately. C: You see 2 white hats (the scenario in the question). You can't have a black hat (i.e. you have a white hat) because then both of the other people would have scenario B, and would have already answered 'white'. Thanks to HansElcid for this explanation which was much clearer than the one I originally had.
49% of players have answered correctly.

6. You're in a room with two doorways, A and B, each guarded by a guard. One of the rooms leads to fame, fortune, and happiness. The other one leads to a torturous death. You do not know which door is which. You are allowed to ask one of the guards one question. The catch is, one of the guards always tells the truth and the other one always lies, but you don't know who is who. There is no single question you can ask that will enable you to logically determine which door leads to fame, fortune, and happiness.

This is the question you should ask (to either guard): "If I were to ask the other guard which door leads to fame, fortune, and happiness, what would he say?" Lets say that door A leads to painful death and door B leads to fame, fortune, and happiness.

The truthful guard would say, "He would tell you to go through door A." He would be telling the truth that the other guard (the liar) would tell you to go through the wrong door. The fibbing guard would say, "He would tell you to go through door A." He would be lying by telling you that the truthful guard would tell you to go through the wrong door. Basically, ask the aforementioned question, and don't go through the door the guard tells you.
61% of players have answered correctly.

7. You are in the land of Logica, where there are three types of elves. Blue elves always tell the truth, green elves sometimes tell the truth, and red elves never tell the truth. The problem is, you are colorblind, and all the elves appear gray. You walk up to an elf and the elf says to you, "I always lie." What color elf are you speaking to?

If it's a blue elf (always tells the truth), than the statement "I always lie" is false, thus creating a contradiction because the elf who can only speak the truth just uttered a false statement. Likewise with the red elf (always lies). If he speaks this statement, it would be true, thus creating a contradiction because the elf who can only lie just uttered a true statement. If the green elf says it though, the statement is a lie, but unlike the other elves, the green elf is not bound to any one type of statement, so no paradox is created. Thus, you must be talking to a green elf.
52% of players have answered correctly.

8. "Even though the bar the man the woman likes is at is closing, the man badgers Moose resident Cat to let him stay the night." This is a grammatically correct sentence that makes sense.

## The correct answer was t

I got this idea of a crazy sentence from xaosdog so I tried to make one of my own. This statement is saying: There is a woman who likes a man who happens to be at a bar that is closing. Even though the bar is closing, the man bothers Cat, who is from Moose, WY, to let him spend the night at the bar. More formal explanation for the first part of the sentence: 1. "the woman likes" is an adjective phrase describing "the man" 2. "the man the woman likes" is the subject for the predicate "is at" 3. "the man the woman likes is at" is an adjective phrase describing "the bar" 4. "the bar the man the woman likes is at" is the subject for the verb "is closing" 5. Putting it all together leaves you with "...the bar the man the woman likes is at is closing..." Hopefully that clears up any questions.
51% of players have answered correctly.

9. You are investigating six people for the robbery of a jewelry store. These are their testimonies. You know that two of them are guilty. Jim: It wasn't me. Joe: It wasn't me. Jack: I know it wasn't Justin or John. John: Joe and Justin did it. Justin: Jared and John did it. Jared: I saw Jack commit the robbery with someone else. You know (for whatever reason) that one guilty person and two innocent people are lying (all parts of their statements are false), and the other three are telling the truth (all parts of their statements are true). Which of the following is true?

and Jim are the only possible duo that could have

## robbed the store.

The condition that one of the guilty ones was telling the truth is key. The only persons who could possibly be guilty AND tell the truth are Jack or Jared. If Jared is the guilty one telling the truth, then the only possible pair is Jack and Jared. However, this

means that Jack is also telling the truth, thus it is not an option. This means that Jack has to be the guilty one telling the truth. This means than neither John nor Justin could be guilty, or else Jack's statement would be false. We've already ruled out Jack and Jared as partners, so the only two possible pairs left are Jack and Jim, and Jack and Joe. Now we look at John's testimony. We know he's lying (because we know Jack is guilty) which means that Joe could not have done the robbery, leaving Jack and Jim as the only possible pair left.
24% of players have answered correctly.

10. Assuming a false statement is an error, is the following sentence a paradox? "Their are four erors in this sentance."